ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: religious fasting; daytime dry fasting; energy expenditure; body composition; microdialysis
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:06:26 CET)
Each year in March, adherents of the Bahá’í faith abstain from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset for 19 days. Thus, Bahá’í fasting (BF) can be considered as a form of daytime dry fasting. We tested if BF decreases energy expenditure after a meal and improves anthropometric measures, and systemic and tissue-level metabolic parameters. This was a self-controlled cohort study with 11 healthy men. We measured anthropometric parameters, metabolic markers in venous blood, and pre- and postprandial energy metabolism at systemic (indirect calorimetry) and tissue (adipose tissue and skeletal muscle microdialysis) level, both before and during BF. During BF, we found reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat and blood glucose. Postprandial increase in energy expenditure was lower, diet-induced thermogenesis tended to be lower. In adipose tissue, perfusion, glucose supply and lipolysis were increased. In skeletal muscle, tissue perfusion did not change. Glucose supply and lipolysis were decreased. Glucose oxidation was increased, indicating an improved insulin sensitivity. BF may be a promising approach to losing weight and improving metabolism and health. However, outside the context of religiously-motivated fasting, skipping a meal rather in the evening (dinner cancelling) might be recommended, as metabolism appears to be reduced in the evening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fasting; weight loss; obese; ketones.
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:08:53 CET)
This case study features an observation of an obese female (body mass index ≥ 30 kgm-2) who undertook a 10-day water and electrolyte fast with the aim of reducing body fat and improving physiological markers of health. A comprehensive range of physiological measures (body mass, girths, blood pressure, body fluid balance, urine osmolarity, and resting oxygen consumption), mood indicators, metabolic markers (blood ketones, blood glucose, breath ketones, urine ketones), and measurement of intake and expenditure (fluid intake, food intake, nutritional macros, steps taken, and estimated movement caloric expenditure) were measured before, during and after the fasting period to determine the effectiveness of undertaking extended therapeutic fasting for improving markers of health and weight loss. Body mass on the first day of the fast was 95.1 kg and on the tenth and final day of the fast it was 88.1 kg representing a loss of 7 kg at a rate of 0.7 kg·day1. Mean body mass in the 15 days after the fast was 88.3 ± 0.4 kg. This case study is novel in reporting key physiological and psychological markers over a 10-day fast, and in pre- and post-fast periods. A 10-day fast appears to be a safe and effective method of weight loss, mood is positively affected by fasting and weight loss from fasting can be sustained providing care is taken in the approach to post-fasting nutrition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Keywords: fasting until noon; Circadian clock genes; fasting until noon; weight loss; overall glycemia; diet induced thermogenesis.
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:02:56 CET)
Abstract: The trend of fasting until noon (omission or delayed breakfast) is increasingly prevalent in modern society. This eating pattern triggers discordance between endogenous circadian clock rhythms and the feeding/fasting cycle and is associated with an increased incidence of obesity and T2D. Although the underlying mechanism of this association is not well understood, growing evidence suggests that fasting until noon, also known as an “extended postabsorptive state,” has the potential to cause a deleterious effect on clock gene expression and disrupted regulation of body weight, postprandial and overall glycemia, skeletal muscle protein synthesis, appetite and may also lead to lower energy expenditure. This manuscript overviews the clock gene-controlled glucose metabolism during the active and resting phases. The consequences of postponing until noon the transition from postabsorptive to fed state on glucose metabolism, weight control, and energy expenditure. Finally, we will discuss the metabolic advantage of shifting more energy, carbohydrates (CH), and proteins to the early hours of the day.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Intermittent fasting; sport nutrition; sport performance; exercis
Online: 7 December 2023 (03:17:47 CET)
Intermittent fasting is one of the most popular types of diet at the moment because it is an effective nutritional strategy in terms of weight loss. The main objective of this review is to analyze the effects that intermittent fasting has on sports performance. We are going to focus on analyzing physical capacities: aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, strength and power, we are also going to analyze its effect on body composition. For this, a bibliographic search was carried out in several databases where 25 research articles were analyzed to clarify these objectives. This review was registered in PROSPERO with code ref. 407024, and an evaluation of the quality or risk of bias was performed. After this analysis, results were obtained regarding the improvement of body composition and the maintenance of muscle mass. Finally, it can be concluded that fasting provides benefits in terms of body composition without reducing physical performance, maintenance of lean mass and improvements in maximum power. But despite this, it is necessary to carry out new studies focusing on the sports field since the samples have been very varied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0743.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: anesthesia; perioperative care; dehydration; fasting; pulmonary aspiration
Online: 11 October 2023 (13:20:04 CEST)
