Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS); post-GWAS; sheep; tail fat deposition
Online: 11 June 2019 (10:04:39 CEST)
The type of tail of sheep is an important economic trait. However, the candidate genes associated with the tail type are uncertain. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic region and genotype responsible for the tail type phenotype. Here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 40 large tailed Han sheep and 40 Altay sheep as case and 40 Tibetan sheep as control. The results indicated that a total 31 genome-wide significant SNPs associated with type of tail traits were detected. For significant SNPS loci, determine its physical location, and screening of candidate genes within section. By combining information of previously reported and annotated biological functional genes, we identified SPAG17, Tbx15, VRTN, NPC2, BMP2 and PDGFD as the most promising candidate genes for type of tail traits. Based on the above identified candidate genes on type of tail traits, we selected BMP2 and PDGFD to conduct the genetic effect analysis in a large Altay sheep and Tibetan sheep population. Rs119 T>C in the exon1 of BMP2 gene and 1 SNPs in the exon4 (rs69 C>A) of PDGFD gene were detected, rs119 that located on exon1 of BMP2 gene was TT genotype in Altay sheep, while with CC genotype in Tibetan sheep. On rs69 of PDGFD gene, Altay sheep with CC genotype, however, Tibetan sheep with AA genotype. These results indicated that the significant associations of SNPs detected in GWAS were indirectly caused by the genetic effects of BMP2 and PDGFD on sheep tail fat deposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0201.v1
Online: 21 February 2019 (10:01:04 CET)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) function may depend on its anatomical location and developmental origin. Interscapular BAT (iBAT) regulates acute macronutrient metabolism, whilst perivascular BAT (PVAT) regulates vascular function. Although phenotypically similar, whether these depots respond differently to acute nutrient excess is unclear. Given their distinct anatomical locations and developmental origins and we hypothesised that iBAT and PVAT would respond differently to brief period of nutrient excess. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 weeks (n = 12) were fed either a standard (10% fat, n = 6) or high fat diet (HFD: 45% fat, n = 6) for 72 h and housed at thermoneutrality. Following an assessment of whole body physiology, fat was collected from both depots for analysis of gene expression and the proteome. HFD consumption for 72 h induced rapid weight gain (c. 2.6%) and reduced serum NEFA with no change in either total adipose or depot mass. In iBAT, an upregulation of genes involved in insulin signalling and lipid metabolism was accompanied by enrichment of lipid-related processes and functions, plus glucagon and PPAR signalling pathways. In PVAT, HFD induced a pronounced down-regulation of multiple metabolic pathways which was accompanied with increased abundance of proteins involved in apoptosis (e.g. Hdgf and Ywaq) and toll-like receptor signalling (Ube2n). There was also an enrichment of DNA-related processes and functions (e.g., nucleosome assembly and histone exchange) and RNA degradation and cell adhesion pathways. In conclusion, we show that iBAT and PVAT elicit divergent responses to short-term nutrient excess highlighting early adaptations in these depots before changes in fat mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0276.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Free-range; backfat layers; intramuscular fat; Iberian pig; subcutaneous fat.
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:11:09 CEST)
Twenty-four extensively-reared Iberian pigs were used to study the influence of fattening period length (30, 60 or 90 days) on the fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat and the relationships between both profiles. Regarding fatty acid (FA) percentage, PUFA was greater in backfat and MUFA was greater in intramuscular fat (IMF), regardless fattening period length. The longer fattening period increased MUFA content in backfat (which had a more marked change in oleic acid) and decreased PUFA content in backfat and IMF, but it did not affect SFA content. Within the 3-layers subcutaneous backfat, SFA content was greater in the inner layer, MUFA was greater in the outer layer and PUFA was greater in both of these layers. The few differences in FA composition between both adipose tissues suggest that the changes due to the feeding regime are slow and, therefore, although the length of the fattening phase was increased, the fatty acid profile did not change substantially. The strong relationship between the FA profiles of IMF and backfat might be used to predict one profile from the other one when this latter was more readily available for sampling or analytical reasons.
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Amazonian fat; Ucuùba fat; Box Behnken Design; solid lipid nanoparticles; antifungal therapy; onychomycosis
Online: 23 April 2019 (12:57:42 CEST)
Ucuùba fat is fat obtained from a plant found in South America, mainly in Amazonian Brazil. Due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity, the Ucuùba fat was used for production of ketoconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in view of an application for the treatment of onychomycosis and other persistent fungal infections. The development and optimization of the Ucuùba fat based NLC were performed using a Box-Behnken design of experiment. The independent variables were surfactant concentration (% w/v), liquid lipids concentration (% w/v), solid lipids concentration (% w/v), while the outputs of interest were particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE). The Ucuùba fat based NLC were produced and the process optimized determining a predictive mathematical model. Applying the model, two formulations with the pre-required particle size, i.e., 30 and 85 nm, were produced for further evaluation. The optimized formulations were characterized and showed a particle size in agreement to the predicted value, i.e. 33.6 nm and 74.6 nm, respectively. The optimized formulations were also characterized using multiple techniques in order to investigate the solid state of drug and excipients (DSC and XRD), particle morphology (TEM) and interactions between the formulation components (FTIR). Furthermore, particle size and surface charge of the formulations was studied during a one-month stability study and did not evidence any significative modification during storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: insulin resistance; body weight; body fat; visceral fat; waist circumference; body mass index
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:43:50 CET)
The incidence of obesity which leads to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic disorder increases in developing countries including Indonesia. Male adult has higher risk to have abdominal obesity than female which is associated with cardiometabolic disorders. Several anthropometric measurements have been proposed to predict IR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF) or visceral fat percentage (VF) could become a better predictor of IR in healthy young male adult. Total of 140 healthy young male adults ranging from 18-25 years were recruited in the study. Insulin resistance was measured by calculating Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects with HOMA-IR value >75th percentile with cut off 3.75 were defined as IR. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, BMI, WC were performed whereas BF and VC were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). IR had significant strong correlation with body weight, BMI, WC, BF and VF. The area under curve of body mass, BF, VF were greater than WC and BMI. Anthropometric measurements correlated strongly with IR but body weight, BF, VF have stronger correlation than WC and BMI in healthy young male adult.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: aerobic dance; electromyostimulation; percent fat; cytokine
Online: 16 February 2020 (14:06:49 CET)
Electromyostimulation (EMS) has been shown to improve body composition, but what biomarkers it affects has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the EMS-effect of aerobic dance on fatness and biomarkers’ levels in obese elderly women. Methods: Twenty-five women with obesity were randomly classified into a control group (CON; n = 12) and EMS group (EMSG; n = 13). EMS suits used in this study enabled the simultaneous activation of eight muscles with selectable intensities. Program sessions of EMS were combined with aerobic dance three times a week for 8 weeks. Although both groups received the same program, CON did not receive electrical stimuli. Results: Compared with CON, a significant effect of the EMS intervention concerning decreased fatness, as well as an increased skeletal muscle mass and basal metabolic rate, were evident. Compared with CON, aerobic dancing with an EMS suit also improved biomarkers in EMSG. Cytokines, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, C-reactive protein, resistin, and carcinoembryonic antigen were significantly changed in EMSG, whereas those of CON did not change from the baseline to the end of the experiment. These results showed significant differences between groups. Similarly, the changes caused by EMS were represented in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significant effect due to the EMS intervention was found concerning body composition and biomarkers in obese elderly women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: inflammation; coronary disease; mediterranean diet; low-fat diet; C-reactive protein; adiponectin; visceral fat; body composition
Online: 26 July 2018 (10:33:01 CEST)
The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is recognised to reduce risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), in part, via its anti-inflammatory properties. Diet efficacy via this mechanism is however unclear in patients with diagnosed CHD. This study aimed to determine the effect of MedDiet versus low-fat diet intervention on inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity in a pilot cohort of Australian patients post coronary event. Participants (62±9 years, 83% male) were randomised to the MedDiet (n=34) or low-fat diet (n=31). At 0-, 3- and 6-months, dietary counselling, anthropometry, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and venepuncture was conducted. Participants adhered well to the MedDiet intervention, however, there were no significant changes in body composition or inflammatory biomarkers hs-C-reactive protein or hs-interleukin-6 in the MedDiet compared to the low-fat diet group after 6-months. Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, tended to increase in response to the MedDiet (+1.1±4.2ng/mL, p=0.11) and decrease in response to the low-fat diet (-0.9±3.3ng/mL, p=0.20). In the pooled cohort, participants with greatest improvement in MedDiet adherence score had significantly lower waist circumference and subcutaneous fat levels at 6-months. A clinically significant effect of the MedDiet on inflammation and adiposity in CHD patients may require a larger sample, adjunct exercise intervention and/or caloric restriction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0104.v1
