REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0116.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: XAI; AI; artificial intelligence; explainable; explainability; machine learning; deep learning; data science; big data; healthcare; medicine
Online: 7 March 2023 (01:43:13 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) describes computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and language translation. Examples of AI techniques are machine learning, neural networks and deep learning. AI can be applied in many different areas, such as econometrics, biometry, e-commerce and the automotive industry. In recent years, AI has found its way into healthcare as well, helping doctors to make better decisions (‘clinical decision support’), localizing tumors in magnetic resonance images, reading and analyzing reports written by radiologists and pathologists, and much more. However, AI has one big risk: it can be perceived as a ‘black box’, limiting trust in its reliability, which is a very big issue in an area in which a decision can mean life or death. As a result, the term Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) has been gaining momentum. XAI tries to ensure that AI algorithms (and the resulting decisions) can be understood by humans. In this narrative review, we will have a look at the current status of XAI in healthcare, describe several issues around XAI, and discuss whether it can really help healthcare to advance, for example by increasing understanding and trust. Finally, alternatives to increase trust in AI are discussed, as well as future research possibilities in the area of XAI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Explainable Artificial Intelligence; Human-Centric Artificial Intelligence; Smart Manufacturing; Demand Forecasting; Industry 4.0; Industry 5.0
Online: 8 April 2022 (08:11:56 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence models are increasingly used in manufacturing to inform decision-making. Responsible decision-making requires accurate forecasts and an understanding of the models’ behavior. Furthermore, the insights into models’ rationale can be enriched with domain knowledge. This research builds explanations considering feature rankings for a particular forecast, enriching them with media news entries, datasets’ metadata, and entries from the Google Knowledge Graph. We compare two approaches (embeddings-based and semantic-based) on a real-world use case regarding demand forecasting.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0997.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: eXplainable Artificial Intelligence; Electronically Assisted Astronomy; Smart Telescope
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:54:32 CEST)
Deep sky observation is a fascinating activity, but it requires favourable conditions in order to be fully appreciated. Complex equipment, light pollution around urban areas, lack of contextual information often prevents newcomers from making the most of their observations, restricting the field to a niche expert audience. In this paper, we show how combining the usage of smart telescopes with eXplainable Artificial Intelligence makes the practice of astronomy even more accessible and educative, and how it has been applied during outreach sessions In Luxembourg Greater Region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0581.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; medicine; explainable AI; interpretable AI
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:53:03 CEST)
Due to the success of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the medical field over the past decade, concerns about the explainability of these systems have increased. The reliability requirements of black-box led algorithms for making decisions affecting patients pose a challenge even beyond their accuracy. Recent advances in AI increasingly underscore the need to incorporate explainability into these systems. While most traditional AI methods and expert systems are inherently interpretable, recent literature has focused primarily on explainability techniques for more complex models such as deep learning. This scoping review analyzes the existing literature on explainability and interpretability of AI methods in the medical and clinical field, providing an overview of past and current research trends, and limitations that might impede the development of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) in medicine, challenges, and possible research directions. In addition, this review discusses possible alternatives for leveraging medical knowledge to improve interpretability in clinical settings, while taking into account the needs of users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Chronic wound classification; transfer learning; explainable artificial intelligence.
Online: 18 January 2021 (14:28:04 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has seen increased application and widespread adoption over the past decade despite, at times, offering a limited understanding of its inner working. AI algorithms are, in large part, built on weights, and these weights are calculated as a result of large matrix multiplications. Computationally intensive processes are typically harder to interpret. Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) aims to solve this black box approach through the use of various techniques and tools. In this study, XAI techniques are applied to chronic wound classification. The proposed model classifies chronic wounds through the use of transfer learning and fully connected layers. Classified chronic wound images serve as input to the XAI model for an explanation. Interpretable results can help shed new perspectives to clinicians during the diagnostic phase. The proposed method successfully provides chronic wound classification and its associated explanation. This hybrid approach is shown to aid with the interpretation and understanding of AI decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1156.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Acute Heart Failure; XGBoost; Explainable Artificial Intelligence; SHAP; Hematological parameters
Online: 18 July 2023 (04:47:24 CEST)
Background: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a serious medical problem that necessitates hospitalisation and often results in death. Patients hospitalised to the emergency department (ED) should therefore receive an immediate diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, there is not yet a fast and accurate laboratory test for identifying AHF. The purpose of this research is to apply the principles of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) to the analysis of hematological predictors for AHF. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 425 patients with AHF and 430 healthy individuals served as assessments. Patients' demographic and hematological information was analyzed to determine AHF. Important risk variables for AHF diagnosis were identified using LASSO feature selection. To test the efficacy of the suggested prediction model (XGBoost), a 10-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), F1 score, Brier score, and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were all computed to evaluate the model's efficacy. Permutation-based analysis and SHAP, were used to assess the importance and influence of the model's incorporated risk factors. Results: White blood cell (WBC), monocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), red cell distribution width-standard deviation (RDW-SD), RDW-coefficient of variation (RDW-CV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) values were significantly higher than the healthy group (p<0.05). On the other hand, erythrocyte, hemoglobin, basophil, lymphocyte, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet, hematocrit, mean erythrocyte hemoglobin (MCH) and procalcitonin (PCT) values were found to be significantly lower in AHF patients compared to healthy controls (p <0.05). When XGBoost was used in conjunction with LASSO to estimate AHF, the resulting model had an AUC of 87.9%, an F1 score of 87.4%, a Brier score of 0.036, and an F1 score of 87.4%. PDW, age, RDW-SD, and PLT were identified as the most crucial risk factors in differentiating AHF. Conclusions: The XGBoost model demonstrated exceptional performance in accurately estimating Acute Heart Failure, and the application of Explainable Artificial Intelligence effectively provided intuitive explanations for the model's estimations. The suggested interpretable model holds potential for the identification of patients at high risk, thereby facilitating the optimization of treatment and planning for follow-up in cases of AHF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1585.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Explainable artificial intelligence; Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; Metabolomics data; Clinical classification.