Despite the advancements in evidence-based medicine, many hospitals still maintain high rates of patients undergoing prolonged preoperative fasting. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of prolonged fasting time among patients undergoing elective surgeries at a Brazilian university hospital and its associations with clinical and sociodemographic variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted between May and November 2019 and included patients of all ages undergoing elective surgeries. Out of the 293 patients analyzed, 64.2% were male, with ages ranging from 1 to 85 years, and 93.9% were classified as ASA I or II. The prevalence of preoperative fasting exceeding 8 hours was 89.4%. An average fasting time exceeding 11 hours was observed across all age groups. Patients who underwent procedures in the afternoon had an average fasting time that was 16% longer than those in the morning period (13.84 vs. 11.92, p<0.001). Surgery time (r=0.134, p<0.03) and anesthesia times (r=0.121, p<0.04) demonstrated a weak correlation with fasting time. Despite the international consensus on preoperative fasting time, our study demonstrated low adherence to current recommendations. Therefore, healthcare professionals should ensure the comprehension of fasting guidelines, and further studies should aim to identify effective solutions to mitigate prolonged fasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1517.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: strain echocardiography; diabetes mellitus; fasting blood glucose
Online: 22 September 2023 (07:40:50 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Similar to diabetes, the presence of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function (DD) has been reported in various studies which were conducted with people with a diagnosis of impaired fasting blood glucose (FBG). The study aimed to examine the effects of fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels on left atrial strain (LAS) estimated by two-dimensional echocardiography speckle tracking analyses in patients without known diabetes. Material and Methods: The study included 148 participants (74 female and 74 male) without a history of diabetes mellitus or chronic disease. The patients were divided into two groups as follows: individuals with FBG <100 mg/dl and those with FBG between 100-125 mg/dl after at least 8 hours of overnight fasting and according to these FBG levels STE measures were compared. Results: There was a significant decrease in the LA reservoir (52.3±15 vs. 44.5±10.7; p=0.001) and conduit strain (36.9±11.7 vs. 28.4±9.7; p=0.001) in the impaired FBG group. When the STE findings of both ventricles were compared, no significant difference was observed between the groups in right and LV strain imaging. Conclusion: In the earliest stage of LVDD, changes in atrial functional parameters become particularly evident. Echocardiographic analyses of these parameters can help to diagnose and determine the degree of LVDD while the morphological parameters are still normal. The addition of LAS imaging to the routine TTE study in patients with impaired FBG but without a DM diagnosis may be helpful in demonstrating subclinical LVDD or identifying patients at risk for LVDD in this patient group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, screening, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:12:26 CEST)
Background: Diabetes is a common non-communicable disease that is responsible for about 9% of all deaths and 25% reduction in life expectancy and nearly half of the diabetic patients are not aware of their disease. In this regard, diabetes screening to identify un-known diabetic patients is of great importance. Aims: The aims of this study were first to evaluate the performance of two commonly used diabetes screening tests that are currently recommended by the Iranian national screening program for diabetes (NSPD). Methods: The validities of the two diabetes screening tests were measured among 1057 participants older than 30 years. The studied screening tests included Capillary fasting blood glucose (CBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The golden standard for measuring the validity of the tests was venous fasting plasma glucose (VPG). Results: According to the results, the sensitivity of CBG and HbA1c tests were 69.01% and 84.5% and the specificity of the tests were 95.7% and 79.3% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 53.84% and 97.72% for CBG and 22.72% and 98.61% for HbA1c respectively. The recommended cut-points for CBG and HbA1c were 116.5 mg/dl and 7.15% respectively. Using these values as the new cut-points, sensitivity and specificity of CBG and HbA1c changed to 80.30% and 89.10%, and 77.50% and 94.20% respectively. Conclusions: Compared to several other countries, the performance of NSPD is relatively higher in Iran. ROC analysis suggested new cut-points for significantly better performance of NSPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: ERAS Protocol; nutrition support; fasting; colorectal surgery
Online: 2 October 2018 (22:31:38 CEST)
Traditionally, overnight fasting before elective surgery has been the routine in medical practice for risk reduction of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Several original study and international societies recommend a 2‐h preoperative fast for clear fluids and a 6‐h fast for solids in most elective patients. We conducted a narrative review of the literature, searching electronic databases (Medline and CINAHL). We used PICO approach. The results of our review suggest that nutrition support in the perioperative period is very important to reduce length of hospital stay and reduced postoperative complication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: metabolism; fat oxidation; weight loss; adiposity; fasting; obesity
Online: 14 March 2023 (12:49:24 CET)