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:02:07 CET)
Hepato-renal dysfunctions associated with hyperlipidemia necessitates continuous search for natural remedies. This study thus, evaluated the effect of dietary chitosan on diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (90 ± 5.2) g were randomly allotted into six (6) groups (n=5): Normal diet, High-fat diet (HFD), Normal diet + 5% chitosan. The three other groups received HFD, supplemented with 1%-, 3%-, and 5% of chitosan. The feeding lasted for 8 weeks, after which the rats were sacrificed. The liver and kidneys were harvested for Analyses. Hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and renal biomarkers (ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Additionally, expression of hepatic and renal CD43 and p53 was estimated immunohistochemically. Hyperlipidemia caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the hepatic (AST, ALT, and ALP) and renal (AST and ALT) activities, while renal urea and creatinine increased. Furthermore, the HFD group showed an elevated level of hepatic and renal CD43 while p53 expression decreased. However, groups supplemented with chitosan showed improved hepatic and renal biomarkers, as well as corrected the aberrations in the expressions of p53 and CD43. Conclusively, dietary chitosan could effectively improve kidney and liver functionality via abatement of inflammatory responses.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: intramuscular fat; prediction; image analysis; Bísaro pork
Online: 13 January 2021 (13:16:19 CET)
This work presents an analytical methodology to predict meat juiciness (discriminant semi-quantitative analysis using groups of intervals of intramuscular fat) and intramuscular fat (regression analysis) in Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle of Bísaro pigs using as independent variables the animal carcass weight and parameters from color and image analysis. These are non-invasive and non-destructive techniques which allow development of rapid, easy and inexpensive methodologies to evaluate pork meat quality in a slaughterhouse. The proposed predictive supervised multivariate models were non-linear. Discriminant mixture analysis to evaluate meat juiciness by classified samples into three groups—0.6 to 1.1%; 1.25 to 1.5%; and, greater than 1.5%. The obtained model allowed 100% of correct classifications (92% in cross-validation with seven-folds with five repetitions). Polynomial support vector machine regression to determine the intramuscular fat presented R2 and RMSE values of 0.88 and 0.12, respectively in cross-validation with seven-folds with five repetitions. This quantitative model (model’s polynomial kernel optimized to degree of three with a scale factor of 0.1 and a cost value of one) presented R2 and RSE values of 0.999 and 0.04, respectively. The overall predictive results demonstrated the relevance of photographic image and color measurements of the muscle to evaluate the intramuscular fat, rarther than the usual time-consuming and expensive chemical analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: fat; obesity; randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:53:54 CEST)
Background: Overweight and obese adults seek effective exercise interventions to reduce accumulated fat, but the effectiveness of these interventions vary across studies. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of exercise interventions in overweight and obese adults based on measurement of accumulated fat distributions. (2) Methods: Databases were used to select eligible studies for this meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials with a control and experimental group were included. Degrees of effectiveness of exercise interventions were computed to assess the benefits on reducing weight and subcutaneous, visceral, and ectopic fat accumulation. (3) Results: A total of twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. Participation in exercise interventions showed beneficial effects in reducing weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat. The effectiveness of exercise interventions on ectopic fat accumulation could not be assessed due to the limited number of studies measuring ectopic fat. Additionally, effectiveness of exercise interventions that depended on measurements of accumulated fat varied. The average exercise intervention for overweight and obese individuals was moderate to vigorous intensity, 4 times per week, 50 minutes per session, and 22 weeks duration. (4) Conclusions: Participating in exercise interventions has favorable effects on reducing weight and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0017.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cotton, vegetation antibroadleaf herbicides, cultivars, fat content
Online: 1 August 2018 (11:16:31 CEST)
In this study was investigate the effect of vegetative treatment with the herbicides Basagran 480 SL, Pulsar 40 and Express 50 WG on the fat content of seeds of different Bulgarian cotton cultivars. The experiment was carried out with twelve Bulgarian cotton cultivars - Chirpan-539, Helius, Trakia, Vicky, Philipopolis, IPK-Veno, Boyana, Avangard, Natalia, Darmy, Dorina and Nelina belonging to Gossypium hirsutum L. For the first time in the world, cotton cultivars resistant to herbicides Basagran 480 SL (bentazone), Pulsar 40 (imazamox) and Express 50 WG (Tribenuron-methyl) have been established. They are applied at the bud formation stage of cotton. Fat content in cotton seeds was determined by extraction - SR ISO 6492. For the first time in the world it has been established that in the vegetative treatment with herbicides the most valuable with regard to cottonseed fat content are all cultivars treated with Basagran 480 SL, except Chirpan-539 and Helius. It has been established for the first time that from the point of view of growing technology with vegetative treatment with the herbicide Express 50 WG, the most valuable are the cultivars Chirpan-539, Helius, Trakia, Vicky, Philipopolis, IPK-Veno, Boyana, Avangard, Natalia. None of the cultivars is highly rated when treated with the herbicide Pulsar 40 with regard to fat content in seeds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: NCD; Eastern Mediterranean region; Fat; SFA; TFA
Online: 17 April 2018 (06:24:29 CEST)
NCDs are the leading cause of mortality globally which estimated 40 million death per year (68% of total death), with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), around 60% of all deaths are attributed to NCDs. Two-thirds of NCD premature deaths are linked to 4 shared modifiable behavioural risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol. These unhealthy behaviours lead to 4 key metabolic/biological changes that increase the risk of NCDs: raised blood pressure, overweight/obesity, high blood glucose levels/diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood). Globally, countries are already working towards agreed global goals on maternal and infant nutrition and on the prevention of NCDs, and both these include halting the increase in overweight and obesity and reducing NCD diet-related risk factors including reducing saturated fatty acids (SFA) and Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. According to values reported for countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region, average SFA intake is estimated at 10.3% of energy intake (EI), thus exceeding the WHO recommended level of 10% EI. Average TFA intake in EMR countries is estimated at 1.9% EI, which also exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 1% EI. The EMR region was reported amongst the regions with the highest levels of TFA intake. The highest SFA intake was reported from Djibouti, Kuwait, Saudi-Arabia and Yemen, while the highest TFA intakes were reported from Egypt and Pakistan. If countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region receive immediate public health attention, that toll of NCD-related morbidity and mortality can be considerably decreased if evidence-based preventive interventions are implemented effectively. In this context, reductions in saturated fat and trans fat intakes have been highlighted as cost-effective strategies that may hamper the growth of the NCD epidemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Western diet; oxidative stress; cardiomyocyte; micronutrients; dietary fat
Online: 20 June 2022 (03:38:07 CEST)
Heart failure (HF) has become a public health problem, but exact pathophysiology is still unknown. Western diet characterised with high sugar, high fat, red meat and processed meat, eggs, fried foods and sweetened beverages, may cause oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to oxidative dysfunction and adverse effects on cardiac-ultra-structure. However, only little is known about oxidative function of the of the myocardium and how oxidative dysfunction predispose Ca-overloading resulting in to physio-pathological remodelling leading to HF. Antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenolics, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals as well as essential and nonessential amino acids that are rich in Indo-Mediterranean type of diets, may have protective roles in maintaining oxidative functions of the heart. The cardiac cells use fatty acids and glucose for the metabolic functions depending upon physiological and metabolic requirements. Apart from glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity is also damaging to cardiac cells which worsen in presence of deficiency of endogenous antioxidants and lower exogenous antioxidants in the diet. There is increased production of ceramide, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and triamino-methyl-N-oxide (TMAO) due to high sugar and high fat diets, leading to oxidative dysfunction and Ca-overloading. The biological changes may begin with physiological remodelling to pathological remodelling due to oxidative damages. High fat diet in combination with inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOSi) via N-arginine methyl ester has been found to preserve ejection fraction in a mouse model of HF. It is possible that increased supplementation of High Exogenous Antioxidant Restorative Treatment (HEART) diet; polyphenolics and flavonoids, vitamins, minerals, arginine, with omega-3 fatty acids, and cessation of red meat and egg may further improve the oxidative function of cardiac cells, resulting in the prevention and improvement in the earliest of the Six Stages of HF. Cohort studies and randomised, controlled trials would be necessary for demonstration of the role of HEART diet in the management of HF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0350.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: amidated alginate; tetrahydrolipstatin; fat; cholesterol; serum; liver; faeces
