ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0271.v1
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:51:02 CEST)
A review of the concept of "fitness" as it is used in evolutionary theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0016.v1
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:07:42 CEST)
Law enforcement is an intermittently physically demanding job, interspersed with long periods of sedentary activity. To prepare for the physical demands of the job, law enforcement agencies enlist recruits into academies with a focus on physical training. Often academies focus on aerobic based exercise despite anaerobic fitness being strongly correlated to occupational tasks. The objective of this article is to analyse the changes in fitness of police recruits during academy training. Initial and final fitness test results, encompassing muscular power, strength, endurance as well as aerobic and anaerobic fitness, were measured to analyse changes in fitness. Dependent t-tests showed significant increases (p < 0.05) across all fitness tests, with a trend towards larger increases in aerobic and muscle endurance-based tests. Recruits from this academy tended to have higher fitness results compared to other academies and were either average or below average compared to age matched standards in the general populations. Physical training should persist for recruits beyond the academy to continue develop fitness throughout their career. Academies should add a focus on muscular strength and power training as these measures relate to occupational tasks, which may better prepare recruits for demands they will be expected to face in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: WHOQOL; Senior Fitness Test; exercises; actigraph; accelerometry; elderly; older adults; physical fitness
Online: 25 February 2019 (14:21:58 CET)
The aim of this study was to identify the differences in functional fitness and quality of life among women over 60 years of age depending on their level of objectively measured physical activity (PA) according to Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for health. The study used cross-sectional design with 213 volunteered women over 60 years of age. Physical activity was monitored for 7 days of the week using Actigraph Gt3x monitor. The Senior Fitness Test battery and Hand-grip strength tests were performed to assess functional fitness. Quality of life was self-reported using short version of WHOQOL-brief questionnaire. Women who met the PA recommendations achieved slightly better results in most functional tests and all domain of quality of life. The significant differences were found in upper body strength, dynamic balance and social relationships domain of quality of life. Physical activity programs developed on the basis of WHO recommendations have the potential to improve functional capacity and quality of life. However, further experimental studies in this area are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0147.v1
Online: 10 March 2022 (12:18:00 CET)
Background: the present study aimed to examine the effect of rehydration with mineral water on cardiorespiratory fitness in athletes. Methods: Twenty athletes (21.7±3 years) were ran-domly underwent a crossover design experimental trail. Three visits were arranged. The first visit was for baseline measurement. The second visit included three phases (pre-dehydration, post-dehydration, and post-rehydration), and either Zamzam (mineral water) or bottle water (control water) was used. The third visit was similar to the second visit with exchange the type of water. Cardiorespiratory fitness and blood parameters have been evaluated. Data were an-alyzed to compare results of Zamzam water with bottle water and to compare between the phases for each type of water. Results: although there was no significant difference found be-tween Zamzam and bottle water in the cardiorespiratory fitness markers, Zamzam water maintained cardiorespiratory function including VO2peak, VT1, VT2, and VEpeak even with re-hydration equal to 100% of losing body mass following exercise-induced dehydration (>-2% body mass), where rehydration with bottle water reported significant reduction in both VO2peak and VEpeak. Conclusion: rehydration with mineral water such as Zamzam water may not impair cardiorespiratory fitness even with amount equal to 100% of losing body mass.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0402.v1
Online: 24 August 2022 (02:28:26 CEST)
Evolution by natural selection is often viewed as an optimisation process where an organism's phenotypic traits are adapted gradually to improve its fitness. Because of the many different traits with potentially conflicting requirements, among other factors, this optimisation process may appear onerous. Building on recent mathematical work connecting optima and simplicity, we here show that for certain generic phenotype fitness requirements --- those based on physics and engineering principles --- optimal phenotypic shapes will tend to `simple', in the sense of low algorithmic or descriptional complexity. As a result, we argue that adapting to these types of generic fitness requirements will be a much `easier' task for natural selection, compared to a null expectation based on arbitrary optimisation requirements. Further, selection's task may be easier still due to the fact that optimal phenotypes for one set of generic fitness constraints may also be close to optimal for other generic constraints, such that adapting to one constraint yields the other `for free'.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: core training; exercises; flexibility; fitness; periodization
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:44:29 CEST)
This conceptual review aimed to investigate whether "functional training" (FT) programs are different from traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs. A search for the twenty most recent papers published involving FT was performed in the PubMed/Medline database. Definition, concepts, benefits, and the exercises employed in FT programs were analyzed. The main results were: 1) there is no agreement about a universal definition for FT; 2) FT programs aim at developing the same benefits already induced by traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs; 3) exercises employed are also the same. The inability to define FT makes differentiation difficult. Physical training programs can be easily described and classified as strength, power, flexibility, endurance, and the specific exercises employed (e.g., traditional resistance training, ballistic exercises, plyometrics and Olympic-style weightlifting, continuous and high-intensity interval training). This proper description and classification may improve communication in sports science and improve interdisciplinary integration. Aiming to avoid confusion and misconceptions, and based on the current evidence, we recommend that the terms FT, high-intensity FT, and functional fitness training no longer describe any physical training program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Functional fitness training; athletic performance; exercise testing