Overweight and Obesity (Ow/Ob) is a risk factor for developing cardiometabolic disease, and metabolic dysfunction. Dietary interventions, such as caloric restriction (CR), have been explored but little is known about the acute effects of CR and often such diets are not standardized. PURPOSE: To assess the impact of a standardized 3-day CR diet (~590kcal/d) on cardiometabolic health and fat metabolism in Ow/Ob individuals. METHODS: Fifteen Ow/Ob men and women were assessed pre-post 3-day CR using standardized diet; specifically, body weight/composition (% body fat, visceral fat score (Vfs), waist-hip circumferences, blood pressure and vascular stiffness, resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate utilization (respiratory quotient, RQ), and blood glucose/lipid profile. RESULTS: CR induced changes in body weight (93.1±15.2 to 90.67±14.4 kg, p<0.001, d=1.9), body mass index (32.9±4.0 to 32.0±3.7 kg/m2, p<0.001, d=1.4), body fat (37.2±7.5 to 35.8±7.5%, p=0.002, d=1.1) and Vfs (13.1±4.5 to 12.2±3.9 a.u., p=0.002, d=1.1), but not body water (46.3±3.6 to 46.0±3.6%, p=0.29, d=0.3). CR had no effect on peripheral (86±5 to 89±5 mmHg, p=0.23, d=0.3) or central mean arterial pressure (86±5 to 87±6 mmHg, p=0.44, d=0.2), but lowered augmentation index (29.8±17.5 to 21.5±14.5%, p=0.05, d=0.6). Blood glucose (86±7 to 84±11 mg/dl, p=0.33, d=0.3) and blood lipids (total cholesterol (196±49 to 203±54 mg/dl, p=0.16, d=0.4) and TC/HDL (4.9±2.4 to 6.1±4.7, p=0.13, d=0.4)) were unchanged. RQ decreased with CR (0.84±0.01 to 0.76±0.00, p<0.001, d=1.9), though REE was unchanged (1718±274 to 1722±317 kcal/d, p=0.83, d=0.1). CONCLUSION: The 3-day CR significantly improved body weight and composition and fat metabolism, with minimal cardiovascular effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0140.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Child nutrition; Religion; Ramadan fasting; In-utero exposure
Online: 9 February 2022 (16:00:34 CET)
In this study, we analyse if in-utero exposure to Ramadan fasting period is negatively associated with child nutrition? The data for the analyses come from a retrospective assessment of 924,198 children from 103 demographic and health surveys (DHS) across 56 countries during the period 2003-2020. Considering the month-long Ramadan exposure as a natural experiment, we implement an intent-to-treat framework, comparing outcomes among individuals who were exposed to Ramadan at any time in-utero to those who were not exposed. Our findings do not show significant evidence to conclude that in-utero exposure to Ramadan fasting period is negatively associated with child nutrition. On the contrary, except for stunting in children who had in-utero exposure to Ramadan during the first trimester, among Muslims, we find slightly better nutritional outcomes among children exposed in-utero to Ramadan period. The better nutritional outcomes among children exposed in-utero can be attributed to high nutritious food intake and better hygienic practices during holy months of Ramadan compared to usual months. Our main results are robust to multiple robustness checks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: intermittent fasting; time-restricted eating; bitter taste receptors; appetite; satiety; bitter brake; Amarasate®; water fasting; dietary supplement; calorie restriction
Online: 6 September 2023 (11:20:19 CEST)
Dietary restrictions or reductions such as fasting for weight loss, are often difficult to adhere to in the long term due to increased appetite and food cravings. Recently, gastrointestinal delivery of bitter hops extract has been shown to be effective at reducing appetite in men. Our aim was to determine the effect of bitter hops on appetite and cravings in women, using a day-long, water-only fast. Thirty adult women were recruited and required to fast for 24 h from 1800 h to 1800 h on three occasions and given an ad libitum meal to break each fast. Treatments of either a placebo or one of two doses (high dose; HD: 250 mg or low dose; LD: 125 mg) of a bitter hops-based appetite suppressant (Amarasate®) were given twice per day at 16 and 20 h into the fast. Treatment with both the HD and LD treatment groups exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in appetite and cravings for food. Two participants reported loose stools and one reported heart-burn while on the HD treatment, and one participant reported loose stools while on the LD treatment. These data suggest that appetite suppressant co-therapy may be useful in reducing hunger during fasting in women and shows that gastrointestinal delivery of bitter compounds may also be an effective method of reducing cravings for food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0950.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: fasting; caloric restriction; osteoarthritis; dietary intervention; fasting-mimicking diet; integrative medicine; complementary medicine; Traditional European Medicine; nutrition; multimodal in-tegrative treatment
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:52:40 CEST)
Preliminary clinical data suggest pain reduction through fasting in different diagnoses. This uncontrolled observational clinical study examined the effects of prolonged modified fasting on pain and functional parameters in hip and knee osteoarthritis. Patients admitted to the inpatient department of Internal Medicine and Nature-based Therapies of the Immanuel Hospital Berlin between February 2018 and March 2020, answered questionnaires at the beginning and end of inpatient treatment, as well as 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge. Additionally, selected blood and anthropometric parameters were routinely assessed during the inpatient stay. Fasting was performed as part of a multimodal integrative treatment program, with daily caloric intake of <600 kcal for 7.7 ± 1.7 days. N=125 consecutive patients were included. Results revealed an amelioration of overall symptomatology (WOMAC Index score: -14.8±13.31; p<0.001; d=0.78), and pain alleviation (NRS Pain: -2.7±1.98, p<0.001, d=1.48). Pain medication was reduced, stopped, or replaced by herbal remedies in 36% of patients. Improvements were also observed in secondary outcome parameters, including increased quality of life (WHO-5: +4.5±4.94, p<0.001, d=0.94), reduced anxiety (HADS-A: -2.1±2.91, p<0001, d=0.55) and depression (HADS-D: -2.3±3.01, p<0.001, d=0.65), decreases in body weight (-3.6 kg ± 1.65, p< 0.001, d=0.21), and blood pressure (systolic: -6.2±15.93, p<0.001, d= 0.43; diastolic: -3.7±10.55, p<0.001, d=0.43). Results suggest that patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremities may profit from a prolonged fast embedded in a multimodal integrative treatment regarding quality of life, pain, and disease-specific functional parameters. Confirmatory RCTs are warranted to further investigate these hypotheses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0640.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM); Intermittent Fasting; Machine Learning