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:30:49 CET)
The effects of octadecylamide of alginic acid (amidated alginate) and tetrahydrolipstatin on serum and hepatic cholesterol, and the faecal output of fat and sterols were compared in rats. Amidated alginate is a sorbent of lipids, tetrahydrolipstatin is inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Rats were fed diets containing cholesterol and palm fat at 10 and 70 g/kg, respectively. Palm fat was provided by coconut meal. Amidated alginate at 40 g/kg diet significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL and hepatic cholesterol, hepatic lipids, and increased faecal output of fat and coprostanol. Tetrahydrolipstatin at 300 mg/kg diet significantly decreased LDL cholesterol, hepatic lipids and increased faecal output of fat. The intake of feed was not significantly influenced, however the weight gains in rats fed amidated alginate was lower than in rats of the control group. Both amidated alginate and tetrahydrolipstatin modified fatty acid profile in excreta lipids. Concentrations of saturated fatty acids were decreased and that of unsaturated fatty acids were increased. Despite different mode of action, amidated alginate and tetrahydrolipstatin were equally efficient in the removing dietary fat from the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0065.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: low fat; salt reduction; meat product; sensory; beef
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:46:55 CEST)
The consumer’s acceptability of hamburgers elaborated with the flank of culling cows in which the content of salt or fat had been partially replaced was studied. A mixture of potassium chloride, potassium ferrocyanide and sodium ferrocyanide was used as substitutes for the salt. Oat flakes or a mixture of chia and flax seeds were used as substitutes for the fat. The hamburgers were tasted by 34 consumers. Consumers did not detect significant differences between the control and the rest of the formulations. Neither the gender nor the age of the consumers influenced the sensory appraisal. However, many comments regarding texture failures were recorded. Therefore, the substitution of salt and / or fat in the composition of hamburgers made with the flank of cows is a viable alternative for the commercialization of these pieces of low commercial value as long as the texture of the same is adjusted to resemble it to the control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0042.v1
Online: 11 September 2017 (09:59:48 CEST)
As a high fatal disease, fat embolism syndrome is complication, which brought great pain to patient and their family served as a serious social burden. The mechanism of FES remains unclear. Autophagy controls the cell survival and homeostasis by removing the mis-folded proteins and damaged organelles as well as intracellular pathogens through a lysosomal degradation pathway. Increasing research documented that autophagy was wildly involved in variety of human diseases and had huge therapeutic potential. In our study, we first established the rat model of FES with the liquid fat by tail vein injection. We observed the up-regulated MPO expression and activity, increased Wet-to-Dry (W/D) lung weight, promoted quantity of fat granules, and the dominant disorder in the lung rat model of FES, compared to the control group. These observations demonstrated that we successfully build the rat model of FES. Then, we sought to dissect the role of the autophagy in the rat model of FES. The western blots analysis showed that the autophagy was inhibited in the rat model of FES constructed with liquid fat. Furthermore, Rapamycin could restore the repression of autophagy in rat model of FES. These investigations illustrated that autophagy was involved in FES. In addition, our experiments showed that Rapamycin could alleviate the symptoms of FES. Taken together, our study demonstrated the participation of autophagy in FES and further, as a potential therapeutic target, the modulation of autophagy could affect the symptom of rat model of FES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0120.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: aging; NMR spectroscopy; mice; energy metabolism; fat; intestine; metabolomics
Online: 8 December 2021 (12:03:07 CET)
Energy metabolism, including alterations in energy intake and expenditure, is closely related to aging and longevity. Metabolomics studies have recently unraveled changes in metabolite composition in plasma and tissues during aging and have provided critical information to elucidate the molecular basis of aging process. However, the metabolic changes in tissues responsible for food intake and lipid storage have remained unexplored. In this study, we aimed to investigate aging-related metabolic alterations in these tissues. To fill this gap, we employed NMR-based metabolomics in several tissues, including different parts of the intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) and brown/white adipose tissues (BAT, WAT) of young (9-10 weeks) and old (96-104 weeks) wild-type (mixed genetic background of 129/J and C57BL/6) mice. We further included plasma and skeletal muscle of the same mice to verify previous results. Strikingly, we found that duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and WAT do not metabolically age. In contrast, plasma, skeletal muscle, and BAT show a strong metabolic aging phenotype. Overall, we provide first insights into the metabolic changes of tissues essential for nutrient uptake and lipid storage and have identified biomarkers for metabolites that could be further explored to study the molecular mechanisms of aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: fat replacer; octenyl succinic anhydride; OSA starch; starch properties
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:14:12 CEST)
Along with the rapid development of the trend in the health sector, various studies have been conducted to find alternative healthier foods, one of which is reducing fat consumption. Currently, many researchers focus on one of modified starches that can be utilized as a fat replacer is starch modified with OSA (octenyl succinic anhydride). In the last decade, there have been quite a lot of publications related to OSA starch, further the number is still increasing. This review discusses the synthesis method of OSA starch and its optimization, functional characteristics, and its application to be a fat replacer in many kinds of products daily consumed. Various pre-treatment methods could be applied to create OSA starch which has higher degree of substitution values. The presence of conjugate bonds with the OSA group in starch polymers could produce very amphiphilic starch characteristic so as to have an emulsifying function. Emulsions shaped from OSA starch were utilized as fat replacers in foods with high level of fat content. Partial OSA starch substitution was successfully utilized as a fat replacer for several types of food products with similar sensory attributes or even slightly better than the native product. The resulting product could be defined as a healthier choice because it had relatively lower fat and calorie content. Even so, adjustments through further study are still needed so that the food produced is able to have a higher level of sensory acceptance relative to native food without fat substitution.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: high fat diet; metabolic dysregulation; platelets; monocytes; hypercoagulation; inflammation
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:13:45 CET)
High fat-diet (HFD) feeding is known to induce metabolic dysregulation, however less is known on its impact in promoting the hypercoagulable state. The current study aimed to evaluate platelet-monocyte aggregate (PMA) formation following short-term HFD feeding. This is particularly important for understanding the link between inflammation and the hypercoagulable state during the early onset of metabolic dysregulation. To explore such a hypothesis, mice were fed a HFD for 8 weeks, with body weights as well as insulin and blood glucose levels monitored on weekly basis during this period. Basal hematological measurements were determined and the levels of spontaneous peripheral blood PMAs were assessed using whole blood flow cytometry. The results showed that although there were no significant differences in body weights, mice on HFD displayed impaired glucose tolerance and markedly raised insulin levels. These metabolic abnormalities were accompanied by elevated baseline PMA levels as an indication of hypercoagulation. Importantly, it was evident that baseline levels of monocytes, measured using the CD14 monocyte marker were significantly decreased in HFD-fed mice when compared to controls. In summary, the current evidence shows that in addition to causing glucose intolerance, such as that identified in a prediabetic state, HFD-feeding can promote undesirable hypercoagulation, the major consequence implicated in the development of cardiovascular complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0631.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: adipogenesis; bioactive compounds; fat accumulation; hibiscus sabdariffa; lipase inhibition
Online: 30 November 2018 (10:33:47 CET)
Obesity is a condition associated with the accumulation of excess fat in the body, energy imbalance, lipogenesis etc. which increases adipose tissue mass through adipogenesis and probes a health risk. Its prevalence has become a large burden on the world at large. One of the solutions to tackling obesity is with the use of bioactive compounds. We critically examined the effectiveness of hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on various parameters associated with development of obesity such as; effect of HSE on body weight and energy expenditure, effect of HSE on fat accumulation, effect of HSE on lipase inhibition, effect of HSE on adipocyte differentiation/adipogenesis. This review has gathered reports on the various anti-obesity effects of HS bioactives in cell and animal models, as well as in humans. Reports have shown that hibiscus sabdariffa derived bioactives are potent in the treatment of obesity with evident reduction in body weight, inhibition of lipid accumulation and suppression of adipogenesis through PPARγ pathway and other transcriptional factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: High-Fat Diet, Dietary Supplement, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Neurodegeneration.
