ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: network; topology; integration; segregation; fMRI
Online: 10 July 2017 (05:48:41 CEST)
Recent methodological advances have enabled researchers to track the network structure of the human brain over time. Together, these studies provide novel insights into effective brain function, highlighting the importance of the systems-level perspective in understanding the manner in which the human brain organizes its activity to facilitate behavior. Here, we review a range of recent fMRI and electrophysiological studies that have mapped the relationship between inter-regional communication and network structure across a diverse range of brain states. In doing so, we identify both behavioral and biological axes that may underlie the tendency for network reconfiguration. We conclude our review by providing suggestions for future research endeavors that may help to refine our understanding of the functioning of the human brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: BCI, rt-fMRI, MI, DWGC, svm
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:43:14 CEST)
This article presents a method for extracting neural signal features to identify the imagination of left and right hand grasping movements. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment is employed to identify four brain regions with significant activations during motor imagery(MI) and the effective connections between these regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated using Dynamic Window-level Granger Causality (DWGC). Then, a real-time fMRI(rt-fMRI) classification system for left and right hand MI is developed using the Open-NFT platform. The experimental results show that incorporating effective connections can enhance the average accuracy of real-time three-class classification (rest, left hand and right hand) by 3% in comparison to traditional multivoxel pattern classification analysis(MVPA). Moreover, it significantly improves classification accuracy during the initial stage of MI tasks while reducing the latency effects in real-time decoding. The study suggests that the effective connections obtained through the DWGC method serve as valuable features for real-time decoding of MI using fMRI. Moreover, they exhibit higher sensitivity to changes in brain states. This research offers theoretical support and technical guidance for extracting neural signal features in the context of fMRI-based studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Consciousness Field; functional connectivity; task fMRI
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:54:17 CEST)
Task fMRI has played a critical role in recognizing the specific functions of the different regions of human brain during various cognitive activities. This study aimed to investigate group analysis and functional connectivity in the Faradarmangars brain during the Faradarmani CF (FCF) connection. Using task functional MRI (task-fMRI), we attempted the identification of different activated and deactivated brain regions during the Consciousness Filed connection. Clusters that showed significant differences in peak intensity between task and rest group were selected as seeds for seed-voxel analysis. Connectivity of group differences in functional connectivity analysis was determined following each activation and deactivation network. In this study, we report the fMRI-based representation of the FCF connection at the human brain level. The group analysis of FCF connection task revealed activation of frontal lobe (BA6/BA10/BA11). Moreover, seed based functional connectivity analysis showed decreased connectivity within activated clusters and posterior Cingulate Gyrus (BA31). Moreover, we observed an increased connectivity within deactivated clusters and frontal lobe (BA11/BA47) during the FCF connection. Activation clusters as well as the increased and decreased connectivity between different regions of the brain during the FCF connection, firstly, validates the significant effect of the FCF and secondly, indicates a distinctive pattern of connection with this non-material and non-energetic field, in the brain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Parenting; brain; development; fmri; child development
Online: 14 October 2020 (15:22:41 CEST)
Parenting has been robustly associated with offspring psychosocial development, and these effects are likely reflected in brain development. However, the claim that parenting influences offspring brain development in humans, as measured by structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is subject to numerous methodological limitations. To interpret the state of the parenting and brain development literature, we review these limitations. Four limitations are common. First, most literature has been cross-sectional. Where longitudinal, studies rarely included multiple assessments of brain structure or function, precluding measurement of actual brain development. Second, parenting has largely been measured via selfor parent-report, as opposed to observational assessment. Third, there has been a focus on extreme forms of developmental adversity which do not necessarily lie on a continuum with normative parenting. Fourth, although not a limitation per se, studies have generally focused on negative as opposed to positive parenting behaviours. While not all studies are subject to all these limitations, the study of parenting in relation to offspring brain development is in its infancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: lines; brain; topology; curvature; Dickinsonia; fMRI
