COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0042.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: IBD; UC; UPR; ex vivo organ; DNBS; Gut-Ex-Vivo System; GEVS; ferroptosis; apoptosis
Online: 6 April 2022 (10:40:35 CEST)
Background: IBD is a spectrum of pathologies characterized by dysregulated immune activation leading to uncontrolled response against intestinal, thus resulting in chronic gut inflammation and tissue damage. Due to its complexity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for disease onset and progression are still elusive, thus requiring intense research effort. In this context, the development of models recapitulating the etiopathology of IBD is critical.Methods: Colon from C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice were cultivated in a gut-ex-vivo system (GEVS), exposed 5h to DNBS 1,5 or 2,5 mg/ml, and the main hallmarkers of IBD were evaluated.Results: Gene expression analysis revealed a DNBS-induced: i) compromised Tight junction organization, responsible for tissue permeability dysregulation; induction of ER stress, and iii) tissue inflammation in colon of C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the concomitant DNBS-induced apoptosis and ferroptosis pathways was evident in colon from both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.Conclusions: Overall, we have provided results demonstrating that GEVS is a consistent, reliable, and cost-effective system for modeling DNBS-induced IBD, useful for studying the onset and progression of human disease at the molecular level, while also reducing animal suffering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: fascia; in vivo; ex vivo; innervation; pain; thoracolumbar fascia; nociceptor; low back pain; scoping review.
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:31:33 CEST)
Nociceptive innervation of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) has been investigated over decades, however these studies have not been compiled or collectively appraised. The purpose of this scoping review was to assess current knowledge regarding nociceptive innervation of the TLF to better inform future mechanistic and clinical TLF research targeting low back pain (LBP) treatment. PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched in January 2021 using relevant descriptors encompassing fascia and pain. Eligible studies were: (a) published in English; (b) preclinical and clinical (in vivo and ex vivo) studies; (c) original data; (d) included quantification of at least one TLF nociceptive component. Two-phase screening procedures were conducted by a pair of independent reviewers, data were extracted and summarized from eligible studies. The search resulted in 257 articles of which 10 met inclusion criteria. Studies showed histological evidence of nociceptive nerve fibers terminating in low back fascia, suggesting a TLF contribution to LBP. Noxious chemical injection or electrical stimulation into fascia resulted in longer pain duration and higher pain intensities than injections into subcutaneous tissue or muscle. Pre-clinical and clinical research provides histological and functional evidence of nociceptive innervation of TLF. Greater knowledge of fascial neurological components could impact LBP treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: preeclampsia; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; ischemic/reperfusion injury; in vivo model system; in vitro model system; ex vivo model system
Online: 8 April 2021 (12:23:43 CEST)
Preeclampsia is a multifactorial cardiovascular disorder diagnosed after 20 weeks of gestation that is the leading cause of death for both mothers and babies in pregnancy. The pathophysiology remains poorly understood due to variability and unpredictability of disease manifestation when studied in animal models. After preeclampsia, both mothers and offspring have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including myocardial infarction or heart attack and heart failure (HF). Myocardial infarction is an acute myocardial damage that can be treated through reperfusion, however, that therapeutic approach leads to ischemic/reperfusion injury (IRI) often leading to HF. In this review, we compared the current in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo model systems used to study preeclampsia, IRI and HF. Future studies aiming at evaluating CVD in preeclampsia patients could benefit from novel models that better mimic the complex scenario described in this article.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0176.v1
Online: 12 December 2019 (12:43:13 CET)
The rapid and extensive loss of biodiversity globally has resulted in an increased urgency to capture and conserve the diversity which is present, including genetic diversity within species. However, for many species there is currently no detailed genetic data available to inform the collection and use of material held in ex situ collections and this can hamper the consideration of genetic issues and reduce the likelihood collection represent the diversity present. Even in the absence of direct genetic data, however, it is possible to consider genetic issues using the existing theoretical and empirical evidence-based and biological, ecological and demographic data for a given species. Here a framework to facilitate the consideration of genetic diversity and genetic issues, even where genetic data is lacking, is presented.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: astigmatism; glaucoma; intraocular pressure; phacotrabeculectomy; Ex-PRESS device
Online: 7 December 2020 (09:43:29 CET)