Online: 12 July 2018 (15:45:18 CEST)
Obesity and metabolic disorders can be risk factors for the onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects on dysmetabolism and neurodegeneration of a natural dietary supplement (NDS), containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin, on the brains of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. A decreased expression of FACL-4, CerS-1 and CerS-4, reduced cholesterol concentration, increased IR expression and insulin signaling activation, were found in brains of NDS-treated HFD mice, suggesting that NDS is able to prevent brain lipid accumulation and central insulin resistance. In the brains of NDS-treated HFD mice, the levels of RNS, ROS and lipid peroxidation, the expression of p-ERK, H-Oxy, i-NOS, HSP60, NF-kB, GFAP, IL-1β, IL-6, and CD4 positive cell infiltration were lower than in untreated HFD mice, suggesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of NDS. The decreased expression of p-ERK and GFAP in NDS-treated HFD mice was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Lastly, a lower number of apoptotic nuclei was found in cortical sections of NDS-treated HFD. All these data indicate that NDS exerts neuroprotective effects in HFD mice by reducing brain fat accumulation, oxidative stress and inflammation and improving brain insulin resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cows; milk fat; ruminal fluid; milk fatty acids; energy balance
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:08:31 CET)
The trials were performed on 20 multiparous cows of Holstein breed (39.7 ± 0.75 kg of milk) at the end of the first phase of lactation this different milk fat (4.1-2.8%). The aim of the research was to study the characteristics of nutrition, metabolism and biosynthesis of milk components in highly productive dairy cows with normal and low milk fat levels and the timing of their productive use. Study the characteristics of fermentation of scar formation substrates and their use in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of the milk components. Found that low fat milk is not associated with a lack of formation of acetate in the rumen (6.1 vs. 6.6 mmol/dl in the contents of the rumen, р>0.05) and the non change in the hormonal profile, but depends on the reduction of fatty acids synthesis de novo in mammary gland, regulated by conjugated higher fatty acids. The result is a reduction in the need of cows in the exchange energy (reduction of heat transfer by 6.2 MJ), a shorter service period (109.5 vs.139 days) and the prolongation of their productive use (the number of lactations correlated back with the level of fat in milk (r=-0.68, p<0.05, n=1300).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Probiotics; Dysbiosis; Obesity; High Fat Diet; Lactobacillus plantarum; Enterococcus faecium
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:59:43 CET)
Fat reduction and anti-inflammation are commonly claimed properties of probiotics. Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium were tested in high fat-induced obesity mice and in vitro experiments. After 16 weeks of probiotics, L. plantarum outperforms E. faecium on the anti-obesity property as indicated by body weight, regional fat accumulation, serum cholesterol, inflammatory cytokines (in blood and colon tissue), and gut barrier defect (FITC-dextran assay). With fecal microbiome analysis, L. plantarum but not E. faecium reduced fecal abundance of pathogenic Proteobacteria without an alteration in total Gram-negative bacteria when compared with non-probiotics obese mice. With palmitic acid induction, the condition media from both probiotics similarly attenuated supernatant IL-8, improved enterocyte integrity and down-regulated cholesterol absorption-associated genes in Caco-2 cell (an enterocyte cell line) and reduced supernatant cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) with normalization of cell energy status (extracellular flux analysis) in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Because the anti-inflammatory effect of the condition media of both probiotics on palmitic acid-activated enterocytes was neutralized by amylase, the active anti-inflammatory molecules might, partly, be exopolysaccharides. As L. plantarum out-performed E. faecium in anti-obesity property, possibly through the reduced fecal Proteobacteria, with a similar anti-inflammatory exopolysaccharide; L. plantarum is a potentially better option for anti-obesity than E. faecium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Diet; Obesity; Gut microbes; High-fiber diet; High fat diet
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:50:36 CEST)
With the ever-increasing rate, obesity has become an epidemiological problem throughout the globe comprising about 39% of the world population as of now. Among several reasons, disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem might contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other associated comorbidities. Though the mechanisms related to dysbiosis are unclear, diet might play a modulating role where different dietary approaches manipulate microbial richness and abundance as well as stability. For instance, shifting of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut might have a role in association with the dietary approaches and ingestion duration. Along with altered gut microbial composition, microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after ingestion of non-digestible dietary starches may have an impact on host metabolism by regulating lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation with potential associations to health and obesity. The dietary approaches like carbohydrates, fibre, protein, and/or fat diet at various arrangements can make a shift in the composition of gut microbiota if introduced for a short period. However, the unique pattern of the gut microbes usually remains the same along with the longer period of habitual diet. Though the short-term dietary intervention or circadian rhythm influences a transient change in gut microbes, other than habitual diet, the understanding related to long-term dietary change-induced permanent alterations is minimum. Alternatively, the usage of prebiotics, probiotics as well as postbiotics could be beneficial to overcome dysbiosis. This review highlights the current knowledge and the interaction between the human intestinal microbiota and diet as a modifying factor, in obesity allowing the scientists to uncover novel targets and tools to use as customized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0398.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: statistical significance; confidence; medication tests; central limit theorem; fat tail
Online: 15 March 2021 (15:55:33 CET)
Statistical significance measures the reliability of a result obtained from a random experiment. We investigate the number of repetitions needed for a statistical result to have a certain significance. In the first step, we consider binomially distributed variables in the example of medication testing with fixed placebo efficacy, asking how many experiments are needed in order to achieve a significance of 95 %. In the next step, we take the probability distribution of the placebo efficacy into account, which to the best of our knowledge has not been done so far. Depending on the specifics, we show that in order to obtain identical significance, it may be necessary to perform twice as many experiments than in a setting where the placebo distribution is neglected. We proceed by considering more general probability distributions and close with comments on some erroneous assumptions on probability distributions which lead, for instance, to a trivial explanation of the fat tail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide; protein hydrolysate; liver; hepatic steatosis; high-fat diet
Online: 15 July 2019 (06:09:04 CEST)
Bioactive peptides are related to the prevention and treatment of many diseases. GPETAFLR is an octapeptide which was isolated from lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and showed anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential activity of GPETAFLR to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or an HFD. Two of the groups fed the HFD diet were treated with GPETAFLR in their drinking water at 0,5 mg/kg/d or 1 mg/kg/d. To determine the ability of GPETAFLR to improve the onset and progression of NAFLD, histological studies, hepatic enzyme profile, inflammatory cytokine and lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins were analyzed. Our results suggest that HFD-induced inflammatory metabolic disorders were alleviated by treatment with GPETAFLR. In conclusion, dietary lupine consumption could repair HFD-induced hepatic damage, possibly via modifications in the liver’s lipid signalling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food composition tables; lipid profile; trans fat; fast food; spreads
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:34:57 CEST)
The lipid fraction of margarines and fast-food French-fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered, and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (2 store and 4 premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (5 chains). Margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (gTFA/100g fat) for store and premium brands, respectively. French-fries values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5g/serving, so they could also be considered “trans free products”. This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes to update food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: congenital breast asymmetry; PROM, autologous fat injections, fat grafting, lipograft, implant augmentation, breast augmentation, 3D volumetry, three-dimensional imaging, Breast-QTM; human adipose stem cells
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:06:09 CEST)
Congenital breast asymmetry represents a particular challenge to the classical techniques of plastic surgery due to a young group of patients. This study compares traditional breast augmentation using silicone implants to the more innovative lipograft technique regarding long-term results. To achieve this, we not only captured subjective parameters like satisfaction with outcome and symmetry, but also objective parameters such as breast volume and anthropometric measurements. Objective examination was performed manually and by using the Vectra® H2 photogrammetry scanning system. Patients who underwent implant augmentation and lipograft both showed no significant differences in patient´s satisfaction with surgical outcome (p = 0.55) and symmetry (p = 0.69). Furthermore, a breast symmetry of 93 % in both groups was reported. Likewise, no statistically significant volume difference between left and right breast was observed in both groups (p<0.41). However, on average, lipograft patients needed 1.3 procedures more until the desired result was achieved. In contrast, patients treated with implant-based breast augmentation usually need several implant changes during their life. In conclusion, both methods should be considered for patients with congenital breast asymmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0253.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; CAZymes; Finishing pigs; Growth performance; Pork quality; Fat composition
Online: 6 November 2020 (17:08:38 CET)
The influence of a high inclusion level of Chlorella vulgaris, individually and supplemented with two carbohydrase mixtures, in finishing pig diets was assessed on zootechnical performance, carcass characteristics, pork quality traits and nutritional value of pork fat. Forty crossbred entire male pigs, sons of Large White × Landrace sows crossed with Pietrain boars, with an initial live weight of 59.1 ± 5.69 kg were used in this trial. Swines were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments (n=10): cereal and soybean meal-based diet (control), control diet with 5% C. vulgaris (CV), CV diet supplemented with 0.005% Rovabio® Excel AP (CV+R) and CV diet supplemented with 0.01% of a four-CAZyme mixture (CV+M). Animals were slaughtered, after the finishing period, with a BW of 101 ± 1.9 kg. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the incorporation of C. vulgaris in the diets. However, the inclusion of the microalga in finishing pig diets increased some lipid-soluble antioxidant pigments and n-3 PUFA, and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of fatty acids, thus ameliorating the nutritional value of pork fat. Moreover, the supplementation of diets with the carbohydrase mixtures did not change (p > 0.05) neither animal performance nor meat quality traits, indicating their inefficacy in the increase of digestive utilization of C. vulgaris by pigs under these experimental conditions. It is concluded that the use of C. vulgaris in finishing pig diets, at this high incorporation level, improves the nutritional value of pork fat without compromising pig performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0479.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Blood-Brain Barrier; Neurodegeneration; obesity; high-fat diet; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b
