ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: bovine collagen hydrolysate; gallium phthalocyanine; pigmented melanoma; normal keratocytes and fibroblasts; mouse embryonal fibroblasts; photodynamic therapy
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:46:10 CEST)
Collagen has been accepted in drug delivery structures due to its biocompatible chemical, physicochemical and curative actions. The study aims to evaluate the effects of a bovine collagen hydrolysate (Clg) on the main photophysical and photodynamic properties of a new gallium (III) phthalocyanine (GaPc). The absorbance of GaPc and the conjugate GaPc-Clg showed a decrease of the intensive Q-band (681 nm) and a blue shift of the maximum (678 nm) with loss of UV-band (354 nm) for 40 mg/mL Clg. The fluorescence of GaPc was evaluated with strong emission peak at 694 nm (exc: 615 nm) which was lower for GaPc-Clg (691 nm). The quantum yield of 0.23 was obtained for GaPc which was reduced for GaPc-Clg (0.012). Photo- and dark cytotoxicity was studied by NRU-assay on pigmented melanoma cells (SH-4) and normal cell lines (BJ and HaCaT). The results suggested a slight reduction of cytotoxicity for the conjugate but almost double for the selectivity index (SI: 0.71 vs. 1.49 for HaCaT cells). The study showed that bovine collagen hydrolysate can lower the PDT activity of a powerful photosensitizer with phototherapeutic index: 819 to 360, but also minimized its dark toxicity as a positive effect in the photodynamic treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: tytanium implant; mitochondrial redox balance; antioxidants; fibroblasts
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:50:11 CEST)
Despite the high biocompatibility of titanium and its alloys, the need to remove titanium implants is increasingly being debated due to the potential for adverse effects associated with long-term retention. Therefore, new solutions are being sought to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium implants. One of them is to increase the thickness of the passive layer of the implant made of titanium dioxide. We were the first to evaluate the effect of hard-anodized (type II) Ti-6Al-4V alloy discs on the cytotoxicity, mitochondrial function and redox balance of mitochondrial fibroblasts compared to standard-anodized (type III) and non-anodized discs. The study used fibroblasts obtained from human gingival tissue. The test discs were applied to the bottom of 12-well plates. Cells were cultured for 24h and 7; 14 and 21 days and mitochondria were isolated. We demonstrated the occurrence of oxidative stress in the mitochondria of fibroblasts of all tested groups, regardless of the presence and type of anodization. Type II anodization prevented changes in complex II activity (vs. control). The lowest degree of citrate synthase inhibition occurs in mitochondria exposed to titanium discs with type II anodization. In the last phase of culture, the presence of type II anodization reduces the degree of cytochrome c oxidase inhibition compared to the other tests groups and the control group, and prevents apoptosis. Throughout the experiment, the release of titanium, aluminium and vanadium ions from titanium discs with a hard-anodized passive layer was higher than from the other titanium discs, but decreased with time. The obtained results prove the existence of dysfunction and redox balance in the mitochondria of fibroblasts exposed to hard-anodized titanium discs, suggesting the need to search for new materials perhaps biodegradable in tissues of the human body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: fibroblasts; endothelial cell; differentiation; tissue engineering; matrigel
Online: 5 July 2023 (08:38:25 CEST)
The role of mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition in the angiogenic response is controversial. Toward this, the present study aimed to determine if fibroblasts contribute to angiogenesis. Endothelial differentiation of fibroblasts was induced by culturing MRC-5 cells (human fetal lung fibroblast cells) on top of Matrigel hydrogel or embedded inside the hydrogel. The formation of ca-pillary-like networks in response to angiogenic signals was observed. The tube formation occurs quickly and can be visualized us-ing a phase-contrast inverted microscope, and/or the cells can be treated with DAPI before the assay and tubes can be visualized through fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Furthermore, fibroblasts cultured in a higher concentration invaded the Matrigel hydrogel and formed stem-cell-like spheroids. These spheroids embedded in matrigel matrices of varying densities sprouted to form 3D connective-tissue networks. Collectively, our results highlight the endothelial differentiation capacity of human lung fibroblasts. The results obtained in this work may have an impact on the search for alternative cell sources for vascular tissue engineering and the overcome of obstacles to vascularization of autologous tissue-engineered constructs and the production of functional grafts for clinical use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: fibrosis; inflammatory; fibroblasts; extracellular matrix; therapeutic strategy
Online: 29 June 2023 (14:13:43 CEST)
Fibrosis is a prevalent and detrimental condition associated with various diseases with a high impact on global morbidity and mortality rates. Despite its diverse causes and affected organs, common underlying mechanisms drive the development and progression of the disease. These mechanisms include an exaggerated inflammatory response, excessive activation of fibroblasts, and abnormal tissue remodeling following severe or repetitive tissue injury. Although significant advancements have been achieved to enhance our understanding of fibrosis, there is still a gap between identifying potential antifibrotic targets and successfully translating them into effective clinical interventions. Novel approaches that target specific cellular and molecular processes involved in fibrosis hold promise for reducing the pathological consequences of the disease. Understanding the pathogenesis and clinical implications of fibrotic diseases is crucial for developing effective therapeutic strategies and improving patient outcomes. In this review, we introduce the concept of fibrosis, discuss the mechanisms by which it arises, and explore existing and emerging therapeutic approaches in development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0356.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEG; viability; osteoblasts; fibroblasts; pH; polyurethane; polyethylene glycol
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:52:52 CEST)
Grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) on polymers surface is widely used to improve biocompatibility by reducing protein and cell adhesion. Although PEG is considered to be bioinert, its incorporation to biomaterials has shown to improve cell viability depending on the amount and molecular weight (MW) used. This phenomenon was studied here by grafting PEG of three MW onto polyurethane (PU) substrata at three molar concentrations to assess their effect on PU surface properties and on the viability of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. PEG formed a covering on the substrata which increased the hydrophilicity and surface energy of PUs. Among the results it was observed that osteoblast viability increased for all MW and grafting densities of PEG employed compared with unmodified PU. However, fibroblast viability only increased at certain combinations of MW and grafting densities of PEG, suggesting an optimal level of these parameters. PEG grafting also promoted a more spread cell morphology than that exhibited by unmodified PU; nevertheless, cells became apoptotic-like as PEG MW and grafting density were increased. These effects on cells could be due to PEG affecting culture medium pH, which became more alkaline at higher MW and concentrations of PEG. Results support the hypothesis that surface energy of PU substrates can be tuned by controlling the MW and grafting density of PEG, but these parameters should be optimized to promote cell viability without inducing apoptotic-like behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; sex-specific; estrogen; fibrosis; heart failure