To compare surgical and refractive outcomes between phacotrabeculectomy (P-Trab) and phaco with Ex-PRESS (P-Ex-PRESS) for glaucoma at 6-month follow-up. This prospective randomized controlled trial included 81 eyes; 43 (53%) and 38 (47%) were assigned to the P-Ex-PRESS and P-Trab groups, respectively. Refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), and best-corrected visual acuity were measured. Refractive change was described by analyzing the magnitude of the cylinder, and polar analysis assessed the change in trend of astigmatism [with-the-rule, against-the-rule (ATR), oblique] evaluating mean astigmatism in centroid form. All patients showed statistically significant postsurgical decrease in IOP (P<0.05). There were no differences neither between the groups for postoperative IOP or visual outcomes, nor in astigmatism before or after surgery (P=0.61, P=0.74). In both groups, the mean pre- and postoperative astigmatism was ATR and OBL, respectively. Pre- and postoperative centroids in the P-Ex-PRESS group were 0.44±1.32 D at 177˚ and 0.35±1 D at 8˚, respectively, (P=0.5) and in the P-Trab group, 0.16±1.5 D at 141˚ and 0.39±1.38 D at 29˚, respectively (P=0.38). Both P-Ex-PRESS and P-Trab showed comparable antihypertensive efficacy in treating open-angle glaucoma in a 6-month period. Pre- and postoperative astigmatism did not differ between groups. The groups showed comparable results for final visual acuity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0194.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: ex vitro; internode; light-emitting diodes; stomata; rosette
Online: 14 May 2018 (12:12:07 CEST)
Transferring in vitro-cultured Eustoma seedlings to an ex vitro condition (acclimation) is a big challenge that may expose the seedlings to biotic and abiotic stresses, and affect the internal and external structure of the plants. In addition, in vitro-cultured seedlings of Eustoma are difficult to handle and phenotype and physiological traits such as survival and rosette rate may have altered in the acclimation stage. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the effects of blue, red, and white LED light on the growth and development ex vitro of in vitro-cultured seedlings of Eustoma. The results showed that blue LEDs resulted in greater plant height, internode length, and leaf number, increased upper and lower fresh biomass, and higher chlorophyll content compared with treatment by the other LED lights. Higher stomatal density on the abaxial leaf surface was also observed in the blue LED-treated plants, which also showed a higher survival rate and lower rosette rate. In contrast, the white LED-treated plants had the highest leaf width and internode diameter. Acclimation of the Eustoma plants ex vitro suggests that a combination of blue and white LEDs may be advantageous for better growth and development for large-scale production in a controlled environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0167.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: European mink; ex situ conservation; biobank; mesenchymal stem/stromal cells
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:04:08 CEST)
The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is one of Europe's most endangered species, and it is on the brink of extinction in the Iberian Peninsula. The species' precarious situation requires the application of new ex-situ conservation methodologies that complement the existing ex-situ and in-situ conservation measures. Here, we report for the first time the establishment of a biobank of European mink mesenchymal stem cells (emMSC) and oocytes from specimens found dead in the Iberian Peninsula, either free or in captivity. New emMSC lines were isolated from different tissues: bone marrow (emBM-MSC), oral mucosa (emOM-MSc), dermal skin (emDS-MSC), oviduct (emO-MSc), endometrium (emE-MSC), testicular (emT-MSC), and adipose tissue from two different adipose depots: subcutaneous (emSCA-MSC) and ovarian (emOA-MSC). All the eight emMSC lines showed plastic adhesion, detectable expression of characteristic markers of MSCs and, when cultured under osteogenic and adipogenic conditions, differentiation capacity to these lineages. Additionally, we were able to keep 227 Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the biobank, 97 of which are grade I or II. The European mink MSC and oocyte biobank will allow for the conservation of the species' genetic variability, the application of assisted reproduction techniques, and the development of in vitro models for studying the molecular mechanisms of infectious diseases that threaten the species' precarious situation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0465.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Red ants; Ex-situ; Conservation; Hatchery; Sea turtles; Lepidochelys olivacea
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:20:44 CEST)
Abstract: Predation of eggs and emerging hatchlings of olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) by wild animals and feral dogs are known. They reduce the hatching success rate considerably affecting the conservation management of this vulnerable species. Hatchery management is practised in India to overcome predation. Ant predation is a serious threat to turtle nest protected by ex situ or in situ erected hatchery. This article reports the first direct evidence of turtle eggs predation by Dorylus orientalis Westwood, 1835 commonly called red ants. Native to India, Oriental, Indo Australian and Palearctic regions they are notorious as an agricultural pest. Chlorpyrifos pesticides recommended for their control could become fatal for the developing embryos of turtles if applied near the hatchery. In the turtle nesting site of the west coast of India, D. orientalis has more of an ecological role than as a pest. Natural pesticide such as Neem powder (Azadirachta indica) shows promising results for preventing their infestation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0052.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Bayesian game, Ex post Nash equilibrium, Prisoner's Dilemma, Trust Game
