ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis, stochastic resonance, periodic potential, underdamped, weak signal
Online: 27 March 2019 (08:49:38 CET)
The vibration feature of weak gear fault is often covered in strong background noise, which makes it necessary to establish weak feature enhancement methods. Among the enhancement methods, stochastic resonance (SR) has the unique advantage of transferring noise energy to weak signals and has a great application prospection in weak signal extraction. But the traditional SR potential model cannot form a richer potential structure and may lead to system instability when the noise is too great. To overcome these shortcomings, the article presents a periodic potential underdamping stochastic resonance (PPUSR) method after investigating the potential function and system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition, system parameters are further optimized by using ant colony algorithm. Through simulation and gear experiments, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified. We concluded that compared with the traditional underdamped stochastic resonance (TUSR) method, the PPUSR method had a higher recognition degree and better frequency response capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0188.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: variational mode decomposition; detrended fluctuation analysis; heavy gearbox; fault diagnosis
Online: 16 April 2018 (05:35:21 CEST)
The vibration signal of heavy gearbox presents non-stationary and nonlinear characteristics, which increases the difficulty to extract the fault feature. When the gear has a subtle fault, it may cause a perceptible change of local fluctuation rather than the large scale fluctuation. Therefore, the feature parameters extracted from local fluctuation can effectively improve the recognition performance of the gear fault. In this paper, a novel signal processing method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is proposed to identify the gear fault of heavy gearbox. Firstly, the raw vibration signal is decomposed several mode components by VMD, which is an adaptive and non-recursive signal decomposition method. Next, the sensitive mode component is selected by a maximal indicator, which is composed of kurtosis and correlation coefficient of relative higher frequency mode components corresponding to local fluctuation of raw vibration signal. Finally, the characteristics of the double-scales feature parameters of selected sensitive mode are extracted by DFA. In addition, the position of turning point of double scales is estimated by sliding windowing algorithm. The proposed method is evaluated through its application to gear fault classification using vibration signal. The results demonstrates that the recognization rate of gear faults condition have marked improvement by proposed method than the DFA of Small Time Scale (STS-DFA) method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intelligent fault diagnosis; convolutional neural networks; domain adaptation; anti-noise
Online: 30 January 2017 (12:15:03 CET)
Intelligent fault diagnosis techniques have replaced the time-consuming and unreliable human analysis, increasing the efficiency of fault diagnosis. Deep learning model can improve the accuracy of intelligent fault diagnosis with the help of its multilayer nonlinear mapping ability. This paper has proposed a novel method named Deep Convolutional Neural Networks with Wide First-layer Kernels (WDCNN). The proposed method uses raw vibration signals as input (data augmentation is used to generate more inputs), and uses the wide kernels in first convolutional layer for extracting feature and suppressing high frequency noise. Small convolutional kernels in the preceding layers are used for multilayer nonlinear mapping. AdaBN is implemented to improve the domain adaptation ability of the model. The proposed model addresses the problem that currently, the accuracy of CNN applied to fault diagnosis is not very high. WDCNN can not only achieve 100% classification accuracy on normal signals, but also outperform state of the art DNN model which is based on frequency features under different working load and noisy environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multiple fault detection; rotating electrical machines; drive systems; multi-label classification; machine learning; fault severity; fault classifiers
Online: 2 August 2019 (10:44:06 CEST)
Primary importance is devoted to Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDI) of electrical machine and drive systems in modern industrial automation. The widespread use of Machine Learning techniques has made it possible to replace traditional motor fault detection techniques with more efficient solutions that are capable of early fault recognition by using large amounts of sensory data. However, the detection of concurrent failures is still a challenge in the presence of disturbing noises or when the multiple faults cause overlapping features. The contribution of this work is to propose a novel methodology using multi-label classification method for simultaneously diagnosing multiple faults and evaluating the fault severity under noisy conditions. Performance of various multi-label classification models are compared. Current and vibration signals are acquired under normal and fault conditions. The applicability of the proposed method is experimentally validated under diverse fault conditions such as unbalance and misalignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; analytical redundancy; fuzzy prototypes; neural networks; diagnostic residuals; fault reconstruction; wind turbine simulator
Online: 24 December 2018 (03:59:45 CET)
The fault diagnosis of wind turbine systems represent a challenging issue, especially for offshore installations, thus justifying the research topics developed in this work. Therefore, this paper addresses the problem of the fault diagnosis of wind turbines, and it present viable solutions of fault detection and isolation techniques. The design of the so--called fault indicator consists of its estimate, which involves data--driven methods, as they result effective tools for managing partial analytical knowledge of the system dynamics, together with noise and disturbance effects. In particular, the suggested data--driven strategies exploit fuzzy systems and neural networks that are employed to determine nonlinear links between measurements and faults. The selected architectures are based on nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input prototypes, as they approximate the dynamic evolution of the system along time. The designed fault diagnosis schemes are verified via a high--fidelity simulator, which describes the normal and the faulty behaviour of an offshore wind turbine plant. Finally, by taking into account the presence of uncertainty and disturbance implemented in the wind turbine simulator, the robustness and the reliability features of the proposed methods are also assessed. This aspect is fundamental when the proposed fault diagnosis methods have to be applied to offshore installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0299.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: complex systems; self-diagnosis; intermittent fault; diagnosis procedure
Online: 13 November 2018 (05:27:55 CET)
System level diagnosis is an abstraction of high level and, thus, its practical implementation to particular cases of complex systems is the task which requires additional investigations, both theoretical and modeling. Mostly, diagnosis at system level intends to identify only permanently faulty units. In the paper, we consider the case when both permanently and intermittently faulty units can occur in the system. Identification of intermittently faulty units has some specifics which we have considered in this paper. We also suggest the method which allows distinguishing among different types of intermittent faults. Diagnosis procedure was suggested for each type of intermittent faults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0347.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: deep learning; maximum mean discrepancy; gearbox; fault detection
Online: 22 May 2020 (05:21:56 CEST)
In the past years, various intelligent machine learning and deep learning algorithms have been developed and widely applied for gearbox fault detection and diagnosis. However, the real-time application of these intelligent algorithms has been limited, mainly due to the fact that the model developed using data from one machine or one operating condition has serious diagnosis performance degradation when applied to another machine or the same machine with a different operating condition. The reason for poor model generalization is the distribution discrepancy between the training and testing data. This paper proposes to address this issue using a deep learning based cross domain adaptation approach for gearbox fault diagnosis. Labelled data from training dataset and unlabeled data from testing dataset is used to achieve the cross-domain adaptation task. A deep convolutional neural network (CNN) is used as the main architecture. Maximum mean discrepancy is used as a measure to minimize the distribution distance between the labelled training data and unlabeled testing data. The study proposes to reduce the discrepancy between the two domains in multiple layers of the designed CNN to adapt the learned representations from the training data to be applied in the testing data. The proposed approach is evaluated using experimental data from a gearbox under significant speed variation and multiple health conditions. An appropriate benchmarking with both traditional machine learning methods and other domain adaptation methods demonstrates the superiority of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Planetary gear; Fault diagnosis; CEEMDAN; Permutation entropy; ANFIS
Online: 11 January 2018 (11:54:12 CET)
For planetary gear has the characteristics of small volume, light weight and large transmission ratio, it is widely used in high speed and high power mechanical system. Poor working conditions result in frequent failures of planetary gear. A method is proposed for diagnosing faults in planetary gear based on permutation entropy of Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in this paper. The original signal is decomposed into 6 intrinsic mode functions (IMF) and residual components by CEEMDAN. Since the IMF contains the main characteristic information of planetary gear faults, time complexity of IMFs are reflected by permutation entropies to quantify the fault features. The permutation entropies of each IMF component are defined as the input of ANFIS, and its parameters and membership functions are adaptively adjusted according to training samples. Finally, the fuzzy inference rules are determined, and the optimal ANFIS is obtained. The overall recognition rate of the test sample used for ANFIS is 90.75%, and the recognition rate of gear with one missing tooth is relatively high. The recognition rates of different fault gears based on the method can also achieve better results. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied to planetary gear fault diagnosis effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; deep learning; domain adapta-tion; gearbox; current signal
Online: 22 May 2020 (05:37:13 CEST)
In the recent years, intelligent data-driven faultdiagnosis methods on gearboxes have been successfully developedand popularly applied in the industries. Currently, most ofthe machine learning techniques require that the training andtesting data are from the same distribution. However, thisassumption is difficult to be met in the real industries, sincethe gearbox operating conditions usually change in practice,which results in significant data distribution gap and diagnosticperformance deteriorations in applying the learned knowledgeon the new conditions. This paper proposes a deep learning-based domain adaptation method to address this issue. Theraw current signals are directly used as the model inputs fordiagnostics, which are easy to collect in the real industries andfacilitate practical applications. The maximum mean discrepancymetric is introduced to the deep neural network, the optimizationof which guarantees the extraction of generalized machineryhealth condition features across different operating conditions.The experiments on a real-world gearbox condition monitoringdataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, whichoffers a promising tool for cross-domain diagnosis in the realindustries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0571.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 1D-CNN; fault diagnosis; rolling bearing; vibration signal; single load; different load
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:22:43 CET)
The diagnosis of a rolling bearing for monitoring its status is critical for maintaining industrial equipment using rolling bearings. The traditional method of diagnosing faults of the rolling bearing has low identification accuracy, which needs artificial feature extraction to enhance the accuracy. 1D-CNN method not only can diagnose bearing faults accurately but also overcome shortcomings of the traditional methods. Different from machine learning and other deep learning models, the 1D-CNN method does not need pre-processing one-dimensional data of rolling bearing’s vibration. Thus, it enhances the processing speed and improves the network structure to have a reasonable design for small sample data sets. This study proposes and tests a 1D-CNN method for diagnosing rolling bearings. By introducing the dropout operation, the method obtains high accuracy and improves the generalizing ability. The experimental results show 99.52% of the average accuracy under a single load and 98.26% under different loads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: feature selection; locally linear embedding; regularization technology; bearing fault diagnosis
Online: 22 November 2019 (10:05:03 CET)
The purpose of feature selection is to find important features from the original high-dimensional space. As atypical feature selection algorithm, Locally linear embedding(LLE)-based feature selection algorithm, which applies the idea of LLE to the graph-preserving feature selection framework, has been received wide attention. However, LLE-based feature selection framework is sensitive to noise and K-nearest neighbors. To address these problems, an improved LLE-based feature selection algorithm, robust LLE (RLLE) vote, is proposed. In this algorithm, $l_1$ and $l_2$ regularization are introduced into the high-dimensional reconstruction model of LLE. Furthermore, RLLE vote also proposes a criterion to measure the difference between the reconstruction features and the original features, and then the importance features can be selected by this criteria. Extensive experiments are carried out on a benchmark fault data set and the bearing data set collected from our own laboratory, and the experimental results demonstrate that RLLE vote achieves the most significant performance compared existing state-of-art methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intelligent fault diagnosis; bearing; anti-noise; one-dimensional convolution neural network
Online: 6 August 2020 (11:42:44 CEST)
In recent years, intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms using deep learning method have achieved much success. However, the signals collected by sensors contain a lot of noise, which will have a great impact on the accuracy of the diagnostic model. To address this problem, we propose a one-dimensional convolutional neural network with multi-scale kernels (MSK-1DCNN) and apply this method to bearing fault diagnosis. We use a multi-scale convolution structure to extract different fault features in the original signal, and use the ELU activation function instead of the ReLU function in the multi-scale convolution structure to improve the anti-noise ability of MSK-1DCNN; then we use the training set with pepper noise to train the network to suppress overfitting. We use the Western Reserve University bearing data to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm and compare it with other fault diagnosis algorithms. Experimental results show that the improvements we proposed have effectively improved the diagnosis performers of MSK-1DCNN under strong noise and the diagnosis accuracy is higher than other comparison algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fuzzy systems; neural networks; fault diagnosis; data--driven approaces; robustness and reliability; wind turbine
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:39:44 CEST)