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:24:51 CEST)
Several studies have demonstrated estrogen’s cardioprotective abilities in decreasing the fibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). However, the majority of these studies are not sex-specific, and those at the cellular level utilize tissue culture plastic, a substrate that has a stiffness much higher than physiological conditions. Understanding the intrinsic differences between male and female CFs under more physiologically “healthy” conditions will help to elucidate the divergences in their complex signaling networks. We aimed to do this by conducting sex-disaggregated analysis of changes in cellular morphology and relative concentrations of profibrotic signaling proteins in CFs cultured on 8kPa stiffness plates with and without 17-β estradiol (E2). Cyclic immunofluorescent analysis indicated that there is a negligible change in cellular morphology due to sex and E2 treatment and that the differences between male and female CFs are occurring at a biochemical rather than structural level. Several proteins corresponding to profibrotic activity had various sex-specific responses with and without E2 treatment. Single-cell correlation analysis exhibited varied protein-protein interaction across experimental conditions. These findings demonstrate the need for further research into the dimorphisms of male and female CFs to develop better tailored, sex-informed prevention and treatment interventions of cardiac fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0430.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Co-culture; Reduced-serum; Wound bed; Fibroblasts; Keratinocytes
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:24:46 CET)
Contact-based co-culture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes is important to study the structure and functions of the wound bed. Co-culture of these two cell types in direct contact with each other has been challenging, requiring high serum concentrations (up to 10%), feeder systems and a range of supplemental factors. These approaches are not only technically demanding, but also present scientific, cost and ethical limitations associated with high-serum concentrations. We have developed two reduced-serum approaches (1-2%) to support contact-based co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The two approaches include (1) Specialized cell culture media for each cell type mixed in a 1:1 ratio (KGM+FGM), and (2) Minimal media supplemented with cell-specific growth factors (MEM+GF). Co-culture could be successfully achieved by co-seeding (two cell types were introduced simultaneously), or in a layered fashion (keratinocytes seeded on top of confluent fibroblasts). With wound scratch assays, the co-cultured platforms could demonstrate cell proliferation, migration and wound closure. The reduced-serum conditions developed are simple, easy to formulate and adopt, and based on commonly-available media components. These contact-based co-culture approaches can be leveraged for wound and skin studies, and tissue bioengineering applications, potentially reducing concerns with high-serum formulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNA; cancer associated fibroblasts; cell-cell communication; transformation; epigenetic
Online: 28 February 2017 (10:29:27 CET)
Tumor microenvironment including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) has developed as an important target for understanding tumor progression, clinical prognosis and treatment responses of cancer. Cancer cells appear to transform normal fibroblasts (NF) into CAFs involving direct cell-cell communication and epigenetic regulations. This review summarizes the current understanding on miR involvement in cancer cell – tumor environment/stroma communication, transformation of NFs into CAFs, their involved targets and signaling pathways in these interactions; and clinical relevance of CAF-related miR expression profiles. There is evidence that miRs have very similar roles in activating hepatic (HSC) and pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) as part of precancerous fibrotic diseases. In summary, deregulated miRs affect various intracellular functional complexes, such as transcriptional factors, extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, EMT/MET regulation, soluble factors, tyrosine kinase and G-protein signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle & differentiation, but also formation and composition of the extracellular microenvironment. These processes result in the clinical appearance of desmoplasia involving CAFs and fibrosis characterized by deregulated stellate cells. In addition, modulated release of soluble factors can act as (auto)activating feedback loop for transition of NFs into their pathological counterparts. Furthermore, epigenetic communication between CAFs and cancer cells may confer to cancer specific functional readouts and transition of NF into their pathological counterparts. MiR related epigenetic regulation with many similarities should be considered as key factor in development of cancer and fibrosis specific environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0164.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: QSP; PBPK; glaucoma; primary human tenon fibroblasts; josamycin; connectivity map
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:11:57 CEST)
Good eyesight belongs to the most-valued attributes of health, and diseases of the eye are a significant health care burden. Case numbers are expected to further increase in the next decades due to an aging society. The development of drugs in ophthalmology, however, is difficult due to limited accessibility of the eye, in terms of drug administration and in terms of sampling of tissues for drug pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Ocular quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models provide the opportunity to describe the distribution of drugs in the eye as well as the resulting drug-response in specific segments of the eye. In particular, ocular physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are necessary to describe drug concentration levels in different regions of the eye. Further, ocular effect models employing molecular data from specific cellular systems are needed to develop dose-response correlations. We here describe the current status of PK/PBPK as well as PD models for the eye and describe cellular systems, data repositories as well as animal models in ophthalmology. The application of the various concepts is highlighted for the development of new treatments for post-operative fibrosis after glaucoma surgery.