Online: 15 October 2018 (10:36:18 CEST)
Geometry deals both with analogical thinking and physical/biological observables. Naïve, common-sense descriptions of objects’ shapes and systems’ trajectories in geometric phase spaces may help experimental investigation. For example, very different biological dynamics, as the developmental growth patterns of the oldest known animal (the extinct Dickinsonia) and the human brain electric oscillations, display a striking analogy: when encompassed in abstract geometric spaces, their paths describe the same changes in curvature: from convex, to flat, to concave and vice versa. This dynamical behavior, anticipated by Nicholas de Cusa in his analogical account of “coincidentia oppositorum” (1440), helps to describe widespread biological paths in the manageable terms of concave, flat and convex curves on donut-like structures. Every trajectory taking place on such toroidal manifolds can be located, through a topological technique called Hopf fibration, into a four-dimensional space. We discuss how the correlation between Hopf fibration and Navier-Stokes equations allows us to treat the above-mentioned biological and neuroscientific curved paths in terms of flows taking place into a viscous fluid medium that can be experimentally assessed and quantified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0890.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: BOLD Signal Variability; Pediatrics; Biomarker; fMRI; Neurodevelopment
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:16:11 CEST)
Background: As pediatric BOLD SV is relatively novel, there is a need to provide a foundational framework that gives researchers an entry point into engaging with the topic. This begins with clarifying the definition of BOLD variability by identifying and categorizing the various metrics utilized to measure BOLD SV; Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Inclusion criteria were restricted to studies utilizing any metric of BOLD signal variability (BOLD SV) and with individuals younger than 18 in the study population. The definition of BOLD SV was any measure of intra-individual variability in the BOLD signal. Five databases were searched: Psychinfo, Healthstar, Medline, Embase, and Scopus; Results: Seventeen observational studies, including male (n =1796) and female (n =1324) pediatric participants were included. Eight studies quantified variability as the amount of deviation from average BOLD signal, 7 used complexity-based metrics, 3 used correlation measures of variability, and 1 used structure of the hemodynamic response function. Ten methods of quantifying signal variability were identified. Associations and trends in BOLD SV were commonly found with age, factors specific to mental and/or neurological disorders like attention deficit disorder, epilepsy, psychotic symptoms, and performance on psychological and behavioral tasks. Conclusions: BOLD SV is a potential biomarker of neurodevelopmental and neurological conditions and symptom severity in mental disorders for defined pediatric populations. Studies that establish clinical trends and identify the mechanisms underlying BOLD SV with a low risk of bias are needed before clinical applications can be utilized by physicians
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0217.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: decision making; dynamic activation; fMRI; visualization; deconvolution
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:46:46 CEST)
Decision making is a complex process involving various parts of the brain which are active during different times. It is challenging to measure externally the exact instance when any given region becomes active during the decision-making process. Here we try to extract and visualize the dynamic functional brain activation information from the observed fMRI data. We propose the use of a regularized deconvolution model to simultaneously map various activation regions within the brain and track how different activation regions changes with time. Thus, providing both spatial and temporal brain activation information. The activation information can then be further analyzed as per need and requirements. The proposed technique was validated using simulated data and then applied to a simple decision-making task for identification of various brain regions involved in different stages of decision making. The visualization aspect of the algorithm allows us to actually see the flow of activation (and deactivation) in form of a motion picture. The dynamic estimate may aid in understanding the causality of activation between various brain regions in a better way.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: subjective cognitive decline; preclinical dementia; fMRI; compensation
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:17:11 CET)
Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) is a possible earliest detectable sign of dementia, but we do not know what mental processes lead to elevated concern. We summarize the previous literature on the biomarkers and functional neuroanatomy of SCD. To extend the current most-popular theory of SCD, compensatory hyperactivition, we introduce a new model: breakdown of homeostasis in the prediction error minimization system. A cognitive prediction error is a discrepancy between an implicit cognitive predictions and the corresponding outcome. Experiencing frequent prediction errors may be a primary source of elevated subjective concern. Our homeostasis breakdown model explains the progression both from normal cognition to SCD and from SCD to advanced dementia stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1626.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: alcohol; brain networks; adolescents; resting-state connectivity; fMRI
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:20:04 CEST)
Approximately 6 million youth aged 12 to 20 consume alcohol monthly in the United States. The effect of alcohol consumption in adolescence on behavior and cognition is heavily researched, however, little is known about how alcohol consumption in adolescence may alter brain function, leading to long-term developmental detriments. In order to investigate differences in brain connectivity associated with alcohol use in adolescents, brain networks were constructed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected by the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) from 698 youth (12-21 years, 117 hazardous drinkers and 581 no/low drinkers). Analyses assessed differences in brain network topology based on alcohol consumption in eight pre-defined brain networks, as well as in whole-brain connectivity. Within the central executive network (CEN), basal ganglia network (BGN), and sensorimotor network (SMN), no/low drinkers demonstrated stronger and more frequent connections between highly globally efficient nodes, with fewer and weaker connections between highly clustered nodes. Inverse results were observed within the dorsal attention network (DAN), visual network (VN), and frontotemporal network (FTN), with no/low drinkers demonstrating weaker connections between nodes with high efficiency and increased frequency of clustered nodes compared to hazardous drinkers. Results from this study show clear organizational differences between adolescents with no/low or hazardous alcohol use, suggesting that aberrant connectivity in these brain networks is associated with risky drinking behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: disorders of consciousness; EEG; fMRI; PET; fNIRS; multimodal
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:38:12 CEST)
Accurate evaluation of patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is crucial for personalized treatment. However, misdiagnosis remains a serious issue. Neuroimaging methods could observe the conscious activity in patients who have no evidence of consciousness in behavior, and provide objective and quantitative indexes to assist doctors in their diagnosis. In the review, we discussed the current research based on the evaluation of consciousness rehabilitation after DoC using EEG, fMRI, PET, and fNIRS, as well as the advantages and limitations of each method. Nowadays single-modal neuroimaging can no longer meet the researchers` demand. Considering both spatial and temporal resolution, recent studies have attempted to focus on the multi-modal method which can enhance the capability of neuroimaging methods in the evaluation of DoC. As neuroimaging devices become wireless, integrated, and portable, multi-modal neuroimaging methods will drive new advancements in brain science research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: fMRI; MVPA; PPI; dACC; occipital lobe; occluded object recognition
Online: 30 August 2023 (15:28:29 CEST)
Recognizing highly occluded objects is believed to arises from the interaction between the brain's vision and cognition controlling areas, although supporting neuroimaging data is currently limited. To explore the neural mechanism during this activity, we conducted an occlusion object recognition experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During magnet resonance examinations, 66 subjects engaged in object recognition tasks with three different occlusion degrees. Generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed that the activation degree of occipital lobe (inferior occipital gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and occipital fusiform gyrus) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was related to the occlusion degree of the objects. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) further unearthed a considerable surge in classification precision when dACC activation was incorporated as a feature. This suggested the combined role of dACC and occipital lobe in occluded object recognition tasks. Moreover, psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis disclosed that functional connectivity (FC) between the dACC and the occipital lobe was enhanced with increased occlusion, highlighting the necessity of FC between these two brain regions in effectively identifying exceedingly occluded objects. In conclusion, these findings contribute to understanding the neural mechanisms of highly occluded objects recognition, augmenting our appreciation of how the brain manages incomplete visual data.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: CSD, non-linear dynamic model, EEG/MEG, fMRI, GABA
