REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: executive functions; executive control; birds; inhibition; working memory; shifting; flexibility
Online: 20 January 2022 (20:52:34 CET)
Executive functions comprise top-down cognitive processes that exert control over information processing, from acquiring information to issuing a behavioural response. These cognitive processes of inhibition, working memory and shifting underpin complex cognitive skills, such as episodic memory and planning, which have been repeatedly investigated in several bird species in recent decades. Until recently, avian executive functions were studied in relatively few bird species, but have gained traction in comparative cognitive research following MacLean and colleagues’ large-scale study (2014). Therefore, in this review paper, relevant previous findings are collected and organized to facilitate further investigations of these core cognitive processes in birds. This review can assist in integrating findings from avian and mammalian cognitive research and further current understanding of executive functions’ significance and evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Executive Functioning; Intelligence; Gifted Students.
Online: 18 February 2021 (16:22:55 CET)
(1) Background: Executive functioning is a concept that suggests a scheme of relationship between brain-mind and behavior, through a plan and control of individuals actions on tasks and context. This work is an approach to the study between relationship of abilities (flair) and the execution, between cognitive development and executive functioning as intelligence and creativity and reading writing learning association. The objective is trying to give a definition of neuropsychological profile of Gifted Students; (2) Methods: We studied 20 Gifted Student assessments by a school counselor, under some characteristics as having greater than 125 IQ. The age range was 6:8 to 11:8 from Primary School. Instruments were WISC-V. BRIEF-2 and TTCT; (3) Results: We observed a positive correlation between IQ and Inhibition, that would keep relation with behavioral mechanism (guide work, autonomy, impulse control, ...) of students to develop cognitive and metacognitive abilities as going in-depth in habits, skill, and strategies of intellectual work in the classroom; (4) Conclusions: There is a distance between executive functioning and IQ. Correlations, considering our sample, would express a halfway association between both variables. Association that would be explained for the connection or underlying cognitive mechanism in some factors of variables.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0185.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Mild Cognitive Impairment; Ageing; Elderly; Executive Functions; Higher-Level Executive Functions; Planning; Reasoning; Fluid Intelligence; Problem Solving
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:37:48 CET)
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a moderate decline in one or more cognitive functions with a preserved autonomy in daily life activities . MCI exhibits cognitive, behavioral, psychological symptoms . The executive functions (EFs) are a set of key functions for everyday life and physical and mental health; and allow adapting the behavior to external changes [3-5]. Higher-level executive functions develop from basic EFs (inhibition, working memory, attentional control, and cognitive flexibility). They are planning, reasoning, problem- solving, and fluid intelligence (Gf) . This systematic review investigates the relationship between higher-level executive functions and healthy and pathological aging, assuming the role of executive functions deficits as a predictor of cognitive decline. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA Statement [6-7]. A total of 73 studies were identified. The results indicate that 65.8% of the studies confirm significant EFs alterations in MCI (100% problem solving, 71.4% fluid intelligence, 56.8% planning, 50% reasoning). These results seem to highlight a strong prevalence of higher-level executive functions deficits in MCI elderly than in healthy elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0242.v1
Online: 26 April 2022 (12:34:42 CEST)
Executive functioning is a key component involved in many of the processes necessary for effective weight management behavior change (e.g., setting goals). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and third-wave CBT (e.g., mindfulness) are considered first-line treatments for obesity, but it is unknown to what extent they can improve or sustain executive functioning. This pilot randomized controlled trial examined if a CBT-based generalized weight management intervention would affect executive functioning and executive function-related brain activity in individuals with obesity or overweight. Participants were randomized to an intervention condition (N=24) that received the Noom Weight program or to a control group (N=26) receiving weekly educational newsletters. EEG measurements were taken during Flanker, Stroop, and N-back tasks at baseline and months 1 through 4. After 4 months, the intervention condition evidenced greater accuracy over time and, to some extent, neural markers of executive function (error-related negativity and beta and gamma band powers) compared to the control group on the Flanker and Stroop tasks. The intervention condition also lost more weight than controls (-7.1 pounds vs. +1.0 pounds). Given mixed evidence on whether CBT-based interventions can change markers of executive function, this study contributes preliminary evidence that a multicomponent CBT-based weight management intervention (i.e., that provide both support for weight management and is based on CBT) can help individuals sustain executive function compared to controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: children; digital games; executive function; motor skills.
