REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; coagulation; immunothrombosis; viscoelastic tests
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:22:47 CEST)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for the management of severe respiratory and cardiac failure, as well as bridge to definite treatment or transplantation. ECMO associated coagulopathy (EAC) is a frequent complication leading to high rates of thrombosis or severe haemorrhage, contributing to morbidity and mortality of patients. Understanding the pathophysiology of EAC is substantial for effectively managing patients on ECMO. We analyse the underlying mechanism of EAC and discuss the monitoring of coagulation profile, combining the viscoelastic point of care assays with the conventional coagulation laboratory tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; cannula-associated arterial thrombosis; flow rate.
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:33:01 CET)
Introduction: Hemostatic dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to blood-circuit interaction and the consequences of shear stress by flow rates lead to rapid activation of the coagulation cascade and thrombus formation in the ECMO system and blood vessels. In this study, we aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors for cannula-associated arterial thrombosis (CaAT) post-decannulation. Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing arterial cannula removal following ECMO. We evaluated the incidence of CaAT and compared clinical characteristics, pre-ECMO severity, and daily hemostasis parameters in patients with and without CaAT. Multivariate analysis revealed the risk factors for CaAT. Results: Forty-seven patients requiring venoarterial ECMO or hybrid methods were recruited to be screened for thrombosis. The median SOFA score was 11 (8-13). CaAT occurred in 29 patients (61.7%), with thrombosis in the superficial femoral artery accounting for 51.7%. Limb ischemia complications in the group with CaAT was 17.2%. In multivariate analysis, an ECMO flow rate of 100 mL/min was determined to be the independent factor for CaAT with an OR of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73–0.95, p=0.008). Conclusion: In patients successfully weaned from ECMO, the incidence of CaAT was 61.7%. Our study found that a low-flow rate of ECMO was an independent risk factor for CaAT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; transpulmonary thermodilution; high volume hemofiltration; Andes Hantavirus
Online: 5 July 2020 (05:24:11 CEST)
Background: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a high lethality. About two-thirds of the severe cases may be rescued by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, about half of the patients supported by ECMO suffer major complications. High volume hemofiltration (HVHF) is a depurative extracorporeal support that provides homeostatic balance allowing hemodynamic stabilization in some critically ill patients. Methods: We implemented HVHF prior to ECMO consideration in the last five severe HCPS patients requiring mechanical ventilation and vasoactive drugs admitted to our intensive care unit. Patients were considered HVHF-responders if ECMO was avoided and nonresponders if ECMO support was needed. Results: The first two patients required ECMO, while the last three did not. Patients had a maximum serum lactate of 8.4 [4.3-14] mMol/L and a lowest cardiac index of 1.76 [1.45-2.9] L/min/m2. Nonresponders were connected later to HVHF, displayed progressive tachycardia and decreasing stroke volume. The opposite was true for HVHF-responders who also received targeted-HVHF compounded by aggressive hyperoncotic albumin, sodium bicarbonate and calcium supplementation plus ultrafiltration to avoid fluid overload. All patients survived, but one of the ECMO patients suffered a vascular complication. Conclusion: HVHF may contribute to support severe HCPS patients avoiding the need for ECMO in some of them. Early connection and targeted-HVHF may increase the chance of success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ongenital heart disease; extracorporeal life support; ECMO; single ventricle; complications; risk factors; mortality
Online: 30 June 2023 (03:41:18 CEST)
For children born with congenital heart defects (CHD), extracorporeal life support may be necessary. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), focusing on various risk factors, including the type of CHD. The study was conducted as a retrospective single-center analysis at the Children's Hospital Zurich. All patients with CHD who required ECMO (veno-arterial or veno-venous) between 2009 and 2019 were included. Among the 88 patients, 36 (41%) had a single ventricle heart defect while 52 (59%) had a biventricular heart defect. Out of the total patients, 25 (28%) survived, with 7 (8%) having a single ventricle heart defect and 18 (20%) having a biventricular heart defect. Statistical analysis with a p-value of 0.19 revealed no significant difference in survival rates between the two groups. At the one-year follow-up, all children who survived to discharge were still alive. The rate of complications on ECMO was higher in children with a single ventricle (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 - 3.7). The occurrence of a second ECMO run was more frequent in patients with a single ventricle compared to those with a biventricular physiology (22% vs. 9.6%). Although the study did not identify a significant difference in survival rates, it did indicate that patients with a single ventricle faced a higher risk of complications during ECMO and a greater likelihood of requiring a second ECMO run.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1523.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy, focused extracorporeal shock waves, radial extracorporeal shock waves, ESWT, rESWT, fESWT