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:18:43 CEST)
This review describes the subjective experience of visual aura in migraine, outlines theoretical models of this phenomenon, and explores how these may be linked to neurochemical, electrophysiological and psychophysical differences in sensory processing that have been reported in migraine with aura. Reaction-diffusion models have been used to model the hallucinations thought to arise from cortical spreading depolarisation and depression in migraine aura. One aim of this review is to make the underlying principles of these models accessible to a general readership. Cortical spreading depolarisation and depression in these models depends on the balance of the diffusion rate between excitation and inhibition, and the occurrence of a large spike in activity to initiate spontaneous pattern formation. We review experimental evidence, including recordings of brain activity made during the aura and attack phase, self-reported triggers of migraine, and psychophysical studies of visual processing in migraine with aura, and how these might relate to mechanisms of excitability that make some people susceptible to aura. Increased cortical excitability, increased neural noise, and fluctuations in oscillatory activity across the migraine cycle are all factors likely to contribute to the occurrence of migraine aura. There remain many outstanding questions relating to the current limitations of both models and experimental evidence. Nevertheless, reaction-diffusion models, by providing an integrative theoretical framework, support the generation of testable experimental hypotheses to guide future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0153.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Open-science; big data; fMRI; data sharing; data management
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:53:33 CEST)
Large datasets that enable researchers to perform investigations with unprecedented rigor are growing increasingly common in neuroimaging. Due to the simultaneous increasing popularity of open science, these state-of-the-art datasets are more accessible than ever to researchers around the world. While analysis of these samples has pushed the field forward, they pose a new set of challenges that might cause difficulties for novice users. Here, we offer practical tips for working with large datasets from the end-user’s perspective. We cover all aspects of the data life cycle: from what to consider when downloading and storing the data, to tips on how to become acquainted with a dataset one did not collect, to what to share when communicating results. This manuscript serves as a practical guide one can use when working with large neuroimaging datasets, thus dissolving barriers to scientific discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0041.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: functional network connectivity; fMRI; graph metrics; node size; brain networks
Online: 2 October 2023 (08:39:56 CEST)
Network neuroscience delves into comprehending the intricate arrangement and interactions within the neural networks of the brain. By merging insights from both neuroscience and network theory, it investigates the brain's structure and function through the lens of interconnected nodes (symbolizing brain regions) and edges (symbolizing the connections among these regions) forming a dynamic network. Graph metrics play a pivotal role in neuroscience by providing quantifiable insights into the intricate connectivity patterns within the brain's neural networks. Frequently, nodes are extracted from functional or structural atlases, which can lead to diverse shapes and sizes. Nevertheless, our understanding of how these differing node characteristics and definitions impact the computed graph metrics in neuroimaging data remains limited. This study adopts a data-driven methodology to delineate functional nodes, subsequently examining the influence of their sizes on resultant graph metrics. By employing the Neuromark framework, an entirely automated independent component analysis (ICA) is applied to resting state fMRI data. Through this, functional network connectivity (FNC) matrices are computed—capturing Pearson correlations between component-time courses—while employing a proportional threshold to streamline node connections based on these correlations. Subsequently, various global and local graph metrics are computed, offering insights into network characteristics. Global metrics provide an overarching summary of the network structure, while local measures delve into structural intricacies at the individual component level. Node sizes are computed based on voxel counts surpassing a designated threshold. Next, we calculated the Pearson correlation between the obtained node sizes and the graph metrics, which we term 'node-metric coupling' (NMC). Our findings revealed consistent and noteworthy correlations between the values of graph metrics and the dimensions of brain nodes. To delve deeper into the implications of this correlation, we examined the node-metric coupling within a dataset comprising Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and control subjects. The disparities observed in node-metric coupling among these groups underscore the necessity of accounting for this factor during analysis. The two principal outcomes of this study are as follows: Firstly, the substantial interplay between varying node sizes within a given atlas and the resultant graph metrics; and secondly, the potential utility of node-metric coupling as a viable biomarker for brain disorders. These discoveries hold significant ramifications. While comparing studies employing diverse atlases is already a challenge, our work highlights an additional, critical source of variability: accounting for node sizes. Consequently, the association between intra-atlas node size and graph metric should be thoughtfully acknowledged in future neuroimaging investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0516.