Online: 29 October 2021 (14:03:58 CEST)
Studies show that executive functions and motor development are associated among each other and with learning ability. A more technological lifestyle, related with digital culture, should be considered an important component to stimulate children. In addition, digital games constitute an element of the digital culture in which children are inserted. The aim of this study is to present a systematic mapping of the literature involving executive functions, motor development and the use of digital games in intervention programs for elementary school children, from 6 to 11 years old. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct and SCOPUS, including publications between 2012 and March 2021. The initial results indicated 4881 works. After the selection process, 15 investigations that presented the central theme of the study were selected. The main results indicate that intervention strategies are quite heterogeneous. Most of the studies demonstrated significant positive effects after intervention protocols and were conducted in Europe and 46% of the studies were conducted in a school environment. No researches were identified that involved technological solutions involving executive functions, motor development and digital games in an integrated manner, constituting a field of future scientific research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: adolescents; cannabis; cognition; working memory; executive functions
Online: 22 July 2020 (05:42:03 CEST)
The developmental phase of adolescence is characterized by a multitude of neurocognitive and psychosocial changes and is therefore considered one of the most critical developmental periods of life. Experimentation on the use of substances often begins in adolescence and so does the addiction process. Most research in human subjects shows that chronic cannabis abuse is the cause of the impairment of some cognitive functions, affecting the performance on divided attention, verbal memory and working memory. In this study, we wanted to investigate how the abuse of cannabis (chronic, occasional and absence use) can influence global cognitive functioning, also through executive functions. From the statistical analyzes of our study, it emerges that the group of subjects who use chronic cannabis (group 1) has a significant drop in working memory tasks compared to the group that does not use it (group 3). In addition, the goal of future studies by our group is to verify the permanent alteration of cognitive processes affected through revaluations with calendar follow-up (controlled).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0105.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: chief executive officer; compensation; firm performance; Nigeria banking industry; chief executive officer compensation; firm size; return on asset
Online: 16 October 2017 (07:56:04 CEST)
This is a quantitative research based on secondary sources of data. The study examines the influence of Chief Executive Officer’s (CEO) compensation on a firm's performance. The objectives of the study were to determine if CEO compensation and firm size do significantly influence a firm’s performance. In other to elicit information to examine the relationship between the variables, the convenience sampling technique, with the combination of both the cross-sectional and time-series data (panel data) were used since they provide greater precision and guard against having an illusory sample. 10 banks quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange were sampled for easy accessibility of data. The least square regression technique was used to test the hypotheses of the study. Two hypotheses were tested using panel least square (EViews 8) and from the research work, we summarize the following results; there is a significant relationship between CEO compensation and firm performance in the Nigerian banking industry. In addition, firm size does significantly influence firm performance in the Nigerian banking industry. The study recommends that there should be proper compensation review as this will increase the productivity of the executives. Since increased pay is necessary for the efficiency of the workers, it is advised to ensure a considerable pay as this will ensure for efficiency in the organization. In addition, since the core goal of setting up any business is to make a profit, business organisations should sort out ways at maximising profit and this could include cutting down expenses such as cutting down excessive employees’ pay (CEOs pay especially) and setting apposite pay package for employees. Therefore, policymakers (board of directors) should make an effort to align CEO’s paywith the firm’s capability to pay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0107.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: hangover; alcohol; internet; attention; executive function; working memory
Online: 12 February 2019 (17:24:43 CET)
Studies into the cognitive effects of alcohol have been mixed. They also present methodological challenges, often relying on self-report of alcohol consumption leading to hangover. The current study used BAC (obtained via breathalyser) and self-reported drinking behavior during a night out and related these to hangover severity and cognitive function measured over the internet in the same subjects the following morning. Volunteers were breathalysed and interviewed as they left a central entertainment district of an Australian state capital. They were provided with a unique identifier and, the following morning, logged on to a website. This included an online version of the Alcohol Hangover Severity Scale (AHSS), and number and type of drinks consumed the previous night and the eTMT-B - a validated, online analogue of the Trail Making Test B of executive function and working memory. Hangover severity was significantly correlated with one measure only, namely the previous night’s BAC (r = .228, p = .019). Completion time on the eTMT-B was significantly correlated with hangover severity ( r = .245, p = .012), previous night’s BAC (r = .197, p = .041) and time spent dinking (r = .376, p < .001). These findings confirm that alcohol hangover negatively affects cognitive functioning and that poorer working memory and executive performance correlates with hangover severity. The results also support the utility of using online measures in hangover research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0158.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Attention; Attentional Networks; Alerting; Orienting; Executive Control; Aging; Lateralization
Online: 6 July 2021 (14:52:33 CEST)