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:32:59 CEST)
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years; 70.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed, on separate weeks, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2km row test), muscle strength (1RM back and front squat, isometric peak torque), and muscle power (1RM snatch and clean & jerk), and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Multiple linear regression showed that for the CrossFit Open 2020.1 and 2020.2 workouts, the score in the Tibana test was the only variable that explained the outcomes (Beta = -0.78, p < 0.01 for 2020.1 workout and Beta = 0.82, p < 0.01 for 2020.2 workout). Performance in the CrossFit Open 2020.3 and 2020.4 workouts were explained through the relative strength (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.02 for 2020.3 workout and Beta = 0.50, p = 0.04 for 2020.4 workout). Lastly, Tibana test had the greatest influence on CrossFit Open 2020.5 workout (Beta = -0.75, p < 0.01). A local muscle endurance and muscle strength may be used to predict CrossFit® open workout performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0377.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aging; immunosenescence; physical fitness; physical activity; obesity; sex
Online: 26 September 2022 (05:00:15 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential for sustained work ability in good health, but declines with aging as does the functionality of the immune system, the latter process commonly referred to as immunosenescence. This study aimed to compare the capacity of immunosenescence biomarkers with chronological age for predicting low CRF in a cross-sectional sample recruited from the regional working population. CRF was determined by submaximal bicycle ergometer testing in a cross-sectional sample of 597 volunteers aged 20–70 years from the ’Dortmund Vital Study’ (DVS, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05155397). Low CRF was scored, if the ergometer test was not completed due to medical reasons or if the power output projected to a heart rate of 130 bpm divided by body mass was below sex-specific reference values of 1.25 W/kg for females and 1.5 W/kg for males, respectively. In addition to established biomarkers of immunosenescence, we calibrated a comprehensive metric of immune age to our data and compared its predictive capacity for low CRF to chronological age while adjusting our analysis for the influence of sex, obesity, and level of regular physical activity by applying univariate and multiple logistic regression. While obesity, low physical activity, chronological and immune age were all associated with increased probability for low CRF in univariate analyses, multiple logistic regression revealed that obesity and physical activity together with immune age, but not chronological age, were statistically significant predictors of low CRF outcome. Sex was non-significant due to the applied sex-specific reference values. These results demonstrate that biological age assessed by our immunological metric can outperform chronological age as a predictor for CRF and indicate a potential role for immunosenescence in explaining the inter-individual variability of the age-related decline in cardiorespiratory fitness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cardiorespiratory fitness; VO2 peak; sleep quality, physical activity
Online: 11 March 2021 (16:04:34 CET)
Abstract: Background: Recently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been postulated as an adverse health outcome related to poor sleep quality. However, studies investigating the relationship between CRF with subjective sleep quality index are scarce. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the association between CRF and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) in apparently healthy people. The secondary aim was to investigate the association between reported physical activities (PA) and PSQI. Methods: 33 apparently healthy male participants volunteered to participate. CRF (VO2 peak) was measured via cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. A short form of the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PA, and PSQI was used for sleep quality index. Results: There was no correlation between CRF and PSQI total score or any component of the PSQI. Also, there was no correlation between IPAQ and PSQI total score. Categorical data analysis of the two questionnaires revealed that 45.5% of the participants reported low physical activity and poor sleep quality. Conclusions: There was no association between CRF, reported PA with subjective sleep quality index. The use of objective tools for assessing the quality and quantity of sleep should be recommended for future studies as it may clarify the association between CRF and sleep quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: body composition; physical fitness; sedentary behavior; nutritional status
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:51:42 CET)
Mexico shows a high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Geographical location and cultural environment could play a role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF), PA and nutritional status of adolescents from the state of Jalisco (Mexico). The study involved 469 students aged 13-17 years (55.0% girls) from 8 high schools. BC was analyzed by bioimpedance, and PF by standardized field tests. Objective measurements of PA and SB were taken in a subsample (n=240). Energy intake (EI) was calculated from two 24h recalls. Rural residents presented a higher prevalence of overweight, waist circumference, trunk fat mass, regional fat free mass and muscle handgrip strength (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.06). Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar among participants, whereas urban adolescents showed higher muscle power, speed-agility and flexibility scores (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.07). Overall lifestyle behavior in urban adolescents was more sedentary (p<0.05, ηp2= 0.11). EI was similar in both locations. In conclusion, urban Mexican adolescents presented a generally higher sedentary behavior and better fitness and fatness profile than their rural peers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0337.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: leishmania; visceral leishmaniasis; Americas; genome instability,; fitness gain
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:27:16 CET)