Online: 25 July 2023 (04:33:22 CEST)
Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex and debilitating disease with a significant global prevalence of over 65 million individuals. It affects various systems, including the immune, neurological, gastrointestinal, and circulatory systems. Studies have shown abnormalities in immune cell types, increased inflammatory cytokines, and brain abnormalities. Further research is needed to identify consistent biomarkers and develop targeted therapies. A multidisciplinary approach is essential for diagnosing, treating, and managing this complex disease. The current study aims at employing explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) and machine learning (ML) techniques to identify discriminative metabolites for ME/CFS. Material and Methods: The present study used a metabolomics dataset of CFS patients and healthy controls, including 26 healthy controls and 26 ME/CFS patients aged 22-72. The dataset encapsulated 768 metabolites, classified into nine metabolic super-pathways: amino acids, carbohydrates, cofactors, vitamins, energy, lipids, nucleotides, peptides, and xenobiotics. Random forest-based feature selection and Bayesian Approach based-hyperparameter optimization were implemented on the target data. Four different ML algorithms [Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB), Gradient Boosting Classifier (GBC), Logistic regression (LR) and Random Forest Classifier (RFC)] were used to classify individuals as ME/CFS patients and healthy individuals. XAI approaches were applied to clinically explain the prediction decisions of the optimum model. Performance evaluation was performed using the indices of accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, Brier score, and AUC. Results: The metabolomics of C-glycosyltryptophan, oleoylcholine, cortisone, and 3-hydroxydecanoate were determined to be crucial for ME/CFS diagnosis. The RFC learning model outperformed GNB, GBC, and LR in ME/CFS prediction using the 1000 iteration bootstrapping method, achieving 98% accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, 0.01 Brier score, and 99% AUC. Conclusion: RFC model proposed in this study correctly classified and evaluated ME/CFS patients through the selected biomarker candidate metabolites. The methodology combining ML and XAI can provide a clear interpretation of risk estimation for ME/CFS, helping physicians intuitively understand the impact of key metabolomics features in the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: biomechanics; posture; hyperlordosis; hyperkyphosis; machine learning; artificial intelligence; explainable artificial intelligence; human-in-the-loop; confident learning; label errors
Online: 29 March 2023 (14:08:32 CEST)
Postural deficits such as hyperlordosis (hollow back) or hyperkyphosis (hunchback) are relevant health issues. Diagnoses depend on the experience of the examiner and are therefore often subjective and prone to errors. Machine learning (ML) methods in combination with explainable ar-tificial intelligence (XAI) tools have proven useful for providing an objective, data-based orien-tation. However, only a few works have considered posture parameters, leaving the potential of more human-friendly XAI interpretations still untouched. Therefore, the present work proposes an objective, data-driven ML system for medical decision support that enables especially human-friendly interpretations using counterfactual explanations (CFs). Posture data for 1151 subjects were recorded by means of stereophotogrammetry. An expert-based classification of the subjects regarding the presence of hyperlordosis or hyperkyphosis was initially performed. Using a Gaussian progress classifier, the models were trained and interpreted using CFs. Label errors were flagged and re-evaluated using confident learning. Very good classification performances for both hyperlordosis and hyperkyphosis were found, whereby the re-evaluation and correction of the test labels led to a significant improvement (MPRAUC = 0.97). A statistical evaluation showed that the CFs seemed to be plausible in general. In the context of personalized medicine, the present study’s approach could be of importance for reducing diagnostic errors and thereby improving the individual adaptation of therapeutic measures. Likewise, it could be a basis for the development of apps for preventive posture assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0757.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Explainable Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Supervised Learning; Surface Roughness; Structural Integrity
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:04:49 CEST)
Structural integrity is a crucial aspect of engineering components, particularly in the field of additive manufacturing (AM). Surface roughness is a vital parameter that significantly influences the structural integrity of additively manufactured parts. In this study, we present a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between surface roughness and structural integrity of Polyactic Acid (PLA) specimens produced through additive manufacturing. This research work focuses on the prediction of surface roughness of Additive Manufactured Polyactic Acid (PLA) specimens using eight different supervised machine learning regression-based algorithms. For the first time, Explainable AI techniques are employed to enhance the interpretability of the machine learning models. The eight algorithms used in this study are Support Vector Regression, Random Forest, XG Boost, Ada Boost, Catboost, Decision Tree, Extra Tree regressor, and Gradient Boosting regressor. The study analyzes the performance of these algorithms to predict the surface roughness of PLA specimens, while also investigating the impact of individual input parameters through Explainable AI methods. The experimental results indicate that the XG Boost algorithm outperforms the other algorithms with the highest coefficient of determination value of 0.9634. This value demonstrates that the XG Boost algorithm provides the most accurate predictions for surface roughness compared to other algorithms. The study also provides a comparative analysis of the performance of all the algorithms used in this study, along with insights derived from Explainable AI techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: climate change; vector-borne disease; artificial intelligence; explainable AI; geospatial modeling; infectious disease; arbovirus
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:21:32 CEST)