Many cognitive functions face a decline in the healthy elderly. Within the cognitive domains, both attentional processes and executive functions are impaired with aging. Attention includes three attentional networks, i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive control that showed a hemispheric lateralized pattern in adults. This lateralized pattern could have a role in modulating the efficiency of attentional networks. For these reasons could be relevant to analyze the age-related change of hemispheric specialization of attentional networks. This study aims to clarify this aspect with a lateralized version of the ANTI-Fruit. One hundred sixty-seven participants took part in this study. They are divided in three age groups: early adulthood (N=57; Range: 20-30); late adulthood (N=57; Range 31-64) and elderly/older people (N=57; Range: 65-87). Results confirm the previous outcomes on the efficiency and interactions among attentional networks. Moreover, an age-related generalized slowness was evidenced. These findings also support the hypothesis of a hemispheric asymmetry reduction in elderly/older adults. This pattern could partially explain the decrease in attentional functioning in elderly/older age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0016.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: development; adolescents; perceptual inhibition; joint visual search task; executive function
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:38:03 CET)
Recent studies suggest that the developmental curves in adolescence, related to the development of executive functions, could be fitted to a non-linear trajectory of development with progressions and retrogressions. Therefore, the present study proposes to analyze the pattern of development in Perceptual Inhibition (PI), considering all stages of adolescence (early, middle, and late) in intervals of one year. To this aim, we worked with a sample of 275 participants between 10 and 25 years, who performed a joint visual and search task (to measure PI). We have fitted exGaussian functions to the probability distributions of the mean response time across the sample and performed a covariance analysis (ANCOVA). The results showed that the 10- to 13-year-old groups performed similarly in the task and differ from the 14- to 19-year-old participants. We found significant differences between the older group and all the rest of the groups. We discuss the important changes that can be observed in relation to the nonlinear trajectory of development that would show the PI during adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: rehabilitation medicine; magnetic resonance imaging; brain injury; executive function; personalized treatment
Online: 14 March 2022 (11:27:15 CET)
Cognitive rehabilitation is useful for many after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but we lack critical knowledge about which patients benefit the most from different approaches. Advanced neuroimaging techniques have provided important insight into brain pathology and systems plasticity after TBI and have potential to inform new practices in cognitive rehabilitation. In this study, we aimed to identify candidate structural brain measures with relevance for rehabilitation of cognitive control (executive) function after TBI. Twenty-eight patients (9 female, mean age 40.5 (SD = 13.04) years) with moderate/severe TBI (>21 months since injury) that participated in a randomized controlled cognitive rehabilitation trial (NCT02692352) were included in the analyses. Regional brain volume was extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans before treatment using tensor-based morphometry. Both positive and negative associations between treatment outcome (everyday cognitive control function) and regional brain volume were observed. The most robust structural brain measures with relevance for improvement in function were observed in midline fronto-parietal regions, including the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. The study pro-vides proof of concept and valuable insight for planning future studies focusing on neuroimaging in cognitive rehabilitation after TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0079.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: autism; sleep; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; nightmares; anxiety; executive function; behaviour
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:07:06 CEST)
Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience significantly higher rates of sleep disturbances than their typically developing peers. Pre-sleep anxiety and waking emotional content is known to affect the content and frequency of nightmares, which can be distressing to children and caregivers. This is the first study to analyse nightmare frequency and content in FASD, and to assess its association with psychometric outcomes. We assessed reports from 277 caregivers of children with ASD (n=61), FASD (n=112), and TD children (n=104) using the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the Behavior Rating Inventory for Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Within the ASD group, 40.3% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares. Within the FASD group, 73.62% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares and within the TD group, 21.36% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares. Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between anxiety and nightmares, maladaptive behaviour and nightmares, and executive functioning and nightmares in the TD and FASD groups, but not ASD group. This paper adds to the emerging body of work supporting the need for sleep interventions as part of clinical practice with regard to children with ASD and FASD. As a relatively niche but important area of study this warrants much needed further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0195.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Executive functions; music education; cognitive development; planning; inhibition; decision making; working memory
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:44:19 CET)
In recent years, music education in Ibero-America has been losing ground within the school environment in favor of the development of curricular systems that benefit academic results in standardized tests. Despite this, several studies in the field of cognitive neurosciences have found evidence of great relevance and in which it can be observed how music education can favor cognitive development and performance in practically all stages of human development, with important results in language tasks, attention, and executive functions such as planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: executive functioning; domain-specific cognitive stimulation; math; low-performing student; Roma ethnic group.