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:54:50 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Despite the availability of pharmacological treatments, dietary plans, and exercise regimens, T2DM remains a significant global cause of mortality. Consequently, there is a growing interest in exploring lifestyle interventions, such as Intermittent Fasting (IF). This study aims to identify underlying patterns and principles for effectively improving T2DM risk parameters through IF. By analyzing data from multiple randomized clinical trials investigating various IF interventions in humans, a machine learning algorithm was employed to develop a personalized recommendation system. This system advises pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals on the most suitable IF interventions to improve T2DM risk parameters. With a success rate of 95%, this recommendation system offers highly tailored guidance, optimizing intermittent fasting's benefits for diverse population subgroups. The results of this study allow us to conclude that weight is the crucial feature for females, while age is the determining factor for males to reduce glucose levels in blood. By revealing patterns in diabetes risk parameters among individuals, this study not only provides practical guidance but also sheds light on the underlying mechanisms of T2DM, contributing to a deeper understanding of this complex metabolic disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fasting; refeeding; skeletal muscle; zebrafish; mRNA-sequencing; gene length
Online: 6 May 2022 (14:31:07 CEST)
Recently, fasting has been spotlighted from a healthcare perspective. However, the de-tailed biological mechanisms and significance by which the effects of fasting confer health benefits are not yet clear. Due to certain advantages of zebrafish, as a vertebrate model widely utilized in biological studies, we used mRNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to examine comprehensive gene expression changes in skeletal muscle tissues during fasting-refeeding. Our results produced a novel set of nutrition-related genes under a fasting-refeeding protocol. We found five dramatically upregulated genes in each fasting (for 24 hours) and refeeding (after 3 hours), exhibiting a rapid response to the provided conditional changes. The assessment of the gene length revealed, the gene set whose expression was elevated only after 3 hours of refeeding had a shorter length, suggesting that nutrition-related gene function is associated with gene length. Taken together, our results from bioinformatics analyses provide new insights into biological mechanisms induced by fasting-refeeding conditions within zebrafish skeletal muscle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Intermittent fasting; cognition; brain-related diseases; prevention and progress
Online: 27 August 2021 (16:22:57 CEST)
The importance of diet and the gut-brain axis for brain health and cognitive function is increasingly acknowledged. Dietary interventions are tested for their potential to prevent and/or treat brain disorders. Intermittent fasting (IF), the abstinence or strong limitation of calories for 12 to 48 hours, alternated with periods of regular food intake, has shown promising results on neurobiological health in animal models. In this review article, we discuss the potential benefits of IF on cognitive function and the possible effects on the prevention and progress of brain-related disorders in animals and humans. We do so by summarizing the effects of IF which - through metabolic, cellular and circadian mechanisms - lead to anatomical and functional changes in the brain. Our review shows that there is no clear evidence of a positive short-term effect of IF on cognition in healthy subjects. Clinical studies show benefits of IF for epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis on disease symptoms and progress. Findings from animal studies show mechanisms by which Parkinson’s disease, ischaemic stroke, autism spectrum disorder and mood- and anxiety disorders could benefit from IF. Future research should disentangle whether positive effects of IF hold true regardless of age or the presence of obesity. Also, variations in fasting patterns, total caloric intake and intake of specific nutrients may be relevant components of IF success. Longitudinal studies and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) will provide a window into the long-term effects of IF on the development and progress of brain-related diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0281.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Intermittent fasting; Caloric restriction; Time-restricted eating; Menopausal; Women’s health
Online: 13 April 2023 (02:59:21 CEST)
By shifting eating hours from daytime to nighttime, Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) illustrates how religious beliefs influence human dietary behavior and subsequent anthropometric and metabolic measures. This study aimed to investigate socioeconomic characteristics and examine how observing RIF affects dietary intake, anthropometric indices, and metabolic markers in healthy premenopausal (PRE-M) and post-menopausal (POST-M) Saudi women. Before starting the study, the authors hypothesized that the RIF improves some nutritional aspects and health in respondents, but not after breaking the fast.. The study includes 62 women (31 PRE-M, 21-43 years, and 31 POST-M, 44-68 years). A structured questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic data. Physical activity, anthropometric, dietary, and biochemical assessments were undertaken before RIF and at the end of the third week of Ramadan fasting month. Socioeconomic data varied among respondents. Observing RIF was associated with significantly (at either p ≤ 0.01 or p ≤ 0.05) lower intake of calories, macronutrients, minerals (except for Na), and vitamins than before RIF for both groups. In terms of body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for PRE-M, the percentage of overweight decreased significantly (p≤0.01) while obesity remained unchanged. In contrast, for POST-M, the percentage of overweight increased significantly (p≤0.05), but obesity decreased after RIF. Both groups' waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat (BF), and fat mass (FM) decreased after RIF. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and blood pressure (SBP, DBP) were generally maintained at acceptable normal levels in most responders before and after RIF. However, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly decreased during RIF than before, especially for POST-M. Age, occupation, and monthly income were the most important factors influencing women’s nutritional status and body fat. In conclusion, observing RIF by PRE- and POST-M Saudi women was associated with significant improvements in variable health indicators, with a few exceptions, particularly POST-M, and may help lower risk factors for chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: liver receptor homolog-1; perilipin 5; triglyceride; fasting; lipid droplet