As recent history has shown, changing climate not only threatens to increase the spread of known disease, but also the emergence of new and dangerous phenotypes. This occurred most recently with West Nile virus: a virus previously known for mild febrile illness rapidly emerged to become a major cause of mortality and long-term disability throughout the world. As we move forward, into increasingly uncertain times, public health research must begin to incorporate a broader understanding of the determinants of disease emergence – what, how, why, and when. The increasing mainstream availability of high-quality open data and high-powered analytical methods presents promising new opportunities. Up to now, quantitative models of disease outbreak risk have been largely based on just a few key drivers, namely climate and large-scale climatic effects. Such limited assessments, however, often overlook key interacting processes and downstream determinants more likely to drive local manifestation of disease. Such pivotal determinants may include local host abundance, human behavioral variability, and population susceptibility dynamics. The results of such analyses can therefore be misleading in cases where necessary downstream requirements are not fulfilled. It is therefore important to develop models that include climate and higher-level climatic effects alongside the downstream non-climatic factors that ultimately determine individual disease manifestation. Today, few models attempt to comprehensively address such dynamics: up until very recently, the technology simply hasn’t been available. Herein, we present an updated overview of current perspectives on the varying drivers and levels of interactions that drive disease spread. We review the predominant analytical paradigms, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight promising new analytical solutions. Our focus is on the prediction of arboviruses, particularly West Nile virus, as these diseases represent the pinnacle of epidemiological complexity – solution to which would serve as an effective “gatekeeper”. We present the current state-of-the-art with respect to known drivers of arbovirus outbreak risk and severity, differentially highlighting the impact of climate and non-climatic drivers. The reality of multiple classes of drivers interacting at different geospatial and temporal scales requires advanced new methodologies. We therefore close out by presenting and discussing some promising new applications of AI. Given the reality of accelerating disease risks due to climate change, public health and other related fields must begin the process of updating their research programs to incorporate these much needed, new capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0387.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence; high-level explainable feature; entropy; plant stress; early diagnosis
Online: 22 August 2022 (15:47:02 CEST)
The article is devoted to solving the problem of searching for universal explainable features that can remain explainable for a wide class of objects and phenomena and become an integral part of Explainable AI (XAI). The study is implemented on the example of an applied problem of early diagnostics of plant stress, using Thermal IR (TIR) and HSI, presented by 8 vegetation indices/channels. Each such index was presented by 5 statistical values. A Single-Layer-Perceptron classifier was used as the main instrument. TIR turned out to be the best of the indices in terms of efficiency in the field and sufficient to detect all 7 key days with 100% accuracy. Our study shows also that there are a number of indices, inluding NDVI, and usual color channels Red, Green, Blue, which are close to TIR possibilities in early plant stress detection with 100% accurasy or near, and can be used for wide class of plants and in different conditions their treatment. The stability of the stress classification in our study was maintained when the training set was reduced up to 10% of the dataset volume. The entropy-like feature of (max-min) for any indices/channels have determined as a leadersheep universal high-level explainable feature for the plant stress detection, which used in interaction with some of other statistical features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1488.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Explainability; Explainable AI; XAI; Recommendation; Bugs
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:42:14 CEST)
Software engineering is a comprehensive process that requires developers and team members to collaborate across multiple tasks. In software testing, bug triaging is a tedious and time-consuming process. Assigning bugs to the appropriate developers can save time and maintain their motivation. However, without knowledge about a bug's class, triaging is difficult. Motivated by this challenge, this paper focuses on the problem of assigning the suitable developer to new bug by analyzing the history of developers’ profiles and analyzing history of bugs for all developers using machine learning-based recommender systems. Explainable AI (XAI) is AI that humans can understand. It contrasts with "black box" AI, which even its designers can't explain. By providing appropriate explanations for results, users can better comprehend the underlying insight behind the outcomes, boosting the recommender system's effectiveness, transparency, and confidence. In this paper, we propose two explainable models for recommendation. The first one is an explainable recommender model for personalized developers generated from bug history to know what the preferred type of bug is for each developer. The second model is an explainable recommender model based on bugs to generate the best developer for each bug from bug history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0186.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Explainable AI; Convolutional Neural Network; Network Compression
Online: 9 November 2021 (15:03:27 CET)