Online: 2 August 2018 (17:20:18 CEST)
We employ the solution concept of ex post Nash equilibrium to predict the interaction of a finite number of agents competing in a finite number of basic games simultaneously. The competition is called a multi-game. For each agent, a specific weight, considered as private information, is allocated to each basic game representing its investment in that game and the utility of each agent for any strategy profile is the weighted sum, i.e., convex combination, of its utilities in the basic games. Multi-games can model decision making in multi-environments in a variety of circumstances, including decision making in multi-markets and decision making when there are both material and social utilities for agents as, we propose, in the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Trust Game. Given a set of pure Nash equilibria, one for each basic game in a multi-game, we construct a pure Bayesian Nash equilibrium for the multi-game. We then focus on the class of so-called uniform multi-games in which each agent is constrained to play in all games the same strategy from an action set consisting of a best response per game. Uniform multi-games are equivalent to multi-dimensional Bayesian games where the type of each agent is a finite dimensional vector with non-negative components. A notion of pure type-regularity for uniform multi-games is developed and it is shown that a multi-game that is pure type-regular on the boundary of its type space has a pure ex post Nash equilibrium which is computed in constant time with respect to the number of the types and is independent of prior probability distributions. We then develop an algorithm, linear in the number of types of the agents, which tests if a multi-game is pure type-regular on the boundary of its type space in which case it returns a pure ex post Nash equilibrium for the multi-game.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0092.v4
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Cognitive psychology; determinism; materialism; new physics; theoretical hypothesis; thought ex-periment; ultraquantum particles
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:40:03 CEST)
To date, no scientific study has found evidence of an afterlife, and the mechanism of consciousness is two of the most challenging questions. Here, I show a hypothesis for consciousness and the probability of an afterlife through three simple thought experiments and theoretical evidence. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism precisely. I found that consciousness can be discussed based on a new theory. Here, I hypothesize that when a person or animal dies, the selection of a new nervous system's characteristic of a new life might depend on the characteristics of the final evolved yet unknown particle. Here, I suggest that the positive or adverse evolution of the said particle depends on the natural evolution of the materialistic brain's cognition, including intelligence. The fittest intellectuals, those who have a higher potential scan mind virus, may survive happier and help more for others to improve psychological well-being. Here, I suggest that when a brain dies, the two microparticles might emit at infinite speed from the dead brain and simultaneously bond with a naturally select suitable zygote or early nervous system somewhere in the universe/s, forming a new life with the impact of new nurture.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ex-ante chances; dispersion of chances; chronic diseases; gambling; statistical test; twin studies; principle of maximum entropy.
Online: 22 April 2021 (21:14:09 CEST)
Is it possible to measure the dispersion of ex-ante chances (i.e. chances “before the event”) among people, be it gambling, health, or social opportunities? We explore this question and provide some tools, including a statistical test, to evidence the actual dispersion of ex-ante chances in various areas with a focus on chronic diseases. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we derive the distribution of the risk to become ill in the global population as well as in the population of affected people. We find that affected people are either at very low risk like the overwhelming majority of the population but still were unlucky to become ill, or are at extremely high risk and were bound to become ill.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0110.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Abiotic stress; Linum album Ky. ex Boiss.; Morphological properties; Phenology; Pigments; Seed yield
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:02:20 CEST)
Linum album is an important medicinal plant contains important lignan compounds such as podophyllotoxin as well as fatty acids. Despite the high medicinal value, it has not been studied in agricultural conditions so far. This study was conducted to evaluate the morphological, phenological, and physiological responses of six L. album accessions under water deficit treatments (100% available water, 75%, 50%, and 25%) in pot conditions. Based on the results the morphological properties of accessions reduced due to water deficit. Accessions of UTLA7 and UTLA9 showed higher seed yield and dry weight of the vegetative part. The occurrence of phenological stages in the accessions showed a significant difference. Maturity was accelerated in plants under stress conditions, and accession of UTLA9 completed its growth earlier than others. Physiological responses of the accessions did not have the same trend based on the measured traits, and significant differences were observed depending on the trait and accession. The most important result of this study was the diversity of responses in different accessions. The results showed that the effect of water stress on the measured traits depends on the level of stress and accession, which suggests that it is possible to select the tolerable accessions for the production of the desired product. Based on the results, plant breeders may be able to use the chlorophyll content as a marker to identify tolerate L. album accessions.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: exosomes; extrusion; proteolipid nanoparticles; drug delivery; nanomedicine; doxorubicin; ex-truded nanoparticles; hydroxychloroquine; endolysosomal escape; lysosomotropic