The fault diagnosis of safety critical systems such as wind turbine installations includes extremely challenging aspects that motivate the research issues considered in this paper. In fact, the prompt detection and the reliable diagnosis of faults in their earlier occurrence represent the key point especially for offshore installations. For these plants, operation and maintenance procedures in harsh environments would inevitably increase the cost of the energy production. Therefore, this work investigates fault diagnosis solutions that are considered in a viable way and used as advanced techniques for condition monitoring of dynamic processes. To this end, the work proposes the design of fault diagnosis strategies that exploit the estimation of the fault by means of data--driven approaches. This solution leads to the development of effective methods allowing the management of partially unknown information of the system dynamics, while coping with measurement errors, the model--reality mismatch and other disturbance effects. In mode detail, the proposed data--driven methodologies exploit fuzzy systems and neural networks in order to estimate the nonlinear dynamic relations between the input and output measurements of the considered process and the faults. To this end, the fuzzy and neural network structures are integrated with auto--regressive with exogenous input descriptions, thus making them able to approximate unknown nonlinear dynamic functions with arbitrary degree of accuracy. Once these models are estimated from the input and output data measurement acquired from the considered dynamic process, the capabilities of their fault diagnosis capabilities are validated by using a high--fidelity benchmark that simulates the healthy and the faulty behaviour of a wind turbine system. Moreover, at this stage the benchmark is also useful to analyse the robustness and the reliability characteristics of the developed tools in the presence of model--reality mismatch and modelling error effects featured by the wind turbine simulator. On the other hand, a hardware--in--the--loop tool is finally implemented for testing and comparing the performance of the developed fault diagnosis strategies in a more realistic environment and with respect to different fault diagnosis approaches.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: diesel engine; fault diagnosis; variational mode decomposition; random forest; feature extraction
Online: 25 December 2019 (11:13:13 CET)
Diesel engines, as power equipment, are widely used in the fields of automobile industry, ship and power equipment. Due to wear or faulty adjustment, the valve train clearance abnormal fault is a typical failure of diesel engines, which may result in the performance degradation, even valve fracture and cylinder hit fault. However, the failure mechanism features mainly in time domain and angular domain, on which the current diagnosis methods based, are easily affected by working conditions or hard to extract accurate enough, as the diesel engine keeps running in transient and non-stationary process. This work arms at diagnosing this fault mainly based on frequency band features which would change when the valve clearance fault occurs. For the purpose of extracting a series of frequency band features adaptively，a decomposition technique based on improved variational mode decomposition is investigated in this work. As the connection between the features and the fault is fuzzy, the random forest algorithm is used to analyze the correspondence between features and faults. In addition, the feature dimension is reduced to improve the operation efficiency according to importance score. The experimental results under variable speed condition show that the method based on variational mode decomposition and random forest is capable to detect valve clearance fault effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0633.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Conditional temporal moments; Optimizable support vector machine (SVM); Gearbox fault diagnosis; Vibration analysis.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:57:04 CEST)
Fault diagnosis of the gearbox is a decisive part of the modern industry to find the many gearbox defects like gear tooth crack, chipped or broken, etc. But sometimes, the nonstationary properties of vibration signal and low energy of minimal faults make this procedure very challenging. Previously, many types of techniques have been developed for gearbox condition monitoring. But most of the methods are dealing with conventional techniques of the gearbox condition monitoring, such as time-domain analysis or frequency domain analysis. Most of the conventional methods are not suitable for the nonstationary vibration signal. Thus, this paper presents a novel gearbox fault diagnosis technique using conditional temporal moments and an optimizable support vector machine (SVM). This work also presents an integrated features extraction technique based on the standard features, i.e., statistical and spectral features with the combinations of moment features. The impact of the four conditional temporal moments of each gearbox condition is also presented. This work shows that the proposed method successfully classifies and categorizes the gearbox faults at an early stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0683.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), fault diagnosis, wavelet transform, support vector machine, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
Online: 29 October 2018 (12:51:44 CET)
Machine fault diagnosis systems need to collect and transmit dynamic monitoring signals, like vibration and current signals, at high-speed. However, industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) are generally based on low-speed wireless protocols, such as ZigBee and IEEE802.15.4. To address this tension when implementing machine fault diagnosis applications in IIoT, this paper proposes a novel IWSN with on-sensor data processing. On-sensor wavelet transforms using four popular mother wavelets are explored for fault feature extraction, while an on-sensor support vector machine classifier is investigated for fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the presented approach is evaluated by a set of experiments using motor bearing vibration data. The experimental results show that compared with raw data transmission, the proposed on-sensor fault diagnosis method can reduce the payload transmission data by 99.95%, and reduce the node energy consumption by about 10%, while the fault diagnosis accuracy of the proposed approach reaches 98%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; induction motors; wind energy generation; fourier transforms; spectral 16 analysis; spectrogram; transient regime
Online: 5 August 2019 (03:56:26 CEST)
Induction machines drive many industrial processes, and their unexpected failure can cause heavy production losses. The analysis of the current spectrum can identify online the characteristic fault signatures at an early stage, avoiding unexpected breakdowns. Nevertheless, frequency domain analysis requires stable working conditions, which is not the case for wind generators, motors driving varying loads, etc. In these cases an analysis in the time-frequency domain -such as a spectrogram- is required for detecting faults signatures. The spectrogram is built using the short frequency Fourier transform, but its resolution depends critically on the time window used to generate it: short windows provide good time resolution, but poor frequency resolution, just the opposite than long windows. Therefore, the window must be adapted at each time to the shape of the expected fault harmonics, by highly skilled maintenance personnel. In this paper, this problem is solved with the design of a new multi-band window, which generates simultaneously many different narrow-band current spectrograms, and combines them into a single, high resolution one, without the need of manual adjustments. The proposed method is validated with the diagnosis of bar breakages during the start-up of a commercial induction motor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0576.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ball bearing; Fractional Lorenz chaos system; Extension theory; Chua’s Circuit Fault diagnosis
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:00:57 CEST)
In this study we used a non-autonomous Chua’s Circuit, and the fractional Lorenz chaos system together with a detection method from Extension theory to analyze the voltage signals. The measured bearing signals by acceleration sensor were introduced into the master and slave systems through a Chua’s Circuit. In a chaotic system minor differences can cause significant changes that generate dynamic errors, and extension matter-element models can be used to judge the bearing conditions. Extension theory can be used to establish classical and sectional domains using the dynamic errors of the fault conditions. The results obtained were compared with those from Discrete Fourier Transform analysis, Wavelet analysis and an integer order chaos system. The diagnostic ratio showed the fractional order master and slave chaos system calculations. The results show that the method presented in this paper is very suitable for monitoring the operational state of ball bearing system to be superior to the other methods. The diagnosis ratio was better and there were other significant advantages such as low cost and few.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; analytical redundancy; fuzzy logic; neural networks; data-driven approaches; nonlinear geometric approach; wind farm benchmark simulator
Online: 1 May 2017 (07:53:08 CEST)
The fault diagnosis of wind farms has been proven to be a challenging task and motivates the research activities carried out through this work. Therefore, this paper deals with the fault diagnosis of a wind park benchmark model, and it considers viable solutions to the problem of earlier fault detection and isolation. The design of the fault indicator involves data-driven approaches, as they can represent effective tools for coping with poor analytical knowledge of the system dynamics, noise, uncertainty and disturbances. In particular, the proposed data-driven solutions rely on fuzzy models and neural networks that are used to describe the strongly nonlinear relationships between measurement and faults. The chosen architectures rely on nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input models, as they can represent the dynamic evolution of the system along time. The developed fault diagnosis schemes are tested by means of a high-fidelity benchmark model, that simulates the normal and the faulty behaviour of a wind farm installation. The achieved performances are also compared with those of a model-based approach relying on nonlinear differential geometry tools. Finally, a Monte-Carlo analysis validates the robustness and the reliability of the proposed solutions against typical parameter uncertainties and disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; shock pulse index; maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution; teager energy operator; rolling element bearings
Online: 20 January 2017 (04:12:25 CET)
Properties of time domain parameters of the vibration signal have been extensively studied for the fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings (REB). Parameters like kurtosis and Envelope Harmonic-to-Noise Ratio are most widely applied in this field and some important progress has been made. However, since only one-sided information is contained in these parameters respectively, problems still exist in practice when the signals collected are of complicated structure and/or contaminated by strong background noises. A new parameter, named Shock pulse index (SPI), is proposed in this paper. It integrates the mutual advantage of both parameters above and can help effectively identify fault related impulse components under the interference of strong background noises, unrelated harmonic components and random impulses. The SPI optimizes the parameters of Maximum Correlated Kurtosis Deconvolution (MCKD), which is used to filter the signals under consideration. Finally, the interested transient information contained in the filtered signal can be highlighted through demodulation with Teager Energy Operator (TEO). Fault related impulse components can therefore be extracted accurately. Simulations and experiment analyses verify the effectiveness and correctness of the SPI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power converter; fault diagnosis; intelligent algorithm; variational mode decomposition; deep belief network
Online: 26 February 2020 (11:25:27 CET)
The power converter is the significant device in a wind power system. Wind turbine will be shut down and off grid immediately with the occurrence of the IGBT module open-circuit fault of power converter, which will seriously impact the stability of grid and even threaten personal safety. However, in the existing diagnosis strategies of power converter, there are few single and double IGBT modules open-circuit fault diagnosis methods producing negative results including erroneous judgment, omissive judgment and low accuracy. In this paper, a novel method to diagnose the single and double IGBT modules open-circuit faults of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine grid-side converter (GSC) is proposed. Above all, collecting the three-phase current varying with wind speed of 22 failure states including a normal state of PMSG wind turbine GSC as the original signal data. Afterward, the original signal data are decomposed by using variational mode decomposition (VMD) to obtain the mode coefficient series, which are analyzed by the proposed method base on fault trend feature for extracting the trend feature vectors. Finally, the trend feature vectors are used as the input of deep belief network (DBN) for decision-making and obtaining the classification results. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can diagnose the single and double IGBT modules open-circuit faults of GSC, and the accuracy is higher than the benchmark models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: whale optimization algorithm; variational mode decomposition; seagull optimization algorithm; support vector machine; multi-scale permutation entropy; fault diagnosis
Online: 12 May 2022 (03:49:42 CEST)
The service conditions of underground coal mine equipment are poor, and it is difficult to accurately extract the fault characteristics of rolling bearings. In order to better improve the accuracy of fault identification of rolling bearings, a fault detection method based on multiscale permutation entropy and SOA-SVM is proposed. First, the whale optimization algorithm is used to select the modal analysis number K and the penalty factor α of the variational mode decomposition algorithm. Then, the vibration signal of rolling bearings is dissolved according to the optimized variational mode decomposition algorithm, and the multi-scale permutation entropy of the main intrinsic mode function is calculated. Finally, the feature values of the matrix are entered into the SVM algorithm optimized by the seagull optimization algorithm to obtain the classification result. The experimental results based on the published rolling bearing datasets of Western Reserve University show that the identification success rate of the proposed method can reach 98.75%. The fault detection of the rolling bearings can be completed accurately and efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0026.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; condition monitoring; short time Fourier transform; slepian window; prolate spheroidal wave functions; discrete prolate spheroidal sequences; time-frequency distributions
Online: 6 December 2017 (05:34:29 CET)
The aim of this paper is to introduce a new methodology for the fault diagnosis of induction machines working in transient regime, when time-frequency analysis tools are used. The proposed method relies on the use of the optimized Slepian window for performing the short time Fourier transform (STFT) of the stator current signal. It is shown that for a given sequence length of finite duration the Slepian window has the maximum concentration of energy, greater than can be reached with a gated Gaussian window, which is usually used as analysis window. In this paper the use and optimization of the Slepian window for fault diagnosis of induction machines is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated through the test of a 3.15 MW induction motor with broken bars during the start-up transient. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that the use of the Slepian window can highlight the fault components in the current's spectrogram with a significant reduction of the required computational resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: fault-tolerant control; thruster fault; fault detection and isolation; fault accommodation; ROV; remotely operated vehicle; underwater vehicle