Model understanding is critical in many domains, particularly those involved in high-stakes decisions, i.e., medicine, criminal justice, and autonomous driving. Explainable AI (XAI) methods are essential for working with black-box models such as Convolutional Neural Networks. This paper evaluates the traffic sign classifier of Deep Neural Network (DNN) from the Programmable Systems for Intelligence in Automobiles (PRYSTINE) project for explainability. The results of explanations were further used for the CNN PRYSTINE classifier vague kernels` compression. After all, the precision of the classifier was evaluated in different pruning scenarios. The proposed classifier performance methodology was realised by creating the original traffic sign and traffic light classification and explanation code. First, the status of the kernels of the network was evaluated for explainability. For this task, the post-hoc, local, meaningful perturbation-based forward explainable method was integrated into the model to evaluate each kernel status of the network. This method enabled distinguishing high and low-impact kernels in the CNN. Second, the vague kernels of the classifier of the last layer before the fully connected layer were excluded by withdrawing them from the network. Third, the network's precision was evaluated in different kernel compression levels. It is shown that by using the XAI approach for network kernel compression, the pruning of 5% of kernels leads only to a 1% loss in traffic sign and traffic light classification precision. The proposed methodology is crucial where execution time and processing capacity prevail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1162.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Decision tree; Explainable AI; Rule learning
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:14:59 CEST)
The demand for explainable and transparent models increases with the continued success of reinforcement learning. In this article, we explore the potential of generating shallow decision trees (DT) as simple and transparent surrogate models for opaque deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agents. We investigate three algorithms for generating training data for axis-parallel and oblique DTs with the help of DRL agents ("oracles") and evaluate these methods on classic control problems from OpenAI Gym. The results show that one of our newly developed algorithms, the iterative training, outperforms traditional sampling algorithms, resulting in well-performing DTs that often even surpass the oracle from which they were trained. Even higher dimensional problems can be solved with surprisingly shallow DTs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different sampling methods and insights into the decision-making process made possible by the transparent nature of DTs. Our work contributes to the development of not only powerful but also explainable RL agents and highlights the potential of DTs as a simple and effective alternative to complex DRL models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0196.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Reinforcement Learning; Explainable Reinforcement Learning; XRL
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:13:44 CEST)
While machine learning models are powering more and more everyday devices, there is a growing need for explaining them. This especially applies to the use of Deep Reinforcement Learning in solutions that require security, such as vehicle motion planning. In this paper, we propose a method of understanding what the RL agent’s decision is based on. The method relies on conducting statistical analysis on a massive set of state-decisions samples. It indicates which input features have an impact on the agent’s decision and the relationships between decisions, the significance of the input features, and their values. The method allows us for determining whether the process of making a decision by the agent is coherent with human intuition and what contradicts it. We applied the proposed method to the RL motion planning agent which is supposed to drive a vehicle safely and efficiently on a highway. We find out that making such analysis allows for a better understanding agent’s decisions, inspecting its behavior, debugging the ANN model, and verifying the correctness of input values, which increases its credibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Nephrotoxicity; Methotrexate; Genomics; Machine Learning; Explainable Artificial Intelligence; Biomarker
Online: 6 July 2023 (08:41:31 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this study is to carry out bioinformatic analysis of lncRNA data obtained as a result of genomic analysis of kidney tissue samples taken from rats with nephrotoxicity induced by methotrexate (MTX) and from rats without pathology and modeling with tree-based machine learning method. Another aim of the study is to identify potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of nephrotoxicity and to provide a better understanding of the nephrotoxicity formation process by providing the interpretability of the model with explainable artificial intelligence methods as a result of the modeling. Methods: To identify potential indicators of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, 20 female Wistar Albino rats were separated into two groups: nephrotoxicity and control. Kidney tissue samples were collected from the rats, and genomic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The data set obtained as a result of genomic analysis was modeled with Random Forest (RF), one of the tree-based methods. Modeling results were evaluated with sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), balanced accuracy (B-Acc), negative predictive value (Npv), accuracy (Acc), positive predictive value (Ppv), and F1-score performance metrics. The Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Annotations (LIME) method was used to determine the lncRNAs that could be biomarkers for nephrotoxicity by providing the interpretability of the RF model. Results: The outcomes of the histological and immunohistochemical analyses done in the study supported the conclusion that MTX use caused kidney injury. According to the results of the bioinformatics analysis, 52 lncRNAs showed different expression in the groups. As a result of modeling with RF for lncRNAs selected with Boruta variable selection, the B-Acc, Acc, Sp, Se, Npv, Ppv, and F1-score were 88.9%, 90%, 90.9%, 88.9%, 90.9%, 88.9% and 88.9%. respectively. lncRNAs with id rnaXR_591534.3 rnaXR_005503408.1, rnaXR_005495645.1, rnaXR_001839007.2, rnaXR_005492056.1 and rna_XR_005492522.1 the lncRNAs with the highest variable importance values produced from RF modeling can be used as nephroxicity biomarker candidates. Also, according to the LIME results, the high level of lncRNAs with id rnaXR_591534.3 and rnaXR_005503408.1 especially increased the possibility of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: With the possible biomarkers obtained as a result of the analyses made within the scope of this study, it can be ensured that the procedures for the diagnosis of drug-induced nephrotoxicity can be carried out easily, quickly and effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0276.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Sensor fusion; Camera and LiDAR fusion; Odometry; Explainable AI