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: fibronectin; corneal fibroblasts; fibrin; 3-D matrices; collective cell migration
Online: 6 August 2020 (00:20:04 CEST)
We previously reported that corneal fibroblasts within 3D fibrin matrices secrete, bind, and organize fibronectin into tracks that facilitate cell spreading and migration. Other cells use these fibronectin tracks as conduits, which leads to the development of an interconnected cell/fibronectin network. In this study, we investigate how cell induced reorganization of fibrin correlates with fibronectin track formation in response to two growth factors present during wound healing: PDGF BB, which stimulates cell spreading and migration; and TGFβ1, which stimulates cellular contraction and myofibroblast transformation. Both PDGF BB and TGF stimulated global fibrin matrix contraction (P < 0.005), however cell and matrix patterning were different. We found that during PDGF BB induced cell spreading, fibronectin was organized simultaneously with the generation of tractional forces at the leading edge of pseudopodia. Over time this led to the formation of an interconnected network consisting of cells, fibronectin and compacted fibrin tracks. Following culture in TGFβ1, cells were less motile, produced significant local fibrin reorganization, and formed fewer cellular connections as compared to PDGF BB (P < 0.005). Although bands of compacted fibrin tracks developed in between neighboring cells, fibronectin labeling was not generally present along these tracks, and the correlation between fibrin and fibronectin labeling was significantly less than that observed in PDGF BB (P < 0.001). Taken together, our results show that cell-induced ECM reorganization can occur independently from fibronectin patterning. Nonetheless, both events seem to be coordinated, as corneal fibroblasts in PDGF BB secrete and organize fibronectin as they preferentially spread along compacted fibrin tracks between cells, producing an interconnected network in which cells, fibronectin and compacted fibrin tracks are highly correlated. This mechanism of patterning could contribute to the formation of organized cellular networks that have been observed following corneal injury and refractive surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Inonotus Obliquus extracts; MMP1; human dermal fibroblasts; JNK; AP-1
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:20:00 CET)
In present study, the effect of Inonotus Obliquus extracts used in traditional medicine was investigated on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) in the normal human dermal fibroblasts. As shown our results, extracts of Inonotus Obliquus decreased MMP1 expression in oxidative stress-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts. Additionally, Inonotus Obliquus extracts decreased AP-1 transcriptional activity and phospho-JNK in oxidative stress exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts. The results suggest that Inonotus Obliquus extracts decreased MMP1 expression using decreasing AP-1 transcriptional activity and phospho-JNK. Therefore, Inonotus Obliquus extracts has potential to reduce formation of wrinkle and to use as a cosmetic ingredient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hypobaric hypoxia; myocardium; interstitial space; fibroblasts; fibrosis; succinic acid; rats
Online: 12 November 2018 (05:16:27 CET)
The myocardial extracellular matrix is not a passive entity, but rather a complex and dynamic microenvironment which represents an important structural and signaling system within the myocardium. Understanding the fundamental role of hypoxia and peroxidation in the genesis of many cardiovascular diseases has stimulated the development of strategies that can enhance the energy-producing functions of cells. Revealing the alterations in cardiac metabolism and function associated with sustained exposure to high altitude advances our understanding of hypoxia-related disease. The study was conducted on 26 adult males of Wistar rats weighing 220–310 g, divided into 3 groups. The first control group consisted of 6 intact animals, the second group included 10 rats which were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia without medication for 30 days. Third group was composed of 10 rats, which were medicated by succinic acid solution which was injected intraperitoneally once a day at the rate of 0.5 mL/100 g of animal body weight 15 minutes before hypoxic exposure for 30 days. Fibrosis in the myocardium inevitably leads to increased myocardial stiffness, resulting in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, neurohormonal activation and, ultimately, heart failure Changes in cardiac highenergy phosphate metabolism may underlie the myocardial dysfunction caused by hypobaric hypoxia. Reduced oxygen delivery by microvascular damage, increased perivascular fibrosis associated with reduced cellular oxygen availability may contribute to contractile failure. Succinic acid combined with inosine acts as a high-energy phosphate reserve, to maintain adenosine triphosphate at levels sufficient to support contractile function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fibroblasts; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Cancer; Metabolic Reprogramming; Glycolytic Switch; Systems Biology; Computational Modelling
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:28:02 CET)
Fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in the connective tissue, are key modulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. These spindle-shaped cells are capable of synthesizing various extracellular matrix proteins and collagen. They also provide the structural framework (stroma) for tissues and play a pivotal role in the wound healing process. While they are maintainers of the ECM turnover and regulate several physiological processes, they can also undergo transformations responding to certain stimuli and display aggressive phenotypes that contribute to disease pathophysiology. In this review, we focus on the metabolic pathways of glucose and highlight metabolic reprogramming as a critical event that contributes to the transition of fibroblasts from quiescent to activated and aggressive cells. We also cover the emerging evidence that allows us to draw parallels between fibroblasts in autoimmune disorders and more specifically in rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. We link the metabolic changes of fibroblasts to the toxic environment created by the disease condition and discuss how targeting of metabolic reprogramming could be employed in the treatment of such diseases. Lastly, we discuss Systems Biology approaches, and more specifically, computational modelling, as a means to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms and accelerate the identification of novel therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastasis; cell migration; cell invasion; Akt; EGFR