Online: 25 November 2021 (13:54:27 CET)
Insulin receptors are internalized by endothelial cells; however, the impact of hyperinsulinemia on this process is not known. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the role of hyperinsulinemia on insulin receptor function and internalization, as well as the potential impact of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). To this end, hippocampal microvessels were isolated from male C57Bl/6J mice on either a control or high-fat diet and assessed for insulin receptor signaling. Cell surface insulin receptors in brain microvascular endothelial cells were labelled with biotin to assess the role hyperinsulinemia plays on receptor internalization in response to stimulation, with and without Claramine treatment, a potent PTP1B antagonist. Our results indicated that insulin receptor levels increased in tandem with insulin receptor dysfunction in the high-fat diet mouse hippocampal microvessels. Hyperinsulinemic cell-receptors demonstrate a shift in splice variation towards decreased IR-A/IR-B ratios and demonstrate a higher membrane-localized proportion. This corresponded with decreased autophosphorylation at sites critical for receptor internalization and signaling, however, Claramine restored signaling and receptor internalization in hyperinsulinemic cells. In conclusion, hyperinsulinemia negatively impacts brain microvascular endothelial cell insulin receptor function and internalization, likely through both alternative splicing and increased negative feedback from PTP1B.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: adipose tissue; non-nutritive sweeteners; artificial sweeteners; high-fat diet; glucose intolerance
Online: 8 June 2021 (15:56:03 CEST)
Sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with metabolic dysfunction, particularly in those with increased risk factors. Artificial sweeteners (AS) are often promoted as a healthier alternative, yet findings remain conflicting as to their effects on metabolic function. Further, there is a lack of data exploring the interaction between AS and high-fat diets (HFD). We therefore examined the effects of HFD and the AS Acesulfame-potassium (Ace-K) on glucose intolerance and adipose tissue physiology in male and female C57BL/6 mice. 40 mice were randomised to receive either a) a control diet (CDCon; standard control diet/water), b) control diet and Ace-k (CDAS; CD/7.5mM AS in drinking water), c) HFD (HFCon; HFD (45%kcal from fat)/water), or d) HF and AS (HFAS; HFD/7.5mM AS in drinking water) for 6 weeks. A HFD increased body weight in male and female mice independently of AS supplementation. AS induced sex-specific effects protecting against HFD-induced hyperglycaemia and adipocyte hypertrophy in male mice and reducing inflammatory gene expression in the adipose tissue. Conversely in females, AS induced hyperinsulinemia in HFD mice and increased expression of immune-related genes. These findings suggest that supplementation of HFD with AS exacerbates metabolic dysfunction in female mice. This work supports the importance of studying sexually dimorphic responses to an altered nutritional environment and highlights the need for further investigation into the intake of AS, particularly in those already at risk of metabolic disease such as the obese or overweight.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: dried Chinese sausage; fat replacement; mango peel pectin; microwave-assisted extraction technique
Online: 11 March 2020 (03:07:13 CET)
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved at 13.85% using 700-watt power. The extracted MPP were of high equivalent weight (1,485.78 mg/mol), degree esterification (77.19%) and methoxyl content (19.33%) with the structure of more porosity as compared to that of the conventional method. Spectrum scans by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) advised that the extracted MPP gave the similar wave number profiles as the commercial pectin. Quality attributes of the Chinese sausages were accessed and compared with the control formula (CTRL). At higher concentrations of MPP, the product had positively increased colour intensity. The texture profile of the sausage illustrated that only the hardness value was comparable with the CTRL, while springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were statistically lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the sensory evaluation by experienced panellists (n=12) indicated that 5% MPP similarly represented overall acceptability with the CTRL. Consequently, MPP can be effectively applied at low level as fat replacement in Chinese sausage allowing colour improvement and product of healthier option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: overweight; obesity; body fat; maximal oxygen uptake; double-blind; randomized controlled trial
Online: 24 August 2018 (07:40:00 CEST)
: Background: Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for many chronic diseases, and weight-loss interventions often include systematic exercising and nutritional supplements. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent/synergistic effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation (6-week, 4.5 g/day) and a systematic physical exercise program (6 weeks/ 2 times) on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of overweight and obese subjects. Methods: 27 overweight and 25 obese sedentary male subjects were assigned to four interventions through a randomized double-blind, crossover controlled trial: Physical exercise program with (SE) or without (Ex) Spirulina maxima or no-exercise program with (Sm) and without (C) Spirulina maxima. Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters were taken during a maximal intensity test. Results: As compared to C group, SE, Sm and Ex groups reduced (p < 0.05) their body fat percentage while improving their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max; r = −0.40), being obese subjects more benefited. Weight loss, time to reach fatigue and onset of blood lactate accumulation were improved in both Spirulina maxima supplemented groups, regardless the subjects’ body composition. Conclusions: Spirulina maxima supplementation synergistically improves the effects of systematic exercise in body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in overweight but mostly in obese adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0041.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; high fat-sucrose diet; metabolomics; HPLC-QTOF-MS; quercetin
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:04:13 CET)
As metabolomics is widely used in the study of disease mechanisms, more and more studies have found that metabolites play an important role in the occurrence of diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of quercetin in high-fat-sucrose diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development using nontargeted metabolomics. A rat model of NAFLD was established by feeding with a HFD for 30 and 50 days. Results indicated quercetin exhibited hepatoprotective activity in HFD-induced NAFLD rats in 30 days by regulating fatty acids related metabolites (adrenic acid, etc.), inflammation related metabolites (arachidonic acid, etc.), oxidative stress related metabolites (2-hydroxybutyric acid) and other differential metabolites (citric acid, etc.). However, quercetin couldn’t improve NAFLD in 50 days maybe it couldn’t reverse the inflammation condition induced by long-term high-fat diet. These data indicate that dietary quercetin may be beneficial to NAFLD at early stages. Furthermore, combining metabolomics and experimental approaches opens up avenues of effects and mechanisms of drugs for complex diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Scum from fat box; Açaí seeds; Thermal processing; Biofuels; Economic analysis; Tech-nical feasibility
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:08:02 CEST)
This work aims to investigate systematically the tecno-economic feasibility of ther-mos-catalytic cracking process for two solid waste materials, a lipid-base material (re-sidual fat/scum from retention box of the University Restaurant of UFPA) and a lig-nin-cellulosic material Açaí seed (Euterpe oleracea. Mart). The thermo-catalytic process-es were carried out in pilot scale (THERMTEK/LEQ/UFPA/IME/RJ), and their economic feasibility analyzed. The yields of biofuels produced by fractional distillation were al-so studied. The physicochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the organic liquid product (bio-oil) and the chemical composition of kerosene, light-diesel and heavy-diesel from the lipid-base material, as well as those of kerosene and light-diesel from the Açaí seed were also determined. The economic indicators for the evaluation of the most viable cracking (pyrolysis) and distillation process of bio-oils were: a) the sim-ple payback criterion, b) discounted payback, c) net present value (NPV), d) internal rate of return (IRR), and e) index of profitability (IP). The analysis of the indicators showed the economic viability of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) and unfeasibil-ity for the palm oil neutralization. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) obtained is this work for the biofuels was of 1.34 US$/L) and the breakeven point obtained was of 1.28 US$/L. The sensibility analysis demonstrated that the pyrolysis and distillation yields are the most important variables to affect the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Residual fat; Red Mud; Chemical activation; Thermal catalytic cracking; Fixed bed reactor; Liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 4 April 2022 (11:54:32 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the effect of catalyst content and reaction time by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, refractive index, and acid value) and chemical composition of organic liquid products (OLP), over a catalyst fixed bed reactor, in semi pilot scale. Pellets of Red Mud chemically activated with 1.0 M HCl were used as catalysts. The experiments were carried out at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a process schema consisting of a thermal cracking reactor of 2.0 L coupled to a catalyst fixed bed reactor of 53 mL, without catalyst and using 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% (wt.) Red Mud pellets activated with 1.0 M HCl, in batch mode. Samples of liquid phase products were withdrawn during the course of reaction at 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 min in order to analyze the process kinetics. The physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, and refractive index) of OLP were determined by official methods. The chemical functions present in OLP determined by FT-IR and the chemical composition by GC-MS. The thermal catalytic cracking of residual fat show OLP yields from 54.4 to 84.88 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 2.21 and 2.80 (wt.%), solid phase yields (coke) between 1.30 and 8.60 (wt.%), and gas yields from 11.61 to 34.22 (wt.%). The yields of OLP increases with increasing catalyst content while those of aqueous, gaseous and solid phase decreases. For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of OLP decreases with increasing reaction time. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes). For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the hydrocarbon content within OLP increases with reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area.). The best results for the physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) and the maximum hydrocarbon content of OLP were obtained at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a catalyst fixed bed reactor, with 5.0% (wt.) Red Mud pellets activated with 1.0 M HCl as catalyst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0703.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tympanic membrane; chronic perforation; fat myringoplasty; success rate; middle ear packing; fibrin glue packing
Online: 30 July 2021 (13:25:54 CEST)