Pathogen fitness landscapes change when transmission cycles establish in non-native environments or spill over into new vectors and hosts. The introduction of Leishmania infantum in the Americas into the Neotropics during European colonization represents a unique case study to investigate mechanisms of ecological adaptation of this important parasite. Defining the evolutionary trajectories that drive L. infantum fitness in this new environment are of great public health importance as they will allow unique insight into pathways of host/pathogen co-evolution and their consequences for region-specific changes in disease manifestation. This review summarizes current knowledge on L. infantum genetic and phenotypic diversity in the Americas and its possible role in the unique epidemiology of VL in the New World. We highlight the importance of appreciating adaptive molecular mechanisms in L. infantum to understand the parasites’ successful establishment on the continent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0170.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: cycling computer; fitness and health statistics; bike computer; mobile sensing; social fitness network; bike mobile applications; wheeled vehicles; MTB datasets
Online: 27 November 2017 (05:38:58 CET)
This article analyzes some available bike mobile applications for smartphones as an alternative to bike computers (Cycle Computers or speedometer or speed sensors). We have records of a large number of MTB (Mountain Bike) datasets, 219 datasets were recorded on 4 different routes. These applications create maps and profiles from geographic data. Inputs can be in GPS data (tracks and waypoints), driving routes, street addresses, or simple coordinates. Most applications estimate fields such as speed, heading, slope, distance, VMG (velocity made good) and pace (cadence). However, it is necessary to calculate the relationship between cadence and power in pedaling so that cyclists know the appropriate moment to apply power to their legs to improve the torque. This paper shows tables, comparative graphs, and performance evaluation of biking routes in four different cycling mobile applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0733.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: conditioning; high-intensity functional training; methods; performance; physical fitness
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:36:00 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate and training load between different CrossFit® workouts, with equalized total volume in men and women. The study included 23 individuals (13 men and 10 women) experienced in CrossFit® training, who performed two workouts with different training types (as many reps as possible - AMRAP and for time) but equalized volume. Measurements of lactate, HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were performed. The results showed that there was no HR interaction between workout time and sex (p = 0.822; η2 = 0.006] and between workout type and sex (p = 0.064, η2 = 0.803). HR significantly differed during each workout type (p <0.001, η2 = 0.621), but not between the two workout types (p = 0.552, η2 = 0.017). Lactate showed no difference between the workout types (p = 0.474, η2 = 0.768), although the training load was higher (p = 0.033, η2 = 0.199) in women when they performed AMRAP. Altogether, HR was not significantly different between training types or sex, while RPE, lactate and training load showed small differences depending on the group (women or men) or workout type (AMRAP or 'for time').
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0700.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: physical fitness; exercise self-efficacy; quality of life; adulthood
Online: 29 July 2020 (12:57:08 CEST)
Background: The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a systematic review of existing research on physical fitness, self-efficacy for physical exercise, and quality of life in adulthood. Method: Using the PRISMA statement guidelines, and based on the findings in 396 articles, the final sample was composed of 31 articles, which were reviewed to show whether self-efficacy has previously been studied as a mediator in the relationship between physical fitness and quality of life in adulthood. Results: The results indicate that little research exists in relation to healthy, populations with the majority being people with pathology. Physical fitness should be considered as a fundamental aspect in determining the functional capacity of the person. Conclusions: We discuss the need to investigate the mediation of self-efficacy in relation to the value of physical activity on quality of life and well-being in the healthy adult population in adult life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Muscle Strength; Feeding Patterns; Life Style; Children
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:27:07 CET)
Background: The relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and both physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) level has been analysed in several studies. The aim of this research was to describe, compare and analyse the level of PF and PA in schoolchildren aged 6-13 in the Region of Murcia, according to adherence to the MD. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 370 schoolchildren (44.9% girls) aged 6-13 (8.7±1.8) from six primary schools in the Region of Murcia (Spain). Results: Only 25.9% of the schoolchildren had optimal adherence to the MD. Regarding the scores of the different PF tests in MD groups, only statistically significant differences were found for CRF (p=0.048) in boys. PA level, showed statistically significant differences in both boys (p=0.040) and girls (p=0.016). A positive relationship was found between the KIDMED index and CRF (ρ=.127), standing broad jump (ρ=.133) and PA level (ρ=.235). A higher probability of having a greater CRF (OR=1.17; CI95%=1.02–1.34) and PA level (OR=7.84; CI95%=2.84–21.60) was found in High MD group. Conclusion: These results suggest that an optimal adherence to the MD is associated with higher CRF and PA level in the selected schoolchildren.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; physical fitness; body composition; functional mobility; physiotherapy
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:03:10 CEST)
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have the potential impact on the functional mobility and basic motor skills improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by EDSS and AI scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p<0.001) and in TUG trials (p<0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR and FAT (p<0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) were significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) and functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during the physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to this parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Functional Fitness; High intensity Functional training; Periodization; Overreaching; Muscle recovery.