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:03:08 CEST)
This article is a commentary on the publication Guo J, Hai H, Ma Y. Application of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in nervous system diseases: A review. Front Neurol. (2022) 13:963849. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2022.963849 (1). In the opinion of the authors of this commentary the information provided in the Section "Principles of ESWT" in (1) is partly incorrect and misleading. This is due to the fact that important, published knowledge regarding focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (fESWT) and radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) was disregarded in (1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3; osteoarthritis; extracorporeal shockwave therapy; 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathway; two dimensional electrophoresis
Online: 1 September 2016 (10:47:39 CEST)
Dysregulation of cartilage homeostasis and the changes in the density and the architecture of the subchondral bone were postulated as a potent mechanically pathological activity contributing to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a new, none invasive and effective method in the treatment of animal OA model. In the current study, we demonstrated that shockwave induced the expression of protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (Pdia-3) which is a multifunctional protein hypothesized to be a significant mediator for 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) signaling pathway using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Histological analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were verified and observed that the expression of Pdia-3 at 2 weeks was significantly higher than that of any other group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks post-shockwave treatment in early OA knee of rat. The other factors of the 1α,25(OH)2D3 rapid membrane signaling pathway including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 (ERK1), osteopontin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13) were measured and significantly increased by qPCR at 2 weeks post-shockwave treatment in early OA knee. Our proteomic data revealed significant Pdia-3 expression in microenvironments of joint tissue that could be actively responded to ESWT, which may potentially regulate biological function of chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the treatment of OA knee.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT; focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy; fESWT; mechanisms of action; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT; systematic review
Online: 14 April 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a safe and effective treatment option for various pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. Many studies addressed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of ESWT. However, no uniform concept could be established in this matter until now. We performed a systematic review of the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) reported in the literature. The key results were as follows: (i) compared to the effects of many other forms of therapy, the clinical benefit of ESWT does not appear to be based on a single mechanism; (ii) different tissues respond to the same mechanical stimulus in different ways; (iii) just because a mechanism of action of ESWT was described in a study does not automatically mean that this mechanism was relevant to the observed clinical effect; (iv) focused ESWs and radial ESWs seem to act in a similar way; and (v) even the most sophisticated research into the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to ESWs cannot substitute clinical research in order to determine the optimum intensity, treatment frequency and localization of ESWT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: SIRS; cardiac surgery; cytokines; extracorporeal circulation
Online: 6 June 2023 (02:27:43 CEST)
Revascularization of the myocardium under conditions of extracorporeal circulation cause clinical problems related to the effects of the intervention itself on the immune system and inflammatory response, especially systemic inflammatory response (Engl. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, SIRS). This prospective study included 100 patients who underwent single, double and triple surgical revascularization of the myocardium, at the Clinic for Cardiac Surgery of CC Niš, in the period from January 15., 2020. until January 15., 2021. 