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:25:20 CEST)
Oral cancer cells (TYS) and the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, in response to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, COM) and normal oral mucosal fibroblasts (MM1) was studied. Metastatic cell behaviour was observed by cell-scatter, 3D-collagen gel migration and 3D-spheroid invasion assays. Akt, MAPK, EGFR, TGFβRii and CXCR4 inhibitors were used to identify the signalling pathways involved. Signalling pathway protein expression and activation were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. COM-CM (conditioned medium) and MM1-CM stimulated cancer cell scattering, which was blocked only by the Akt inhibitor. COM-CM induced scattered cancer cells showed higher levels of Akt phosphorylation than the negative control and MM1-CM. Migration and invasion of TYS cells into the collagen gels from the spheroids was stimulated by CM from both sources, compared to the negative control. COM cells stimulated TYS, cancer cell invasion into the collagen more than MM1 and the control. Akt and EGFR inhibitors effectively blocked CM and COM cell-induced invasion. Akt-silenced cancer cells were not stimulated to migrate and invade by fibroblast-CM and did not survive addition of the EGFR inhibitor. This suggests that CAFs stimulate oral cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. EGFR and Akt are potential therapy targets in metastatic oral cancer.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus; primary tree shrew dermis fibroblasts; cross-species infection; lytic replication.
Online: 5 November 2018 (09:43:16 CET)
As a universal pathogen leading to neonatal defects and transplant failure, Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has strict species specificity that the inability to using this virus in animals has hampered its pathogenesis study. However, the mechanism of cross-species barrier remains elusive that no non-human cell model has been established to fill this knowledge gap. We observed that primary dermis fibroblasts (TSDF) isolated from the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small laboratory animal with close affinity to primates, were permissive to HCMV replication. In TSDF infected with GFP-expressing HCMV, the green fluorescence and cytopathic effect were observed and the expression of 3 kinetic genes and replication of viral genome were detected. The cell-free viruses produced in TSDF reached 103 pfu/mL at 96 hpi, which were 10-fold lower than in primary human foreskin fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that TSDF supported low level of lytic replication of HCMV. The TSDF model provides a useful platform for the mechanism study of species barrier of HCMV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: gingiva; bisphosphonate; soft tissue; fibroblasts; keratinocytes; bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws
Online: 15 October 2016 (08:03:48 CEST)
Since the first description of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) numerous research groups have focused on possible pathological mechanisms including the suppression of the bone turnover of the jaw, antiangiogenic effects and soft tissue toxicity. In our review we focused on summarizing the role of the soft tissues in the development and progression of BRONJ. The biological behavior of fibroblasts can be significantly influenced by bisphosphonates (BP) such as a concentration dependent reduction of cell viability. High concentrations of BP can induce apoptosis and necrosis of the cells. Comparable effects could be detected for keratinocytes. Compared to non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates nitrogen-containing BP have worse effects on cell biology by blocking the mevalonate pathway. Next to this the cell architecture and the expression levels of several genes and proteins are significantly disturbed by BP. These inhibitory effects of BP are in accordance with BP related reduced angiogenesis and neovascularization and could underline the hypothesis that inhibition of fibroblasts and keratinocytes results in delayed wound healing and can induce and trigger BRONJ.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: TRPV4 channels; TRPV4-KO mice; heart, myocytes; fibroblasts; action potential, calcium homeo-stasis
Online: 30 April 2023 (03:28:24 CEST)
Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel is a non-selective cation channel, mostly permeable to calcium (Ca2+), which participates to intracellular Ca2+ handling in cardiac cells. It is widely expressed through the body and is activated by a large spectrum of physico-chemical stimuli, conferring it a role in a variety of sensorial and physiological functions. With-in the cardiovascular system, TRPV4 expression was reported in cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) where it modulates mitochondrial activity, Ca2+ ho-meostasis, cardiomyocytes electrical activity and contractility, cardiac embryonic development, fibroblast proliferation but also vascular permeability, dilatation and constriction. On the other hand, TRPV4 channels participate in several cardiac pathological processes such as development of cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy, ischemia-reperfusion injuries, heart failure, myocardial infarc-tion, and arrhythmia. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of TRPV4 channel implica-tions in cardiac physiology and discuss the potential of TRPV4 channel as therapeutic target against cardiovascular diseases.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; WNT3a; WNT5a; beta-catenin; TGF-beta signalling; IL-11; cardiac fibrosis
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:15:00 CEST)
Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological process associated with development of heart failure. TGF-β and WNT signaling have been implicated in pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, however little is known about molecular cross-talk between these two pathways. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous canonical WNT3a and non-canonical WNT5a in TGF-β-activated human cardiac fibroblasts. We found that WNT3a and TGF-β induced -catenin-dependent response, whereas WNT5a prompted AP-1 activity. TGF-β triggered profibrotic signature in cardiac fibroblasts, and co-stimulation with WNT3a or co-activation of the β-catenin pathway with GSK3β inhibitor CHIR99021 enhanced collagen I and fibronectin production and development of active contractile stress fibers. In the absence of TGF-β, neither WNT3a nor CHIR99021 exerted profibrotic response. On a molecular level, in TGF-β-activated fibroblasts WNT3a enhanced phosphorylation of TAK1 and production and secretion of IL-11 but showed no effect on Smad pathway. Neutralization of IL-11 activity with the blocking anti-IL-11 antibody effectively reduced profibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts activated with TGF-β and WNT3a. In contrast to canonical WNT3a, co-activation with non-canonical WNT5a suppressed TGF-β-induced production of collagen I. In conclusion, WNT/β-catenin signaling promotes TGF-β-mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition by enhancing IL-11 production. Thus, the uncovered mechanism broadens our knowledge on molecular basis of cardiac fibrogenesis and defines novel therapeutic targets for fibrotic heart diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0653.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: GDF15; Orthodontic tooth movement; Periodontal ligament fibroblasts; Osteoblast differentiation; Mechanobiological response; Inflammation; Osteoclast Activation
Online: 9 May 2023 (12:33:14 CEST)
Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PdLFs) exert important functions in oral tissue and bone remodeling following mechanical forces, which are specifically applied during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Located between the teeth and the alveolar bone, mechanical stress activates the mechanomodulatory functions of PdLFs including the regulation of local inflammation and activation of further bone-remodeling cells. Previous studies suggested the growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) as important pro-inflammatory regulator during the PdLFs mechanoresponse. However, the precise mechanism remains to be clarified, as GDF15 may act both intracrine and by receptor binding, potentially also in an autocrine manner. The extent to which PdLFs are susceptible to extracellular GDF15 has not yet been investigated. Thus, our study aims to examine the influence of GDF15 exposure on cellular properties of PdLFs and their mechanoresponse, which seems particularly relevant regarding disease- and aging-associated elevated GDF15 serum levels. Therefore, in addition to investigating potential GDF15 receptors, we analyzed its impact on proliferation, survival, senescence, and differentiation of human PdLFs, demonstrating a pro-osteogenic effect upon long-term stimulation. Furthermore, we detected an altered force-related inflammation and impaired osteoclast differentiation. Overall, our data suggest a major impact of extracellular GDF15 on PdLFs differentiation and their mechanoresponse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblasts; tumor microenvironment; pancreatic cancer; intracellular metabolism; glycolysis; oxidative phosphorylation; cell differentiation
Online: 20 January 2022 (19:42:29 CET)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment perform glycolysis to produce energy, i.e., ATP. Since the origin of CAFs is unidentified, it is not determined whether the intracellular metabolism transitions from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis when normal tissue fibroblasts differentiate into CAFs. In this study, we established an experimental system and induced the in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to CAFs. Additionally, we performed metabolomic and RNA-sequencing analyses before and after differentiation to investigate changes in the intracellular metabolism. Consequently, we discovered that OXPHOS, which was the primary intracellular metabolism in MSCs, was reprogrammed to glycolysis. In addition, we identified CAF-specific metabolites that were expressed during this reprogramming and determined their presence in the pancreatic tumor tissues of mouse models. Thus, we conclude that normal tissue fibroblasts that differentiate into CAFs undergo a metabolic reprogramming from OXPHOS to glycolysis. Moreover, we identified the CAF-specific metabolites expressed during metabolic reprogramming as potential future biomarkers for pancreatic cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma; cancer associated fibroblasts; Ki-67; spatial analysis; immunohistochemistry
Online: 26 May 2021 (10:53:24 CEST)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are highly prevalent cells in the tumor microenvironment in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). CAFs exhibit a pro-tumor effect in vitro and have been implicated in tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and treatment resistance. Our objective is to analyze the geospatial distribution of CAFs with proliferating and apoptotic tumor cells in the ccRCC tumor microenvironment and determine associations with survival and systemic treatment. Pre-treatment primary tumor samples were collected from 96 patients with metastatic ccRCC. Three adjacent slices were obtained from 2 tumor-core regions of interest (ROI) per patient, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed for αSMA, Ki-67, and caspase-3 to detect CAFs, proliferating cells, and apoptotic cells, respectively. H-scores and cellular density were generated for each marker. ROIs were aligned, and spatial point-patterns were generated, which were then used to perform spatial analyses using a normalized Ripley's K function at a radius of 25μm (nK(25)). The survival analyses used an optimal cut-point method, maximizing the log-rank statistic, to stratify the IHC-derived metrics into high and low groups, and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed accounting for age and International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) risk category. Survival outcomes included overall survival (OS) from the date of diagnosis, OS from the date of immunotherapy initiation (OS-IT), and OS from the date of targeted therapy initiation (OS-TT). Therapy resistance was defined as progression-free survival (PFS) <6 months, and therapy response was defined as PFS >9 months. CAFs exhibited higher cellular clustering with Ki-67+ cells than with caspase-3+ cells (nK(25): Ki-67 1.19; caspase-3 1.05; P = .04). The median nearest neighbor (NN) distance from CAFs to Ki-67+ cells was shorter compared to caspase-3+ cells (15 μm vs 37μm, respectively; P < .001). Multivariable Cox regression analyses demonstrated that both high Ki-67+ density and H-score were associated with worse OS, OS-IT, and OS-TT. Regarding CAFs, only a high H-score was associated with worse OS, OS-IT, and OS-TT. For caspase-3+, high H-score and density were associated with worse OS and OS-TT. Patients whose tumors were resistant to targeted therapy (TT) had higher Ki-67 density and H-scores than those who had TT response. Overall, this ex vivo geospatial analysis of CAF distribution suggests that close proximity clustering of tumor cells and CAFs potentiates tumor cell proliferation, resulting in worse OS and resistance to TT in metastatic ccRCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: tricalcium silicate nanoparticle-containing cement (NPC); mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs)