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: BOLD fMRI; HRF; resting state connectivity; aging; sex differences; confound
Online: 28 February 2023 (09:32:04 CET)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an indirect measure of neural activity with the hemodynamic response function (HRF) coupling it with unmeasured neural activity. The HRF, modulated by several non-neural factors, is variable across brain regions, individuals and populations. Yet, a majority of resting-state fMRI connectivity studies continue to assume a non-variable HRF. In this article, with supportive prior evidence, we argue that HRF variability cannot be ignored as it substantially confounds within-subject connectivity estimates and between-subjects connectivity group differences. We also discuss its clinical relevance with connectivity impairments confounded by HRF aberrations in several disorders. We present limited data on HRF differences between women and men, which resulted in a 15.4% median error in functional connectivity estimates in a group-level comparison. We also discuss the implications of HRF variability for fMRI studies in the spinal cord. There is a need for more dialogue within the community on the HRF confound, and we hope that our article is a catalyst in the process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: aberrant salience; source monitoring; psychosis; cognitive biases; self-disturbance; neuroimagining; fMRI
Online: 7 July 2021 (13:05:30 CEST)
Cognitive biases are an important factor contributing to the development and symptom severity of psychosis. Despite that various cognitive biases are contributing to psychosis, they are rarely investigated together. In the current systematic review, we aimed at investigating specific and shared neural correlates of two important cognitive biases: aberrant salience and source monitoring. We conducted a systematic search of fMRI studies of said cognitive biases. Eight studies on aberrant salience and eleven studies on source monitoring were included in the review. We critically discussed behavioural and neuroimaging findings concerning cognitive biases. Various brain regions are associated with aberrant salience and source monitoring in individuals with schizophrenia and the risk of psychosis. Ventral striatum and insula contribute to aberrant salience. The medial prefrontal cortex, superior and middle temporal gyrus contribute to source monitoring. The anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus contribute to both cognitive biases, constituting a neural overlap. Our review indicates that aberrant salience and source monitoring may share neural mechanisms, suggesting their joint role in producing disrupted external attributions of perceptual and cognitive experiences, thus elucidating their role in positive symptoms of psychosis. Account bridging mechanisms of these two biases is discussed. Further studies are warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0027.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: neuroscience; big data; functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI); pipeline; one platform system
Online: 8 April 2019 (05:46:55 CEST)
In the neuroscience research field, specific for medical imaging analysis, how to mining more latent medical information from big medical data is significant for us to find the solution of diseases. In this review, we focus on neuroimaging data that is functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) which non-invasive techniques, it already becomes popular tools in the clinical neuroscience and functional cognitive science research. After we get fMRI data, we actually have various software and computer programming that including open source and commercial, it's very hard to choose the best software to analyze data. What's worse, it would cause final result imbalance and unstable when we combine more than software together, so that's why we want to make a pipeline to analyze data. On the other hand, with the growing of machine learning, Python has already become one of very hot and popular computer programming. In addition, it is an open source and dynamic computer programming, the communities, libraries and contributors fast increase in the recent year. Through this review, we hope that can make neuroimaging data analysis more easy, stable and uniform base the one platform system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); Neurofeedback; EEG-Neurofeedback; fMRI-Neurofeedback; brain stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS); transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS).