22 female persons - 22.0% and 78 male persons - 78.0%) were included. Preoperatively, as well as 8 hours after the surgical intervention, the following parameters were determined for the subjects: blood count (erythrocyte count - Rbc, hemoglobin - Hgb, hematocrit - Hct, leukocyte count - Wbc, platelet count - Plt) and CRP, soluble CD14 molecule (sCD 14) - presepsin, levels of the following cytokines: TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p70 and IFN γ. Patients in whom the extracorporeal circulation method was applied had, postoperatively, a higher concentration of CRP (p<0.001), as well as a concentration of presepsin (p<0.05) - a greater number of patients had a concentration of presepsin above the limit of 600 pg/ mL (p<0.01). Four patients out of 51 (7.84%) in the ECB group had elevated presepsin values over 1000 pg/ml and high risk according to clinical criteria for the development of systemic bacterial infection and sepsis. No such patients were recorded in the off pump group. Also, in the group where the extracorporeal blood flow system was applied, 17.64% of patients (9/51) met the clinical criteria for SIRS with elevated presepsin values over 600 pg/mL, while in the other group of patients, 2 out of 49 (4.08%) met the clinical criteria and laboratory criteria for SIRS. Except for TNFa, the levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 showed an increase after the intervention in all groups compared to the preoperative period (p<0.01). However, comparing the degree of cytokine increase in the postoperative period between the control (off pump) and the extracorporeal blood flow group did not show a statistical difference (IL-2; p=0.881, IL-1; p=0.709, IL-6; p=0.911, IL- 10, p=0.179). In the postoperative period, a higher incidence rate of SIRS was noted in patients in whom the ECB system was used, which also indicates its importance in the development of systemic inflammation and immune dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Charlson comorbidity index; age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index
Online: 10 September 2018 (10:12:11 CEST)
Background: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) has gradually come to be regarded as an effective therapy, but the hospital mortality rate after ECPR is still high and unpredictable. The present study tested whether age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) can be used as an objective selection criterion to ensure the most efficient utilization of medical resources. Methods: Adult patients (age ³ 18 years) receiving ECPR at our institution between 2006 and 2015 were included. Data regarding ECPR events and ACCI characteristics were collected immediately after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) setup. Adverse events during hospitalization were also prospectively collected. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge. The second endpoint was short-term (2-year) follow-up outcome. Results: A total of 461 patients included in the study were grouped into low ACCI (ACCI 0–3) (240, 52.1%) and high ACCI (ACCI 4–13) (221, 47.9%) groups. The median ACCI was 2 (IQR: 1–3) and 5 (IQR: 4–7) for the low and high ACCI groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-to-ECMO duration was comparable between the groups (42.1 ± 25.6 and 41.3 ± 20.7 min in the low and high ACCI groups, respectively; P = 0.754). Regarding hospital survival rate, 256 patients (55.5%) died on ECMO support. A total of 205 patients (44.5%) were successfully weaned off ECMO, but only 138 patients (29.9%) survived to hospital discharge (32.1% and 27.6% in low and high ACCI group, P = 0.291). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed CPR-to-ECMO duration and CPR cause of septic shock as significant risk factors for hospital survival after ECPR (P = 0.043 and 0.014, respectively), whereas age and ACCI were not (P = 0.334 and 0.164, respectively). The 2-year survival rate after hospital discharge for the 138 hospital survivors was 96% and 74% in the low and high ACCI groups, respectively (P = 0.002.)Conclusions: High ACCI before ECPR does not predict poor outcome of hospital survival. Therefore, ECPR should not be rejected solely due to high ACCI. However, high ACCI in hospital survivors is associated with a higher 2-year mortality rate than low ACCI, and patients with high ACCI should be closely followed up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ECMO; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Plasma biomarker; Brain injury; neuromonitoring
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:03:46 CEST)
Background: Early diagnosis of acute brain injury (ABI) is critical for patients on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) to guide anticoagulation strategy; however, neurological assessment in ECMO is often limited by patient sedation. Methods: In this pilot study of adults from June 2018 to May 2019, plasma samples of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light chain (NFL), and Tau were collected daily after VA-ECMO cannulation and measured using a multiplex platform. Primary outcomes were the occurrence of ABI, assessed clinically, and neurologic outcome, assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Of 20 consented patients (median age=48.5 years; 55% female), 8 (40%) had ABI and 15 (75%) had unfavorable neurologic outcomes at discharge. 