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:06:47 CEST)
The current study investigated whether a domain-specific intervention targeting maths and executive functions of primary school children with a Roma background would be effective in improving their scholastic performance and executive functioning. In total, 122 students attending Grade 4 of elementary school took part in the project. The study concerned a pretest-intervention-training experimental design with three conditions: the experimental condition, an active and a passive control group. The results suggested that both maths performance and executive functions improved over time, with no significant differences between the three conditions. An additional correlational analysis indicated that pretest performance was not related to posttest performance for the children in the experimental and active control group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0108.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Triple X syndrome; Adults; Neurocognitive functioning; Sex Chromosomal Disorders; Attention; Psychomotor speed; Executive functioning
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:26:18 CEST)
Triple X syndrome (TXS, also known as trisomy X or 47,XXX) has been associated with impaired overall neurocognitive functioning in children and relatively young adults. However, neurocognitive functioning in adults with TXS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine cognitive functioning in adults with TXS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 34 adult women with TXS (mean age = 32.9; SD = 13.1) and 31 controls (mean age = 34.9; SD = 13.7). General intellectual functioning, semantic/verbal memory, visual/episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and attention and executive functioning were then compared between these two groups. Results: We found that general intellectual functioning was significantly lower in the TXS group compared to the control group. In addition, women with TXS had more attention problems and lower psychomotor speed, particularly motor processing speed. When the analyses were adjusted for IQ, the strength of these associations decreased. The women in the TXS group also scored significantly lower at free recall in the verbal memory test, but not in immediate or delayed recognition. Finally, visual/episodic memory and executive functioning did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: Our analysis revealed that women with TXS score lower in general intellectual functioning and have impairments in motor processing speed and attention compared to controls, but do not differ with respect to executive functioning. These results offer new insights for improving the support of adults with TXS both at school and in the workplace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Fatigue; cognitive; physical; executive decision making; psychophysiology; artificial intelligence; deep learning; multi-day missions
Online: 2 August 2021 (22:55:32 CEST)
Aim: To determine whether an AI model and single sensor measuring acceleration and ECG could model cognitive and physical fatigue for a self-paced trail run. Methods: A field-based protocol of continuous fatigue repeated hourly induced physical (~45 minutes) and cognitive (~10 minutes) fatigue on one healthy participant. Physical load was a 3.8 km, 200 m vertical gain, trail run with acceleration and electrocardiogram (ECG) data collected using a single sensor. Cognitive load was a Multi Attribute Test Battery (MATB) and separate assessment battery including the Finger Tap Test (FTT), Stroop, Trail Making A and B, Spatial Memory, Paced Visual Serial Addition Test (PVSAT), and a vertical jump. A fatigue prediction model was implemented using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Results: When the fatigue test battery results were compared for sensitivity to the protocol load, FTT right hand (R2 0.71) and Jump Height (R2 0.78) were the most sensitive while the other tests were less sensitive (R2 values Stroop 0.49, Trail Making A 0.29, Trail Making B 0.05, PVSAT 0.03, spatial memory 0.003). Best prediction results were achieved with a rolling average of 200 predictions (102.4 s), during set activity types, mean absolute error for ‘walk up’ (MAE200 12.5%) and range of absolute error for ‘run down‘ (RAE200 16.7%). Conclusion: We were able to measure cognitive and physical fatigue using a single wearable sensor during a practical field protocol including contextual factors in conjunction with a neural network model. This research has practical application to fatigue research in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0417.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Pad use; Executive Function; fNIRS Evidence; Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS) task; Preschoolers
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:05:38 CEST)
General Linear Modelling (GLM) has been widely employed to estimate the hemodynamic changes evoked by cognitive processing, which are more likely to be nonlinear than linear. First, this study re-analyzed the fNIRS data (N = 38, Mage = 5.0 years, SD = 0.69 years, 17 girls) collected in the Mixed-Order Design Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task. The results indicated that the quadratic equation was better than GLM to model HbO changes in this task. Second, analysis of a new set of data indicated that the Habit-DisHabit design of DCCS was more effective in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive shifting than the Mixed-Order Design. Third, this study found that the Non-users were more attentive and engaged than the Heavy-users, with a slower but more steady increase of brain activation in BA8 and BA9.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0473.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: inhibitory control; executive function; event-related potentials; electroencephalography; N200; P300; cognitive aging; neural recruitment