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:04:21 CET)
Because of their high biocompatibility, stability, ability to negotiate biological barrier passage, and functionalization properties, biological nanoparticles have been actively investigated for many medical applications. Biological nanoparticles, including natural extracellular vesicles (EVs) and synthetic extracellular vesicle-mimetic nanovesicles (EMNVs) represent novel drug delivery vehicles that can accommodate different payloads. In this study, we investigated EVs and EMNVs for their physical, biological and delivery properties and we showed that EMNVs have similar delivery properties compared to EVs. In addition, these nanotherapeutics were analyzed for their cytostatic properties in combination with the FDA-approved drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which increased their cytostatic thanks to its lysosome-destabilizing properties. Altogether, these data demonstrated that, at least in vitro, the use of synthetic biomimetic particles is comparable to the natural counterparts, while their synthesis is significantly faster and more cost effective. In addition, we highlighted the benefits of combining biological nanoparticles with a lysosome destabilizing agent that increased the delivery properties of the particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: bioremediation; Ex-situ; Aspergillus niger; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon; crude oil; biostimulant efficiency; Kinetics
Online: 11 July 2018 (13:13:04 CEST)
The study was done to investigate the kinetics of first order bioremediation. The effectiveness of remediating soils polluted with raw crude oil and treated crude oil using Aspergillus niger (fungi) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (bacteria) were investigated. Eight systems of 500g soil sample were polluted with both raw and treated crude oil. Four systems were polluted with 40g treated crude oil while the other remaining four systems were polluted with 40g raw crude oil. Two systems with raw crude and treated crude were left as control (RCC and TCC). Raw crude samples were treated with Aspergillus niger only (RCA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (RCP) while treated crude samples were also treated with same (TCA) and (TCP) only. The last two systems were treated with both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger (RCAP and TCAP). The first order bioremediation kinetics and biostimulant efficiency for these systems were studied by monitoring Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). At the end of the bioremediation period, the results obtained showed that treated crude oil polluted soil generally remediated faster and better than raw crude oil polluted soil. The highest level of bioremediation occurred in systems amended with both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger which had about 98% TPH decrease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Availability hypothesis; Ethnobotany; Ex-situ Conservation; Kruger National Park; Sustainable Development of Traditional Knowledge; Traditional medicine
Online: 6 June 2022 (13:19:18 CEST)
In ethnobotany, the availability hypothesis predicts that plants that are abundant and easily accessible to people are more likely to be medicinal than not. By protecting species diversity away from people, protected areas (PAs) may act as a limiting factor to a sustainable development of traditional knowledge concerning medicinal uses, and in so doing, PAs provide opportunity to prioritize ex-situ conservation for species that are PAs restricted. In this scenario, ex-situ conservation becomes the only chance for people to develop traditional knowledge on plants which otherwise wouldn’t be documented as traditionally useful to people. To test these expectations, we used data collected for almost 20 years of fieldworks on plant medicinal uses and their abundance inside and outside the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We fitted four different scenarios of structural equation models (SEMs) to the data collected. We found that total plant abundance (abundance outside + inside KNP) is a significant positive predictor of medicinal status, and so is abundance outside KNP, thus supporting the availability hypothesis. However, not only abundance inside KNP is not a direct significant correlate of medicinal status, but also the relationship between both is negative. The lack of predictive power of inside-abundance is most likely because some species are exclusively found inside KNP, and local communities do not have access to them. It also shows that the positive and direct correlation of total abundance with medicinal status is driven by outside-abundance. In addition, the negative relationships between inside abundance and medicinal status implies that abundant plants inside KNP tend to be not-medicinal, further providing evidence that PAs hinder the development of medicinal knowledge. Furthermore, when inside and outside abundance were included simultaneously in a model as two distinct variables, inside abundance was never a direct significant predictor of medicinal status, but it was so, via an indirect path mediated by outside abundance. This suggests that outside abundance is the key variable driving the development of medicinal plant knowledge. Cumulatively, our findings suggest that anything that promotes the growth of PA-restricted plants beyond the natural realized niches of these plants (ex-situ conservation) such as in botanical gardens, private gardens, in agroforestry systems, etc., is to be promoted so that people-plant interactions may continue for the benefits of ethnobotanical knowledge development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0674.