10 (50%) patients were centrally cannulated. The median duration on ECMO was 4.5 days (IQR: 2.5-9.5). Peak GFAP, NFL, and Tau levels were higher in patients with ABI vs. without (AUC = 0.77; 0.85; 0.57, respectively) and in patients with unfavorable vs. favorable neurologic outcomes (AUC = 0.64; 0.59; 0.73, respectively). GFAP elevated first, NFL elevated to the highest degree, and Tau showed limited change regardless of ABI. Conclusion: Plasma biomarkers may facilitate early detection of ABIs in VA-ECMO where neurological exam is limited and assist timely clinical decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Intensive Care Units; Workforce; Mechanical Ventilation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:34:14 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the number of nurses who independently care for pa-tients with severe respiratory failure receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) or veno-venous ex-tracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Additionally, the study analyzed the actual role of nurses in the treatment of patients with MV and VV-ECMO. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using postal surveys. The study included 725 Japanese intensive care units (ICUs). Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Among the 725 ICUs, we obtained 302 re-sponses (41.7%) and analyzed 282 responses. The median number of nurses per bed was 3.25. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with MV was 60% [IQR: 42.3-77.3]. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with VV-ECMO was 46.9 (35.7-63.3%) in the ICU experiencing VV-ECMO use. Concerning task-sharing, 33.8% of ICUs and nurses did not facilitate weaning from MV. Nurses always ti-trated sedatives in 44.5% of ICUs. Conclusion: Nurse staffing might be inadequate in all ICUs, es-pecially for severe respiratory failure. The proportion of competent nurses for caring for severe respiratory failure in ICUs should be considered when determining the work force of nurses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1514.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: multimodality imaging; advanced heart failure; extracorporeal cardiac support; cardiac transplant
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:49:59 CEST)
Advanced heart failure (AHF) presents a complex landscape with challenges spanning diagnosis, management, and patient outcomes. In response, the integration of multimodality imaging techniques has emerged as a pivotal approach. This comprehensive review delves into the profound significance of these imaging strategies within AHF scenarios. Multimodality imaging, encompassing echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), and cardiac computed tomography (CCT), stands as a cornerstone in the care of patients with both short- and long-term mechanical support devices. These techniques facilitate precise device selection, placement, and vigilant monitoring, ensuring patient safety and optimal device functionality. In the context of orthotopic cardiac transplant (OTC), the role of multimodality imaging remains indispensable. Echocardiography offers invaluable insights into allograft function and potential complications. Advanced methods, like speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), empower the detection of acute cell rejection. CMR and CCT further enhance diagnostic precision, especially concerning allograft rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. This comprehensive imaging approach goes beyond diagnosis, shaping treatment strategies and risk assessment. By harmonizing diverse imaging modalities, clinicians gain a panoramic understanding of each patient's unique condition, facilitating well-informed decisions. Thus, this review underscores the irreplaceable role of multimodality imaging in elevating patient outcomes, refining treatment precision, and propelling advancements in the evolving landscape of advanced heart failure management.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT, laser therapy; musculoskeletal system, rehabilitation
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:39:40 CET)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a well investigated and widely used treatment modality for a number of musculoskeletal disorders. A limitation of ESWT is its potential painfulness at higher, clinically relevant energy flux density (EFD), which may limit its applicability and, thus, effectiveness. Various studies in the literature demonstrated that neither application of a higher number of extracorporeal shock waves with lower EFD nor use of local anesthesia may solve this problem. Based on the results of several other studies in the literature it is hypothesized here that in patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders that can be treated with ESWT, pretreatment with a pulsed, high power laser with a wavelength of 904 or 905 nanometers (hereafter: "laser pretreatment") does not only allow to apply higher EFDs in subsequent ESWT but actually results in faster and/or better treatment outcome than ESWT without laser pretreatment. Accordingly, it is hypothesized here that combining ESWT with laser pretreatment leads to synergistic effects and, thus, is superior to either treatment modality alone. Confirming this hypothesis in preclinical and clinical research may raise significance and increase the use of ESWT in physical and rehabilitation medicine, with immediate benefit for patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: extracorporeal blood purification therapies; ex vivo lung perfusion; cytokine adsorption; hemoadsorption.