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:36:17 CET)
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has emerged as a regulator of hepatic glucose, bile acid, and mitochondrial metabolism. However, the functional mechanism underlying the effect of LRH-1 on lipid mobilization has not been addressed. This study investigated the regulatory function of LRH-1 in lipid metabolism during fasting. The wild-type (WT) and LRH-1 liver-specific knockout (LKO) mice were either fed or fasted for 24 h, and the liver and serum were isolated. During fasting, the LRH-1 LKO mice showed greater accumulation of triglycerides in the liver compared to that in WT mice. Interestingly, LRH-1 LKO liver decreased the perilipin 5 (PLIN5) expression and genes involved in β-oxidation. Additionally, the LRH-1 agonist dialauroylphosphatidylcholine also enhanced PLIN5 expression in human cultured HepG2 cells. To identify new target genes of LRH-1, these findings directed to analyze the PLIN5 promoter sequence, which revealed −1620/−1614 to be a putative binding site for LRH-1. This was confirmed by promoter activity and chromatin immuno-precipitation assays. Moreover, fasted WT primary hepatocytes showed increased co-localization of PLIN5 in lipid droplets (LDs) compared to that in fasted LRH-1 LKO primary hepatocytes. Overall, these findings suggest that PLIN5 might be a novel target of LRH-1 to mobilize LDs and manage the cellular needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: occupational health; diabetes; glycaemia impairment; impaired fasting glucose; adherence; compliance
Online: 12 March 2018 (07:07:52 CET)
Worldwide epidemiological data indicates insufficient diagnosis of diabetes as an increasing problem of public health. Searching for solutions in this disadvantageous situation, occupational medicine health services seem to open up a unique opportunity to recognize some abnormalities in early steps, especially among the asymptomatic working-age population. 316 workers underwent obligatory prophylactic examinations. In patients with twice assayed FGL ≥ 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) the additional intervention was implemented, including further diagnostic process and therapy in General Practice (GP), followed by examination by an occupational health specialist within 3 months. The diagnosis of previously unknown diabetes was established among 2.5% of examined workers. All patients referred to the GP due to detected glycaemia impairment visited their doctor and finished the diagnostic process, took up therapy constrained by the occupational health physician to show the effects of intervention within 3 months. Prophylactic medical check-ups allow improved compliance and medical surveillance over glycaemia impairment in patients with prediabetes states, unknown diabetes or uncontrolled clinical course of diabetes. Considering fasting glucose level during mandatory prophylactic examination helps effective prevention of diabetes and its complications and thus give public health system benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1903.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fasting; autophagy; long-COVID; post-vaccination syndrome; spike protein; mitochondria; mitophagy
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:33:46 CEST)
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology and the role of interventions to upregulate autophagy, including compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention for spike protein related diseases; with broad implications for human health. This review presents the therapeutic possibility of using autophagy to treat spike protein related diseases, and details the interventions to deploy this therapeutic modality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fasting; autophagy; long-COVID; post-vaccination syndrome; spike protein; mitochondria; mitophagy
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:39:57 CEST)
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology. Additionally, we discuss factors that affect fasting, such as duration, type (dry vs. water), and the role of specific compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. Furthermore, we analyse the interactions between fasting and other practices such as exercise, and highlight important considerations regarding participant characteristics, including pregnancy, breastfeeding, medication interactions, and metabolic disorders. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention with broad implications for human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: meal timing; meal frequency; skipping meals; fasting; obesity; metabolic syndrome; diabetes
Online: 22 March 2022 (04:20:50 CET)
Individuals with metabolic syndrome have increased risk for developing health conditions, in-cluding cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Modifiable risk factors, such as exercise and diet, are key components in the prevention and control of metabolic syndrome. Specifically, dietary pat-terns and habits are extremely successful in controlling more than one of the metabolic syn-drome risk factors. Meal timing and frequency have been associated with type 2 diabetes, cardi-ovascular diseases, and other chronic conditions. However, there is limited evidence linking metabolic syndrome to meal timing and meal frequency. This review summarizes and discusses how meal timing and frequency impact metabolic outcomes in adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Integrative review; Short-term Calorie Reduction; Fasting; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Calorie Restriction