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:27:42 CEST)
Recent deep learning frameworks draw a strong research interest in the application of ego-motion estimation as they demonstrate a superior result compared to geometric approaches. However, due to the lack of multimodal datasets, most of these studies primarily focused on a single sensor-based estimation. To overcome this challenge, we collect a unique multimodal dataset named LboroAV2, using multiple sensors including camera, Light Detecting And Ranging (LiDAR), ultrasound, e-compass and rotary encoder. We also propose an end-to-end deep learning architecture for fusion of RGB images and LiDAR laser scan data for odometry application. The proposed method contains a convolutional encoder, a compressed representation and a recurrent neural network. Besides feature extraction and outlier rejection, the convolutional encoder produces a compressed representation which is used to visualise the network's learning process and to pass useful sequential information. The recurrent neural network uses this compressed sequential data to learn the relation between consecutive time steps. We use the LboroAV2 and KITTI VO datasets to experiment and evaluate our results. In addition to visualising the network's learning process, our approach gives superior results compared to other similar methods. The code for the proposed architecture is released in GitHub and accessible publicly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0387.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: fake news detection; explainable machine learning; spatiotemporal structure; social network
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:41:06 CEST)
Fake news detection has become a significant topic based on the fast-spreading and detrimental effects of such news. Many methods based on deep neural networks learn clues from claim content and message propagation structure or temporal information, which have been widely recognized. However, such models (i) ignore the fact that information quality is uneven in propagation, which makes semantic representations unreliable. (ii) Most models do not fully leverage spatial and temporal structure in combination. (iii) Finally, internal decision-making processes and results are non-transparent and unexplained. In this study, we develop a trust-aware evidence reasoning and spatiotemporal feature aggregation model for more interpretable and accurate fake news detection. Specifically, we first design a trust-aware evidence reasoning module to calculate the credibility of posts based on a random walk model to discover high-quality evidence. Next, from the perspective of spatiotemporal structure, we design an evidence-representation module to capture the semantic interactions granularly and enhance the reliable representation of evidence. Finally, a two-layer capsule network is designed to aggregate the implicit bias in evidence while capturing the false portions of source information in a transparent and interpretable manner. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets indicate that the proposed model can provide explanations for fake news detection results, as well as can achieve better performance, boosting 3.5% in F1-score on average.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: screening model; breast cancer; explainable model; machine learning; Asian women
Online: 13 June 2022 (11:06:10 CEST)
This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the development of an over-the-counter (OTC) screening model using machine learning for breast cancer screening in the Asian women population. Data were retrospectively collected from women who came to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Five screening models were developed based on machine learning methods; random forest, artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), elastic-net logistic regression and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). Features used for the development of the screening models were limited to information from the patients’ registration form. The model performance was assessed across the dense and non-dense groups. SVM had the best sensitivity while elastic-net logistic regression had the best specificity. In terms of precision, both random forest elastic-net logistic regression had the best performance, while, in terms of PR-AUC, XGBoost had the best performance. Additionally, SVM had a more balanced performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity across the mammographic density groups. The three most important features were age at examination, weight and number of children. In conclusion, OTC models developed from machine learning methods can improve the prognostic process of breast cancer in Asian women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: justice system; blockchain; differential privacy; homomorphic encryption; explainable artificial intelligence; ChatGPT
Online: 29 May 2023 (13:47:42 CEST)
Pursuing "intelligent justice" necessitates an impartial, productive, and technologically driven methodology for judicial determinations. This scholarly composition proposes a framework that harnesses Artificial Intelligence (AI) innovations such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), ChatGPT, ontological alignment, and the semantic web, in conjunction with blockchain and privacy techniques, to examine, deduce, and proffer recommendations for the administration of justice. Specifically, through the integration of blockchain technology, the system affords a secure and transparent infrastructure for the management of legal documentation and transactions while preserving data confidentiality. Privacy approaches, including differential privacy and homomorphic encryption techniques, are further employed to safeguard sensitive data and uphold discretion. The advantages of the suggested framework encompass heightened efficiency and expediency, diminished error propensity, a more uniform approach to judicial determinations, and augmented security and privacy. Additionally, by utilizing explainable AI methodologies, the ethical and legal ramifications of deploying intelligent algorithms and blockchain technologies within the legal domain are scrupulously contemplated, ensuring a secure, efficient, and transparent justice system that concurrently protects sensitive information upholds privacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0115.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Explainable machine learning; COVID-19; Vaccination uptake; Shapley values; Feature importance.