Online: 1 November 2023 (12:28:25 CET)
Cytokine adsorption can resolve different complications characteristic of transplantation medicine, such cytokine storm activation, blood immuno- and AB0- incompatibilities but can also be performed for the treatment of various life-threatening conditions, such as sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cardiogenic shock, all of which can contribute to adverse clinical outcomes during transplantation. After surgery, dysmetabolism and stress response limit successful graft survival and can lead to primary (PGD) or secondary graft dysfunction. In this clinical context, and given that a major problem in transplant medicine is that the demand for organs far exceeds the supply, a technological innovation such as a hemoadsoption system could greatly contribute to increasing the number of usable organ donors. The objectives of this review are to describe the specific advantages and disadvantages of the application of cytokine adsorption in the context of transplantation and also to examine, before and/or after organ transplantation, the benefits of addition of a complementary cytokine adsorption therapy protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1799.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Muscle atrophy; Polydeoxyribonucleotides; Extracorporeal shock wave therapy; Muscle regeneration; Rabbit models
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:50:58 CEST)
Objective: The main purpose of the study is to investigate the combined effects of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) sequences on the regenerative processes in atrophied animal muscles. Methods: Thirty male New Zealand rabbits, aged 12 weeks, were divided into five groups: normal saline, PDRN, ESWT, PDRN injection before ESWT, and PDRN injection after ESWT. Following 2 weeks of cast immobilization, the respective treatments were administered to the atrophied calf muscles. Radial ESWT was performed twice weekly. The evaluation included measurements of calf circumference, tibial nerve compound muscle action potential (CMAP), and gastrocnemius (GCM) muscle thickness after 2 weeks of treatment. Histological and immunohistochemical staining, as well as Western blot analysis, were conducted 2 weeks post-treatment. Staining intensity and extent were assessed using semi-quantitative scores. Results: Groups 4 and 5 demonstrated significantly greater calf muscle circumference, GCM muscle thickness, tibial nerve CMAP, and GCM muscle fiber cross-sectional area (types I, II, and total) than in the remaining three groups (p < 0.05), while they did not did not differ significantly in these parameters. Groups 2 and 3 showed the higher values for all the observations compared to group 1 (p < 0.05). Group 4 had the greatest ratio of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in the gastrocnemius muscle fibers than in the other four groups (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis revealed significantly higher expression of angiogenesis cytokines in groups 4 and 5 than in the remaining (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of ESWT and PDRN injection demonstrated superior regenerative efficacy for atrophied calf muscle tissue in rabbit models than these techniques alone or saline. Particularly, administering ESWT after PDRN injection yielded the most favorable outcomes in specific parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; meconium aspiration syndrome; neonate; Hub and Spoke; outcomes
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:29:49 CET)
The neonatal Hub and Spoke (HandS) ECMO approach provides emergent ECMO implantation to support neonates in severe cardio-respiratory life-threatening conditions at secondary (Spoke) centers, and a safe transfer to the ECMO center (Hub). We report a retrospective review of 11 neonates fom January 2014 to January 2020, presenting with life-threatening conditions and treated by HandS ECMO team in Spoke hospitals. Protocols and checklists were arranged by a local group of ECMO experts and shared with all the hospitals located in North-Eastern Italy. At the emergent call, all patients were cared for at the Spoke hospitals, receiving maximal respiratory and cardiovascular support (including high frequency oscillatory ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, and major inotropic intravenous infusion). All but 3 patients were affected by life-threatening meconium aspiration syndrome. Median duration of ECMO support and hospitalization were 4 days (range 2-32) and 30 days ( range 8-50), respectively. All but 2 patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, were weaned off ECMO and discharged home without complications. At a median follow up of 14.4 months (1.3-74.8), all survivors were alive and in good clinical conditions, without medications, and normal somatic growth. All but one had normal neuropsychological development. We conclude that HandS ECMO model for treating neonates in life-threatening conditions is effective and successful. A specialized multidisciplinary team and common organizational protocols shared between Hub and Spoke centers are the key-points for success. While excellent results occur with MAS (100% survival), treatment was not successful in CDH, in which other that HandS ECMO issues are implied. Lessons learned from our experience are presented and discussed in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1846.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute infective endocarditis; extracorporeal techniques; hemoadsorption; cytosorb: cardiopulmonary bypass surgery; economic evaluation
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:08:25 CEST)
A considerable number of infective endocarditis (IE) patients require cardiac surgery with an increased risk for postoperative sepsis. Intraoperative hemoadsorption may diminish the risk of postoperative hyperinflammation with potential economic implications for intensive care unit (ICU) occupation. The present study aimed to theoretically investigate the budget impact of a reduced length of ICU stay in IE patients treated with intraoperative hemoadsorption in the German healthcare system. Data on ICU occupation were extrapolated from a retrospective study on IE patients treated with hemoadsorption. An Excel-based budget impact model was developed to simulate the patient course over the ICU-stay. A base-case scenario without therapy reimbursement and a scenario with full therapy reimbursement were explored. The annual eligible German IE patient population was derived from official German Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) volume data. One-way deterministic sensitivity analysis and bootstrap analysis were performed to evaluate the uncertainty over the model results. Use of intraoperative hemoadsorption resulted in 2,298€ saved per patient in the base-case scenario without therapy reimbursement. Savings increased to 3,804€ per patient in case of full device-specific reimbursement. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of savings, with a probability of savings of 99% and 100% in the base-case and full reimbursement scenario, respectively. Intraoperative hemoadsorption in IE patients might have relevant economic benefits related to reduced ICU stay, resulting in improved resource use. Further evaluations in larger prospective cohorts are warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1766.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: hypoxia-ischemia brain injury; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; neurological complication; neu-romonitoring; outcome.