Online: 8 March 2018 (02:45:28 CET)
This paper describes a novel thruster fault-tolerant control system (FTC) for open-frame remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The proposed FTC consists of two subsystems: a model-free thruster fault detection and isolation subsystem (FDI) and a fault accommodation subsystem (FA). The FDI subsystem employs fault detection units (FDUs), associated with each thruster, to monitor their state. The robust, reliable and adaptive FDUs use a model-free pattern recognition neural network (PRNN) to detect internal and external faulty states of the thrusters in real time. The FA subsystem combines information provided by the FDI subsystem with predefined, user-configurable actions to accommodate partial and total faults and to perform an appropriate control reallocation. Software-level actions include penalisation of faulty thrusters in solution of control allocation problem and reallocation of control energy among the operable thrusters. Hardware-level actions include power isolation of faulty thrusters (total faults only) such that the entire ROV power system is not compromised. The proposed FTC system is implemented as a LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) and evaluated in virtual (simulated) and real-world environments. The proposed FTC module can be used for open frame ROVs with up to 12 thrusters: eight horizontal thrusters configured in two horizontal layers of four thrusters each, and four vertical thrusters configured in one vertical layer. Results from both environments show that the ROV control system, enhanced with the FDI and FA subsystems, is capable of maintaining full 6 DOF control of ROV in the presence of up to 6 simultaneous total faults in the thrusters. With the FDI and FA subsystems in place the control energy distribution of the healthy thrusters is optimised so that the ROV can still operate in difficult conditions under fault scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0109.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power transformer; fault diagnosis and decision; dissolved gas analysis; intelligent algorithms; reliability assessment; hybrid network; preventive electrical tests
Online: 11 April 2018 (08:58:29 CEST)
Compared with conventional methods of fault diagnosis for power transformers, which have defects such as imperfect encoding and too absolute encoding boundaries, this paper systematically discusses various intelligent approaches applied in fault diagnosis and decision making for large oil-immersed power transformers based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA), including expert system (EPS), artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy theory, rough sets theory (RST), grey system theory (GST), swarm intelligence (SI) algorithms, data mining technology, machine learning (ML), and other intelligent diagnosis tools, and summarizes existing problems and solutions. From this survey, it is found that a single intelligent approach for fault diagnosis can only reflect operation status of the transformer in one particular aspect, causing various degrees of shortcomings that cannot be resolved effectively. Combined with the current research status in this field, the problems that must be addressed in DGA-based transformer fault diagnosis are identified, and the prospects for future development trends and research directions are outlined. This contribution presents a detailed and systematic survey on various intelligent approaches to faults diagnosing and decisions making of the power transformer, in which their merits and demerits are thoroughly investigated, as well as their improvement schemes and future development trends are proposed. Moreover, this paper concludes that a variety of intelligent algorithms should be combined for mutual complementation to form a hybrid fault diagnosis network, such that avoiding these algorithms falling into a local optimum. Moreover, it is necessary to improve the detection instruments so as to acquire reasonable characteristic gas data samples. The research summary, empirical generalization and analysis of predicament in this paper provide some thoughts and suggestions for the research of complex power grid in the new environment, as well as references and guidance for researchers to choose optimal approach to achieve DGA-based fault diagnosis and decision of the large oil-immersed power transformers in preventive electrical tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fault injection; functional safety; automotive applications; fault tolerance
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:41:10 CEST)
A common requirement of embedded software in charge of safety tasks is to guarantee the identification of those Random Hardware Failures (RHFs) that can affect digital components. RHFs are unavoidable. For this reason, functional safety standards, like the ISO 26262 devoted to automotive applications, require embedded software designs able to detect and eventually mitigate them. For this purpose, various software-based error detection techniques have been proposed over the years, focusing mainly on detecting Control Flow Errors. Many Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms have been proposed to accomplish this task. However, applying these approaches can be difficult because their respective literature gives little guidance on the their practical implementation in high-level programming languages, and they have to be implemented in low-level code, e.g., assembly. Moreover, the current trend in the automotive industry is to adopt the so-called Model-Based Software Design approach, where an executable algorithm model is automatically translated into C or C++ source code. This paper presents two novelties: firstly, the compliance of the experimental data on the capabilities of Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms with the ISO 26262 automotive functional safety standard; Secondly, by the implementation of the CFC algorithm in the application behavioral model is automatically translated. There is no need to modify the code generator. The assessment was performed using a novel fault injection environment targeting a RISC-V (RV32I) microcontroller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0159.v1
Online: 12 January 2022 (09:50:31 CET)
A new method for short circuit fault location is proposed based on instantaneous signal measurement and its derivatives, and is based on the retardation phenomena. The difference between the times in which a signal is registered in two detectors is used to locate the fault. Although a description of faults in terms of a lumped circuit is useful for elucidating the methods for detecting the fault. This description will not suffice to describe the fault signal propagation hence a distributed models is needed which is given in terms of the telegraph equations. Those equations are used to derive a transmission line transfer function, and an exact analytical description of the short circuit signal propagating in the transmission line is obtained. The analytical solution was verified both by numerical simulations and experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: fault location; service restoration; particle swam optimization; microgrid; power flow; short-circuit fault
Online: 12 September 2019 (03:59:27 CEST)
This work aims to develop an integrated fault location and restoration approach for microgrids (MGs). This work contains two parts. Part I presents the fault location algorithm, and Part II shows the restoration algorithm. The proposed algorithms are implemented by particle swarm optimization (PSO). The fault location algorithm is based on network connection matrices, which are the modifications of bus-injection to branch-current and branch-current to bus-voltage (BCBV) matrices, to form the new system topology. The backward/forward sweep approach is used for the prefault power flow analysis. After the occurrence of fault, the voltage variation at each bus is calculated by using the Zbus modification algorithm to modify Zbus. Subsequently, the voltage error matrix is computed to search for the fault section by using PSO. After the allocation of the fault section, the multi-objective function is implemented by PSO for optimal restoration with its constraints. Finally, the IEEE 37-bus test system connected to distributed generations is utilized as the sample system for a series simulation and analysis. The outcomes demonstrated that the proposed optimal algorithm can effectively solve the fault location and restoration problem in MGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0650.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: palladium; palladium alloys; generalized stacking fault energy; twinnability; stacking fault energy; ab initio calculations
Online: 25 March 2021 (17:19:22 CET)
Generalized stacking fault energies of palladium alloys were calculated using the density functional theory. The stacking fault energy of palladium alloys is correlated with the valence electron of the transition metal element. The twinning tendency is also modified by the presence of an alloying element in the plane of deformation. The obtained results suggest that Pd –transition metal alloys with elements such as Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Re are expected to exhibit high work hardening rate due to the tendency to emit of the partial dislocations and mechanical twins, which results in increased strength and ductility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); faulty sensors; fault detection and isolation; abrupt fault; feedback linearization control
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:25:52 CEST)
A novel adaptive neural network-based fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed for six-degree freedom nonlinear helicopter dynamic. The proposed approach can detect and mitigate sensors' faults in real-time. An adaptive observer-based on neural network (NN) and extended Kalman filter (EKF) is designed, which incorporates the helicopter's dynamic model to detect faults in the navigation sensors. Based on the detected faults, an active fault-tolerant controller, including three loops of dynamic inversion, is designed to compensate for the occurred faults in real-time. The simulation results showed that the proposed approach is able to detect and mitigate different types of faults on the helicopter navigation sensors, and the helicopter tracks the desired trajectory without any interruption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0632.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fault line detection; data fusion; non-artificial setting; sound distance; fault distance; resonant grounding system
Online: 30 November 2018 (10:38:18 CET)
Fault line detection timely and accurately when single-phase-to-earth fault occurs in resonant grounding system is still a focus of research. This paper presents a new approach for fault detection based on data fusion and it has non-artificial setting. Firstly, the fault criterion for interphase difference energy ratio and time-frequency correlation coefficient of each line is proposed. Subsequently, the paper establish a coordinate system with the interphase difference energy ratio as X axis and the time-frequency correlation coefficient as Y axis, and it uses the Euclidean distance algorithm to get the characteristic distance of each line by fusing two-dimensional information. Finally, comparing the sound distance and the fault distance of each line to discriminate the fault line. Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) simulation results and adaptability analysis have confirmed the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0366.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Fault detection; Control Valve; Reliability, Prediction
Online: 13 November 2020 (09:23:39 CET)
Reliability assessment is an important component and tool used for process plants since the facility consists of many loops and instruments attached and operates based on each other availability, thus it requires a statistical method to visualize the reliability. The paper focuses on reliability assessment and prediction based on available statistical models such as normal, log-normal, exponential, and Weibull distribution. This paper also visualizes, which model fits best for assessment and prediction and also considers failure modes caused during a simulation mode process control operation. A simulation model is designed in this paper to observe the failure of the control valve causing stiction to visualize the failure modes and predict the best-fit model for reliability assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: dual steel frame; far field from fault; near field to fault; time history non-linear dynamic analysis
Online: 15 October 2016 (08:39:13 CEST)
This study sought to investigate steel frames’ performance with dual lateral loader system (Frame bending + bracings of divergent and convergent) in near and far filed to fault. In order to this, four categories of steel frame with dual system with 8, 10 and 12 story are designed with average formation based on existing seismic regulation in 2800 standard of Iran and tenth chapter of national regulations of construction (planning and performing steel construction). Time history non-linear dynamic analysis under the effect of near and far field earthquakes has been done on plan’s models. Then the maximum of floors’ dislocation, floors’ drift, roof dislocation, base shear and energy curves of frames are shown and compared with each other. All non-linear time history analyses have been accomplished using PERFORM 3D software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0325.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Community disaster resilience; Lembang Fault; Indonesia; Japan
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:43:52 CET)
Having experienced large-scale disasters between 2004 and 2006, the fatalities due to large-scale disasters in 2018 were still high. In contrast, disaster risk management (DRM) and CDR in Japan have been continuously improved. Thus, there is a need to develop CDR for supporting DRM in Indonesia by learning from the Japanese experience, particularly in a disaster-prone area without large-scale disaster experience. This research was a pilot project on the development of CDR in Indonesia. The case study was a geological hazard-prone Lembang Fault area. People’s perception was collected using structured interviews, while demographic and local economic data was acquired from official statistical publications. Satellite imageries were utilized to acquire natural and built environment and land use/land cover and their changes between 2019 and 2021. Although the degrees of social capital, risk knowledge including indigenous knowledge and past disaster experience were high, government interventions on DRM and land administration are required to develop CDR in Lembang Fault area. Organized community development is expected rather than to solely involve NGOs. Moreover, strategies to develop economic resilience are needed to allow the community to bounce back from future disaster. Finally, a detail baseline data should be collected to develop DRM strategy and CDR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall; susceptibility; GIS; rainfall; earthquake; fault; inventory
Online: 2 April 2019 (07:54:57 CEST)
The assessment of rockfall risks on human activities and infrastructure is of great importance. Rock falls pose a significant risk to a) transportation infrastructure b) inhabited areas and c) Cultural Heritage sites. The paper presents a method to assess rockfall susceptibility at national scale in Greece, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. An extensive inventory of rockfalls for the entire country was compiled for the period between 1935 and 2019. The rockfall events that were recorded are those, which have mainly occurred as distinct rockfall episodes in natural slopes and have impacted human activities, such as roads, inhabited areas and archaeological sites. Through a detailed analysis of the recorded data, it was possible to define the factors which determine the occurrence of rockfalls. Based on this analysis, the susceptibility zoning against rockfalls at national scale was prepared, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. The rockfall susceptibility zoning takes into account the following parameters: (a) the slope gradient, (b) the lithology, (c) the annual rainfall intensity, (d) the earthquake intensity and (e) the active fault presence. Emphasis was given on the study of the earthquake effect as a triggering mechanism of rockfalls. Finally, the temporal and spatial frequency of the recorded events and the impact of rockfalls on infrastructure assets and human activities in Greece were evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Disasters, Preparedness, Lembang Fault, Community Base, School