Online: 1 June 2023 (05:30:27 CEST)
A tricalcium silicate nanoparticle-containing cement (NPC) was developed to overcome the disadvantages of existing mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) dental materials. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of NPC on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs) in vitro, and on the healing of furcal perforations created experimentally in rat molars in vivo, in comparison to MTA. The in vitro studies performed the following assays; pH measurement using a pH meter, the release of calcium ions using a calcium assay kit, cell attachment and morphology using SEM, cell proliferation using a coulter counter, marker expression using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell mineralized deposit formation using Alizarin Red S (ARS) staining. In the in vivo studies, MTA and NPC were used to fill the rat molar perforations. Rat molars were processed at 7, 14 and 28 days for analysis of inflammatory processes using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemical staining of Runx2 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP) staining. The results demonstrate that the nanoparticle size distribution of NPC is critical for osteogenic potential at an earlier stage compared to MTA. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action of NPC in osteogenic differentiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract; proanthocyanidins; bacteriotoxicity; inflammatory cytokines; gene expression; fibroblasts; macrophages; leukocytes
Online: 18 September 2019 (04:07:50 CEST)
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on commensal Streptococcus salivarius, the current work continues antibacterial investigation on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Escherichia coli. PSRE and PACN are also studied for their ability to prevent gingival fibroblast cell death in the presence of bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to block LPS- or LPS+IFNγ-induced release of inflammatory mediators, gene expression and surface antigen presentation. Both PSRE and PACN were more efficient in suppressing Staphylococcus and Aggregatibacter compared to Escherichia, prevented A. actinomycetemcomitans- and LPS induced death of fibroblasts, decreased LPS-induced release of interleukin 8 and prostaglandin E2 from fibroblasts and IL-6 from leukocytes, blocked expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and surface presentation of CD80 and CD86 in LPS+IFNγ-treated macrophages, and IL-1β and COX-2 expression in LPS-treated leukocytes. None of the investigated substances affected either the level of secretion or expression of TNFα. In conclusion, PSRE, and especially PACN, possess strong antibacterial, antiinflammatory and gingival tissue protecting properties under periodontitis mimicking conditions and are suggestable candidates for treatment of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: tumor microenvironment; extracellular matrix; proteoglycans; tumor-associated fibroblasts; tumor immunity; immune checkpoint inhibitors; tumor stroma; angiogenesis
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:16:16 CEST)
Similarly to our healthy organs, tumor tissue also generates an ecosystem. This implies that stromal cells acquire an altered phenotype in tandem with tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor survival. Cancer cells are fueled by abnormal blood vessels, allowing them to develop and proliferate. Tumor-associated fibroblasts adapt their cytokine and chemokine production to the needs of tumor cells, alter the peritumoral stroma by generating more collagen, thereby stiffening the matrix, all promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor cell invasion. Chronic inflammation and the mobilization of pro-tumorigenic inflammatory cells further facilitate tumor expansion. All of these events can impede the effective administration of tumor treatment, so the successful inhibition of tumorous matrix remodeling could further enhance the success of tumor treatment. Numerous publications describe efforts to inhibit tumor matrix components, but the true breakthrough has yet to be achieved. If, on the other hand, we assume that tumorous blood vessels and inflammatory cells are residents of the tumorous stroma, then two steps forward have occurred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: carnosine; glioblastoma; fibroblasts; imidazole-containing compounds; cell viability; high per-formance liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry
Online: 3 March 2022 (10:31:32 CET)
The naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine (β alanyl L histidine) specifically attenuates tumor growth. Here, we asked whether other small imidazole containing compounds also affect viability of tumor cells without affecting non-malignant cells, and whether formation of histamine is involved. Patient-derived fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells were treated with carnosine, L alanyl L histidine (LA-LH), ß alanyl L alanine, L histidine, histamine, imidazole, β alanine and L alanine. Cell viability was assessed by cell-based assays and microscopy. The intracellular release of L histidine and formation of histamine was investigated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry. Whereas carnosine and LA LH inhibited tumor cell growth with minor effects on fibroblasts, L-histidine, histamine and imidazole affected viability in both cell types. Compounds without imidazole moiety did not diminish viability. In the presence of LA LH but not in the presence of carnosine a significant rise of intracellular amounts of histidine was detected in all cells. Formation of histamine was not detectable in the presence of carnosine, LA LH or histidine. In conclusion, the imidazole moiety of carnosine contributes to its anti-neoplastic effect, which is also seen in the presence of histidine and LA LH. Despite histamine had a strong effect on cell viability, formation of histamine is not responsible for the effects on cell viability of carnosine, LA LH and histidine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: UVA radiation; oxidative stress; dermal fibroblasts; apoptosis; antioxidant; Amaranthus cruentus seed oil; sun-protective substance; pharmacy; cosmetology