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:19:09 CEST)
The study describes the acute and delayed time course of recovery following the CrossFit® Benchmark Workout Karen. Eight trained men (28.4±6.4 years; 1RM back squat 139.1±26.0 kg) undertook the Karen protocol. The protocol consists of 150 Wall Balls, aiming to hit a target 3 meters high. Countermovement jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), and perceived recovery status scale (PRS) (general, lower and upper limbs) were assessed pre, post-0h, 24h, 48h and 72h after the session. The CK concentration 24h after was higher than pre-exercise (338.4 U/L vs. 143.3 U/L; effect size: 0.74; p≤0.05). At 48h and 72h following exercise, CK concentration had returned to baseline levels. The PRS general and of the lower limbs were lower in the 24-hours post-exercise compared to pre-exercise (PRS general: 4.7 ±1.5 and 7.9 ±1.7 mmol/L; and PRS of the lower limbs: 4.0 ±2.5 and 7.9 ±0.8, respectively). The PRS general, lower, and upper limbs were reduced at 48-post exercise compared to 72-hours post-exercise scores. Our findings provide insights into the fatigue profile and recovery in acute CrossFit® and can be useful to coaches effectively design the daily session.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Cardiometabolic Risk Factors; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 23 August 2021 (12:18:10 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. However, there is no recent information about the impact of CRF on cardiometabolic risk specifically in Central and Eastern Europe, which are characterized by different biological and social determinants of health. Normative CRF values were proposed and the association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes was evaluated in an adult Czechian population. In 2054 participants (54.6 % females, median 48 years), the CRF was predicted from a non-exercise equation. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regressions were carried out to determine the associations. Higher CRF quartiles were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and dyslipidaemia. Comparing subjects within the lowest CRF, those within the highest CRF had decreased chances of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.22-0.60); T2D (OR=0.16; 95% CI 0.05-0.47), low HDL-c (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.60), high low-density lipoprotein (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.21-0.53), high triglycerides (OR=0.13; 95 CI 0.07-0.81), and high cholesterol (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.69). There was an inverse association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes, supporting the adoption of a non-exercise method to estimate CRF of the Czech population. Therefore, more accurate cardiometabolic studies can be performed incorporating the valuable CRF metric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0731.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; crisis management; Korean fitness center; Importance–Performance Analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:47:57 CEST)
: The purpose of this research was to verify the importance and performance of crisis management in Korean fitness center using Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). For this study, 304 fitness center executives and managers in Seoul and Gyeonggi region were selected as from March 21 to May 17, 2020. Frequency analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0 and exploratory factor analysis was conducted to verify the validity and reliability. Priority analysis and IPA analysis were performed to compare the mean values, and the following results were obtained. First, in the first quadrant, there were 6 attributes besides keep social distancing between employees and customers. Second, in the second quadrant, there were four attributes in addition to regular disinfection of the gymnasium. Third, in the third quadrant, there were 6 attributes besides maintain furniture clean. Third, there were 6 attributes other than maintaining furniture clean in the third quadrant. Fourth, in the fourth quadrant, there are three attributes in addition to the restriction of face-to-face meetings. The conclusion is as follows. First, equip supplies for prevention of covid19, keep social distance, and check government support policies. Second, analyze of economic support policies, and research on their application methods. Third, Prepare various non-face-to-face communication methods and Untact(non-contact) marketing strategies. Fourth, make a checklist for factors with relatively little importance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: food handlers; medical examinations; fitness; radiology; rectal and throat swabs
Online: 19 August 2020 (12:15:54 CEST)
Food handlers’ medical examinations are mandated by most countries as a way of safeguarding the health and safety of consumers. Food-borne diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In Zimbabwe, the use of chest radiographs and throat and rectal swab tests are a requirement during food handlers’ medical examinations. This study aimed at exploring the patterns and outcomes of physical medical examinations, chest radiographs, and other tests of food handlers. A cross-sectional review of retrospective occupational health records was carried out. The mean age for the study population was 37 years with an age range of 21 to 56 years. Males accounted for 73% of the study participants. All of the 157 rectal swabs were normal and did not culture any organism. Fifteen percent (24) of the throat swabs cultured one or more organisms. Ninety-seven percent of chest radiographs were normal. Ninety-seven percent of employees were certified as fit. Thirty-six percent of the food handlers were in the overweight and obese categories. Hypertension and high blood pressure were common conditions in the study sample. It can be concluded that routine radiological and laboratory testing of the food handlers in this study was of little value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0042.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: fitness; life table; cotton bollworm; corn earworm; toxin; resistance management
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:42:07 CEST)
Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are valuable tools for pest management worldwide, contributing to the management of human disease insect vectors and phytophagous insect pests of agriculture and forestry. Here, we report the effects of dual and triple Bt toxins expressed in transgenic cotton cultivars on the fitness and demographic performance of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), a noctuid pest known as cotton bollworm and corn earworm. Life-history traits were determined for individuals of three field populations from a region where H. zea overwintering is likely. Triple-gene Bt cotton cultivars expressing Cry and Vip3Aa toxins killed 100% of the larvae in all populations tested. In contrast, dual-gene Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac+Cry1F and Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab2 allowed population growth with the intrinsic rate of population growth (rm) 38% lower than on non-Bt cotton. The insects feeding on Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab2, Cry1Ac+Cry1F, or Cry1Ab+Cry2Ae exhibited reduced larval weight, survival rate, and increased development time. Additionally, fitness parameters varied significantly among the insect populations, even on non-Bt cotton plants, likely because of their different genetic background and/or previous Bt toxin exposure. This is the first report of the comparative fitness of H. zea field populations on dual-gene Bt cotton after the recent reports of field resistance to certain Bt toxins. These results document the population growth rates of H. zea from an agricultural landscape with 100% Bt cotton cultivars. Our results will help to refine models designed to predict resistance evolution and improve insect resistance management for Bt crops.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0287.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: archaic introgression, fitness, natural selection, Neanderthal, Denisova, anatomically modern humans
Online: 19 June 2018 (10:12:15 CEST)
The demographic history of anatomically modern humans (AMH) involves multiple migration events, population extinctions and genetic adaptations. As genome-wide data from complete genome sequencing becomes increasingly abundant and available even from extinct hominins, new insights of the evolutionary history of our species are discovered. It is currently known that AMH introgressed with archaic hominins once they left the African continent. Current out of African human genomes carry fragments of archaic origin. This review focuses on the fitness consequences of archaic interbreeding in current human populations. We discuss new insights and challenges that researchers face when interpreting the potential impact of introgression on fitness and testing hypotheses about the role of selection within the context of health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: coronary heart disease risk factors; healthy lifestyle behaviors; physical fitness
Online: 11 April 2018 (07:40:50 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors, physical fitness and coronary risk factors in university students. 320 male and female (nm:171; nf:149) students from a university participated in this study voluntarily. For the determination of body composition and Body Mass Indexes (BMI), subjects’ height, body weight, and skinfold thickness were taken and body fat percentage (%Fat) was determined. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were determined using the healthy lifestyle behaviors questionnaire. Indicators of physical fitness included flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and a total of shuttle (TS), sprint performance, BMI, and body fat percentage (%fat). Coronary heart disease risk factors included mean arterial blood pressure (systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)), fasting blood levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), hematocrit (HT), and hemoglobin (HM). Results indicated subjects have normal body mass index, body fat percentage, SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS. The results of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis, indicated that SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS for male and female was significantly correlated with flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and total of shuttle (TS)), sprint performance. (p<0.01; p<0.05), In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical fitness and healthy lifestyle behaviors play a determinant role in coronary heart disease risk factors for male and female students from a university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: robot-assisted gait training; rehabilitation; stroke; cardiorespiratory fitness; robotics; disability; locomotion
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:40:16 CET)
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is a promising treatment for stroke rehabilitation. Although the coordination between the upper and lower limbs is important for locomotor training, commercially available robotics for gait training mainly focus on the restoration of lower limb function. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and usability of complex upper and lower limb RAGT in stroke patients using the GTR-A®, end effector-type robotic device. Patients with subacute stroke (N=9) received 30-minute RAGT thrice a week for two weeks (six sessions). Functionally, the hand grip strength (HGS), Functional Ambulatory Categories, modified Barthel Index, muscle strength test sum score, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and Short Physical Performance Battery were used. The heart rate and a structured questionnaire were used to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and the usability of RAGT. Among the nine patients, all functional parameters between the baseline and post-training were significantly improved after RAGT, except for HGS and the muscle strength test. The questionnaire’s mean scores for each domain were as follows: safety 4.40±0.35, effects 4.23±0.31, efficiency 4.22±0.77, and satisfaction 4.41±0.25. The GTR-A® is a feasible and safe robotic device for patients with gait impairment after stroke. It showed functional improvement with endurance training effects.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v9
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: carbon-based entity; driving force; energy; evolution; fitness; mechanism; natural selection; speciation; thermodynamics; theory
Online: 17 June 2021 (11:56:15 CEST)
It is desirable to upgrade previous evolutionary theories, which have remained incomplete and controversial for decades. Here we employ the concept of carbon-based entities (CBEs), which include methane, amino acids, proteins, organisms, and other entities containing relatively many carbon atoms. We deduce the driving force, mechanisms, steps, modes, tempos of CBE evolution, through integration of biology, physics, and chemistry using logics for complex issues. We hence establish the Carbon-Based Evolutionary Theory (CBET). The CBET suggests that evolution is the increase in hierarchy, diversity, fitness of CBEs under natural selection and driven by thermodynamics due to the chemical effect of the thermodynamic features of the Earth on CBEs. It provides better explanations for life origin, macroevolution events, natural selection, sympatric speciation, and evolution tempos than previous evolutionary theories. It reveals the evolutionary basis of multiple important social notions, including diversity, collaboration, altruism, obeying rules, and proper increase in freedom. It refutes some wrong notions in thermodynamics, including negative entropy (negentropy) and that biological order is equal to thermodynamic order, which have misled many people. The CBET is supported by its deduction and application. It could be a rare bridge linking laws of thermodynamics, evolution of life, and development of human society, and could have great significance in various sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: physical activity; self-determination theory; after-school period; physical fitness; sedentary time
