ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0254.v1
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:21:32 CEST)
The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socio-economic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socio-economic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called "Gourmet", "Disinterested", "Conservative" and "Basic". The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit; however, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; endotype; extrinsic type; intrinsic type; subtype; phenotype
Online: 20 November 2023 (11:10:34 CET)
Since atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous condition, subtyping of AD is a crucial issue. The classical subtypes of AD are represented by extrinsic and intrinsic subtypes, European American and Asian subtypes, and adult and pediatric subtypes. While subtyping of AD was historically conducted based on the phenotype, recent findings on the mechanisms of AD have revealed importance of the endotype, which can characterize individual patients more accurately. Considering the current development of AD therapies, AD endotyping is prerequisite for personalized therapeutic choice. Endotypes of AD can be stratified from different viewpoints, including cytokine expression patterns, allergen properties, epidermal barrier conditions, ceramide variation, involvement of innate immunity, and serum biomarkers. Among them, the cytokine-based endotype seems to be the most useful one and is categorized into type 2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-13 and IL-31)-high, type 1 cytokine (interferon-g)-high, and/or type 3 cytokine (IL-22 and IL-17)-high, or mixed subtypes. The recently biomarker-proposed endotyping aims at individualized treatment options, although the daily clinical use of endotypes is a future issue. To better understand the endotypes for clinicians, attempts to adjust each of the classical subtypes to the endotypes are required. This review will discuss the correspondence of the classical subtypes to the various endotypes that have recently been proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0491.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; camera orientation estimation; vanishing point; camera extrinsic parameters
Online: 7 December 2023 (16:49:02 CET)
This study introduces a multilayer perceptron (MLP) error compensation method for real-time camera orientation estimation, leveraging a single vanishing point and road lane lines within a steady-state framework. The research emphasizes cameras with a roll angle of 0°, predominant in autonomous vehicle contexts. The methodology estimates pitch and yaw angles using a single image and integrates two Kalman filter models with inputs from image points (u, v) and derived angles (pitch, yaw). Performance metrics, including AE, MINE, MAXE, SSE, and STDEV, were utilized, testing the system in both simulator and real-vehicle environments. The outcomes indicate that our method notably enhances the accuracy of camera orientation estimations, consistently outpacing competing techniques across varied scenarios. This method’s potency is evident in its adaptability and precision, holding promise for advanced vehicle systems and real-world applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0400.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Aflatoxin contamination; Cereals; Intrinsic factors; Extrinsic factors; Climate change; Mitigation strategies
Online: 26 January 2022 (13:12:06 CET)
Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of cereals is considered one of the greatest food safety concerns worldwide. Occurrence of AFs in maize, wheat, rice and sorghum is highly prevalent with each commodity accounting for more than 10% of world’s AF exposure. Their occurrence as food contaminants is also associated with huge economic losses. AFs are highly stable compounds that cannot be eliminated by regular processing of grains. Hence, prevention of AFs in food and feed is now considered more important than the subsequent interventions to mitigate the deleterious health effects of AFs in human and animals. However, the development of an effective preventive strategy hinges on a clear understanding of the underlying factors influencing AFs production. Therefore, the present review aims to highlight the most significant factors influencing AFs contamination of cereals at pre-and post-harvest stages. This is crucial for effective monitoring of critical control points and optimisation of preventive strategies in food and feed supply chains. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been reported of which nutritional composition, environmental factors (temperature, water activity and relative humidity) and climate change have been identified as primary factors, while pH of the substrate, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the gaseous environment, and agronomic and socioeconomic status are the main secondary factors promoting AFs biosynthesis in cereals. Additionally, an overview of global occurrence of AFs in cereals, with their health impacts and various preventive measures have also been highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0600.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Natural language processing; Extrinsic evaluation; Intrinsic evaluation; Word analogy; Word embedding
Online: 23 December 2020 (17:26:11 CET)
Distributional word vector representation orword embedding has become an essential ingredient in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as machine translation, document classification, information retrieval andquestion answering. Investigation of embedding model helps to reduce the feature space and improves textual semantic as well as syntactic relations.This paper presents three embedding techniques (such as Word2Vec, GloVe, and FastText) with different hyperparameters implemented on a Bengali corpusconsists of180 million words. The performance of the embedding techniques is evaluated with extrinsic and intrinsic ways. Extrinsic performance evaluated by text classification, which achieved a maximum of 96.48% accuracy. Intrinsic performance evaluatedby word similarity (e.g., semantic, syntactic and relatedness) and analogy tasks. The maximum Pearson (ˆr) correlation accuracy of 60.66% (Ssˆr) achieved for semantic similarities and 71.64% (Syˆr) for syntactic similarities whereas the relatedness obtained 79.80% (Rsˆr). The semantic word analogy tasks achieved 44.00% of accuracy while syntactic word analogy tasks obtained 36.00%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: biocultural conservation; expectation theory; extrinsic cues; food neophobia; sustainable extractivism; wild food plants