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:49:20 CEST)
UVA radiation inducing oxidative stress is harmful for the skin cells. The most sensitive are dermal fibroblasts. Exposure of the cells to prolonged UVA radiation induces apoptosis. Although, skin cells have a number of defense mechanisms that protect them against UV-induced oxidative stress, they are insufficient during long-lasting UV exposure. Therefore, there is a need for effective skin protection compounds with cytoprotective and antioxidant properties. One of their sources is Amaranthus cruentus L. seed oil, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, squalene, vitamin E derivatives, and phytosterols. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Amaranthus cruentus seed oil evokes protective effect on the apoptosis stimulated by UVA radiation in human skin fibroblasts. UVA radiation at an applied dose of 10 J/cm2 caused a significant reduction in the survival of human skin fibroblasts and directed them into apoptosis pathway. Increased expression of p53, caspase 3, and caspase 9 and PARP proteins in UVA-treated fibroblasts suggests the intrinsic mechanism of apoptosis. The application of Amaranthus cruentus seed oil at 0.1% and 0.15% concentrations to UVA-treated cells decreased the expression of these proteins, which was accompanied by increased cell survival. Similarly, the UVA-dependent decrease in expression of p-Akt and mTOR proteins was restored, under the effect of studied oil. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is related to the stimulation of antioxidant processes through activation of Nrf2. This suggests that Amaranthus cruentus seed oil stimulate the antioxidant system in fibroblast cells and prevent the effects of UVA-induced oxidative stress and may find application in pharmacy and cosmetology as a sun- protective substance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tumor microenvironment; tumor stroma; cancer-associated fibroblasts; heterogeneity; biomarkers; cancer; The Cancer Genome Atlas; gene expression; computational biology
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:56:44 CET)
Current therapeutic strategies targeting cancer cells within solid tumors have displayed limited success owing to the presence of non-cancer components referred to as the tumor stroma within the tumor microenvironment (TM). These stromal cells, extracellular matrix and blood vessels influence cancer cell response to therapy and play key roles in tumor relapse and resistance. Of the stromal cells present in the TM, a lot of attention has been given to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as they are the most abundant and are important in cancer initiation, progression and therapy resistance. In this updated review I emphasize the role of CAFs in the regulation of tumor cell behaviour and reveal how CAF-derived factors and signaling influence tumor cell heterogeneity and development of novel strategies to combat cancer. To investigate the expression of CAF markers in tumor tissues versus normal tissues, transcriptomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) databases was used. Bioinformatic analysis reveals differential expression of CAF markers in several cancer types, underscoring the need for further multiomics and biochemical studies on CAFs, CAF subsets and markers. Differences in CAF markers’ expression could be due to different cellular origins as well as the effect of cancer-specific tumor microenvironmental effect on CAFs. Lastly, I present recent advances in therapeutic targeting of CAFs and the success of such endeavours or its lack thereof. It is recommended that for patients’ outcomes to improve, cancer treatment be combinatorial in nature, targeting both cancer cells and stromal cells and interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: major depression; skin fibroblasts; mitochondria; bioenergetics; oxidative phosphorylation; adenosine triphosphate; calcium imaging; mitochondrial membrane potential; mitochondrial DNA copy number
Online: 12 March 2020 (14:11:25 CET)
Mitochondrial malfunction is supposed to be involved in the etiology and pathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we aimed to identify and characterize the molecular pathomechanisms related to mitochondrial disfunction in adult human skin fibroblasts which were derived from MDD patients or non-depressive control subjects. We found that MDD fibroblasts showed significantly impaired mitochondrial functioning: basal and maximal respiration, spare respiratory capacity, non-mitochondrial respiration and ATP-related oxygen consumption was lower. Moreover, MDD fibroblasts harbor lower ATP levels and showed hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane potential. To investigate cellular resilience, we challenged both groups of fibroblasts with hormonal (dexamethasone) or metabolic (galactose) stress for one week, and found that both stressors increased oxygen consumption but lowered ATP content in MDD as well as in non-depressive control fibroblasts. Interestingly, the bioenergetic differences between fibroblasts from MDD or non-depressed subjects, which were observed under non-treated conditions, could not be detected after stress. Our findings support the hypothesis that altered mitochondrial function causes a bioenergetic imbalance which is associated with the molecular pathophysiology of MDD. The observed alterations in OXPHOS and other mitochondria-related properties represent a basis for further investigations of pathophysiological mechanisms and might open new ways to gain insight into antidepressant signaling pathways.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0963.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Ferroptosis; proteomics; LC-MS/MS; mouse embryonic fibroblasts; Pfa1; cell death; glutathione peroxidase 4; erastin; ML210; L-Buthionine-sulfoximine; BSO
Online: 12 May 2023 (14:47:52 CEST)