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:51:34 CEST)
This review focuses on the evidence for neurotherapeutics for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). EEG-Neurofeedback has been tested for about 45 years with latest meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCT) showing small/medium effects compared to non-active controls only. Three small studies piloted neurofeedback of frontal activations in ADHD using functional magnetic resonance imaging or near-infrared spectroscopy, finding no superior effects over control conditions. Brain stimulation has been applied to ADHD using mostly repetitive transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation (rTMS/tDCS). rTMS has shown mostly negative findings on improving cognition or symptoms. Meta-analyses of tDCS studies targeting mostly dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show small effects on cognitive improvements with only two out of three studies showing clinical improvements. Trigeminal nerve stimulation has shown to improve ADHD symptoms with medium effect in one RCT. Modern neurotherapeutics are attractive due to their relative safety and potential neuroplastic effects. However, they need to be thoroughly tested for clinical and cognitive efficacy across settings and beyond core symptoms and for their potential for individualised treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: spatio-temporal associative memory; STAM; neuroimaging data; spiking neural networks; NeuCube; EEG; fMRI; neuroimage classification
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:46:24 CEST)
Humans learn from a lot of information sources to make decisions. Once this information is learned in the brain, spatio-temporal associations are made, connecting all these sources (variables) in space and time represented as brain connectivity. In reality, to make a decision, we usually have only part of the infor-mation, either as a limited number of variables, or limited time to make the decision, or both. The brain functions as spatio-temporal associative memory. Inspired by the ability of the human brain, a brain-inspired spatio-temporal associative memory was proposed earlier, that utilizes the NeuCube brain-inspired spiking neural network framework. Here we apply the STAM framework to develop STAM for neuroimaging data, on the cases of EEG and fMRI, resulting in STAM-EEG and STAM-fMRI. The paper shows that once a NeuCube STAM classification model is trained on a complete spatio-temporal EEG or fMRI data, it can be recalled using only part of the time series, or/and only part of the used variables. We evaluate accordingly the temporal association accuracy and spatial association accuracy. This is a pilot study that opens the field for the development of multimodal classification systems on other multimodal neuroimaging data, such as the also shown longitudinal MRI data, trained on complete data, but recalled on partial data collected across different settings, in different labs and clinics, that may vary in terms of variables, time of data collection, and other parameters. The proposed methods will allow also for brain diagnostic/prognostic marker discovery using spatio-temporal neuroimaging data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Analogical reasoning; adolescents; maths and science learning; working memory; SEM & fMRI study; IQ and fluid intelligence
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:41:27 CET)
Abstract There is no research that combines behavioural and fMRI research approaches to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of working memory, verbal IQ, visuospatial and verbal reasoning on students’ performance of maths and science. This paper investigates all these multiple relationships between working memory (WM), verbal IQ, visuospatial and verbal reasoning with performance in maths and science accuracy. The multimethod research consists of a behavioural survey and a fMRI neuroscience investigating the interactive and multiple relationships of all cognitive processing independent variables (IVs) with the dependent variables (DVs) of maths and science performance. Using structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Warp Partial Least Squares (Warp PLS) analytical approach, the research discusses the findings of both, the behavioural and fMRI data. The adolescent sample (N=34) for the behavioural and fMRI study, was recruited from consenting schools in London, UK, and consisted of equal numbers of girls and boys between 11-15 years old. The hypothesised behavioural SEM model predicted positive relationships between all the independent variables (IV) of visuospatial matrix reasoning (VSMatAR), verbal analogical reasoning (VerbAR), verbal working memory (VWM), visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and verbal IQ, with performance in maths and science accuracy. The findings support all hypotheses except two and identifies verbal IQ, Verbal WM and VerbAR as the three strongest predictors of maths and science accuracy. The neuroscience fMRI data identified four brain regions of interest, namely, the bilateral DLPFC, Parietal, Temporal and pre-supplementary motor area (PSMA) as being most relevant to maths and science outcomes. The hypothesised fMRI SEM, produced mixed results which supported some of the hypothesised relationships between the IVs of verbal AR and VSMatrix AR associations with all four brain