Online: 14 July 2023 (10:29:25 CEST)
Despite the global richness of food plants, only a small portion is used as food for humans. Although most wild food plants (WFPs) are underutilized as food, they can contribute to food security and biocultural conservation through sustainable management. The goal of this research was to identify the best terminological presentation of a novel food product and to understand the influences of the expectations on products with WFP. This research was conducted using an online questionnaire with a final national sample of 724 people. The participants answered questions about their socioeconomic profile, food neophobia, prior knowledge, and expectations regarding the taste and appropriateness of native fruit juices. The questions were randomized so that a person would not receive the same picture or product name more than once. The results show that taste expectancy decreases in relation to products associated with WFP names and forest environments. Food neophobia is the variable that influences expectations the most. To ensure biocultural conservation and cultural valuation, WFP popularization programs should maintain the original (popular) name of the species. However, to help more distant consumers develop familiarity, the flavor, shape, color, or texture of these products can be associated with those of conventional plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: bone, cartilage; extrinsic innervation; genicular nerve; intrinsic innervation; joint pain; osteoarthritis; subchondral bone
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:50:03 CEST)
Pain in osteoarthritis (OA) results from erosion of joint cartilage, resulting in bone contacting bone without an intervening cushion. The periosteum, including its nociceptive innervation, ends at the border of the cartilage meaning that there is no extrinsic neuronal pathway between the opposing denuded bone surfaces to carry a bone-on-bone pain signal to the brain. The pain signaling pathway must therefore originate in nociceptive sensory endings within the subchondral bone itself. Selective ablation of this intrinsic nerve pathway, using any of a variety of approaches, is expected to permanently eliminate OA pain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0554.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbiome; vectorial capacity; density; competence; biting; extrinsic incubation period; longevity; mosquito; symbiosis; pathogen transmission
Online: 22 December 2020 (10:49:13 CET)
Microbiome research has gained considerable interest due to the emerging evidence of its impact on human and animal health. Similar to higher organisms, the gut-associated microbiota of mosquitoes affect host fitness and other phenotypes. It is now well established that microbes can alter pathogen transmission in mosquitoes, either positively or negatively, and avenues are being explored to exploit microbes for vector control. However, less attention has been paid to how microbiota affect phenotypes that impact vectorial capacity. Several mosquito and pathogen components, such as vector density, biting rate, survival, vector competence and pathogen extrinsic incubation period all influence pathogen transmission. Interestingly, the mosquito gut-associated microbes can impact each of these components, and therefore ultimately modulate vectorial capacity. Promisingly, this expands the options available to exploit microbes for vector control by also targeting parameters that affect vectorial capacity. However, there are still many knowledge gaps in the biology of the mosquito – microbe symbiosis that need to be addressed in order to understand these interactions more thoroughly and exploit them efficiently. Here, we review current evidence of the impacts of the microbiome on aspects of vectorial capacity highlighting opportunities for novel vector control strategies and areas where further studies are required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0364.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Programmed cell death; Apoptosis; Caspases; Caspase inhibitory proteins; Mitochondrial / Intrinsic pathway; Extrinsic Pathway; Necroptosis; Autophagy
Online: 6 December 2023 (08:54:10 CET)
Apoptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy are cellular mechanisms by which cells are programmed to die under a wide range of physiological and developmental stimuli. A multitude of protein mediators of programmed cell death have been identified and apoptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy signals have been found to utilize common pathways elucidating the proteins involved. This narrative review focuses on caspase-dependent and caspase-independent programmed cell death systems. Included studies of caspase-dependent programmed cell death include extrinsic pathway apoptotic mechanisms including phosphatidylserine (PS), FAS (APO-1/CD95), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway such as Cytochrome C, the Bcl-2 family of proteins and Smac/Diablo. The Bcl-2 family has apoptotic mediators Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), Bcl-2-Interacting Protein BIM (Bim), Bcl-2 agonist of cell death (Bad), Bid, Bcl-2 adenovirus E1B 19kDa-interacting protein 1 NIP3 (Bnip3), BMF, HRK, Noxa and PUMA and anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 itself, Mcl-1, Bcl-w, A1, and Bcl-XL. Moreover, caspase-independent programmed cell death pathways include the mitochondrial pathway with the protein mediators Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), and Endonuclease G, the pathways Necroptosis, and Autophagy. Understanding programmed cell death from those reported in this review could shed substantial light on the processes of biological homeostasis. In addition, identifying specific proteins involved in these processes is mandatory to identify molecular biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets. This knowledge could provide the ability to modulate the programmed cell death response and could lead to new therapeutic interventions in a wide range of diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0035.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Extrinsic self-healing; Self-healing detection; Aggregation-induced emission; Dye-Loaded microcapsule; Self-healing monitoring
Online: 2 April 2019 (15:32:34 CEST)
