ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0255.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: spray dry; protein; encapsulation; formulation; excipient; core-shell; EISA
Online: 17 March 2022 (12:19:43 CET)
The encapsulation of proteins into core-shell structures is a widely utilised strategy for controlling protein stability, delivery and release. Despite the recognised utility of these microstructures, however, core-shell fabrication routes are often too costly or poorly scalable to allow for industrial translation. Furthermore, many scalable routes rely upon emulsion-techniques implicating denaturing or environmentally harmful organic solvents. Herein, we investigate core-shell protein encapsulation through single-feed, aqueous spray drying: a cheap, industrially ubiquitous particle-formation technology in the absence of organic solvents. We show that an excipient’s preference for the surface of the spray dried particle is well-predicted by its hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) under relevant feed buffer conditions (pH and ionic strength) and that the predictive power of Dh is improved when measured at the spray dryer outlet temperature compared to room temperature (R2 = 0.64 vs. 0.59). Lastly, we leverage these findings to propose an adaptable design framework for fabricating core-shell protein encapsulates by single-feed aqueous spray drying.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: PEGylation; safety; pediatric; biologics; polyethylene glycol; excipient; conjugation; polysorbate; hemophilia; rurioctocog alfa pegol
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:15:59 CEST)
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an inert, water soluble polymer, used for decades in pharmaceuticals. Although PEG is considered safe, concerns persist about the potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to PEG-containing therapies, specifically in children, following the introduction of PEGylated recombinant factor products used for the treatment of hemophilia. Given the absence of long-term surveillance data, and to evaluate the potential risk, we estimated PEG exposure in the pediatric population receiving US Food and Drug Administration-approved parenteral therapies with pediatric indications. We used a range of pediatric weights and doses based on prescribing information (PI) or treatment guidelines. PIs and reporting websites were searched for information about adverse events (AEs). For a child weighing 50 kg on the highest prophylactic dose of a FVIII product, the range of total PEG exposure was 40–21,840 mg/year; for FIX products, the range was 13–1342 mg/year; and for other products, the range was 383–26,743 mg/year, primarily as a derivative excipient. No AE patterns attributable to PEG were found for any of these products, including potential renal, neurological, or hepatic AEs. Our analyses suggest the pediatric population has had substantial exposure to PEG for several decades, with no evidence of adverse consequences.