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:26:02 CEST)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in conjunction with its life-saving benefits, carries a significant risk of acute brain injury (ABI). Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) is one of the most common types of ABI in ECMO patients. Various risk factors such as history of hypertension, high day 1 lactate level, low pH, cannulation technique, large peri-cannulation PaCO2 drop (∆PaCO2), and early low pulse pressure, have been associated with the development of HIBI in ECMO patients. The pathogenic mechanisms of HIBI in ECMO are complex and multifactorial, attributing to the underlying pathology requiring initiation of ECMO and the risk of HIBI associated with ECMO itself. HIBI is likely to occur in the peri-cannulation or peri-decannulation time secondary to underlying refractory cardiopulmonary failure before or after ECMO. Current therapeutics target pathological mechanisms, cerebral hypoxia and is-chemia, by employing targeted temperature management in the case of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR), and optimizing cerebral O2 saturations and cerebral perfusion. This review describes the pathophysiology, neuromonitoring, and therapeutic techniques to improve neurological outcomes in ECMO patients so as to prevent and minimize the morbidity of HIBI. Further studies aimed at stand-ardizing the most relevant neuromonitoring techniques, optimizing cerebral perfusion, and minimizing the severity of HIBI once it occurs will improve long-term neurological outcomes in ECMO patients.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0655.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock; mechanical circulatory support; extracorporeal life support; microaxial flow pump; Impella
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:58:17 CEST)
Mechanical circulatory support has proven effective in managing postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock by stabilizing patients' hemodynamics and ensuring adequate organ perfusion. Among the available device modalities, the combination of extracorporeal life support and a microaxial flow pump for left ventricular unloading has emerged as a valuable tool in the surgical arma-mentarium. In this publication, we provide recommendations for the application and weaning of temporary mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic shock patients, derived from a con-sensus among leading cardiac centers in German-speaking countrie
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM); extracorporeal therapies; CKRT; hemoadsorption; cytosorb; antimicrobials; clearance; mass removal
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:46:18 CEST)
Background. Extracorporeal therapies (ET) are increasingly used in pediatric settings as adjuvant therapeutic strategies for overwhelming inflammatory conditions. Although these treatments seem to be effective for removing inflammatory mediators, their influence on antimicrobials pharmacokinetic should not be neglected. Methods: Prospective observational study of children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with a diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock. All critically ill children received hemoadsorption treatment with Cytosorb (CS) in combination with CKRT. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been performed in 10 critically ill children, testing four antimicrobial molecules: meropenem, ceftazidime, amikacin and levofloxacin . In order to evaluate the total and the isolated CKRT and CS contribution to antibiotics removal, blood samples at each circuit point (post-hemofilter, post-CS and in the effluent line) were performed. Therefore Clearance and Mass Removal (MR) of hemofilter and CS were calculated. Results. Our preliminary report describes a different impact of CS on these target drugs removal: CS clearance resulted low for amikacine (6-12%), moderate for ceftazidime (43%) and moderate to high for levofloxacine (52-72%). Higher MR and clearance were observed with CKRT compared to CS. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report regarding pharmacokinetic dynamics in critically ill children treated with CKRT and CS for septic shock.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: bleomycin; ECMO; pulmonary fibrosis; pulmonary toxicity; veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; lung transplant
Online: 28 February 2023 (06:46:44 CET)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be a life-saving intervention in cases of potentially reversible refractory respiratory failure. One such indication can be bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, in some cases, the injury can be so severe that it becomes irreversible and creates complex medical decisions regarding life support and the continuation of care when no additional therapeutic options are feasible, particularly in cases of patients who were young and fully functional prior to an acute illness. In cases of full pulmonary replacement with mechanical support and the degree of functionality that can be attained utilizing modalities such as ECMO can obscure the true severity of illness and make end-of-life decisions significantly harder for families and caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: mechanical circulatory support; heart transplantation; survival curve; ventricular assist device; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:39:13 CEST)