We report the development of an extrinsic self-healing coating system that shows no fluorescence from the intact coating, yellowish fluorescence in cracked regions, and greenish fluorescence in healed regions, thus allowing the separate monitoring of cracking and healing of coatings. This fluorescence monitoring self-healing system consisted of a top coating, an epoxy matrix resin containing mixed dye-loaded in single microcapsule. The dye-loaded microcapsules consisted of a poly(urea-formaldehyde) shell encapsulating a healing agent containing MAT-PDMS and styrene, a photo-initiator and a mixture of two dyes, one that fluoresces only in the solid state (DCM) and a second that fluoresces dramatically increased in the solid than solution state (4-TPAE). A mixture of the healing agent, photo-initiator and the two dyes was yellow due to fluorescence from DCM. On UV curing of this mixture, however, the color changed from yellow to green and the fluorescence intensity increased due to fluorescence from 4-TPAE in the solid state. When a self-healing coating embedded with microcapsules containing the DCM/4-TPAE dye mixture was scratched, the damaged region exhibited a yellowish color that changed to green after healing. Thus, the self-healing system reported here allows the separate monitoring of cracking and healing based on changes in fluorescence color.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0040.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation; language and literature courses; college participants; instructional practices; student engagement; academic success
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:27:48 CEST)
This study employs a qualitative research approach to investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that influence college students' engagement, learning experiences, and long-term commitment to language and literature studies within the context of blended learning modality. Drawing on the theoretical frameworks of Self-Determination Theory and Achievement Goal Theory, the research explores the complex interplay between intrinsic factors (e.g., passion, self-improvement, personal growth) and extrinsic factors (e.g., external rewards, recognition). The study is conducted at SMC among the 30 participant and utilizes interviews and classroom observations, in conjunction with a comprehensive review of relevant literature, to gain insights into the impact of these motivations on academic performance and learning outcomes, particularly in blended learning environments. The study acknowledges the limitations inherent in its locale-specific scope and the challenges associated with ensuring the validity and reliability of data collected through online surveys and virtual classroom observations. The findings of this study have significant implications for educators and policymakers, highlighting the importance of nurturing intrinsic motivation while leveraging extrinsic factors to establish supportive learning environments that foster student autonomy, incorporate student interests, and provide timely feedback. By comprehending the motivations that drive student engagement and long-term commitment, educators can enhance learning experiences, elevate academic performance, and sustain students' engagement with language and literature studies amidst the evolving educational landscape of blended learning modality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0041.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: employee turnover; perceived external prestige; organizational justice; job satisfaction; organizational commitment; extrinsic rewards; career advancement; constituent attachments
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:29:48 CET)
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has established itself as the medical device industry’s preferred regional center. Major multinational corporations either have a regional subsidiary or are planning to open up a principal office in the UAE to expand their business. Employees in the industry are in high demand as new opportunities open up frequently and that causes challenges to companies, namely employee turnover. This research helps bridge the gap found in the literature by investigating the factors that impact employee turnover in the medical device industry in the UAE. These factors were tested with their subsequent sub-factors. Using a quantitative approach, the study surveyed 230 participants from 47 medical device companies in the UAE. The result of one-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant relationship between employee salary and employee turnover. The linear regression analysis was statistically significant between perceived external prestige, location, flextime, organizational justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, extrinsic rewards, career advancement, lack of alternatives, constituent attachments, and employee turnover. These findings indicate the need for a strategy utilizing these factors for existing and new medical device companies in the UAE to prevent high employee turnover or limit it at least.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lentinula edodes; Lp16-PSP; acute promyeloid leukemia; extrinsic and lntrinsic apoptotic pathway; G1 phase cell cycle arrest
Online: 25 September 2017 (08:53:12 CEST)
Lp16-PSP from Lentinula edodes strain C91-3 has been reported previously in our laboratory to have selective cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cell lines. Herein, we have used several parameters in order to characterize the Lp16-PSP-induced cell death using HL-60 as model cancer. The results of phase contrast microscopy, nuclear examination, DNA fragmentation detection and flow cytometry revealed that high doses of Lp16-PSP resulted in the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The colorimetric assay showed the activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3 cascade highlighting the involvement of Fas/FasL-related pathway. Whereas, western blot revealed the cleavage of caspase-3, increased expression of Bax, the release of cytochrome c and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting the intrinsic pathway might be involved in Lp16-PSP-induced apoptosis either. Low doses of Lp16-PSP resulted in the anchorage-independent growth inhibition, induction of G1 phase arrest accompanied by the increased expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 along with the decreased expression of cyclin D, E, and cdk6. Our findings suggest that induction of apoptosis and p21WAF1/CIP1 mediated G1 arrest might be one of the mechanisms of the action of Lp16-PSP, however, further investigations on multiple leukemia cell lines and in vivo models are of ultimate need.