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:55:21 CET)
This research was conducted on the Maribaya Timur school community in Lembang Subdistrict, West Bandung Regency, Indonesia, which is an active community in the area that is threatened by the potential for earthquake disasters due to the active Lembang fault. Disaster risk reduction efforts are pursued through increasing school-based preparedness that involves members of the school community, surrounding communities and various institutions that are associated with reducing the risk of school-based earthquake. Increasing preparedness against earthquakes focuses more on aspects of capacity building of school communities in reducing disaster risk, while aspects of vulnerability and threats have not been the focus of disaster risk reduction. The steps taken refer to the element of preparedness by aligning with the conditions, needs and potential that exist in the school community. Theoretically, if the school community has preparedness to face an earthquake disaster, the risk of earthquake disaster in the school community will be reduced so that it can minimize losses, victims and suffering that will be caused by the earthquake disaster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: machine fault diagnosis; rotordynamics; rub; aeroderivative turbines; accelerometers; early fault detection; fourier analysis; real cepstrum; continuous wavelet transform
Online: 10 May 2018 (16:10:11 CEST)
A common fault in turbomachinery is rotor--casing rub. Shaft vibration, measured with proximity probes, is the most powerful indicator of rotor-stator rub. However, in machines such as aeroderivative turbines, with increasing industrial relevance in power generation, constructive reasons prevent the use of those sensors, being only acceleration signals at selected casing locations available. This implies several shortcomings in the characterization of the machinery condition, associated with a lower information content about the machine dynamics. In this work we evaluate the performance of the Continuous Wavelet Transform to isolate the accelerometer signal features that characterize rotor-casing rub in an aeroderivative turbine. The evaluation is carried out on a novel rotor model of a rotor flexible casing system. Due to damped transients and other short-lived features that rub induces in the signals, the Continuous Wavelet Transform proves being more effective than both Fourier and Cepstrum Analysis. This creates the chance for enabling early fault diagnosis of rub before it may cause machine shutdown or damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0247.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: fault detection; retraction/extension (R/E) hydraulic system; bond graph-linear fractional trans-formation technique; interval analytic redundancy relations; uncertainty; fault signature matrix; residuals; thresholds
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:53:54 CEST)
Various factors, such as uncertainty of component parameters and uncertainty of sensor meas-urement values, contribute to the difficulty of fault detection in the landing gear retrac-tion/extension hydraulic system. In this paper, we introduce linear fractional transformation technology and uncertainty analysis theory for the construction of the diagnostic bond graph of the landing gear retraction/extension hydraulic system. In this way, interval analytical redundancy relations and fault signature matrix can be derived. Using the fault signature matrix, existing faults of the system can be preliminarily detected and isolated. Additionally, interval analytical re-dundancy relations can be used to detect system faults in detail, and cases analysis can be carried out to determine if the actuator is externally or internally leaky, and if the landing gear selector valve is reversing stuck. Compared to the traditional analytical redundancy relations, this method takes into account the negative factors of uncertainty; and compared to the traditional absolute diagnostic threshold, the interval diagnostic threshold is more accurate and sensitive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Protection; Fault Detection; Microgrids; Directional Overcurrent Relay
Online: 11 February 2021 (16:19:02 CET)
In this research work, an adaptive scheme for the coordinated protection of AC Microgrids using directional overcurrent (DOCR) relays is presented. Protection of AC MGs is a complex and challenging issue due to the dynamic nature of the network including, a) its capability to reconfigure the modes of operation ranging from grid-connected to the islanded mode, c) bidirectional-power flow capability, and c) integration of intermittent renewable energy resources with real-time variations in the resource availability. Consequently, the fault current contributions may largely vary depending upon the incident conditions on the network. Conventional protection schemes, generally designed for radial networks, and unidirectional power flow from the source end to the load may either mal-operate or exhibit very poor performance, if not adapted according to the dynamic conditions of the network. To address this issue, a communication-based adaptive protection scheme capable to adapt its settings according to the generation resource availability and network configuration is presented in this work. The proposed scheme consists of an intelligent central protection unit (ICPU) capable to update the settings and communicate it to the individual relays based on the pre-calculated offline settings. The directional overcurrent relays employed in the scheme use two-stage settings, i.e. definite time and inverse definite minimum time characteristics for the effective coordination among the downstream and upstream relays. An adaptive algorithm for ICPU operation is presented and a case study is implemented for a modified IEEE 9-bus system using DigSilent Power factory. The results for various scenarios including, a) grid-connected mode of operation, b) islanded mode of operation, and c) variable distributed generation mode are obtained and compared to the static scheme, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0059.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: code smells; code fault-proneness; bugs; software evolution
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:56:48 CEST)
Context: Code smells are associated with poor design and programming style that often degrades code quality and hampers code comprehensibility and maintainability. Goal: Identify reports from the literature that provide evidence of the influence of code smells on the occurrence of software bugs. Method: We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to reach the~stated goal. Results: The SLR includes selected studies from July 2007 to September 2017 which analyzed the source code for open source and proprietary projects, as well, as several code smells and anti-patterns. The results of this SLR show that 24 code smells are more influential in the occurrence of bugs according to 16 studies. In contrast, three studies reported that at least 6 code smells are less influential in such occurrences. Evidence from the selected studies also point out tools, techniques and procedures applied to analyze the influence. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first SLR to target this goal. This study provides an up-to-date and structured understanding of the influence of code smells on the occurrence of software bugs based on findings systematically collected from a list of relevant references in the latest decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040061
Subject: Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 24 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
In this work, a hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, it shines the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using three-fold cross validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. This is followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, and the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time-series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0548.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:26:41 CEST)
In this work, A hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, spotting the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using 3-fold cross-validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. Followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data, in order to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, as well as the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Fault Detection; 3D Printer; Error Detection; FFF; Contact Sensor
Online: 29 December 2021 (09:10:49 CET)
Desktop fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printers have been growing in popularity among hobbyist and professional users as a prototyping and low-volume manufacturing tool. One issue these printers face is the inability to determine when a defect has occurred rendering the print unusable. Several techniques have been proposed to detect such defects but many of these approaches are tailored to one specific fault (e.g., filament runout/jam), use expensive hardware such as laser distance sensors, and/or use machine vision algorithms which are sensitive to ambient conditions, and hence can be unreliable. This paper proposes a versatile, reliable, and low-cost system, named MTouch, to detect millimeter-scale defects that tend to make prints unusable. At the core of MTouch is an actuated contact probe designed using a low-power solenoid, magnet, and hall effect sensor. This sensor is used to check for the presence, or absence, of the printed object at specific locations. The MTouch probe demonstrated 100% reliability, which was significantly higher than the 74% reliability achieved using a commercially available contact probe (the BLTouch). Additionally, an algorithm was developed to automatically detect common print failures such as layer shifting, bed separation, and filament runout using the MTouch probe. The algorithm was implemented on a Raspberry Pi mini-computer via an Octoprint plug-in. In head-to-head testing against a commercially available print defect detection system (The Spaghetti Detective), the MTouch was able to detect faults 44% faster on average while only increasing the print time by 8.49%. In addition, MTouch was able to detect faults The Spaghetti Detective was unable to identify such as layer shifting and filament runout/jam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0548.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Failure Prediction; Fault-tolerance; Cloud Computing; Artificial Intelligence; Reliability
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:39:23 CET)
Identifying and anticipating potential failures in the cloud is an effective method for increasing cloud reliability and proactive failure management. Many studies have been conducted to predict potential failure, but none have combined SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology) hard drive metrics with other system metrics such as CPU utilisation. Therefore, we propose a combined metrics approach for failure prediction based on Artificial Intelligence to improve reliability. We tested over 100 cloud servers’ data and four AI algorithms: Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, Long-Short-Term Memory, and Gated Recurrent Unit. Our experimental result shows the benefits of combining metrics, outperforming state-of-the-art.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0590.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: deformation; earthquake; InSAR; inversion; fault; convergence; Apulia; Epirus; Greece
Online: 27 August 2020 (04:06:29 CEST)
We identify the source of the Mw = 5.6 earthquake that hit west-central Epirus on March 21, 2020 00:49:52 UTC. We use synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to one permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station (GARD). We model the source by inverting the INSAR displacement data. The inversion model suggests a shallow source on a low-angle fault (39°) dipping towards east with a centroid depth of 8.5 km. The seismic moment deduced from our model agrees with those of the published seismic moment tensors. This geometry is compatible with the Margariti thrust fault within the collision zone between Apulia and Eurasia. We also processed new GNSS data and estimate a total convergence rate between Apulia and Eurasia of 8.9 mm yr-1 , of which shortening of the crust between the Epirus coastal GNSS stations and station PAXO in the Ionian Sea is equivalent to ~ 50% of it or 4.6 mm yr−1. A 60-km wide deformation zone takes up nearly most of the convergence between Apulia-Eurasia, trending N318°E. Its central axis runs along the southwest coast of Corfu, along the northeast coast of Paxos, heading toward the northern extremity of the Lefkada island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: controller; centralized; distributed; CHIL; fault-tolerant; MMC; prototype; Opal-RT
Online: 18 October 2022 (07:30:28 CEST)
Centralized control algorithm limits the hardware flexibility of a Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC). Therefore, industrial MMC applications have started adopting distributed control structures. Even though distributed controller reduces a single point of failure risk compared to the centralized controller, the failure risk of the entire control systems increases due to the number of local controllers. However, the distributed controller can be programmed in such a way as to bypass the faulty local controller and take care of the power modules with the adjacent local controllers. This paper implements a modular distributed fault-tolerant controller for a scaled laboratory MMC prototype. Experimental results show that an MMC can operate without interruption, even under two local controller failures. Besides, the experimental results are verified with the Opal-RT, a real-time simulator with the same controller in a Control Hardware in Loop (CHIL) environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; digitalisation; collaboration; co-innovation; machine learning; fault detection
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:05:25 CEST)
In the next decade, further digitalisation of the entire wind energy project lifecycle is expected to be a major driver for reducing project costs and risks. In this paper, a literature review on the challenges related to implementation of digitalisation in the wind energy industry is first carried out, showing that there is a strong need for new solutions that enable co-innovation within and between organisations. Therefore, a new collaboration method called the WeDoWind Ecosystem is developed and demonstrated. The method is centred around specific "challenges", which are defined by "challenge providers" within a topical "space" and made available to participants via a digital platform. The data required in order to solve a particular "challenge" is provided by the "challenge providers" under the confidentiality conditions they specify. The method is demonstrated via a case study, the EDP Wind Turbine Fault Detection Challenge. Six submitted solutions using diverse approaches are evaluated. Two of the methods perform significantly better than EDP’s existing method in terms of Total Prediction Costs (saving up to €120,000). The WeDoWind Ecosystem is found to be a promising solution for enabling co-innovation in wind energy, providing a number of tangible benefits for both challenge and solution providers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0474.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: building energy monitoring system; heat lost coefficient (hlc); fault sensor
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:38:30 CEST)