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:41:11 CEST)
Recent preclinical studies have shown the potential benefits of short-term calorie reduction (SCR) on cancer treatment. In this integrative review, we aimed to identify and synthesize current evidence regarding the feasibility, process, and effects of SCR in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched for original research articles using various combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms. Among the 311 articles identified, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the reviewed studies was small randomized controlled trials or cohort study with fair quality. The results suggest that SCR is safe and feasible. SCR is typically arranged around the chemotherapy with the duration ranging from 24 to 96 hours. Most studies examined the protective effects of SCR on normal cells during chemotherapy. The evidence supports that SCR had the potential to enhance both physical and psychological wellbeing of patients during chemotherapy. SCR is a cost-effective intervention with great potential. Future well-controlled studies with sufficient sample sizes are needed to examine the full and long-term effects of SCR and its mechanism of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Intermittent fasting; glucose tolerance; hepatic steatosis; adipose tissue; reverse cholesterol transport; atherosclerosis.
Online: 9 January 2023 (10:49:54 CET)
In humans and animal models, intermittent fasting (IF) interventions promote body weight loss, improve metabolic health, and are thought to lower cardiovascular disease risk. However, there is a paucity of reports on the relevancy of such nutritional interventions in the context of dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The present study assessed the metabolic and atheroprotective effects of intermittent fasting intervention (IF) in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. Groups of male and female Apoe-/- mice were fed a regular (chow) or atherogenic (high-fat, high-cholesterol, HFCD) diet for 4 months, either ad libitum or in an alternate-day fasting manner. The results show that IF intervention improved glucose and lipid metabolism independently of sex. However, IF only decreased body weight gain in males fed chow diet and differentially modulated adipose tissue parameters and liver steatosis in a diet composition-dependent manner. Finally, IF prevented spontaneous aortic atherosclerotic lesions formation in mice fed chow diet, irrespective of sex but failed to reduce HFCD-diet-induced atherosclerosis. Overall, the current work indicates that IF interventions can efficiently improve glucose homeostasis and treat atherogenic dyslipidemia, but a degree of caution is warranted with regard to the individual sex and the composition of the dietary regimen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: gut microbiome; time-restricted feeding; intermittent fasting; targeted approach; hormonal signaling; metabolic regulators
Online: 24 October 2022 (12:00:48 CEST)
Each individual has a unique gut microbiota; therefore the genes in our microbiome outnumber the genes in our genome by about 150 to 1. Perturbation in host nutritional status influences gut microbiome composition and vice versa. The gut microbiome can help in producing vitamins, hormones, and other active metabolites that support the immune system; harvest energy from food; aid in digestion; protect against pathogens; improve gut transit and function; send signals to the brain and other organs, oscillating the circadian rhythm and coordinate with host metabolism through multiple cellular pathways. Gut microbiota can be influenced by host genetics, medications, diet, and lifestyle factors from preterm to aging. So before prescribing a customized treatment, it is crucial to monitor and count the gut flora as a focused biomarker. Many nutritional approaches that have been developed help in maintaining and restoring an optimal microbiome such as specific diet therapy, nutrition interventions and customized eating patterns. One of these approaches is time-restricted feeding/eating (TRF/E), a type of intermittent fasting (IF) in which a subject abstains from food intake for a specific time window. Such a dietary modification might alter and restore the gut microbiome for proper alignment of cellular and molecular pathways throughout the lifespan. In this review, we have highlighted that gut microbiota would be a targeted biomarker and TRF/E would be a targeted approach for restoring the gut microbiome associated molecular pathways like hormonal signaling, the circadian system, metabolic regulators, neural responses, and immune-inflammatory pathways. Consequently, modulation of gut microbiota through TRF/E could contribute in proper utilization and availability of the nutrients and in this way confer protection against diseases for harnessing personalized nutrition approaches to improve human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0417.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: circadian alteration; light cycle; intermittent fasting; temperature cycle; animal research; experimental model; open-source hardware
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:35:23 CET)