Background: To date, FM using middle ear packing has rarely reported. In this study, we hypothesized that middle ear packing with dexamethasone soaked gelfoam and fibrin glue over the fat graft could promote the success rate of TMP closure regardless of perforation size. Methods: Between January 2005 and July 2020, a total of 209 patients who underwent fat myringoplasty due to chronic TMP at tertiary referral center were encountered and analyzed. The success rate and audiologic outcome was analyzed. Results: The mean successful TM closure rate was 88.0 %. The success rate by different age generation was not significant difference. The size of the perforation grade showed no significant difference. The perforation site by anterior or posterior was not significant. The preoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 55.71, 12.98 and 42.73 dB respectively. The postoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 23.67, 12.98 and 10.69 dB. The change of preoperative and postoperative hearing showed statistically significant. Conclusion: From our results, the simple trimming of the perforation edge and middle ear packing with external ear canal packing using fibrin glue induced the stable adhesion between the remnant TM and the fat graft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0613.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: tempeh; lactic acid bacteria; short chain fatty acids; metabolic syndrome; high fat diet; feces
Online: 31 July 2018 (09:37:51 CEST)
The increased consumption of high fat-containing foods has been linked to the prevalence of obesity and abnormal metabolic syndromes. Rhizopus oligosporus, a fungus in the family Mucoraceae, is widely used as a starter for homemade tempeh. Although R. oligosporus can prevent the growth of other microorganisms, it grows well with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum can produce β-glucosidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucoside isoflavones into aglycones (with greater bioavailability). Therefore, the development of a soybean-based functional food by the co-inoculation of R. oligosporus and L. plantarum is a promising approach to increase the bioactivity of tempeh. In this study, the ameliorative effect of L. plantarum in soy tempeh on abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats was evaluated. The co-incubation of L. plantarum with R. oligosporus during soy tempeh fermentation reduced the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HbA1c, serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and low-density lipoprotein contents and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein content in HFD rats. It also increased the LAB counts as well as the bile acid, cholesterol, triglyceride, and short-chain fatty acid contents in the feces of HFD rats. Our results suggested that the modulation of serum glucose and lipid levels by LAB occurs via alterations in the internal microbiota, leading to the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and promotion of lipolysis. Tempeh, produced with both L. plantarum and R. oligosporus, may be a beneficial dietary supplement for individuals with abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0321.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; flow cytometry; microfragmented fat; NucleoCounter; regenerative medicine; stem cells; UA-ADRCs
Online: 7 November 2022 (12:12:12 CET)
Uncultured, unmodified, autologous, adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs) are a safe and effective treatment option for various musculoskeletal pathologies. However, it is unknown whether the composition of the final cell suspension systematically varies with the subject's individual age, sex, body mass index and ethnicity. UA-ADRCs were isolated from lipoaspirate from n=232 subjects undergoing elective lipoplasty using the Transpose RT system (InGeneron, Inc.; Houston, TX, USA). The UA-ADRCs were assessed for the number of nucleated cells, cell viability and the number of viable nucleated cells per gram of adipose tissue harvested. Cells from n=37 subjects were further characterized using four-channel flow cytometry. The present study shows, for the first time, that key characteristics of UA-ADRCs can be independent of the subject's age, sex, BMI and ethnicity. This result has important implications for the general applicability of UA-ADRCs in regeneration of musculoskeletal tissue. Future studies must determine whether in-dependence of key characteristics of UA-ADRCs of the subject's individual age, sex, BMI and eth-nicity only applies to the system used in the present study, or also to others of the more than 25 different experimental methods and commercially available systems used to isolate UA-ADRCs from lipoaspirate that have been described in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0023.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pSrc; Glutathione; Na/K-ATPase; metabolic prints; metabolomics; NAFLD; NASH; high-fat diet; fibrosis; inflammation
Online: 25 May 2022 (08:37:22 CEST)
BACKGROUND. Two sequelae of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), ESLD and HCC, have become the leading causes for liver transplantation in the Western. The present study aims to approach the cellular metabolic disturbances involved in NASH progression that are associated with microbiota community changes. METHODS. Metabolic effects and microbiota community changes were explored in the murine with NASH progression by blocking the Na/K-ATPase/Src/reactive oxygen amplification loop using the synthetic targeting peptide pNaKtide. DNA from the terminal ileum microbiota habitat was obtained and amplified by PCR to develop DNA bacterial phylogenic sequence analysis of wild type and treated animals at 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Induced changes by pSrc normalization at 24 weeks were correlated with liver morphological changes, intestinal CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and liver macrophage CD14+ expression. Differences among groups were evaluated by ANOVA/t-test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). RESULTS. Microbiota communities varied significantly at all time points (12, 24 and 48 weeks), with an increase of Verrucomicrobia and a decrease of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in the HFD group. Microbiota community changes regressed to their wild-type state at 24 weeks on treated animals, and those changes were associated with a decrease in liver inflammation and senescence, lower ileum CD4+/CD8+ T cells and higher liver CD14+ cells (p<0.05). Concomitantly, the metabolic disturbances in our diet-induced NASH model were normalized by NKA/Src signaling blockage and exercise with a paucity of apoptotic activity, mitigation of cell senescence, and regression of liver fibrosis (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS. pSrc inhibition at caveolar α1-Na/K-ATPase rescinded NASH-related metabolic disturbances establishing resident physiological microbiota communities with concomitant paucity on apoptotic activity and regression of liver fibrosis; effects that were associated with both gut and liver T-lymphocyte responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: residual fat; activated carbon pellets; chemical activation; thermal catalytic cracking; catalyst bed reactor; liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 24 April 2022 (02:55:25 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the influence of reaction time and catalyst-to-residual fat ratio by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) and chemical composition of bio-oils, over a catalyst fixed bed reactor of activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in semi pilot scale. The experiments were carried out at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a process schema consisting of a thermal cracking reactor of 2.0 L coupled to a catalyst fixed bed reactor of 53 mL, without catalyst and using 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in batch mode. Samples of liquid phase products were withdrawn during the course of reaction at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 120 minutes in order to investigate the process kinetics. The physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) of bio-oils were determined by official methods. The chemical composition of bio-oils determined by GC-MS. The thermal catalytic cracking of residual fat show bio-oils yields from 55.55 to 30.22 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 2.83 and 3.19 (wt.%), solid phase yields between 13.56 and 9.75 (wt.%), and gas yields from 27.89 to 55.60 (wt.%). The yields of bio-oil decreases from 74.41 to 30.22% (wt.) with increasing catalyst-to-Tallow kernel oil ratio, while that of gaseous phase increases from 12.87 to 55.60% (wt.). For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of bio-oils decreases as the reaction time increases varying from 0.9266 to 0.8220 g/cm³, 8.10 to 2.24 mm²/s, and 144.14 to 2.37 mg KOH/g. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, ring-containing alkanes, ring-containing alkenes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes). For all the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking experiments, the hydrocarbon selectivity in bio-oil increases with increasing reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area.). The best results for the physicochemical properties density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value were 0.8220 g/cm³, 3.03 mm2/s, and 2.37 mg KOH/g, respectively, with a maximum hydrocarbon concentration of 97.194% (area.) and 2.806% ketones (area.) were obtained at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, 80 minutes, without catalyst. For the catalytic cracking experiments, the maximum hydrocarbon content of 75.763% (area.) and 17.041% (area.) carboxylic acids, 4.702% (area.) ketones (area.), and 2.494% (area.) non-identified oxygenates was obtained at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, 90 minutes, using a catalyst fixed bed reactor, with 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH as catalyst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; xylo-oligosaccharides; metabolites; gut microbiota; biclustering; high fat diet; microRNAs; rats
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:28:31 CET)
We have shown that prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) increased beneficial gut microbiota (GM) and prevented high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, but the mechanisms behind these effects are not clear. We studied whether XOS affects adipose tissue inflammation and insulin signaling, and whether the GM and fecal metabolome explain associated patterns. XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 12-weeks in male Wistar rats (n = 10/group). Previously analyzed GM and fecal metabolites were biclustered to reduce data dimensionality and identify interpretable groups of co-occurring genera and metabolites. Based on our findings, biclustering provides a useful algorithmic method for capturing such joint signatures. On the HFD, XOS-supplemented rats showed lower number of adipose tissue crown-like structures, increased phosphorylation of AKT in liver and adipose tissue as well as lower expression of hepatic miRNAs. XOS-supplemented rats had more fecal glycine and less hypoxanthine, isovalerate, branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids. Several bacterial genera were associated with the metabolic signatures. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of XOS on hepatic steatosis involved decreased adipose tissue inflammation and likely improved insulin signaling, which were further associated with fecal metabolites and GM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0297.v1
Subject: Keywords: Human Milk Fat; TAG; DHA; Fatty Acids; Nutrients; Food Industry; Structured Lipids; LCPUFA; Interesterification; Acidolysis; PA
Online: 18 May 2020 (05:47:46 CEST)
Maternal milk, from well-nourished and healthy mothers, is a source of several bioactive compounds and balanced nutrients required for proper growth and development of the infant. Hence it is regarded as the optimal form of nourishment. Human milk fat from human milk is the most crucial component and is a necessity for the growing infant. However, in certain cases, the breast milk may fulfill the nutritional needs or the breast-feeding of the infant is not feasible; infant formulae are then considered as the best alternative as nutritional support. It becomes essential for the infant formula to behave and provide nutritive support in the same way as human milk. In order to achieve so, the most crucial components of all should also be prepared precisely, i.e., the analogue of human milk fat. This analogue, which mimics the actual human milk fat, can be then used as a prime ingredient while designing the infant formula. Significant research and several advances have been made in preparing the infant formula enriched with adequate fat content, and more studies are still being conducted in order to achieve a more sound product in the most economical and simplest way possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Biomarkers; dietary total fat; pentadecanoic acid; 15:0; heptadecanoic acid; 17:0; odd chain fatty acids.