The present article is dealing with the state of question about building-energy monitoring systems used for data collection to estimate the Heat Lost Coefficient (HLC) with existing methods and so determinate buildings’ Envelope Energy Performance (EEP). In addition, the data requirements of HLC estimation methods are related with commonly used methods for fault detection, calibration and supervision of energy monitoring systems in buildings. Based on an extended review of experimental tests since 1978, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of Monitoring and Controlling System (MCS) specifications has been carried out. Although most actual Buildings Automation Systems (BAS) may measure the required parameters, further research is still needed to ensure that these data are accurate enough to rigorously apply the HLC estimation methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0282.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; hollow cylinder; single fracture; fault activation; induced seismicity
Online: 22 May 2018 (05:04:47 CEST)
Pre-existing fracture and secondary cracks in rock mass are formed by natural power, such as magma condensed to igneous rocks and tectonic movement. The orientation and inclination of these fractures obey certain laws relating to the stress, temperature, minerals, water and so on. Therefore, cracks react differently under the same external loading on the condition of various inclination, fissure apertures, stiffness and joint roughness. To simulate the crack propagation, experiments on hollow cylinder cut by one oblique interface mimicking single fracture accumulated numerous data discovering the failure criterion in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. And theory on the Terzaghi’s effective principle take an essential role in controlling the behavior of triggering fault. This paper introduced a series of oblique plane cutting the cylinder regarded as fractures at different inclination to concentrate on how the fracture characteristics effect the stress and strain distribution inside the specimen, especially, the relationship between displacement and water head. The key point of this numerical simulation is coupling the solid phase and the fluid phase, specifically, the mechanic and seepage field. According to the statics, curves referring to deformation and water head could be described as increasing lines. Besides, simulation on coupling solid phase and fluid phase can supply crucial evaluation on activating existing fault, and thus predicting induced seismicity in reservoirs or estimating damage in shale gas exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0496.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: power system protection; renewable energy sources; fault elimination; power system security
Online: 23 October 2020 (15:37:19 CEST)
In the development of power systems it is indicated very often, that transformation of power systems should be carried out in accordance with the idea of energy democracy. This will develop energy communities, that are trying to meet energy needs by using local renewable generation sources. This may result with a temporary low load on the MV lines connecting the community grid and the power system. Such state may cause incorrect operation of power protection systems. This can cause an extended protection operation time, due to decision algorithms inactivity at low values of measurement currents. Therefore, the detailed MV lines overcurrent digital protection model and a dynamic model of the power network were developed. The simulation results are showing that the settings of the parameters activating the protection decision algorithms affect their operation time in dynamic conditions. The conclusion is that the development of the power protection automatics must be carried out in the same time (preferably in advance) with the change of the power system operation model. This is very important for future power systems with high penetration energy communities and renewable generation sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC power converter; fault tolerance; multilevel converter; switched-capacitor network
Online: 11 April 2018 (14:18:54 CEST)
A modular switched-capacitor (SC) DC-DC converter (MSCC) is introduced in this paper. It is designed to boost a low input voltage to a high voltage level and can be applied for photovoltaics and electric vehicles. This topology has high extensibility for high voltage gain output. The merits of the converters also lie in the fault tolerance operation and the voltage regulation with a minimum change in the duty ratio. Those features are built in when designing the modules and then integrating these into the DC-DC converter. Converter performance including voltage gain, voltage and current stress are focused and tested. The converter is modelled analytically, and its control algorithm is analyzed in detailed. Both simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the topology under normal operation and fault mode operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0316.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Geodiversity; geosites; springs; Las Loras UNESCO Global Geopark (UGGp); hydrogeology; Ubierna Fault
Online: 17 November 2022 (01:08:40 CET)
Las Loras UNESCO Global Geopark (UGGp) is geologically diverse, particularly in relation to water-derived features: springs, karst springs, travertine buildings, waterfalls, caves. In this work, the interactions between geology, geomorphology, structures and hydrogeology are analyzed. These four components are the fundamentals of geodiversity and their interactions provide a conceptual model of hydrogeological functioning at Las Loras UGGp. The most plausible hypothesis is that the system is formed by two superimposed aquifer systems, separated by an aquitard formed by Lower Cretaceous material. The deep lower aquifer formed by the Jurassic limestones only outcrops on the northern and southern edges of the Geopark and in a small arched band to the south of Aguilar de Campoo. It forms a basement subject to intense deformation. The upper aquifer system, formed by outcropping materials from the Upper Cretaceous, is a free aquifer. It is formed by a multilayered aquifer system that is highly compartmentalized by the very disturbed geomorphology of the landscape, constituting each moorland and each lora, an individualized recharge-discharge system. This model explains the base level of the rivers, the abundant number of existing springs and the permanent nature of some rivers, providing the keys to understand the bases of the geoconservation of a rich geological heritage linked to the active processes of the water cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0083.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: landslide scars; canyon; fault escarpments; contourite deposits; digital elevation model; continental slope
Online: 5 November 2018 (04:06:37 CET)
The acquisition of high resolution morpho-bathymetric data on the Calabro Tyrrhenian continental margin (Southern Italy) enabled us to identify several mass-wasting processes, including shallow gullies, shelf-indenting canyons and landslides. In particular, we focus our attention on submarine landslides occurring from the coast down to -1700 m, with mobilized volumes ranging from some hundreds up to tens of millions of cubic meters. These landslides also show a large variability of geomorphic features in the headwall, translational and toe domain. Based on their morphology and distribution, four main classes of coastal/submarine landslides have been recognized: a) rocky coastal/shallow-water failures characterized by large hummocky deposits offshore; b) large-size and isolated scars with associated landslide deposits, mostly occurring on open slope environment and lower part of tectonically-controlled escarpments; c) a linear array of coalescent and nested landslide scars occurring in the upper part of tectonically-controlled escarpments and canyon flanks; d) a cauliflower array of small and coalescent scars occurring in canyon headwall. The latter two classes of landslides are also characterized by a marked retrogressive evolution and their landslide deposits are generally not recognizable on the morpho-bathymetric data. By integrating the morpho-bathymetric dataset with the results of previous studies, we also discuss the main factors controlling the variability in size and morphology of these submarine landslides to provide insights on their failure and post-failure behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: SHM; Electromechanical Impedance; Piezoelectricity; Intelligent Fault Diagnosis; Machine Learning; CNN; Deep Learning
Online: 6 August 2018 (21:51:53 CEST)
Preliminaries Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) applications have recently emerged in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems focusing mostly on vibration analysis. However, the SHM literature shows clearly that there is a lack of application regarding the combination of PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) based method and CNN. Likewise, applications using CNN along with the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) technique applied to SHM systems are rare. To encourage this combination, an innovative SHM solution through the combination of the EMI-PZT and CNN is presented here. To accomplish this, the EMI signature is split into several parts followed by computing the Euclidean distances among them to form a RGB (red, green and blue) frame. As a result, we introduce a dataset formed from the EMI-PZT signals of 720 frames, encompassing a total of 4 types of structural conditions for each PZT. In a case study, the CNN-based method was experimentally evaluated using three PZTs glued onto an aluminum plate. The results reveal an effective pattern classification; yielding a 100% hit rate which outperforms other SHM approaches. Furthermore, the method needs only a small dataset for training the CNN, providing several advantages for industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0092.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: fractures; potential fields; lineament analysis; fault reactivation; Midcontinent rift system; Nemaha uplift
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:52:09 CEST)
Reactivation of pre-existing weaknesses in the upper crust can be documented using surface features, and has occurred throughout time and space, particularly in regions where the basement material dates from the Precambrian and has undergone successive deformation events. This study aims to use surface features such as fracture patterns to document evidence of such reactivation in the Paleozoic and Cenozoic of Nebraska and Kansas (units separated by an unconformity in the study area). The most prominent basement features in southeast Nebraska and northeast Kansas are oriented NE-SW, likely related to the midcontinent rift, and oriented NW-SE, likely related to fabrics from the Central Plains Orogen. These features are well defined in the potential fields data. Fracture patterns in the study area show an E-W oriented trend, as well as clearly discernable NE-SW and subsidiary N-S and NW-SE trends. The E-W trend is interpreted to be related to far-field stresses from Laramide and Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogenic events, whilst the NE-SW trend is interpreted to be related to subtle reactivation on the Mid-continent rift and related faults, observed in basement data. These movements produced stresses of sufficient magnitude to produce extensional fractures in the overlying rock units, but not sufficient to generate shear. Similarly, the ~N-S and NW-SE fracture trends are taken as evidence of subtle reactivation on the Nemaha Uplift and Central Plains Orogen systems, generating fractures but not shear movement. This contribution therefore provides a convincing case-study of the value of fracture orientations (that is, surface morphodynamics) in discerning buried tectonic trends and subtle reactivation thereon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generator (DG); medium voltage direct current (MVDC) system; voltage sourced converter (VSC); fault ride-though (FRT); trigger type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL); active power tracking control (APTC)
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:03:30 CEST)
Building a new power plant to address the growing demand for power due to population concentration in the metropolitan area is one of the world's major concerns. However, since a large power plant can not be located around the city due to burden of economic cost, building power plant outside metropolitan and cities is necessary. Therefore, new power generation facilities are promoting policies to provide distributed generator(DG) with a small capacity relatively near the metropolitan. When the DG (photovoltaic, wind farm, etc.) is connected with the grid using medium voltage direct current (MVDC) system, voltage sourced converter(VSC) should supply reactive power to the grid, because of fault ride through(FRT) operation in grid fault. If the voltage drop is severe, the converter should be disconnected from the grid immediately without supplying the reactive power, resulting in a considerable economic loss. In general, superconducting fault current limiter(SFCL) is introduced as a measure to enhance FRT capability. In this paper, we use trigger type SFCL which protects superconducting element and reduces low voltage. On the other hand, the active power unbalance of the DC-link and the DC voltage rise due to the reactive power supply of the grid-side converter. The rise of the DC voltage causes the P (active power), Q (reactive power) control of the converter to deviate, causing malfunction and damage of the DC equipment. Therefore, the rise of the DC voltage must be prevented. In this paper, we consider the suppression the DC voltage rising caused by the FRT operation through the active power tracking control (APTC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Bearing fault feature extraction; Blind deconvolution (BD); Multi-task optimization; Convolutional neural network
Online: 4 November 2022 (13:41:46 CET)
Blind deconvolution (BD) is one of the effective methods that help pre-process vibration signals and assist in bearing fault diagnosis. Currently, most BD methods design an optimization criterion and use frequency or time domain information independently to optimize a deconvolution filter. It recovers weak periodic impulses related to incipient faults. However, the random noise interference may cause the optimizer to overfit. The time-domain-based BD methods tend to extract fault-unrelated single peak impulse, and the frequency-domain-based BD methods tend to retain the maximum energy frequency component, which will lose the fault-related harmonics frequency components. To solve the above issue, we propose a hybrid criterion that combines the kurtosis for time domain optimization and the $G-l_1/l_2$ norm for the frequency domain. These two criteria are monotonically increasing and decreasing, so they mutually constrain to avoid overfitting. After that, we design a multi-task one-dimensional convolutional neural network with time and frequency branches to achieve an optimal solution for this hybrid criterion. The multi-task neural network realizes the simultaneous optimization of two domains. Experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Automotive industry; Bayesian network; Fault tree analysis; Fuzzy set theory; Maintenance optimization; Uncertainty
Online: 26 August 2021 (09:49:42 CEST)
Knowledge-based approaches are useful alternatives to predict the Failure Probability (FP) coping with the insufficient data, process integrity, and complexity issue in manufacturing systems. This study proposes a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) approach as proactive knowledge-based technique to estimate the FP based maintenance planning with subjective information from domain experts. However, the classical-FTA still suffers from uncertainty and static structure limitations which poses a substantial dilemma in predicting FP. To deal with the uncertainty issues, a Fuzzy-FTA (FFTA) model was developed by statistical analysing the effective attributes such as experts' trait impacts, scales variation and, assorted membership and defuzzification functions. Besides, a Bayesian Network (BN) theory was conducted to overcome the static limitation of classical-FTA. The results of FFTA model revealed that the changes in decision attributes were not statistically significant on FP variation while BN model considering conditional rules to reflect the dynamic relationship between events had more impact on predicting FP. After all, the integrated FFTA-BN model was used in the optimization model to find the optimal maintenance intervals according to estimated FP and the total expected cost. As a practical example, the proposed model was implemented in a semi-automatic filling system in an automotive production line. The outcomes could be useful for upgrading the availability and safety of complex equipment in manufacturing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0476.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Battery Energy Storage System; Crowbar; Fault Ride Through Capability; Vector control; Wind turbine