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:30:18 CEST)
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is considered responsible for the lower rate of acceptance of vaccines in many parts of the world. However, sources of this hesitancy are rooted in many social, political, and economic factors. This paper strives to find the most important variables in predicting the COVID-19 vaccination uptake. We introduce an explainable machine learning (ML) framework to understand the COVID-19 vaccination uptake around the world. To predict vaccination uptake, we have trained a random forest (RF) regression model using a number of sociodemographic and socioeconomic data. The traditional decision tree (DT) regression model is also implemented as the baseline model. We found that the RF model performed better than the DT model since RF is more robust to handle nonlinearity and multi-collinearity. Also, we have presented feature importance based on impurity measure, permutation, and Shapley values to provide the most significant unbiased features. It is found that electrification coverage and Gross Domestic Product are the strongest predictors for higher vaccination uptake, whereas the Fragile state index (FI) contributed to lower vaccination uptake. These findings suggest addressing issues that are found responsible for lower vaccination uptake to combat any future public health crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Vision Transformers; white blood cells; explainable AI models; deep learning; Score-CAM
Online: 15 June 2023 (08:42:51 CEST)
Blood cell analysis is a crucial diagnostic process in medical practice. In particular, detecting white blood cells (WBCs) is essential for diagnosing of many diseases. The manual screening of blood films is a time-consuming and subjective process, which can lead to inconsistencies and errors. Therefore, automated detection of blood cells can improve the accuracy and efficiency of the screening process. In this study, an explainable Vision Transformer (ViT) model was proposed for the automatic detection of WBCs from blood films. The proposed model utilizes the self-attention mechanism to extract relevant features from the input images and leverages transfer learning by incorporating pre-trained model weights to improve its performance. The proposed model achieved a classification accuracy of 99.40% for five distinct types of WBCs and exhibited potential in reducing the time required for manual screening of blood films by pathologists. Upon examination of the misclassified test samples, it was observed that incorrect predictions were correlated with the presence or absence of granules in the cell samples. To validate this observation, the dataset was divided into two classes, namely Granulocytes and Agranulocytes, and a secondary training process was conducted. The resulting ViT model trained for binary classification achieved an accuracy of 99.70%, recall of 99.54%, precision of 99.32%, and F-1 score of 99.43% during the test phase. To ensure the reliability of the ViT model's multi-class classification of WBCs, the pixel areas that the model focuses on in its predictions are visualized through the Score-CAM algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0110.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: causality; deep learning; machine learning; counterfactual; explainable AI; blended cognition; mechanisms; system
Online: 8 July 2019 (08:10:29 CEST)
Causality is the most important topic in the history of Western Science, and since the beginning of the statistical paradigm, it meaning has been reconceptualized many times. Causality entered into the realm of multi-causal and statistical scenarios some centuries ago. Despite of widespread critics, today Deep Learning and Machine Learning advances are not weakening causality but are creating a new way of finding indirect factors correlations. This process makes possible us to talk about approximate causality, as well as about a situated causality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: green coffee bean; lightweight framework; deep convolutional neural network; explainable model; random optimization
Online: 14 September 2022 (04:04:05 CEST)
In recent years, the demand for coffee has increased tremendously. During the production process, green coffee beans are traditionally screened manually for defective beans before they are packed into coffee bean packages; however, this method is not only time-consuming but also increases the rate of human error due to fatigue. Therefore, this paper proposed a lightweight deep convolutional neural network (LDCNN) for the quality detection system of green coffee beans, which combined depthwise separable convolution (DSC), squeeze-and-excite block (SE block), skip block, and other frameworks. To avoid the influence of low parameters of the lightweight model caused by the model training process, rectified Adam (RA), lookahead (LA), and gradient centralization (GC) were included to improve efficiency; the model was also put into the embedded system. Finally, the local interpretable model-agnostic explanations (LIME) model was employed to explain the predictions of the model. The experimental results indicated that the accuracy rate of the model could reach up to 98.38% and the F1 score could be as high as 98.24% when detecting the quality of green coffee beans. Hence, it can obtain higher accuracy, lower computing time, and lower parameters. Moreover, the interpretable model verified that the lightweight model in this work is reliable, providing the basis for screening personnel to understand the judgment through its interpretability, thereby improving the classification and prediction of the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), Convolutional neural network (CNN), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI)
Online: 26 October 2021 (11:45:00 CEST)
Functional connectivity (FC) is a potential candidate that can increase the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in the elderly because of its compensatory role in neural circuits. However, it is difficult to decode FC by current machine learning techniques because of a lack of its physiological understanding. To investigate the suitability of FC in BCI for the elderly, we propose the decoding of lower- and higher-order FCs using a convolutional neural network (CNN) in six cognitive-motor tasks. The layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) method describes how age-related changes in FCs impact BCI applications for the elderly compared to younger adults. Seventeen younger (24.5±2.7 years) and twelve older (72.5±3.2 years) adults were recruited to perform tasks related to hand-force control with or without mental calculation. CNN yielded a six-class classification accuracy of 75.3% in the elderly, exceeding the 70.7% accuracy for the younger adults. In the elderly, the proposed method increases the classification accuracy by 88.3% compared to the filter-bank common spatial pattern (FBCSP). LRP results revealed that both lower- and higher-order FCs were dominantly overactivated in the prefrontal lobe depending on task type. These findings suggest a promising application of multi-order FC with deep learning on BCI systems for the elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0078.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Natural language processing; text classification; probabilistic models; machine learning; generative learning; collaborative learning; explainable AI