BACKGROUND: The number of waitlisted patients requiring mechanical circulatory support (MCS) as a bridge to heart transplantation is increasing. The data concerning the results of double-bridge strategy are limited. We sought to investigate the post-transplant outcomes across the different bridge strategies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a heart transplantation database from Jan 2009 to Jan 2019. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and ventricular assist devices (VAD) were the MCS that we investigated. The pre- and post-transplant characteristics and variables of patients bridged with the different types of MCS were collected. The post-transplant survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 251 heart transplants were reviewed; 115 without MCS and 136 with MCS. The patients were divided to five groups: Group 1 (no MCS): n=115; Group 2 (IABP): n=15; Group 3 (ECMO): n=33; Group 4 (ECMO-VAD): double-bridge (n=59); Group 5 (VAD): n=29. Survival analysis demonstrated that the 3-year post-transplant survival rates were significantly different among the groups (Log-rank p < 0.001). There was no difference in survival between group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 1(no MCS)1 (p = 0.136), or between group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 5(VAD) (p = 0.994). Group 3(ECMO) had significantly inferior 3-year survival than group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 5(VAD). CONCLUSION: Double bridge may not lead to worse mid-term results in patients who could receive a transplantation. Initial stabilization with ECMO for critical patients before implantation of VAD might be considered as a strategy for obtaining an optimal post-transplant outcome.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; shortness of breath; chest pain; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT
Online: 5 March 2021 (17:02:02 CET)
Many patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suffer from shortness of breath and severe chest pain. Here we report successful therapy of a patient with diagnosis of COVID-19, severe chest pain and significant shortness of breath, using radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT). The latter started seven days after beginning of symptoms and drug therapy without success, and involved daily application of 15.000 to 20.000 radial extracorporeal shock waves over the intercostal muscles as well as the paravertebral muscles of the thoracic and lumbar spine, diaphragm and flanks. Immediately after the first rESWT session the patient experienced significant pain relief and improvement of breathing. Four days later the pain had completely subsided and breathing was largely normalized. This type of noninvasive, non-pharmacologic treatment could help many COVID-19 patients or patients who still suffer from breathing problems weeks after having been infected with SARS-CoV-2, giving them back quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Postoperative atrial fibrillation; cardiac surgery; conventional extracorporeal circulation; circulating ferritin levels; POAF onset biomarker
Online: 27 October 2022 (05:53:09 CEST)
Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery in conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC), with an incidence of 15-50%. The POAF pathophysiology is not known, and no blood biomarkers exist. However, an association between increased ferritin levels and increased AF risk, has been demonstrated. Based on such evidence, here, we evaluated the effectiveness of ferritin and other haemato-chemical parameters as a POAF onset biomarker in subjected to cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 90 patients (mean age= 66.9±2.8 years; 40 men and 20 females) with diverse heart pathologies and subjected to cardiothoracic surgery. Their blood samples were collected and used to determine haemato-chemical parameters. The tree test approach was used to detect the best data-driven ferritin cuff-off value (=141 ng/ml) to predict POAF risk. Results: The data obtained demonstrated significant higher concentrations, absolute values, and percentages, of ferritin, RDW, PLTs, in POAF patients. However, the ferritin resulted to be the independent factor associated with the onset POAF risk. Thus, we detected the ferritin cut-off value, which, when ≥ 141 ng/ml identifies the subjects at the highest POAF risk. Conclusions: Ferritin values≥ 141 ng/ml might be used as predictive POAF biomarker.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0054.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: acute hamstring muscle complex injury; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT, RSWT; soccer medicine
Online: 14 July 2019 (09:01:08 CEST)