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:51:48 CEST)
Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has a stator winding directly coupled with grid. Whereas, rotor winding is connected via a fault-prone back to back power converters. DFIG is known to be vulnerable to the grid faults. In early times, when a fault occurred, these generators were required to disconnect from the grid to secure the generator and power converters. However, due to the increased penetration of wind turbines into the power system, grid operators demanded that the wind turbines remain connected to the grid, as disconnecting them would further disrupt the grid. When a fault at the grid terminal occur, a high stator current is induced which further result in high rotor current. This current will trigger the DC-link voltage to rise. This high currents and DC-link voltage will cause harm to the converters. Thus, in this paper work, the crowbar protection system is employed for protecting the converters against excess energy. Furthermore, the analysis of DFIG is rendered by integrating the crowbar protection with the Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) for a much effective outcome in enhancing machine to drive the fault. MATLAB-Simulink software is used for modeling and simulation. All system parameters are obtained from ADAMA-II Wind Farm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0484.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: 2018 Palu earthquake, pull-apart basin, basin-shortcut fault, lateral spreading, optical correlation
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:08:26 CEST)
Our understanding of pull-apart basins and their fault systems has been enhanced by analog experiments and simulations. However, there has been no opportunity to compare the faults that constitute pull-apart basins with surface ruptures during earthquakes. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 2018 earthquake (Mw 7.5) on a pull-apart basin in the Palu-Koro fault system, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, using geomorphic observations in digital elevation models, optical correlation with pre- and post-earthquake satellite images. A comparison of active fault traces determined by geomorphology with the locations of surface ruptures from the 2018 earthquake shows that some of the boundary faults of the basin are inactive and that active faulting has shifted to basin-shortcut faults and relay ramps. We also report evidence of lateral spreading, in which alluvial fan materials moved around the end of the alluvial fan. These phenomena may provide insights for anticipating the location of future surface ruptures in pull-apart basins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Doubly Fed Induction Generator; Low Voltage Ride Through, Voltage Sags, Fault Ride Through
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:56:51 CEST)
The paper presents dynamic and transient behaviour of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) in the wind farms. When Voltage sag or any faults occurs in the network, the variables in the doubly Fed Induction Generators are varying severely. If the voltage sag occurs, Active and Reactive power that generated by the DFIG will decrease and will increase respectively, The DC voltage link will be bigger, and the rotor current will increase. The DFIG in the wind farms uses Proportional Integral controller for controlling of electronic devices (Rotor Side Converter and Grid Side Converter). Even though the model of Doubly Fed Induction Generators and electronic device in the paper are linear, The Proportional Integral controllers cannot protect and control the variables. So, the power electronic converters and the DC-link can damage due to over voltages and over currents. Doubly Fed Induction Generator in the wind farm is simulated in MATLAB software. The results of the simulation present over voltage and over current in the DC-link and in the rotor of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator. In addition, it will explore the effect of Proportional Integral controller in Doubly Fed Induction Generator when three-phase short circuit fault occurs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electrical Power Grids; Fault Forecasting; Long Short-Term Memory; Time Series Forecasting; Wavelet Transform
Online: 3 October 2022 (10:36:14 CEST)
The electric power distribution utility is responsible for providing energy to consumers in a continuous and stable way, failures in the electrical power system reduce the reliability indexes of the grid, directly harming its performance. For this reason, there is a need for failure prediction to reestablish power in the shortest possible time. Considering an evaluation of the number of failures over time, this paper proposes to perform a failure prediction during the first year of the pandemic in Brazil (2020) to verify the feasibility of using time series forecasting models for fault prediction. The Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model will be evaluated to obtain a forecast result that can be used by the electric power utility to organize the maintenance teams. The Wavelet transform shows to be promising in improving the predictive ability of the LSTM, making the Wavelet LSTM model suitable for the study at hand. The results show that the proposed approach has better results regarding the evaluation of the error in prediction and has robustness when a statistical analysis is performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0249.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: domination, detection system, identifying-code, open-locating-dominating set, fault-tolerant, king's grid, density
Online: 18 January 2022 (09:43:55 CET)
A detection system, modeled in a graph, uses "detectors" on a subset of vertices to uniquely identify an "intruder" at any vertex. We consider two types of detection systems: open-locating-dominating (OLD) sets and identifying codes (ICs). An OLD set gives each vertex a unique, non-empty open neighborhood of detectors, while an IC provides a unique, non-empty closed neighborhood of detectors. We explore their fault-tolerant variants: redundant OLD (RED:OLD) sets and redundant ICs (RED:ICs), which ensure that removing/disabling at most one detector guarantees the properties of OLD sets and ICs, respectively. This paper focuses on constructing optimal RED:OLD sets and RED:ICs on the infinite king's grid, and presents the proof for the bounds on their minimum densities; [3/10, 1/3] for RED:OLD sets and [3/11, 1/3] for RED:ICs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0006.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Digital Twin; Blockchain; Proof-of-Work; Microservices; Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA); Byzantine Fault Tolerance
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:21:41 CET)
Blockchain technology has been recognized as a promising solution to enhance the security and privacy of Internet of Things (IoT) and Edge Computing scenarios. Taking advantage of the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus protocol, which solves a computation intensive hashing puzzle, Blockchain assures the security of the system by establishing a digital ledger. However, the computation intensive PoW favors members possessing more computing power. In the IoT paradigm, fairness in the highly heterogeneous network edge environments must consider devices with various constraints on computation power. Inspired by the advanced features of Digital Twins (DT), an emerging concept that mirrors the lifespan and operational characteristics of physical objects, we propose a novel Miner-Twins (MinT) architecture to enable a fair PoW consensus mechanism for blockchains in IoT environments. MinT adopts an edge-fog-cloud hierarchy. All physical miners of the blockchain are deployed as microservices on distributed edge devices, while fog/cloud servers maintain digital twins that periodically update miners’ running status. By timely monitoring miner’s footage that is mirrored by twins, a lightweight Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) based detection achieves to identify individual misbehaved miners that violate fair mining. Moreover, we also design a novel Proof-of-Behavior (PoB) consensus algorithm to detect byzantine miners that collude to compromise a fair mining network. A preliminary study is conducted on a proof-of-concept prototype implementation, and experimental evaluation shows the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed MinT scheme under a distributed byzantine network environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fault detection; induced draft fan; multivariate state estimation technique (MSET); model update; power plant
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:36:56 CEST)
The induced draft (ID) fan is important auxiliary equipment in the thermal power plant. It is of great significance to monitor the operation of the ID fan for safe and efficient production. In this paper, an adaptive warning model is proposed to detect early faults of ID fans. First, a non-parametric monitoring model is constructed to describe the normal operation states with the multivariate state estimation technique (MSET). Then, an early warning approach is presented to identify abnormal behaviors based on the results of the MSET model. As the performance of the MSET model is heavily influenced by the normal operation data in the historic memory matrix, an adaptive strategy is proposed by using the samples with a high data quality index (DQI) to manage the memory matrix and update the model. The proposed method is applied to a 300 MW coal-fired power plant for early fault detection, and it is compared with the model without an update. Results show that the proposed method can detect the fault earlier and more accurately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0632.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: PV plants; Self-Organizing Maps; Fault Prediction; Inverter Module; Key Performance Indicator; Lost Production
Online: 29 January 2021 (15:42:39 CET)
In this paper a novel and flexible solution for fault prediction based on data collected from Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system is presented. Generic fault/status prediction is offered by means of a data driven approach based on a self-organizing map (SOM)and the definition of an original Key Performance Indicator (KPI). The model has been assessed on a park of three photovoltaic (PV) plants with installed capacity up to 10 MW, and on more than sixty inverter modules of three different technology brands. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective in predicting incipient generic faults in average up to 7 days in advance with true positives rate up to 95%. The model is easily deployable for on-line monitoring of anomalies on new PV plants and technologies, requiring only the availability of historical SCADA data, fault taxonomy and inverter electrical datasheet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0072.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sporadic tasks; fault tolerance; scheduling; real time system; virtualized clouding; petri net; distributive systems
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:50:40 CET)
Scheduling of real time tasks are very important aspect in systems as processes should complete its task at a specific time. There is a need of high energy efficiency and low response time in large data stream so for this energy efficient resources and optimized frameworks are needed. Both hard real time and mixed critically systems are targeted. Soft deadline can be handled while hard deadlines are difficult to cater. Different algorithms are used to schedule tasks like rate monotonic, earliest deadline first, deadline monotonic etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0206.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: storage and retrieval processes; load-balancing; fault tolerance; energy efficiency; memory efficiency; data loss
Online: 11 July 2018 (14:47:31 CEST)
Load balancing, energy efficiency and fault tolerance are among the most important data dissemination issues in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In order to successfully cope with the mentioned issues, two main approaches (namely, Data-centric Storage and Distributed Data Storage) have been proposed in the literature. Both approaches suffer from data loss due to memory and/or energy depletion in the storage nodes. Even though several techniques have been proposed so far to overcome the mentioned problems, the proposed solutions typically focus on one issue at a time. In this paper, we integrate the Data-centric Storage (DCS) features into Distributed Data Storage (DDS) mechanisms and present a novel approach, denoted as Collaborative Memory and Energy Management (CoMEM), to overcome both problems and bring memory and energy efficiency to the data loss mechanism of WSNs. We also propose analytical and simulation frameworks for performance evaluation. Our results show that the proposed method outperforms existing approaches in various WSN scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: grinding; multivariate statistics; maintenance decision; condition-based maintenance; condition monitoring; health management; prognostics; fault diagnosis
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:44:46 CEST)
Grinding processes’ stochastic nature poses a challenge in predicting the quality of the resulting surfaces. Post-production measurements for form, surface roughness, and circumferential waviness are commonly performed due to infeasibility in measuring all quality parameters during the grinding operation. Therefore, it is challenging to diagnose the root cause of quality deviations in real-time resulting from variations in the machine’s operating condition. This paper introduces a novel approach to predicting the overall quality of the individual parts. The grinder is equipped with sensors to implement condition-based maintenance and is induced with five frequently occurring failure conditions for the experimental test runs. The crucial quality parameters are measured for the produced parts. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) and Hotelling’s T-squared (T2) have been evaluated to generate quality labels from the multi-variate quality data. Benchmarked random forest regression models are trained using fault diagnosis feature set and quality labels. Quality labels from the T2 statistic of quality parameters are preferred over FCM approach for their repeatability. The model, trained from T2 labels achieves more than 94% accuracy when compared to the measured ring disposition. The predicted overall quality using the sensors’ feature set is compared against the threshold to reach a trustworthy maintenance decision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA); model-based design; automatic generation tool; fault injection simulation
Online: 18 May 2022 (12:40:58 CEST)
In the development of the safety-critical systems, it is important to perform Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process to identify potential failures. However, traditional FMEA activities tend to be considered difficult and time-consuming tasks. To compensate for the difficulty of the FMEA task, various types of tools are used to increase the quality and the effectiveness of the FMEA reports. This paper explains an Automatic FMEA tool which integrates the Model-based Design (MBD), FMEA, and Simulated Fault Injection techniques in a single environment. The Automatic FMEA tool has the following advantages compared to the existing FMEA analysis tool. First, the Automatic FMEA tool automatically generates FMEA reports compared to the traditional spreadsheet-based FMEA tools. Second, the Automatic FMEA tool analyzes the causality between the failure modes and the failure effects by performing model-based fault injection simulation. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the Automatic FMEA, we used the electronic fuel injection system (EFI) Simulink model. The results of the Automatic FMEA were compared to that of the legacy FMEA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0471.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Battery energy storage system (BESS); method of fault positions; renewable energy; transient stability; voltage sags
Online: 23 October 2020 (08:49:46 CEST)