Online: 5 June 2023 (02:57:36 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence in natural language processing (NLP) has significantly contributed to the advancement of natural language applications such as sentimental analysis, topic modeling, text classification, chatbots, and spam filtering. With a large amount of text generated each day from different sources such as webpages, blogs, emails, social media, and articles, one of the most common tasks in natural language processing is the classification of a text corpus. This is important in many institutions for planning, decision-making, and archives of their projects. Many algorithms exist to automate text classification operations but the most intriguing of them is that which also learns these operations automatically. In this study, we present a new model to infer and learn from data using probabilistic logic and apply it to text classification. This model, called GenCo, is a multi-input single-output (MISO) learning model that uses a collaboration of partial classifications to generate the desired output. It provides a heterogeneity measure to explain its classification results and enables the reduction of the curse of dimensionality in text classification. The classification results are compared with those of conventional text classification models, and it shows that our proposed model has a higher classification performance than conventional models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0122.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence; hyperspectral image; thermal IR training; zero-shot learning; plant stress; early diagnosis
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:56:11 CET)
The work is devoted to the search for effective solutions to the applied problem of early diagnostics of plant stress in the conditions of smart farming and based on modern explicable artificial intelligence (XAI). The study mostly oriented on the theory and practice of XAI, focused on the use of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) sensor data at the input of a neural network. The first our goal is to build an XAI neural network, explainable due to its structure, the input of which is a datascientist oriented HSI 'explanator', and the output is a biologist oriented TIR 'explanator'. In the middle is SLP-regressor which solves the universal problem of training HSI pixels to temperatures of plants, needed for early plant stress diagnostic. The result can be considered as prototype of a special XAI explanator which is assigned to transform explanator specialized on area 1 onto explanator specialized on area 2. Using this HSI-TIR explanator we ensured the follows: extend HSI data by TIR attribute; providing TIR data for early diagnostic of plant stress; reducing dimensionality HSI needed for TIR training 25 times (from 204 to 8) preserving the same accuracy of temperature prediction (RMSE=0.2-0.3C). This reducing was achieved without using PCA methods. The constructed model is computationally efficient in training: the average training time is significantly less then 1 min (Intel Core i3-8130U, 2.2 GHz, 4 cores, 4 GB). One of the 8 channels, 820 nm, is the leader in correlation with TIR, what allows building local linear temperature prediction functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0246.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Explainable Artificial Intelligence; XAI; Time Series Forecasting; Global Time Series Models; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:32:48 CEST)
While increasing empirical evidence suggests that global time series forecasting models can achieve better forecasting performance than local ones, there is a research void regarding when and why the global models fail to provide a good forecast. This paper uses anomaly detection algorithms and Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) to answer when and why a forecast should not be trusted. To address this issue, a dashboard was built to inform the user regarding (i) the relevance of the features for that particular forecast, (ii) which training samples most likely influenced the forecast outcome, (iii) why the forecast is considered an outlier, and (iv) provide a range of counterfactual examples to understand value changes, in the feature vector or the predicted value, can lead to a different outcome. Moreover, a modular architecture and a methodology were developed to iteratively remove noisy data instances from the train set, to enhance the overall global time series forecasting model performance. Finally, to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach, it was validated on two publicly available real-world datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0449.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Explainable Artificial Intelligence; Hopfield Neural Networks; Automatic Video Generation; Data-to-text systems; Software Visualization
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:07:48 CEST)
Hopfield Neural Networks (HNNs) are recurrent neural networks used to implement associative memory. Their main feature is their ability to pattern recognition, optimization, or image segmentation. However, sometimes it is not easy to provide the users with good explanations about the results obtained with them due to mainly the large number of changes in the state of neurons (and their weights) produced during a problem of machine learning. There are currently limited techniques to visualize, verbalize, or abstract HNNs. This paper outlines how we can construct automatic video generation systems to explain their execution. This work constitutes a novel approach to get explainable artificial intelligence systems in general and HNNs in particular building on the theory of data-to-text systems and software visualization approaches. We present a complete methodology to build these kinds of systems. Software architecture is also designed, implemented, and tested. Technical details about the implementation are also detailed and explained. Finally, we apply our approach for creating a complete explainer video about the execution of HNNs on a small recognition problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0451.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Explainable AI; Cluster Analysis; Swarm Intelligence; Machine Learning System; High-Dimensional Data Visualization; Decision Trees
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:01:33 CET)