Ferroptosis is a unique variety of non-apoptotic cell death, driven by massive lipid oxidation in an iron-dependent manner. Since Ferroptosis was introduced as a concept in 2012, it was shown it's essential role in the pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases and an important role in therapy-resistant cancer cells. Thus, a detailed molecular understanding of both canonical and alternative ferroptosis pathways are required. There is a set of widely used chemical agents to modulate ferroptosis using different pathway targets: Erastin blocks cystine-glutamate antiporter, system xc-; ML210 directly inactivate GPX4; L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) inhibits γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, an essential enzyme for glutathione synthesis de novo. Most studies were focused on lipidomic profiling of model systems undergoing death in a ferroptotic modality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0276.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: fibroblast activation protein α (FAP-α); cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs); FAP inhibitors (FAPIs); PET imaging; gallium-68; (R)-pyrrolidin-2-yl-boronic acid-based radiopharmaceuticals
Online: 5 May 2023 (02:40:01 CEST)
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a membrane-tethered serine protease overexpressed in the reactive stromal fibroblasts of > 90% human carcinomas, which makes it a promising target for developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy of carcinomas. Here, we synthesized two novel (R)-pyrrolidin-2-yl-boronic acid-based FAP-targeted ligands; SB02055 (DOTA-conjugated (R)-(1-((6-(3-(piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)quinoline-4-carbonyl)glycyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)boronic acid) and SB04028 (DOTA-conjugated ((R)-1-((6-(3-(piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)quinoline-4-carbonyl)-D-alanyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)boronic acid). natGa- and 68Ga-complexes of both ligands were evaluated in preclinical studies and compared to previously reported natGa/68Ga-complexed PNT6555. Enzymatic assays showed that FAP binding affinities (IC50) of natGa-SB02055, natGa-SB04028 and natGa-PNT6555 were 0.41±0.06, 13.9±1.29 and 78.1±4.59 nM, respectively. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in HEK293T:hFAP tumor-bearing mice showed that while [68Ga]Ga-SB02055 presented with a nominal tumor uptake (1.08±0.37 %ID/g), [68Ga]Ga-SB04028 demonstrated clear tumor visualization with ~1.5-fold higher tumor uptake (10.1±0.42 %ID/g) compared to [68Ga]Ga-PNT6555 (6.38±0.45 %ID/g). High accumulation in the bladder indicated renal excretion of all three tracers. [68Ga]Ga-SB04028 displayed low background level uptake in most normal organs, and comparable to [68Ga]Ga-PNT6555. However, since its tumor uptake was considerably higher than [68Ga]Ga-PNT6555, the corresponding tumor-to-organ uptake ratios for [68Ga]Ga-SB04028 were also significantly greater than [68Ga]Ga-PNT6555. Our data demonstrate that (R)-(((quinoline-4-carbonyl)-D-alanyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)boronic acid is a promising pharmacophore for the design of FAP-targeted radiopharmaceuticals for cancer imaging and radioligand therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Cancer surgery; Cancer radiotherapy; Cancer immunotherapy; Cancer stroma; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Carcinogenesis; Cancer resistance to immunotherapy; Exosomes; Hypoxia; Neutrophil extracellular traps; Sphingomyelin; Neutral sphingomyelinase; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
The central reason behind emergence of clinically-detectable tumors is evasion from immune surveillance due to lack of cancer cells surface membrane expression of tumor-specific peptides in association with MHC class I molecules, concealment of natural killer cells-activating molecules, and absence of inflammation resulting from inefficient stimulation of innate immunity receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. The tumor microenvironment (TME) also contributes to tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapeutic interventions because of its dense, fibrogenic, barrier-like composition, aberrant vasculature, and production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for recruitment of immune suppressive cells, notably myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells, extracellular trap-forming neutrophils, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. We herein show that the relentless efforts and strategies to overcome the TME elusive tumor-promoting impact produced contrasting, opposed, controversial effects, characterized by limited efficacy and proven adversity, and most importantly deterred from attempts to discover and counteract the fundamental inherent mechanisms initiating, and not consequent to, carcinogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA); pantothenate kinaseassociated neurodegeneration (PKAN); pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2); pantothenate; pantethine; vitamin E; omega 3; -lipoic acid; L-carnitine; thiamine; fibroblasts; induced neurons; precision medicine
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:18:39 CEST)
The term neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) brings together a broad set of progressive and disabling neurological genetic disorders in which iron is deposited preferentially in certain areas of the brain. Among NBIA disorders, the most frequent subtype is pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) caused by pathologic variants in the PANK2 gene codifying the enzyme pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2). Nowadays, there are no effective treatments to stop the progression of these diseases. This review discusses the utility of patient-derived cell models as a valuable tool for the identification of commercial pharmacological or natural compounds for implementing polytarget precision medicine in PKAN. In the last years, several studies have described that PKAN patient-derived fibroblasts manifest the main pathological changes associated with the disease including intracellular iron overload. Interestingly, treatment of mutant cell cultures with various supplements such as pantothenate, pantethine, thiamine, L-carnitine, vitamin E, omega 3, and -lipoic acid improved all pathophysiological alterations in PKAN fibroblasts with residual expression of the PANK2 enzyme. The information provided by pharmacological screenings in patient-derived cellular models can help to optimize therapeutic strategies in individual PKAN patients.