Background: Acute injuries of the hamstring muscle complex (HMC) Type 3b (interfascicle / bundle-tear) are frequently observed in various sports disciplines both in elite and recreational sport. The treatment of choice of acute HMC injuries Type 3b is a progressive physiotherapeutic exercise program. Besides this, there is currently only insufficient scientific evidence to support other treatment methods, including local infiltrations and injections of platelet-rich-plasma. Very recently it was demonstrated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may accelerate regeneration after acute skeletal muscle injury. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that the combination of radial ESWT (rESWT) and a specific rehabilitation program (RP) is effective and safe in treatment of acute HMC injury Type 3b in athletes, and is statistically significantly more effective than the combination of sham-rESWT and RP. Methods/Design: We will perform a double blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial at the clinic KinEf Kinesiología Deportiva, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Fourty patients with acute HMC injury Type 3b will be randomly allocated to receive either rESWT (nine rESWT sessions; three sessions per week; 2500 radial extracorporeal shock waves (rESWs) per session; energy density depending on what the patient tolerates) or sham-rESWT. In addition, all patients will receive a specific rehabilitation program that will last for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the individual time (days) necessary to return to play. Secondary outcomes will include the presence or absence of reinjury during a time period of six months after inclusion into the study. Discussion: Because of the lack of adequate treatment options for acute HMC injury Type 3b in athletes and particularly the high reinjury rate, we hypothesize that the results of this trial will be of importance and have impact on clinical practice. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03473899. Registered March 22, 2018.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: ECMO; ECLS; ECCO2R; ARDS; respiratory failure, LTx, DIN EN ISO 7199; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, animal model
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:16:25 CET)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an established rescue therapy for patients with chronic respiratory failure waiting for lung transplantation (LTx). The therapy inherent immobilization may result in fatigue, consecutive deteriorated prognosis and even lost eligibility for transplantation. We conducted a feasibility study on a novel system designed for the deployment of a mobile ECMO device, enabling physical exercise of awake patients prior to LTx. The system comprises a novel mobile oxygenator with a directly connected blood pump, a double lumen cannula, gas blender and supply, as well as control, and energy management. In-vitro experiments included tests regarding performance, efficiency, and blood damage. A reduced system was tested in vivo for feasibility using a novel large animal model. Six anesthetized pigs were first positioned in supine position, followed by a 45° angle, simulating an upright position of the patients. We monitored performance and vital parameters. All in-vitro experiments showed good performance for the respective subsystems and the integrated system. The acute invivo trials of 8h duration confirmed the results. The novel mobile ECMO-system enables adequate oxygenation and decarboxylation sufficient for, e.g., physical exercise of designated LTx-recipients. These results are promising and suggest further preclinical studies on safety and efficacy to facilitate translation into clinical application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: nerve repair; median nerve; rat; autologous nerve graft; muscle-in-vein conduit; extracorporeal shock wave therapy; grasping test; gait analysis; CatWalk, nerve regeneration
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:17:43 CEST)
Investigations reporting positive effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) on nerve regeneration are limited to the rat sciatic nerve model. The effects of ESWT on muscle-in-vein conduits (MVCs) have also not been investigated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ESWT after repair of the rat median nerve with either autografts (ANGs) or MVCs. In male Lewis rats, a 7-mm segment of the right median nerve was reconstructed either with an ANG or MVC. For each reconstructive technique, one group of animals received one application of ESWT while the other rats served as controls. Animals were observed for 12 weeks and nerve regeneration was assessed via computerized gait analysis, the grasping test, electrophysiological evaluations and histological quantification of axons, blood vessels and lymphatic vasculature. Here we provide for the first time a comprehensive analysis of ESWT effects on nerve regeneration in a rat model of median nerve injury. Furthermore, this study is among the first reporting the quantification of lymphatic vessels following peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction in vivo. While we found no significant direct positive effects of ESWT on peripheral nerve regeneration, results following nerve repair with MVCs were significantly inferior to those after ANG repair.