Voltage sags can cause the interruption of power supply and can negatively affect operations of customers. In this paper, the authors study the impact of battery energy storage systems (BESS) on voltage sags. A stochastic method of fault positions is used. Faults of various types are simulated and voltages are recorded. Firstly, with the BESS integrated into the network, there are higher residual voltages, fewer voltage sags and less expected critical voltage loss. Secondly, if the BESS converter power factor is reduced, recorded residual voltages are higher, voltage sags are fewer, and the number of expected critical voltage sags is lower. Finally, when three BESS converter control modes, namely constant voltage, constant power factor, and constant reactive power, were assessed, results showed similar voltage sag performances for constant power factor and constant reactive power modes. Furthermore, operating in constant voltage control outperformed the other two modes as it resulted in higher residual voltages, a lower number of voltage sags, and fewer expected critical voltage sags. The paper has demonstrated that the BESS can improve voltage sag performance. In addition, the power factor of the BESS converter and the mode of operation of the converter can influence the magnitude of the voltage sag performance improvement.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Lockstep; Reliability; Fault Tolerance; Soft Error Mitigation; Zynq APSoC; ARM Cortex-A Processor; MicroBlaze Processor
Online: 8 August 2020 (04:57:57 CEST)
An attractive option for realizing applications in radiation environments is to employ All-Programmable System-on-Chips (APSoCs) thanks to their high-performance computing and power efficiency merits. Despite APSoC's advantages, like any other electronic device, they are prone to radiation effects. Processors found in APSoCs must, therefore, be adequately hardened against ionizing-radiation to become a viable alternative for harsh environments. This paper proposes a novel triple-core lockstep (TCLS) approach to secure the Xilinx Zynq-7000 APSoC dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 processor against radiation-induced soft errors by coupling it with a MicroBlaze TMR subsystem in Zynq's programmable logic (PL) layer. The proposed strategy uses software-level checkpointing principles along with roll-back and roll-forward mechanisms (i.e. software redundancy), and hardware-level processor replication as well as checker circuits (i.e. hardware redundancy). Results of fault injection experiments show that the proposed solution achieved high soft error security by mitigating about 99% of bit-flips injected into both ARM cores' register data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wide area protection system (WAPS); reliability; Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) model; information flow; multi-service
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:10:54 CEST)
Based on the topology of wide area protection system (WAPS), after studying the reliability of hardware system and information flow in the WAPS and establishing the reliability assessment model, the multi-service reliability analysis method with multi monitoring and protection tasks in WAPS was proposed. In the model, the impact of network quality of service (QoS) such as information flow loss and delay, is studied. On the base of the model, the multi-service reliability evaluation method is employed to analyze the reliability of a WAPS of IEEE14 node power system, and the key nodes of the WAPS is given, which provides a basis for improving the reliability of the WAPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0498.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fault tolerant control; Adaptive fuzzy control; Time-varying actuator faults; Sliding mode control; Sliding mode observer
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:14:06 CEST)
In this paper, the problem of observer-based adaptive sliding mode control is discussed for nonlinear systems with sensor and actuator faults. The time-varying actuator degradation factor and external disturbance are considered in the system simultaneously. In this study, the original system is described as a new normal system by combining the state vector, sensor faults and external disturbance into a new state vector. For the augmented system, a new sliding mode observer is designed, where a discontinuous term is introduced such that the effects of sensor and actuator faults and external disturbance will be eliminated. In addition, based on a tricky design of the observer, the time-varying actuator degradation factor term is developed in the error system. On the basis of the state estimation, an integral-type adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is constructed to ensure the stability of the closed-loop system. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control methods can be illustrated with a numerical example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0254.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: feature selection; k-means; silhouette measure; clustering; big data; fault classification; sensor data; time-series data
Online: 11 August 2020 (06:26:43 CEST)
Feature selection is a crucial step to overcome the curse of dimensionality problem in data mining. This work proposes Recursive k-means Silhouette Elimination (RkSE) as a new unsupervised feature selection algorithm to reduce dimensionality in univariate and multivariate time-series datasets. Where k-means clustering is applied recursively to select the cluster representative features, following a unique application of silhouette measure for each cluster and a user-defined threshold as the feature selection or elimination criteria. The proposed method is evaluated on a hydraulic test rig, multi sensor readings in two different fashions: (1) Reduce the dimensionality in a multivariate classification problem using various classifiers of different functionalities. (2) Classification of univariate data in a sliding window scenario, where RkSE is used as a window compression method, to reduce the window dimensionality by selecting the best time points in a sliding window. Moreover, the results are validated using 10-fold cross validation technique. As well as, compared to the results when the classification is pulled directly with no feature selection applied. Additionally, a new taxonomy for k-means based feature selection methods is proposed. The experimental results and observations in the two comprehensive experiments demonstrated in this work reveal the capabilities and accuracy of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0248.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: software fault prediction; data preprocessing; feature selection; rough set theory; class imbalance; noise filter; easy ensemble
Online: 17 May 2018 (13:01:51 CEST)
Software fault prediction is the very consequent research topic for software quality assurance. Data driven approaches provide robust mechanisms to deal with software fault prediction. However, the prediction performance of the model highly depends on the quality of dataset. Many software datasets suffers from the problem of class imbalance. In this regard, under-sampling is a popular data pre-processing method in dealing with class imbalance problem, Easy Ensemble (EE) present a robust approach to achieve a high classification rate and address the biasness towards majority class samples. However, imbalance class is not the only issue that harms performance of classifiers. Some noisy examples and irrelevant features may additionally reduce the rate of predictive accuracy of the classifier. In this paper, we proposed two-stage data pre-processing which incorporates feature selection and a new Rough set Easy Ensemble scheme. In feature selection stage, we eliminate the irrelevant features by feature ranking algorithm. In the second stage of a new Rough set Easy Ensemble by incorporating Rough K nearest neighbor rule filter (RK) afore executing Easy Ensemble (EE), named RKEE for short. RK can remove noisy examples from both minority and majority class. Experimental evaluation on real-world software projects, such as NASA and Eclipse dataset, is performed in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. Furthermore, this paper comprehensively investigates the influencing factor in our approach. Such as, the impact of Rough set theory on noise-filter, the relationship between model performance and imbalance ratio etc. comprehensive experiments indicate that the proposed approach shows outstanding performance with significance in terms of area-under-the-curve (AUC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0489.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Fault Tolerance; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Edge Computing; Peer to Peer; Decentralized; Sensor Networks; Verifiable Delay Functions
Online: 10 August 2022 (15:41:43 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing widespread adoption across industry sectors ranging from supply chain management to smart cities, buildings, and health monitoring. However, most software architectures for IoT deployment rely on centralized cloud computing infrastructures to provide storage and computing power, as cloud providers have high economic incentives to organize their infrastructure into clusters. Despite these incentives, there has been a recent shift from centralized to decentralized architecture that harnesses the potential of edge devices, reduces network latency, and lowers infrastructure cost to support IoT applications. This shift has resulted in new edge computing architectures, but many still rely on centralized solutions for managing applications. A truly decentralized approach would offer interesting properties required for IoT use cases. To address these concerns, we introduce a decentralized architecture tailored for large scale deployments of peer-to-peer IoT sensor networks and capable of run-time application migration. The solution combines a blockchain consensus algorithm and verifiable random functions to ensure scalability, fault tolerance, transparency, and no single point of failure. We build on our previously presented theoretical simulations with many protocol improvements and an implementation tested in a use case related to monitoring a Slovenian cultural heritage building located in Bled, Slovenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Constrained Control; Barrier Lyapunov Function; Fault-Tolerant Control; Nussbaum-type function; power regulation; wind turbine benchmark
Online: 17 March 2022 (03:01:31 CET)
Motivated for improving the efficiency and reliability of wind turbine energy conversion, this paper presents an advanced control design that enhances the power regulation efficiency and re-liability. The constrained behaviour of the wind turbine is taken into account, by using the barrier Lyapunov function in the analysis of the Lyapunov direct method. This, consequently, guarantees that the generated power remains within the desired bounds to satisfy the grid power demand. Moreover, a Nussbaum-type function is utilized in the control scheme, to cope with the unpre-dictable wind speed. This eliminates the need for accurate wind speed measurement or estimation. Furthermore, via properly designed adaptive laws, a robust actuator fault-tolerant capability is integrated into the scheme, handling the model uncertainty. Numerical simulations are performed on a high-fidelity wind turbine benchmark model, under different fault scenarios, to verify the effectiveness of the developed design. Also, a Monte-Carlo analysis is exploited for the evaluation of the reliability and robustness characteristics against the model-reality mismatch, measurement errors and disturbance effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind power; Fault current limiters, Doubly-fed induction generator; Fixed speed wind turbine; Series dynamic braking resistor
Online: 27 September 2018 (10:00:12 CEST)
The Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has significant features in comparison with Fixed Speed Wind Turbine (FSWT), which has popularized its application in power system. Due to partial rated back-to-back converters in the DFIG, Fault Ride-Through (FRT) capability improvement is one of the great subjects regarding new grid code requirements. To enhance the FRT capability of the DFIG, many studies have been carried out. Fault current limiting devices as one of the techniques are utilized to limit the current level and protect switches of the back-to-back converter from over-current damage. In this paper, a review is done based on fault current limiting characteristic of the proposed fault current limiting devices Therefore, Fault Current Limiters (FCLs) and Series Dynamic Braking Resistors (SDBRs) are mainly taken into account. Operation of all configurations including their advantages and disadvantages is explained. Impedance type and the fault current limiting devices’ location are two important factors, which significantly affect the DFIG behaviour in the fault condition. These two factors are basically studied by the simulation and their effects on the key parameters of the DFIG are investigated. Finally, future works in respect to the FCL application in the FRT improvement of the DFIG have also been discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solid-state DC circuit breaker; Coupled inductor; Pole-to-ground fault protection; LVDC(Low voltage DC) microgrid protection
Online: 5 July 2021 (07:58:00 CEST)
Ensuring a protection scheme in DC distribution is more difficult to achieve against pole-to-ground fault than in AC distribution system because of the absence of zero crossing points and low line impedance. To complement the major obstacle of limiting the fault current, several compositions have been proposed related to mechanical switching and solid-state switching. Among them, solid-state circuit breakers(SSCBs) are considered a possible solution to limit fast fault current. However, they may cause problems in circuit complexity, reliability and cost-related troubles due to the use of multiple power semiconductor devices and additional circuit configuration to commutate current. This paper proposes the SSCB with a coupled inductor(SSCB-CI) which has symmetrical configuration. The circuit is comprised of passive components like commutation capacitors, a CI and damping resistors. Thus, proposed SSCB-CI offers the advantages of simple circuit configuration and fewer utilized power semiconductor devices than another typical SSCBs in LVDC microgrid. For analysis, six operation states are described for the voltage across main switches and fault current. The effectiveness of the SSCB-CI against a short-circuit fault is proved via simulation and experimental results in a lab-scale prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: adaptive constrained control; barrier lyapunov function; fault-tolerant control; nussbaum-type function; pitch actuator; power regulation; robustness evaluation
Online: 21 October 2019 (15:01:36 CEST)
This paper presents a novel adaptive fault-tolerant neural-based control design for wind turbines with unknown dynamic and unknown wind speed. By utilizing the barrier Lyapunov function in the analysis of the Lyapunov direct method, the constrained behavior of the system is provided in which the rotor speed, its variation and generated power remain in the desired bounds. In addition, input saturation is also considered in terms of smooth pitch actuator bounding. Furthermore, by utilizing a Nussbaum-type function in designing the control algorithm, the unpredictable wind speed variation is captured without requiring accurate wind speed measurement, observation or estimation. Moreover, with the proposed adaptive analytic algorithms, together with the use of radial basis function neural networks, a robust adaptive and fault-tolerant control scheme is developed without the need for precise information about the wind turbine model nor the pitch actuator faults. Additionally, the computational cost of the resultant control law is reduced by utilizing a dynamic surface control technique. The effectiveness of the developed design is verified using theoretical analysis tools and illustrated by numerical simulations on a high-fidelity wind turbine benchmark model with different fault scenarios. Comparison of the achieved results to the ones that can be obtained via an available industrial controller shows the advantages of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0687.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT); Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS); Fuzzy Logic system (FLS); High Impedance Fault (HIF).