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:18:16 CEST)
Aging is accompanied by frontal lobe and non-dominant hemisphere recruitment that supports executive functioning, such as inhibitory control, which is crucial to all cognitive functions. Yet, the spatio-temporal sequence of processing underlying successful inhibition and how it changes with age is understudied. Thus, we assessed N200 (conflict monitoring) and P300 (response inhibition, performance evaluation) event-related potentials (ERPs) in young and healthy older adults during comparably performed successful stop-signal inhibition. We additionally interrogated the continuous spatio-temporal dynamics of N200- and P300-related activation within each group. Young adults had left hemisphere dominant N200, while older adults had overall larger amplitudes and right hemisphere dominance. N200 activation was biphasic in both groups but differed in scalp topography. P300 also differed, with larger right amplitudes in young, but bilateral amplitudes in old, with old larger than young in the left hemisphere. P300 was characterized by an early parieto-occipital peak in both groups, followed by a parietal slow wave only in older adults. A temporally similar but topographically different final wave followed in both groups that showed anterior recruitment in older adults. These findings illuminate differential age-related spatio-temporal recruitment patterns for conflict monitoring and response inhibition that are critically important for understanding age-related compensatory activation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0188.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Pad use; Executive Function; fNIRS Evidence; Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS) task; Preschoolers
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:08:12 CEST)
This study aims to examine the impact of tablet use on preschoolers’ executive function during the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS) task using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Altogether 38 Chinese preschoolers (Mage = 5.0 years, SD = 0.69 years, 17 girls) completed the tasks before the COVID-19 lockdown. Eight children never used tablets, while 16 children were diagnosed as the ‘heavy-user'. The results indicated that: (1) the 'Non-user' outperformed the 'Heavy-user' with a significantly higher correct rate in the DCCS task; (2) the two groups differed significantly in the activation of the prefrontal cortex (BA 9): the 'Non-user' pattern is normal and healthy, whereas the 'Heavy-user' pattern is not normal and needs further exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0458.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: family-supportive workplaces; corporate family responsibility; ethical leadership; authentic leadership; family-supportive supervisor behavior; chief executive officer
Online: 29 October 2021 (16:39:36 CEST)
Purpose: The goal of the present study was to investigate chief executives’ intention and potential to create a family-supportive culture in the Brazilian context, further assessing the role of their aspirations in their employees’ perceptions. Methodology: Two researchers conducted 60 minutes of online semi-structured interviews with CEOs of seven companies of different sizes (measured by the number of employees), economic sectors, and capital structure. To complement the data gathered from CEOs, we also conducted private and individual 30-minute online interviews with three employees from each company. Findings: A total of four categories and 11 sub-categories emerged from the analysis of CEO interviews, and four categories and six sub-categories emerged from the analysis of employee interviews. Originality: The results suggest that family-supportive culture is promoted through behaviors that are consistent with the organization’s core values, as well as through commitment of the agenda and resources of the company’s leadership team.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0659.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Timing Deficits; Magnocellular Deficits; Remediating Cognitive Skills; Cortical Plasticity; Reading, Attention, Memory, and Executive Control Networks; Perceptual Learning
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:09:31 CEST)
(1) Background: Substantial evidence that neural timing deficits are prevalent in developmental disorders, aging, and concussions resulting from a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is presented. We show that if timing deficits are remediated using low-level movement discrimination training, then high-level cognitive skills, including reading, attention, processing speed, and working memory improve substantially. (2) Methods: Two case studies are presented using MEG source imaging on an adult dyslexic, and a healthy older adult observed before and after training on movement discrimination two times/week for 8 weeks for adult dyslexic. (3) Results: We found improvements in reading, attention, processing speed, and working memory on neuropsychological tests. Substantial MEG signal increases in visual Motion Networks (V1, V3, MT, MST), Attention Networks (ACC, dlPFC, vlPFC and precuneous/ PCC areas) and Memory Networks (dlPFC). (4) Conclusions: Improving neural timing deficits before cognitive exercises to improve specific cognitive skills provides a rapid and effective method to improve cognitive skills. Improving the timing and sensitivity of low-level dorsal pathways, improving feedforward and feedback pathways, is essential to improve high-level cognitive skills. This adaptive training with substantial feedback shows cognitive transfer to tasks not trained on, significantly improving a person’s quality of life rapidly and effectively.