Exposure of experimental rodents to controlled cycles of light, food, and temperature is important when investigating alterations in circadian cycles that profoundly influence health and disease. However, applying such stimuli simultaneously is difficult in practice. Our aim was to design, build, test, and open-source describe a simple device that subjects a conventional mouse cage to independent cycles of physiologically relevant environmental variables. The device is based on a box enclosing the rodent cage to modify the light, feeding, and temperature environments. The device provides temperature-controlled air conditioning (heating or cooling) by a Peltier module and includes programmable feeding and illumination. All functions are set by a user-friendly front panel for independent cycle programming. Bench testing with a model simulating the CO2 production of mice in the cage showed: a) suitable air renewal (by measuring actual ambient CO2), b) controlled realistic illumination at the mouse enclosure (measured by a photometer), c) stable temperature control, and d) correct cycling of light, feeding, and temperature. The cost of all the supplies (retail purchased by e-commerce) was < 300 US$). Detailed technical information is open-source provided, allowing for any user to reliably reproduce or modify the device. This approach can considerably facilitate circadian research since using one of the described low-cost devices for any mouse group with a given light-food-temperature paradigm allows for all the experiments to be performed simultaneously, thereby requiring no changes in the light/temperature of a general-use laboratory.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: lactation; physiology-based lactation models; drug exposure prediction; fasting; drug safety; newborn; infant; human milk
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:11:05 CEST)
There are guidelines on lactation following maternal analgo-sedative exposure, but these do not consider the effect of maternal fasting, nor fluid abstention on human milk macronutrient composition. We therefore performed a structured search (PubMed) on ‘human milk composition’ and screened title, abstract and full paper on ‘fasting’ or ‘abstention’ and ‘macronutrient composition’ (lactose, protein, fat, solids, triglycerides, cholesterol). This resulted in 6 papers and one abstract related to religious fasting (n=129 women) and observational studies in lactating women (n=23, healthy volunteers, fasting). These data reflect two different ‘fasting’ patterns: an acute (18-25h) model in 71 (healthy volunteers, Yom Kippur/Ninth of Av) women and a chronic fasting (Ramadan) model in 81 women. Changes were most related to electrolytes and were moderate, with almost no changes in macronutrients during acute fasting. We therefor conclude that neither short term fasting nor fluid abstention (18-25h) affect human milk macronutrient composition, so that women can be reassured when this topic were raised during consulting. Besides the nutritional relevance, this also matters as clinical research samples – especially to estimate analgo-sedative exposure by lactation - are commonly collected after maternal procedural sedation, associated with maternal fasting and physiology-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models assume stable human milk composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1547.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; mental health; interventions; hyperbaric oxygen therapy; cryotherapy; dietary patterns; fasting; light therapy; probiotics; exercise; metabolic markers
Online: 22 September 2023 (10:18:19 CEST)
Background: Depression, a multifaceted mental health condition, necessitates a multidimensional approach to treatment. This study aimed to elucidate the potential efficacy of various mitochondrial interventions, ranging from pharmacological treatments to lifestyle modifications, in alleviating depressive symptoms and enhancing overall mental well-being and assess the diverse range of mitochondrial assessments for managing depression by synthesizing findings from selected studies. Methods: A systematic compilation of studies, employing observational, interventional, and animal-based designs, was undertaken to elucidate the intricate relationship between mitochondrial function and depression as well as depressive signs and symptoms. The PRISMA guidelines were employed for conducting this review and a specific set of selection criterion were formulated by a team of reviewers for selection of relevant papers. Results: The synthesized results from the 21 selected papers highlighted the potential of these interventions to target diverse aspects of depression. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and psychotherapy demonstrated significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores, with hyperbaric oxygen therapy particularly effective in improving nerve function and daily living activities. Whole-body cryotherapy displayed substantial improvements in depressive symptoms and quality of life. Frequent sauna bathing exhibited a lower risk of depressive symptoms in males. Dietary patterns, including Paleolithic and Mediterranean diets, showcased potential protective effects against depression, anxiety, and stress. The ketogenic diet revealed promise in ameliorating depression and psychosis symptoms alongside positive metabolic changes. Fasting interventions, though challenging, were associated with lower anxiety and depression levels without increased fatigue. Bright white light therapy enhanced remission rates and reduced depression scores in bipolar depression. Probiotic supplementation exhibited potential in reducing depression scores and improving metabolic markers, although further investigation is warranted. Conclusion: The diverse array of interventions explored in this study underlines the multifaceted nature of depression treatment. While these findings offer hope for more personalized and effective approaches, it is imperative to consider the variability in study designs, sample sizes, and methodologies among the selected papers. The mechanisms underlying the observed effects remain partially understood, emphasizing the need for continued mechanistic research. This study sets the stage for future investigations and clinical practices, showcasing the potential of various interventions in mitigating the challenges posed by depression and paving the way for more effective treatment strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: intermittent food-restriction; mindfulness; self-efficacy; well-being; mixed methods; health behaviour; coping ability; religiously motivated fasting
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:58:32 CET)