regions and in turn the associations with maths and science performance. The paper makes two original contributions, firstly, by testing the hypothesis that Verbal WM mediates the independent variables’ effects on maths and science outcomes. And secondly, by using Warp PLS to test the SEM (behavioural and fMRI) models’ multiple non-linear interactions simultaneously between the IVs with the DVs of maths and science accuracy. The Warp PLS testing of all IVs and DVs produced some interesting new insights regarding the relationships between Verbal analogical reasoning, which are deemed important to assist academics and educational practitioners in improving maths and science performance of adolescent students. The combination of behavioural and neuroscience fMRI data provides more reliable empirical evidence regarding the multiple interactive influences impacting maths and science performance for adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0523.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: spatiotemporal neural dynamics; vision; dorsal and ventral streams; multivariate pattern analysis; representational similarity analysis; fMRI; MEG
Online: 23 October 2018 (06:41:16 CEST)
To build a representation of what we see, the human brain recruits regions throughout the visual cortex in cascading sequence. Recently, an approach was proposed to evaluate the dynamics of visual perception in high spatiotemporal resolution at the scale of the whole brain. This method combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data with magnetoencephalography (MEG) data using representational similarity analysis and revealed a hierarchical progression from primary visual cortex through the dorsal and ventral streams. To assess the replicability of this method, here we present results of a visual recognition neuro-imaging fusion experiment, and compare them within and across experimental settings. We evaluated the reliability of this method by assessing the consistency of the results under similar test conditions, showing high agreement within participants. We then generalized these results to a separate group of individuals and visual input by comparing them to the fMRI-MEG fusion data of Cichy et al. (2016), revealing a highly similar temporal progression recruiting both the dorsal and ventral streams. Together these results are a testament to the reproducibility of the fMRI-MEG fusion approach and allows for the interpretation of these spatiotemporal dynamic in a broader context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Midbrain; postexertional malaise; PEM, arousal; exercise; fMRI; autonomic; postural tachycardia; Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; ME/CFS; Gulf War Illness; GWI
Online: 23 November 2021 (10:53:55 CET)
Background: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Gulf War Ill-ness (GWI) and control subjects had fMRI during difficult cognitive tests performed before and after submaximal exercise provocation (Washington 2020). Exercise caused increased activation in ME/CFS but decreased activation for GWI in the dorsal midbrain, left Rolandic operculum and right middle insula. Midbrain and isthmus nuclei participate in threat assessment, attention, cognition, mood, pain, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction Methods: Activated midbrain nuclei were inferred by re-analysis of data from 31 control, 36 ME/CFS and 78 GWI subjects using a seed region approach and the Harvard Ascending Arousal Network. Results: Before exercise, control and GWI had greater activation during cognition than ME/CFS in left pedunculotegmental nucleus. Postexercise ME/CFS had greater activation than GWI for midline periaqueductal gray, dorsal and median raphe, and right midbrain reticular formation, parabrachial complex and locus coeruleus. The change between days (delta) was positive for ME/CFS but negative for GWI indicating reciprocal patterns of activation. Controls had no changes. Conclusions: Exercise caused opposite effects with increased activation in ME/CFS but decreased activation in GWI indicating different pathophysiological responses to exertion and mechanisms of disease. Midbrain and isthmus nuclei contribute to postexertional malaise in ME/CFS and GWI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognition; cognitive functions; localization; lesion studies; body perception; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); electrical microsimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; extrastriate body area; fusiform body area
Online: 28 July 2022 (11:16:04 CEST)
It is one of the central goals of cognitive neuroscience to understand how structure and function relate in the brain. We review how cognitive function characterization has been approached in the past. In addition, we examine the ongoing efforts, as well as the implications for the future. Clinical studies on patients with lesions have provided key insights into the relationship between brain areas and behavior over the past century. We describe cognitive function according to localization considering these early efforts for characterization. We chose a perceptual-cognitive function, namely body perception, to describe our current efforts. Using body perception as an example, we summarize contemporary techniques. Finally, we outline the trajectory of current progress into the future and discuss the implications for clinical and basic neuroscience.