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:44:25 CET)
This paper presents a method to detect and classify the high impedance fault that occur in the medium voltage distribution network using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The network is designed using Matlab software and various faults such as high impedance, symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault have been applied to study the effectiveness of the proposed ANFIS classifier method. This is achieved by training the ANFIS classifier using the features (standard deviation values) extracted from the three phase fault current signal by DWT technique for various cases of fault with different values of fault resistance in the system. The success and discrimination rate obtained for identifying and classifying the high impedance fault from the proffered method is 100% whereas the values are 66.7% and 85% respectively for conventional fuzzy based approach. The results indicate that the proposed method is more efficient to identify and discriminate the high impedance fault accurately from other power system faults in the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: combinational circuits; fault detection; test vector generation; error occurrence probability estimation; probability mass function; and cumulative distribution function
Online: 10 October 2018 (04:16:29 CEST)
This paper introduces an approach that chooses the fault detection by calculating probabilities using probability mass function (pmf) and cumulative distribution function (CDF). This work used a method for multiple stuck-at faults by producing a new test pattern in combinational circuits. We assumed that existence of all multiple faults is only because of one single component that is faulty. A complete test set can be created by all possible single stuck-at faults in a combinational circuit using some combination of gates. The test set generation fault detection method is applied on two different 3-bit input variable and 4-bit input variable circuits. The probability of error occurrence is calculated at both 3-bit and 4-bit input variable circuits. The resulting feature is used to obtain maximum error occurrence probability to detect faults by the logic used that the complexity of the circuit is inversely proportional to the fault occurrence probability. Then again, undetectability is directly proportional to the complexity of the circuit. Therefore, finest feasible circuit should have large input variable components with less complexity to reduce the fault occurrence probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: health assessment; landing gear retraction and extension hydraulic system; improved risk coefficient; fuzzy comprehensive evaluation; fault simulation; maintenance manual
Online: 20 April 2022 (04:52:38 CEST)
The health of the landing gear retraction and extension hydraulic system may be assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE), however the traditional FCE method depends solely on human assessment by specialists, which is excessively subjective. To address the issue of excessive human subjective variables in the assessment, an improved FCE model based on enhanced risk coefficient is provided, which includes four consideration indexes: failure probability, failure severity, failure detection difficulty, and failure repair difficulty. To reduce subjective human judgment errors entirely due to expert experience, the improved FCE takes into account the likelihood of failure using a statistical method, the severity of failure using a fault simulation analysis based on the LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim simulation platform, and the difficulty of fault detection and repair using the aircraft manufacturer's professional maintenance information. As part of the evaluation model, the range of health assessment values and accompanying treatment methods are included, making it easier to implement on a daily basis in aircraft maintenance. As a final step, the simulation is evaluated and the simulated faults are calculated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Large power transformer; condition monitoring; transformer fault diagnosis; diagnostic techniques; mechanical or electrical integrity of the core and windings
Online: 21 March 2022 (10:47:56 CET)
Large power transformers are generally associated with a maximum capacity rating of 100 MVA or higher. These large liquid dielectric power transformers are a custom-built piece of equipment, thus very expensive, and a backbone element of the power grid. In extreme cases as, for example, severe geomagnetic disturbances, permanently monitoring their condition will enhance their electrical reliability and resilience to guarantee efficient management of its life cycle. However, some traditional monitoring/diagnosis techniques have singular features when applied to large power transformers and their interlinked subsystems. In this context, and since that information is hardly put in evidence and compiled in the literature, this paper reviews the particularities of monitoring and diagnosing those assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart grid, cyber physical co-simulation, information and communication technology, 4g long term evolution - lte, network reconfiguration, fault management
Online: 17 April 2018 (16:36:34 CEST)
Simulation tools capturing the interactions of communication and electrical system operation represent a powerful support for fully assessing the potential benefits and impacts of ICT in future smart power distribution network. A strong interest is upon the possibility of exploiting the last generation communication systems for supporting the transition of distribution network towards a smart grid scenario. Having in mind the above, the authors propose a numerical co-simulation tool useful to thoroughly understand the impact of the communication networks on the performance of whole power system dynamics. The co-simulation tool has been purposely developed to simulate the highly time-critical smart grid application of fault management and network reconfiguration and permits reproducing and evaluating the behavior of the public mobile telecommunication system 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE), as communication technology for smart grid applications. Results of the paper demonstrates that LTE provides good performances for supporting the data communication required to perform fault location, extinction and a subsequent network reconfiguration in smart power distribution networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Group Method of Data Handling Neural Network; High-Gain Observer; L1-Norm Criterion; Output Residual Generation; Small Fault Detection; Synchronous Generator
Online: 11 October 2021 (11:05:51 CEST)
This paper presents a robust and efficient fault detection and diagnosis framework for handling small faults and oscillations in synchronous generator (SG) systems. The proposed framework utilizes the Brunovsky form representation of nonlinear systems to mathematically formulate the fault detection problem. A differential-flatness model of SG systems is provided to meet the conditions of the Brunovsky form representation. A combination of high-gain observer and group method of data handling neural network is employed to estimate the trajectory of the system and to learn/ approximate the fault and uncertainties associated functions. The fault detection mechanism is developed based on output residual generation and monitoring so that any unfavourable oscillation and/or fault occurrence can be detected rapidly. Accordingly, an average L1-norm criterion is proposed for rapid decision making of faulty situations. The performance of the proposed framework is investigated for two benchmark scenarios which are actuation fault and fault impact on system dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate the capacity and effectiveness of the proposed solution for rapid fault detection and diagnosis in SG systems in practice, and thus enhancing service maintenance, protection, and life cycle of SGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0143.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Industry 4.0; XaaS; SemSOA; business process optimization; scalable cloud service deployment; process service plan just-in-time adaptation; BPMN partial fault tolerance
Online: 22 November 2018 (05:29:31 CET)
A new requirement for the manufacturing companies in Industry 4.0 is to be flexible with respect to changes in demands, requiring them to react rapidly and efficiently on the production capacities. Together with the trend to use Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), this requirement induces a need for agile collaboration among supply chain partners, but also between different divisions or branches of the same company. In order to address this collaboration challenge, we~propose a novel pragmatic approach for the process analysis, implementation and execution. This~is achieved through sets of semantic annotations of business process models encoded into BPMN 2.0 extensions. Building blocks for such manufacturing processes are the individual available services, which are also semantically annotated according to the Everything-as-a-Service (XaaS) principles and stored into a common marketplace. The optimization of such manufacturing processes combines pattern-based semantic composition of services with their non-functional aspects. This is achieved by means of Quality-of-Service (QoS)-based Constraint Optimization Problem (COP) solving, resulting in an automatic implementation of service-based manufacturing processes. The produced solution is mapped back to the BPMN 2.0 standard formalism by means of the introduced extension elements, fully detailing the enactable optimal process service plan produced. This approach allows enacting a process instance, using just-in-time service leasing, allocation of resources and dynamic replanning in the case of failures. This proposition provides the best compromise between external visibility, control and flexibility. In this way, it provides an optimal approach for business process models' implementation, with a full service-oriented taste, by implementing user-defined QoS metrics, just-in-time execution and basic dynamic repairing capabilities. This paper presents the described approach and the technical architecture and depicts one initial industrial application in the manufacturing domain of aluminum forging for bicycle hull body forming, where the advantages stemming from the main capabilities of this approach are sketched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Communication Fail-Over, Fault Diagnosis, Limpet, On-board Processing, ORCA Hub, Real-time Condition Monitoring, Remote Sensing, Robots, Robot Sensing Systems, ROS Interface.
Online: 20 August 2018 (19:24:46 CEST)
The oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to remove people from dangerous offshore environments. Robots present a cost-effective and safe method for inspection, repair and maintenance of topside and marine offshore infrastructure. In this work, we introduce a new immobile multi-sensing robot, the Limpet, which is designed to be low-cost and highly manufacturable, and thus can be deployed in huge collectives for monitoring offshore platforms. The Limpet can be considered an instrument, where in abstract terms, an instrument is a device that transforms a physical variable of interest (measurand) into a form that is suitable for recording (measurement). The Limpet is designed to be part of the ORCA (Offshore Robotics for Certification of Assets) Hub System, which consists of the offshore assets and all the robots (UAVs, drones, mobile legged robots etc.) interacting with them. The Limpet comprises the sensing aspect of the ORCA Hub System. We integrated the Limpet with Robot Operating System (ROS), which allows it to interact with other robots in the ORCA Hub System. In this work, we demonstrate how the Limpet can be used to achieve real-time condition monitoring for offshore structures, by combining remote sensing with signal processing techniques. We show an example of this approach for monitoring offshore wind turbines. We demonstrate the use of four different communication systems (WiFi, serial, LoRa and optical communication) for the condition monitoring process. By processing the sensor data on-board, we reduce the information density of our transmissions, which allows us to substitute short-range high-bandwidth communication systems with low-bandwidth long-range communication systems. We train our classifier offline and transfer its parameters to the Limpet for online classification, where it makes an autonomous decision based on the condition of the monitored structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0149.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: soil gas anomalies; Helium, Radon, CO2; Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE); Meinweg; Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS); Molasse Basin; Bodanrück; Freiburg–Bonndorf–Bodensee Fault Zone (FBBFZ); GeoBio-Interactions
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:47:53 CEST)
We investigated fault gases (helium, radon, CO2) in two seismically active Cenozoic sedimentary environments: a) Meinweg (in 2015) at a tectonically quiet horst structure in the Lower Rhine Embayment and b) Bodanrück (in 2012; Lake of Constance) at the Molasse Basin and part of the Freiburg–Bonndorf–Bodensee Fault Zone (FBBFZ). Both study areas were selected because recent “GeoBio-Interactions” findings showed, that red wood ants (RWA) are biological indicators of otherwise undetected degassing systems. A total of 817 soil gas samples was analyzed. Currently, Meinweg can be considered “no ants land” due to the very low background-level geogas concentrations. Thus, anomalies (Rn-CO2) weakly trending in NE-SW extension direction emerged. This could probably indicate the onset of (re)activation of the NE-SW trending (Variscan) structures or the development of new fractures as an aftershock process of the 1992 Roermond earthquake that occurred about 15 km to the west. Results at Bodanrück (3 RWA clusters and two RWA-free corridors) revealed degassing patterns in NW-SE and NNE-SSW directions in the clusters corresponding to re-activated and recent strike-slip fault systems. No gas anomalies were found in RWA-free corridors. The RWA nest distribution was shown to be a valuable tool for identifying areas of even actively degassing spotty anomalies caused by macro- and microscale brittle deformation masked by sediment cover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: heat meter; district heating; fault detection; predictive maintenance; Machine Learning (ML); Artificial Neural Network (ANN); Bagging Decision Tree (BDT); Support Vector Machines (SVM); hyperparameter optimisation; ensemble model
Online: 28 July 2019 (16:26:47 CEST)
The need to increase the energy efficiency of buildings as well as the use of local renewable heat sources has caused that heat meters are used not only to calculate the consumed energy but also for the active management of central heating systems. Increasing the reading frequency and the use of measurement data to control the heating system expands the requirements for the reliability of heat meters. The aim of the research is to analyse a large set of meters in the real network and predict their faults to avoid inaccurate readings, incorrect billing, heating system disruption and unnecessary maintenance. The reliability analysis of heat metres, based on historical data collected over several years, shows some regularities which cannot be easily described by physics-based models. The failure rate is almost constant and does depend on the past but is a non-linear combination of state variables. To predict meters' failures in the next settlement period, three independent machine learning models are implemented and compared with selected metrics because even the high performance of a single model (87\% True Positive for Neural Network) may be insufficient to make a maintenance decision. Additionally, performing hyperparameters optimisation boosts models' performance by a few percent. Finally, three improved models are used to build an ensemble classifier which outperforms the individual models. The proposed procedure ensures the high efficiency of fault detection (>95\%), while maintaining overfitting at the minimum level. The methodology is universal and can be utilised to study the reliability and predict faults of other types of meters and different objects with the constant failure rate.