Background / Objective: Historically, fasting has not only been practiced for medical but also for religious reasons. Bahá’ís follow an annual religious fast of 19 days. We assessed motivation behind and subjective health impacts of Bahá’í fasting. Methods: A convergent parallel mixed methods design was embedded in a clinical single arm observational study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six fasters before, during and after fasting. Three months after the fasting period, two focus group interviews were conducted. 146 Bahá’í volunteers answered an online survey at five time points before, during and after fasting. Results: Interviews: Fasting was found to play a central role for the religiosity of interviewees, implying changes in daily structures, spending time alone, engaging in religious practices, and experiencing social belonging. Results show an increase in mindfulness and well-being, accompanied by behavioural changes and experiences of self-efficacy and inner freedom. Survey: Scores point to an increase in mindfulness and well-being during fasting, while stress, anxiety and fatigue decreased. Mindfulness remained elevated even three months after the fast. Conclusion: Bahá'í intermittent dry fast seems to enhance participants’ mindfulness and well-being, lowering stress levels and reducing fatigue. Some of these effects lasted more than three months after fasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ketogenic diet; intermittent fasting; neurological disorders; stroke; epilepsy; traumatic brain injury; headache; Alzheimerʹs disease; behavioral disease; cancer; obesity
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:40:01 CEST)
Non-pharmacologic options like the ketogenic diet (KD) and intermittent fasting (IF) are practical nutritional interventions with minor reported side effects like gastrointestinal symptoms, dyslipidemia, and hypomagnesemia for various medical ailments. In conjunction with IF, KD shows promise in weight loss, diabetes management, cardiovascular disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome, cancer, and chronic neurological disorders. Based on prior research, we have examined the mechanism of action of KD and IF and their effect on neurological diseases, cancer, and obesity. We have also suggested evidence-based recommendations for the safer practice of KD and IF. Despite potential benefits, long-term adherence to KD poses challenges. Periodic KD implementation may thus benefit newly diagnosed overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aiding blood glucose and lipid management while promoting weight loss. KD is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet with a ratio of fat to carbohydrates and protein being 4:1 or 3:1, and thus, for peripheral tissues and the brain, fatty acids become the mandatory source of cellular energy. Ketone bodies have been used as the primary energy source during fasting. KD has been utilized as an effective treatment for refractory epilepsy since the 1920s. Evidence of the neuroprotective role of KD in diseases like epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurological diseases has been noted. Since the 1960s, KD has become a popular method for obesity treatment. In addition, KD has been suggested as a potent anticancer therapy when used alone or as an adjuvant. KD may increase tumor cell sensitivity when combined with classic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, the probability that modifying the diet can help manage obesity, cancer, and chronic neurological disease without depending on pharmacological treatment and their serious side effects for a lifetime is promising and requires further investigation. KD holds promise as a potential adjunctive therapy in various neurological disorders, offering new avenues for treatment and neuroprotection. IF has shown potential in slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's by promoting antioxidant defense and suppressing inflammation. KD and IF show promise in cancer therapy by targeting altered cancer cell metabolism. Additionally, KD may enhance the effects of standard treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Some of the most robust reports of keto's possible benefits have come from glioblastoma, a very aggressive brain cancer. KD has also shown strong evidence for its effectiveness in weight loss, mainly attributed to its appetite-suppressing action in ketosis. However, long-term adherence to KD can be challenging, and periodic KDs may help manage blood glucose and lipid levels in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Likewise, IF may be more effective than regular calorie restriction for achieving weight loss goals when combined with exercise programs. More prospective human studies are warranted to evaluate both KD and IF's potential therapeutic effectiveness and safety.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0571.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: diet; calorie restriction; ketosis; fasting; health span; lifespan; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; chronic non-communicable diseases; low-calorie; low-carb
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:06:01 CEST)
As Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCD) increase, preventive approaches become more crucial. In this review, Calorie Restriction (CR) effects on human beings were evaluated, comparing benefits and risks of different CR diets: classic CR vs ketosis-inducing diets, including Intermittent Fasting (IF), Classic Ketogenic Diet (CKD), Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD), Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) and Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet (SKMD). Special emphasis on Insulin Resistance (IR) was placed, as it mediates Metabolic Syndrome (MS), a risk factor for CNCD, and predicts MS diagnosis. CR is the most robust intervention known to increase lifespan and health span, with high evidence and known biochemical mechanisms. CR improves cardiometabolic risk parameters, boosts exercise insulin sensitivity response, and there may be benefits of implementing moderate CR on healthy young and middle-aged individuals. However, there is insufficient evidence to support long-term CR. CKD is effective for weight and MS management, and may have additional benefits such as prevention of muscle loss and appetite control. SKMD has extreme significance benefits for all the metabolic parameters studied. Studies show inconsistent benefits of IF compared to classic CR. More studies are required to study biochemical parameters, reinforce evidence, identify risks, and seek effective and safe nutritional CR approaches.