REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0174.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Calcium channels; somatic exocytosis; serotonin; extrasynaptic release; leech
Online: 10 December 2021 (12:16:40 CET)
The soma, dendrites and axon of neurons may display calcium-dependent release of transmitters and peptides. Such release is named extrasynaptic for occurring in the absence of synaptic structures. This review describes cooperative actions of three calcium sources on somatic exocytosis. Emphasis is given to the release of serotonin by the classical serotonergic leech Retzius neuron, which has allowed detailed studies of each step between excitation and exoctytosis. Trains of action potentials induce transmembrane calcium entry through L-type channels. If the frequency of action potentials is above 5 Hz, summation of calcium transients upon individual action potentials increases the intracellular calcium concentration to activate calcium–induced calcium release. The amplified calcium wave activates motochondrial ATP synthesis that fuels the transport of vesicles to the plasma membrane. Serotonin that is released activates autoreceptors coupled to phospholipase C. Production of IP3 produces release of calcium that sustains the large-scale exocytosis. The swiss-clock workings of the release machinery for somatic exocytosis has a striking disadvantage. The essential calcium-releasing endoplasmic reticulum that lays between resting vesicles and the plasma membrane becomes an obstacle for the vesicle transport. Such architecture reduces drastically the thermodynamic efficiency of the vesicle transport and elevates its energy cost..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0049.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Huntington’s disease; YAC128; HdhQ150; strain background; C57BL/6; synaptic pathology; extrasynaptic NMDAR
Online: 2 November 2021 (12:11:26 CET)
Mouse models are frequently used to study Huntington’s disease (HD). Onset and severity of neuronal and behavioral pathologies vary greatly between HD mouse models, which results from different huntingtin expression levels and different CAG repeat length. HD pathology appears to depend also on strain background of mouse models. Thus, behavioral deficits of HD mice are more severe in the FVB than in the C57BL/6 background. Alterations in medium spiny neuron (MSN) morphology and function has been well documented in young YAC128 mice in the FVB background. We here tested the relevance of strain background for mutant huntingtin (mHTT) toxicity on the cellular level by investigating HD pathologies in YAC128 mice in the C57BL/6 background (YAC128/BL6). Morphology, spine density, synapse function and membrane properties were not or only subtly altered in MSNs of 12-month-old YAC128/BL6 mice. Despite the mild cellular phenotype, YAC128/BL6 mice showed deficits in motor performance. More pronounced alterations in MSN function were found in the HdhQ150 mouse model in the C57BL/6 background (HdhQ150/BL6). Consistent with the differences in HD pathology, the number of inclusion bodies was considerably lower in YAC128/BL6 mice than HdhQ150/BL6 mice. This study highlights the relevance of strain background for mHTT toxicity in HD mouse models.