Online: 15 September 2018 (17:49:08 CEST)
Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) have been described as dietary biomarkers of dairy-fat consumption with varying degrees of reliability between studies. It remains unclear how the total amount of dietary fat; one of the main confounding factors in these biomarker investigations, affects C15:0 and C17:0 circulating compositions independently to their relative intake. Additionally, it is unknown how changes in the dietary total-fat affects other fatty acids in circulation. Through two dietary studies with different total-fat levels but maintaining individual fatty acid compositions we were able to see how the dietary total-fat affects the fatty acids in circulation. We saw that there was a significant, proportionate, and robust decrease in the endogenous C15:0 levels with an increase in dietary total-fat. However, there was an increase in the circulating C17:0 compositions as the total-fat increased. To conclude, the dietary total-fat content and fat-type have a very complex influence on the relative compositions of circulating fatty acids, which are independent to the actual dietary fatty acid composition. Knowing how to manipulate circulating C15:0 and C17:0 composition is far-reaching in nutritional/pathological research as they highlight a dietary route to attenuate the development of metabolic disease (both by reducing risk and improving prognosis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: High fat diet; conditioned place preference; mu opioid receptor; knockout mice; wildtype mice; endogenous opioid system; oxycodone.
Online: 22 January 2023 (03:51:26 CET)
Excessive high fat diet (HFD) consumption can induce food addiction which is believed to involve the communication between the hypothalamus and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These brain regions are densely populated with opioid receptors, raising the possibility that these receptors, and particularly mu opioid receptors (MORs), are involved in mediating reward induced by palatable foods. This study sought to investigate the involvement of MORs in high fat diet (HFD)-induced reward and if there is any difference between male and female subjects in this response. We also assessed if exposure to HFD would potentiate the rewarding action of oxycodone, a relatively selective MOR agonist. The place conditioning paradigm was used to determine if conditioning for a short time (STC, 2 h) or long time (LTC, 16 h) with HFD induces reward or alters the rewarding action of oxycodone. Male and female C57BL/6J mice as well as MOR knockout and wildtype mice of both sexes were tested for basal place preference on day 1 and then conditioned with HFD in one chamber and regular chow diet (RCD) in another chamber and tested for place preference again after three sets of STC and again after a set of LTC. Each set consisted of two conditioning with RCD and two conditioning with HFD. Controls were conditioned with RCD in both conditioning chambers. Following the last place preference test, mice were treated with oxycodone and conditioned in the HFD-paired chamber and saline in the RCD-paired chamber for one hour once a day to explore the possibility if the HFD could alter oxycodone reward. The result showed that HFD induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in both male and female subjects following the LTC. This response was further potentiated after oxycodone conditioning. The latter response was mediated via MORs, as it was blunted in MOR knockout mice. However, HFD-induced CPP was observed following LTC in only female MOR knockout mice, suggesting for sexual dimorphism in this response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0366.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; agricultural wastes; anthocyanins; ruminant nutrition; milk and meat production; fat milk and meat quality
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:52:05 CEST)
The objective was to analyze the effects of adding anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in animal diets. Scientific articles published before 2021 in clinics, pharmacology, nutrition, and animal production were included. The grains/concentrate, metabolic exigency, and caloric stress contribute to increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS); the excess of ROS unbalance the oxidants and antioxidants. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities. In the rumen, anthocyanin might show interactions and/or synergisms with substrates, microorganisms, and enzymes which could reduce the fiber degradability, but increase the potential methane (CH4) emissions; since anthocyanin interferes in the biohydrogenation of fats, they increase the fat milk and meat quality. Anthocyanins reduce plasma oxidation and deposit in tissues, increasing the milk and meat antioxidant activities. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside act as inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEi) and rennin expression which may improve milk yield (there is not enough evidence in ruminants, though). Polyphenols affect the reproductive potential. Sub products of HS contain as many amounts of polyphenols as calyces, and their inclusion in diets would positively affect the average daily gain and fat meat quality. Including HS in ruminant diets can improve the meat and milk quality.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cordyceps militaris; crude polysaccharides; selenium-rich crude polysaccharides; high-fat diet (HFD); obesity; dyslipidemia; hypertriglyceridemia; gut microbiota
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:26:45 CET)
Administration of crude polysaccharides extract from natural product is a promising gut microbiota-targeted approach to preventing obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Dietary restrictions can change the type and number of gut bacteria, which is an important factor in delaying the onset and burden of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high-yield crude polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris (CMP) on high-fat diet (HFD) mice model and the gut microbiota community assembly, and to identify whether selenium (Se) addition would improve CMP action mode during cultivation. We found that the CMP treatment ameliorated adipose and liver pathologic morphology and fat accumulation in obese mice, while, SeCMP intervention was not superior than CMP in body mass gain, but notably decreasing serum triglyceride level increased by HFD. The upregulated expression of gene Cyp7a1 in liver and protein UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) preliminary indicated that the effect might relate to bile acids (BAs) metabolism pathway and thermogenesis. In addition, CMP showed a drastic decrease in the gut microbes which positively correlated with dyslipidemia parameters. Our result reveals the potential of CMP to be used as functional food in the prevention of diet-induced adipose and liver steatosis, so does SeCMP has outstanding capacity of improving dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:38:15 CEST)
Asians are known to more likely than Westerners develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases despite their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1,142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (−) and fatty liver (FL) (−) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL(−) (n = 32); group C, VFA (−) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had higher number of males; BMI; abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels; and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels; FIB4 index; and number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0017.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: LC-MS; mesenchymal stem cells; stromal cells; fat differentiation; lipidomics; metabolomics; proteomics; multiomics; network analysis; mathematical modelling
Online: 2 September 2019 (06:07:17 CEST)
The molecular study of fat cell development in the human body is essential for our understanding of obesity and related diseases. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are the ideal source to study fat formation as they are the progenitors of adipocytes. In this work, we used human MSCs, received from surgery waste, and differentiate them into fat adipocytes. The combination of several layers of information coming from lipidomics, metabolomics and proteomics enabled comprehensive analysis of the biochemical pathways in adipogenesis. Simultaneous analysis of metabolites, lipids and proteins in cell culture is challenging due to the compound’s chemical difference so that most studies involve separate analysis with unimolecular strategies. In this study, we employed a multimolecular approach using a two–phase extraction to monitor the crosstalk between lipid metabolism and protein-based signaling in a single sample (~105 cells). We developed an innovative analytical workflow including standardization with in-house produced 13C-isotopically labeled compounds, hyphenated high-end mass spectrometry (high-resolution Orbitrap MS) and chromatography (HILIC, RP) for simultaneous untargeted screening and targeted quantification. Metabolite and lipid concentrations ranged over 3-4 orders of magnitude and were detected down to the low fmol (absolute on column) level. Biological validation and data interpretation of the multiomics workflow was performed based on proteomics network reconstruction, metabolic modelling (MetaboAnalyst 4.0) and pathway analysis (OmicsNet). Comparing MSCs and adipocytes, we observed significant regulation of different metabolites and lipids such as triglycerides, gangliosides and carnitine with 113 fully reprogrammed pathways. The observed changes are in accordance with literature findings dealing with adipogenic differentiation of MSC. These results are a proof of principle for the power of multimolecular extraction combined with orthogonal LC-MS assays and network construction. Considering the analytical and biological validation performed in this study, we conclude that the proposed multiomics workflow is ideally suited for comprehensive follow-up studies on adipogenesis and is fit for purpose for different applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0212.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: plant polyphenol; EGCG; gelatin; bone formation; congenital bone defect; dedifferentiated fat cell; adipose-derived stem cell; scaffold
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:34:11 CET)
Cost-effective and functionalized scaffolds are in high demand for stem-cell-based regenerative medicine to treat refractory bone defects in craniofacial abnormalities and injuries. One potential strategy is to utilize pharmacological and cost-effective plant polyphenols and biocompatible proteins, such as gelatin. Nevertheless, the use of chemically modified proteins with plant polyphenols in this strategy has not been standardized. Here, we demonstrated that gelatin chemically modified with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin isolated from green tea, can be a useful material for dedifferentiated fat cells and adipose-derived stem cells and can induce bone regeneration in a rat congenial cleft-jaw model in vivo. Vacuum-heated gelatin sponge modified with EGCG (vhEGCG-GS) induced superior osteogenesis from these two cell types compared with vacuum-heated gelatin sponge (vhGS). The EGCG-modification converted the water wettability of vhGS to a hydrophilic property (contact angle: 110° to 3.8°) and the zeta potential to a negative surface charge; the modification enhanced the cell adhesion property and promoted calcium phosphate precipitation. These results suggest that the EGCG-modification with chemical synthesis can be a useful platform to modify the physicochemical property of gelatin. This alteration is likely to provide a preferable microenvironment for multipotent progenitor cells, inducing superior bone formation in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0544.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Bodybuilding; Drug Free; Competing; Peaking; Carbohydrate Loading; Water Loading; Sodium Loading; Fat Loading: Vitamin C; Fibre Restriction
Online: 27 September 2018 (12:58:34 CEST)