The understanding of water quality and its underlying processes is important for the protection of aquatic environments enabling the rare opportunity of access to a domain expert. Hence, an explainable AI (XAI) framework is proposed that is applicable to multivariate time series resulting in explanations that are interpretable by a domain expert. The XAI combines in three steps a data-driven choice of a distance measure with explainable cluster analysis through supervised decision trees. The multivariate time series consists of water quality measurements, including nitrate, electrical conductivity, and twelve other environmental parameters. The relationships between water quality and the environmental parameters are investigated by identifying similar days within a cluster and dissimilar days between clusters. The XAI does not depend on prior knowledge about data structure, and its explanations are tendentially contrastive. The relationships in the data can be visualized by a topographic map representing high-dimensional structures. Two comparable decision-based XAIs were unable to provide meaningful and relevant explanations from the multivariate time series data. Open-source code in R for the three steps of the XAI framework is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0197.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Deep neural networks; Adversarial Attacks; Poisoning; Backdoors; Trojans; Taxonomy; Ontology; Knowledge Base; Explainable AI; Green AI
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:39:07 CEST)
Deep neural networks (DNN) have successfully delivered a cutting-edge performance in several fields. With the broader deployment of DNN models on critical applications, the security of DNNs becomes an active and yet nascent area. Attacks against DNNs can have catastrophic results, according to recent studies. Poisoning attacks, including backdoor and Trojan attacks, are one of the growing threats against DNNs. Having a wide-angle view of these evolving threats is essential to better understand the security issues. In this regard, creating a semantic model and a knowledge graph for poisoning attacks can reveal the relationships between attacks across intricate data to enhance the security knowledge landscape. In this paper, we propose a DNN Poisoning Attacks Ontology (DNNPAO) that would enhance knowledge sharing and enable further advancements in the field. To do so, we have performed a systematic review of the relevant literature to identify the current state. We collected 28,469 papers from IEEE, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, and from these papers, 712 research papers were screened in a rigorous process, and 55 poisoning attacks in DNNs were identified and classified. We extracted a taxonomy of the poisoning attacks as a scheme to develop DNNPAO. Subsequently, we used DNNPAO as a framework to create a knowledge base. Our findings open new lines of research within the field of AI security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0090.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; active learning; knowledge acquisition; explainable artificial intelligence; manufacturing; demand forecasting; smart assistant
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:23:46 CEST)
This research work describes an architecture for building a system that guide a user from a forecast generated by a machine learning model through a sequence of decision-making steps. The system is demonstrated in manufacturing demand forecasting use case and can be extended to other domains. In addition, the system provides means for knowledge acquisition by gathering data from users. Finally, it implements an active learning component and compares multiple strategies to recommend media news to the user. Such media news aims to provide additional context to demand forecasts and enhance judgment on decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: seismic sequence; interpretable machine learning; successive earthquakes; seismic dama-ge prediction; seismic damage accumulation; machine learning; explainable machine learning
Online: 10 May 2023 (10:35:55 CEST)
This study investigates the interpretability of machine learning (ML) models applied to cumulative damage prediction during a sequence of earthquakes, emphasizing the use of techniques such as SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), Partial Dependence Plots (PDPs), Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations (LIME), Accumulated Local Effects (ALE), Permutation and Impurity-based technique. The research explores the cumulative damage during seismic sequences, aiming to identify critical predictors and assess their influence on the cumulative damage. Moreover, the predictors contribution in respect with the range of final damage is evaluated. Nonlinear time history analyses are applied to extract the seismic response of an eight-story Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame. The regression problem’s input variables are divided into two distinct physical classes: pre-existing damage from the initial seismic event and seismic parameters representing the intensity of the subsequent earthquake, expressed by Park and Ang damage index (DIPA) and Intensity Measures (IMs), respectively. The study offers a comprehensive review of cutting-edge ML methods, hyperparameter tuning, and ML method comparisons. A LightGBM model emerges as the most efficient, among 15 different ML methods examined, with critical predictors for final damage being the initial damage caused by the first shock and the IMs of the subsequent shock: IFVF and SIH. The importance of these predictors is supported by feature importance analysis and local/global explanation methods, enhancing the interpretability and practical utility of the developed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0364.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Explainable Artificial Intelligence; Soft Sensors; Industry 4.0; Smart Manufacturing; Cyber-Physical System; Crude Oil Distillation; Debutanization; LPG Purification
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:43:08 CEST)
Refineries execute a series of interlinked processes, where the product of one unit serves as the input to another process. Potential failures within these processes affect the quality of the end products, operational efficiency, and revenue of the entire refinery. In this context, implementation of a real-time cognitive module, referring to predictive machine learning models, enables to provide equipment state monitoring services and to generate decision-making for equipment operations. In this paper, we propose two machine learning models: 1) to forecast the amount of pentane (C5) content in the final product mixture; 2) to identify if C5 content exceeds the specification thresholds for the final product quality. We validate our approach by using a use case from a real-world refinery. In addition, we develop a visualization to assess which features are considered most important during feature selection, and later by the machine learning models. Finally, we provide insights on the sensor values in the dataset, which help to identify the operational conditions for using such machine learning models.