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:11:08 CET)
Abstract: Increasing physical activity (PA) and personal and social values are two of the greatest demands in the current educational system. This study examined the effect of a hybrid pro-gramme based on the Personal and Social Responsibility Model and Gamification. A total of 58 students (13.89 years old, SD = 1.14) in two groups (Experimental and Control) participated dur-ing a complete academic year. Motivation, physical activity and sedentary behaviour were as-sessed though questionnaires. Physical fitness was evaluated using previously validated field tests. The results showed significant differences over time between EG and CG in afterschool physical activity (APA) at the weekend (p = 0.003), sedentary time (p = 0.04) and speed-agility (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in motivation. Regarding the intervention, speed-agility (p = 0.000), strength (p = 0.000), agility (p = 0.000), cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.001), APA-weekend (p = 0.000), APA-week (p= 0.000) and sedentary time (p = 0.000) increased signifi-cantly in the EG. Speed-agility (p = 0.000), APA-weekend (p = 0.03) and sedentary time (p = 0.008) increased in the CG. The use of this hybrid program can be useful to produced improvements in physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary hevaviours. The use of a hybrid program based on teaching personal and social responsibility and gamification strategies, produced improvements in physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior, but not in motivation variables. Further research is demanded in order to contrast this relevant findings due to the potential drawbacks and diversity found in the scientific literature among model-based practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0634.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: genetic load; purging; drift load; pseudo-overdominance; heterozygosity-fitness correlation; genomic architecture
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:18:40 CET)
Upon inbreeding, the architecture of the inbreeding load shifts as selection purges strongly deleterious recessive mutations and drift fixes many milder ones. Most small inbred populations show limited genetic variation while crosses between such populations commonly express pronounced heterosis, confirming fixation. In contrast, purging appears to be limited in that inbred populations often retain substantial inbreeding depression. In addition we have the enigma Darwin noted: purely selfing taxa are unknown. Because both purging and fixation reduce inbreeding depression and load, another mechanism must exist to sustain these. Background selection and the associations that develop among alleles in small inbred populations will shift the architecture of the load potentially creating blocks of recessive mutations linked in repulsion. This would generate pseudo-overdominance that could sustain these “PODs” and inbreeding load. Recombination and crosses between lineages could erode PODs. Crosses between populations fixed for different mutations would generate high pseudo-overdominance, enhancing heterosis and potentially POD formation. New recessive mutations arising within PODs would reinforce overdominance. PODs should generate clear genetic signatures including genomic hotspots of heterozygosity and linkage disequilibrium containing alleles at intermediate frequency generating segregating load. Results from several simulation and empirical studies match these predictions. Further simulations and comparative genomic analyses are needed to rigorously test whether PODs exist in sufficient strength and number to generate persistent inbreeding depression and load in inbred lineages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0391.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Host-microbe; Zebrafish; Shewanella; Symbiosis; Microbial evolution; Msh pilus; Adaptation; Biofilms; Fitness; Colonization
Online: 15 December 2020 (16:34:25 CET)
Symbioses between animals and bacteria are ubiquitous. To better understand these relationships, it is essential to unravel how bacteria evolve to colonize hosts. Previously, we serially passaged the free-living bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis, through the digestive tracts of germ-free larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) to uncover the evolutionary changes involved in the initiation of a novel symbiosis with a vertebrate host. After 20 passages, we discovered an adaptive missense mutation in the mshL gene of the msh pilus operon, which improved host colonization, increased swimming motility, and reduced surface adhesion. In the present study, we have determined that this mutation was a loss-of-function mutation and found that it improved zebrafish colonization by augmenting S. oneidensis representation in the water column outside larvae through a reduced association with environmental surfaces. Additionally, we found that strains containing the mshL mutation were able to immigrate into host digestive tracts at higher rates per capita. However, mutant and evolved strains exhibited no evidence of a competitive advantage after colonizing hosts. Our results demonstrate that bacterial behaviors outside the host can play a dominant role in facilitating the onset of novel host associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0222.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Chestnut; climate thermal fluctuations; Cynipidae; Dryocosmus kuriphilus; Eupelmus spp.; fitness; host-parasitoid relationship
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:18:52 CEST)