Bodybuilders utilize peaking strategies in a bid to fine-tune their aesthetics for competition day. The most prevalent peaking strategies utilized by natural bodybuilders are unreported in the current literature. Eighty-one (M - 59, F - 22) natural bodybuilders were recruited from competitions during the 2016 and 2017 British Natural Bodybuilder Federation seasons. Competitors completed a 34-item questionnaire designed to investigate peaking and contest day strategies. The questionnaire listed commonly utilized peaking strategies and provided additional space for qualitative information. Analysis of the data indicated that carbohydrate (CHO), water and sodium manipulation were the most commonly utilized peak week strategies. The consumption of high glycemic index CHO was the most common competition day strategy. Only 6.2 % of competitors reported following their regular diet the week prior to competition. The CHO manipulation strategies were similar to classical CHO loading, whereby bodybuilders attempt to maximize muscle glycogen concentrations. Furthermore, bodybuilders attempted to remove superfluous water by exploiting the diuretic/polyuria effect associated with water loading/restriction. The potentially deleterious effects of peaking on bodybuilders' health is considered and the efficacy of these strategies to enhance appearance is discussed. The findings of the present investigation are likely to be of interest to bodybuilders and their coaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0505.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: mitochondria dysfunction; reactive oxygen species; hypoxic; D-galactose; high fat diet; aging; hearing loss; mechanisms of hearing loss
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:58:12 CEST)
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly. It is associated with aging and hair cell death due to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Although transgenic mice and long-term cultures for induction of aging have been used to study ARHL, there are presently no ARHL animal models stimulated by intermittent environmental change for aging. In this study, an ARHL animal model was established by inducing continuous oxidative stress to promote short-term aging of cells, determined based on the expression of the hearing loss-induced phenotype and aging related factors in the short term. The incidence of hearing loss was significantly different among the groups subjected to intermittent hypoxic environment, high-fat diet (HFD), and injection with D-galactose. Continuous oxidative stress and HFD were factors that accelerated cellular aging. Increase in UCP2 affected oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. CDH23, SLC26A4, KCNQ4, Myo7a, and Myo6, which are ARHL-related factors, were modified by oxidative stress in cells of the hearing organ. We found that intermittent hypoxic, HFD, and galactose injection accelerated cellular aging in the short term. Thus, we anticipate that the development of this hearing loss animal model, which reflects intermittent environmental changes, will benefit future research on ARHL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cancer; DNA damage; digestive tract diseases; fat profile; lipids; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase; PARP; poly(ADP-ribose); PAR
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:09:03 CET)
Background: Beyond risk factors such as smoking, obesity and others, gastrointestinal cancer often occurs in families and the risk of getting cancer is passed down from parents to offspring. About 5%-10% of gastrointestinal cancers are hereditary (inherited by a gene mutation from one or both parents, predisposing them to develop cancer in their lifetime). Here we describe the clinical history of family members affected by gastrointestinal pathologies which often leaded to cancer. Methods: The subjects were monitored from May 2006 to December 2017 by collecting periodically clinical and endoscopic data, and performing molecular analyses by assaying two biomarkers , auto-modification of lymphocyte Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase as early signal of DNA damage, and erythrocyte membrane lipid composition (Fat Profile). First we focused on the oldest members, nine brothers, and thereafter we considered their offspring. Results: Both groups of subjects developed gastrointestinal pathologies of different kind and seriousness. Some diseases evolved to cancer, sometimes as a sudden and lethal event. The results of the two molecular approaches auto-modification of Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase and Fat Profile), were in agreement and even predicted the clinical and imaging paths. Conclusions: Both non-invasive molecular analyses can be used preliminarly to predict altered physiological states and support clinical and imaging analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intra-body communication; path loss; microwave probes; channel characterization; fat tissue; ex-vivo; phantom; dielectric properties; topology optimization.
Online: 3 July 2018 (15:08:56 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7–2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of 1.4 dB and 3.8 dB per 20 mm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary substitution; CVD; saturated fatty acids; protein; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; dairy fat; refined carbohydrates; whole grains
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:01:53 CEST)
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2); liver; heart; pituitary; mitochondria; lipid metabolism; obesity; hypothyroidism; high fat diet; thyromimetic effects; canonical actions; HPTP axis
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:20:44 CEST)
Thyroid hormones, their metabolites and synthetic analogues are potential anti-steatotic drug candidates considering that subclinical and manifest hypothyroidism is associated with hepatic lipid accumulation, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and its pandemic sequelae. Thyromimetically active compounds stimulate hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid beta-oxidation, cholesterol metabolism and metabolic pathways of glucose homeostasis. Many of these effects are mediated by T3 receptor β1-dependent modulation of transcription. However, rapid non-canonical mitochondrial effects have also been reported, especially for the metabolite 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2), which does not elicit the full spectrum of “thyromimetic” actions inherent to T3. Most preclinical studies in rodent models of obesity and first human clinical trials are promising with respect to the antisteatotic hepatic effects, but potent agents exhibit unwanted thyromimetic effects on the heart and/or suppress feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-periphery axis and the fine-tuned thyroid hormone system. This review focusses on 3,5-T2 effects on hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism and (non-)canonical mechanisms of action including its mitochondrial targets. Various high fat diet animal models with distinct thyroid hormone status indicate species- and dose-dependent efficiency of 3,5-T2 and its synthetic analogue TRC150094. No convincing evidence has been presented for their clinical use in prevention or treatment of obesity and related metabolic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids, lipids, diet, low-fat diet, cancer therapy, cancer metabolism, triple-negative breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, metastasis
Online: 21 December 2022 (10:05:50 CET)
Patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) need new therapies to improve the low survival rates achieved with standard treatments. In this work, we show that the survival of mice with metastatic TNBC can be markedly increased by replacing their normal diet with artificial diets in which the levels of amino acids (AAs) and lipids are strongly manipulated. After observing selective anticancer activity in vitro, we prepared five artificial diets and evaluated their anticancer activity in a challenging model of metastatic TNBC. The model was established by injecting 4T1 murine TNBC cells into the tail vein of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. First-line drugs doxorubicin and capecitabine were used as positive controls. AA manipulation led to modest improvements in mice survival when the levels or lipids were normal. Reducing lipid levels to 1% markedly improved the activity of several diets with different AA content. Mice fed the artificial diets as monotherapy lived longer than mice treated with doxorubicin and capecitabine. An artificial diet without 10 non-essential AAs, with reduced levels of essential AAs, and with 1% lipids improved the survival not only of mice with TNBC but also of mice with other types of metastatic cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: constitutive androstene receptor; cytochrome P450, fibrosis; gender difference; high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diet; necrosis; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats; sulfotransferase, pregnane X receptor; UGP-glucuronosyltransferase
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:54:46 CEST)
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstene receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), were strongly suppressed in HFC fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pancreatic cancer; RNAseq; Humans; Weight loss; Prognosis; Rectus Abdominis; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal; Adipose Tissue; Pancreatic Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neoplasms; Subcutaneous Fat; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; Body Composition; Muscles; Cachexia; Muscular Atrophy; Gene Expression
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:24:10 CET)
The vast majority of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) suffer cachexia. Although cachexia results from concurrent loss of adipose and muscle tissue, most studies focus on muscle alone. Emerging data demonstrate the prognostic value of fat loss in cachexia. Here we sought to identify the muscle and adipose gene profiles and pathways regulated in cachexia. Matched rectus abdominis muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained at surgery from patients with benign conditions (n=11) and patients with PDAC (n=24). Self-reported weight loss and body composition measurements defined cachexia status. Gene profiling was done using Ion proton sequencing. Results were queried against external datasets for validation. 961 DE genes were identified from muscle and 2000 from adipose tissue, demonstrating greater response of adipose than muscle. In addition to known cachexia genes such as FOXO1, novel genes from muscle, including PPP1R8 and AEN correlated with cancer weight loss. All the adipose correlated genes including SCGN and EDR17 are novel for PDAC cachexia. Pathway analysis demonstrated shared pathways but largely non-overlapping genes in both tissues. Age related muscle loss predominantly had a distinct gene profiles compared to cachexia. This analysis of matched, externally validate gene expression points to novel targets in cachexia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatic inflammation; high-fat-cholesterol diet; hypertension; mitogen-activated protein kinase; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway; nuclear factor-kappa B; spontaneously hypertensive rat; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive5/Dmcr; Wistar Kyoto
Online: 14 July 2017 (10:54:38 CEST)
Populations with essential hypertension have a high risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism that underlies the progression of hypertension-associated NASH by comparing differences in the development of high fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced NASH among three strains of rats, i.e., two hypertensive strains comprising spontaneously hypertensive rats and the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr, and the original Wistar Kyoto rats as the normotensive control. We investigated histopathological changes and molecular signals related to inflammation in the liver after feeding with the HFC diet for 8 weeks. The diet induced severe lobular inflammation and fibrosis in the livers of the hypertensive rats, whereas it only caused mild steatohepatitis in the normotensive rats. Increased activation of proinflammatory signaling (transforming growth factor-β1/mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway) was observed in the hypertensive strains fed with the HFC diet. In addition, the HFC diet suppressed the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in the hypertensive rats and led to lower increases in the hepatic expression of heme oxygenase-1, which has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In conclusion, these signaling pathways might play crucial roles in the development of hypertension-associated NASH.