Thermal variations affect tri-trophic interactions involving plants, herbivores, and parasitoids, causing a mismatch between their phenological cycles. In the current environmental context of climate change, climatic factors can undergo profound and sudden changes, such as sudden hot or cold snaps. Here we show that episodes of short but sustained low temperatures have increased, mainly in the month of May, in the last two decades. We subjected galls induced by Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW) Dryocosmus kuriphilus to cold stress to assess if and how the pest and its parasitoids were affected. Over the course of two years seasonal parasitism, parasitism rates, the relative abundance of each parasitoid species, and mortality of ACGW were calculated. We found that the cold treatment affected both pest and parasitoids, resulting in a reduction in emerging ACGWs and differing ratios of species within the parasitoid community. The striking example was the change in the relative frequency of three species of Eupelmus spp. and of Mesopolobus tibialis, which doubled in thermally-stressed galls in all chestnut fields. The thermal effects on the development of the host and the direct effects of cold temperatures on the surface of galls (i.e., humidity or hardness of the galls) warrant further research in this direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0273.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Nelder-Mead algorithm; cooperative multi-simplex algorithm; simplex-fitness; system of nonlinear equations
Online: 16 April 2020 (12:54:15 CEST)
This study suggests a novel cooperative multi-simplex algorithm that generalizes a local search optimizer to design a novel global search heuristic algorithm. The proposed algorithm exploits the vertex sharing strategy to enhance the search abilities of the working simplexes. The vertex sharing among the simplexes is carried out through cooperative step that is based on fitness of the underlying simplex. The proposed algorithm is applied to solve some systems of nonlinear equations by transforming them to optimization problems. Comparative analysis of results shows that the proposed method is practical and effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0275.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: blood pressure; cardiorespiratory fitness; waist circumference; lifestyle intervention; primary care; adverse responders; metabolic syndrome
Online: 20 July 2022 (05:59:58 CEST)
Systemic hypertension has been recognized as a modifiable traditional cardiovascular risk factor and influenced by many factors such as eating habits, physical activity, diabetes and obesity. The objective of this study was to identify cardiometabolic factors that predict changes in blood pressure induced by a one-year lifestyle intervention in primary care settings involving a collaboration between family physicians, dietitians, and exercise specialists. Patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosis were recruited by family physicians participating in primary care lifestyle intervention among several family care clinics across Canada. Participants for whom all cardiometabolic data at the beginning (T0) and the end (T12) of the intervention were available were included in the present analysis (n=101). Patients visited the dietitian and the exercise specialist weekly for the first three months and monthly for the last nine months. Diet quality, exercise capacity, anthropometric indicators, and cardiometabolic variables were evaluated at T0 and at T12. The intervention induced a significant decrease in waist circumference (WC), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, and plasma triglycerides and an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max). Body weight (p<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and plasma glucose (p=0.006) reduction and VO2max increase (p=0.048) were all related to changes in SBP. WC was the only variable for which changes were significantly correlated with those in both SBP (p<0.0001) and DBP (p=0.0004). Variations in DBP were not associated with changes in other cardiometabolic variables to a statistically significant extent. Twelve participants were identified as adverse responders in both SBP and DBP and displayed less favorable changes in WC. The beneficial effects of a lifestyle intervention on blood pressure were significantly associated with cardiometabolic variables, especially WC. These findings suggest that a structured lifestyle intervention in primary care can help improve cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0492.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Drug resistance; nsp12; protein design; fitness; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; resistance mutations; SARS-CoV-2.
Online: 20 May 2021 (13:18:14 CEST)
Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) currently being used to manage COVID-19 in several countries. By acting as a substrate for RdRp, favipiravir gets incorporated into the nascent viral RNA and prevents strand extension. A high mutation rate of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp may facilitate antigenic drift as an answer to the host immune response, thereby generating resistance of virus to favipiravir. Therefore, it is extremely crucial to predict potential mutational sites in the RdRp and the emergence of structural modifications contributing to drug resistance. Here, we used high-throughput interface-based protein design to generate >100,000 designs and identify mutation hotspot residues in the favipiravir-binding site of RdRp. Several mutants had lower binding affinities to favipiravir, out of which hotspot residues with a high propensity to undergo positive selection were identified. The results showed that the designs retained an average of 97 to 98% sequence identity, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 can develop favipiravir resistance with just a few mutations. Notably, we observed that out of 134 mutations predicted designs, 63 specific mutations were already present in the CoV-GLUE database, thus attaining ~47% correlation match with the clinical sequencing data. The findings improve our understanding of the potential signatures of adaptation in SARS-CoV-2 against favipiravir and management of COVID-19. Furthermore, they can help develop exhaustive strategies for robust antiviral design and discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0205.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Diminished fitness return, mutation rate tuning, Darwinian evolution; neutral evolution; punctuated equilibrium; unified evolutionary theory
Online: 17 December 2018 (16:10:52 CET)
I propose a dynamic evolution hypothesis regarding the evolution of organisms by incorporating both diminished fitness returns and mutation rate tuning during adaptation to a constant environment. Basically, accumulating evidence from life history studies conducted over the past 70 years suggests that the evolution of individual fitness is subject to ecological constraints, leading to the evolutionary existence of an upper limit of individual fitness (ULIF). Given the existence of the ULIF, organismal evolution, which might initially have relatively great fitness returns through primarily Darwinian evolution, will eventually be subject to diminished fitness returns towards zero. With the diminished fitness return, Darwinian selection strength may eventually become smaller than the power of random genetic drift, leading to the occurrence of neutral evolution at both phenotypic and molecular levels. Meanwhile, mutation rates may change from an initial increase, due to the relatively strong fitness return, to subsequent decreases, due to both the diminished fitness return of beneficial mutations and the cost of deleterious mutations. The diminished fitness returns with subsequently reduced mutation rates are two potential evolution barriers leading to eventual evolutionary stasis. These findings provide important insights for understanding the conditions for the occurrences of different evolutionary patterns. Darwinian evolution theory, neutral evolution theory and punctuated equilibrium theory can be unified in the context of the dynamic evolution hypothesis formulated in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0285.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: extended evolutionary synthesis; inheritance of acquired characters; stress-induced mutagenesis; fitness-dependent sex; horizontal gene transfer
Online: 25 July 2019 (08:24:32 CEST)
Here, I introduce a concept called autonomous selection to refer to a source of selection that is part of the individuals upon which it acts. The concept is motivated by a set of phenomena with the following characteristics: Natural selection shaped a variant (e.g., gene, epigenetic mark, or combination thereof) to act in a manner that reduces the frequency of one or more heritable traits of the individual in which it is located if those traits are detrimental to individual or group fitness. Phenomena with these characteristics are peculiar to traditional evolutionary theory but have been identified rather frequently in recent decades. They are also relevant to adaptive evolution: By reducing the frequency of a trait detrimental to fitness, the variant accelerates the evolution of adaptations, which allows its holders to adapt better to constantly changing environments. The variant is shaped by (natural) selection, but also does (autonomous) selection. Several phenomena with these characteristics have been invoked by proponents of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). The concept of autonomous selection helps resolve some of the controversy surrounding the EES: EES proponents call attention to the incompleteness of contemporary theory, emphasizing individuals’ processes that influence which adaptations those individuals evolve. I argue for the special importance of individuals’ processes that do not just influence those individuals’ adaptations, but also accelerate the adaptive evolution of those individuals. All known phenomena that fit this description are examples of autonomous selection. Other phenomena raised by EES proponents do not meet this threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; physical activity level; lactate threshold, physical fitness; International Physical Activity Questionnaire
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:32:02 CEST)
Adequate energy intake is critical for the healthy longevity of older adults, and the estimated energy requirement is determined by total energy expenditure (TEE). We aimed to identify the relationship between measured aerobic capacity and TEE, activity energy expenditure (AEE) or physical activity level (PAL) with the doubly labeled water (DLW) methods in the advanced older adults. A total of 12 physically independent older adults (10 males and 2 females) aged between 81 to 94 years participated in this study. Aerobic capacity was evaluated according to the lactate threshold (LT). TEE under free-living conditions was assessed using the DLW method, and self-reported physical activity was obtained through the Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). LT was significantly positively correlated with TEE, AEE, and PAL after adjustment for age and sex (ρ= 0.77 (P<0.01), 0.86 (p<0.01), and 0.86 (p<0.01), respectively). We found the LT as an aerobic capacity is positively and independently correlated with TEE, AEE or PAL. The present results suggest that maintaining aerobic capacity is an important factor for preventing frailty, although further research is needed to multisite studies and many samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0381.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: algorithmic design; metaheuristic optimisation; evolutionary computation; swarm intelligence; memetic computing; parameter tuning; fitness trend; Wilcoxon Rank-Sum; Holm-Bonferroni; benchmark suite
Online: 26 March 2020 (04:03:41 CET)
The Stochastic Optimisation Software (SOS) is a Java platform facilitating the algorithmic design process and the evaluation of metaheuristic optimisation algorithms. It reduces the burden of coding miscellaneous methods for dealing with several bothersome and time-demanding tasks such as parameter tuning, implementation of comparison algorithms and testbed problems, collecting and processing data to display results, measuring algorithmic overhead, etc. SOS provides numerous off-the-shelf methods including 1) customised implementations of statistical tests, such as the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test and the Holm-Bonferroni procedure, for comparing performances of optimisation algorithms and automatically generate result tables in PDF and LaTeX formats; 2) the implementation of an original advanced statistical routine for accurately comparing couples of stochastic optimisation algorithms; 3) the implementation of a novel testbed suite for continuous optimisation, derived from the IEEE CEC 2014 benchmark, allowing for controlled activation of the rotation operator. each testbed function. Moreover, this article comments on the current state of the literature in stochastic optimisation and highlights similarities shared by modern metaheuristics inspired by nature. It is argued that the vast majority of these algorithms are simply a reformulation of the same methods and that metaheuristics for optimisation should be simply treated as stochastic processes with less emphasis on the inspiring metaphor behind them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0081.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: technology-product network; maximum entropy; bipartite networks; bipartite configuration model; exponential random graphs; diffusion on networks; innovation system; economic fitness and complexity
Online: 4 August 2018 (10:54:53 CEST)
In this work we identify combinations of technological activities that signal the presence local capabilities in a country to successfully export a product. We use country-level patent and trade data to generate a multi-layer network, and we apply maximization of entropy to generate synthetic data to effectively divide signal from noise. We show that in several sectors the signal far exceed the noise. Our exercise provides robust evidence of the presence of synergies between technologies to explain trade performances in specific markets. This can be highly useful for policy makers, to inform industrial and innovation policies.