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: social facilitation; social presence; peer presence; children; literacy; numeracy; reaction times distribution; ex-Gaussian model; diffusion model
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:03:09 CEST)
The present study explores the potential impact of peers' omnipresence at school on children's academic performance. We tested 99 fourth-graders either alone or with a classmate in a task involving both numeracy and literacy skills: numerosity comparison and phonological comparison. Ninety-seven college-aged young adults were also tested on the same task, either alone or with a familiar peer. Peer presence yielded a reaction time (RT) speedup in children, and this social facilitation was at least as important as that seen in adults. RT distribution analyses indicated that the presence of a familiar peer promotes the emergence of adult-like features in children. This included shorter and less variable reaction times (confirmed by an ex-Gaussian analysis), increased use of an optimal response strategy and, based on Ratcliff’s diffusion model, speeded up non decision (memory and/or motor) processes. Peer presence thus allowed children to, at least, narrow (for demanding phonological comparisons), and, at best, virtually fill in (for unchallenging numerosity comparisons) the developmental gap separating them from adult levels of performance. These findings confirm the influence of peer presence on skills relevant to education and lay the ground for exploring how the brain mechanisms mediating this fundamental social influence evolve during development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0028.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP); maize; nitrogen stress; Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE); U.S. Corn Belt Germplasm
Online: 4 November 2017 (07:39:11 CET)
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in maize (Zea mays L.) is an important trait to maximize yield with minimal input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP) Act-certified germplasm may be an important genetic resource for public breeding sectors. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic variation of N-use traits and to characterize maize ex-PVP inbreds adapted to the U.S. Corn Belt for NUE performance. Eighty-nine ex-PVP inbreds [36 stiff stalk synthetic (SSS), and 53 non-stiff stalk synthetic (NSSS)] were genotyped using 26,769 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, then 263 single-cross maize hybrids derived from these inbreds were grown in eight environments from 2011 to 2015 at two N fertilizer rates (0 and 252 kg N ha−1) and three replications. Genetic utilization and the yield response to N fertilizer were stable across environments and were highly correlated with yield under low and high N conditions, respectively. Cluster analysis identified inbreds with desirable NUE performance. However, only one inbred (PHK56) was ranked in the top 10% for yield under both N-stress and high N conditions. Broad-sense heritability across 12 different N-use traits ranged from 0.11 to 0.77, but was not associated with breeding value accuracy. Nitrogen-stress tolerance was negatively correlated with the yield increase from N fertilizer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intra-body communication; path loss; microwave probes; channel characterization; fat tissue; ex-vivo; phantom; dielectric properties; topology optimization.
Online: 3 July 2018 (15:08:56 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7–2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of 1.4 dB and 3.8 dB per 20 mm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0248.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: granulosa cells; heat stress; integrated analysis; transcriptomics; metabolomics; differentially ex-pressed genes; metabolites; signaling pathways; metabolic pathways; cancer pathways
Online: 27 April 2022 (05:08:15 CEST)
Previous studies reported the physical, transcriptomics and metabolomics changes in in-vitro acute heat stressed bovine granulosa cells. Granulosa cells exhibited transient proliferation senescence, oxidative stress, increased rate of apoptosis, and decline in steroidogenic activity. This study performs joint integration and network analysis of metabolomics and transcriptomics data to further narrow down and elucidate the role of differentially expressed genes, important metab-olites and relevant cellular and metabolic pathways in acute heat-stressed granulosa cells. Among significant (Raw P-value <0.05) metabolic pathways where metabolites and genes did converge, this study found Vitamin B6 metabolism, Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, Phenylalanine metabo-lism, Arginine biosynthesis, Tryptophan metabolism, Arginine and proline metabolism, Histidine metabolism, and Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Important significant convergent bio-logical pathways included, ABC transporters and Protein digestion and absorption, while func-tional signaling pathways included cAMP, mTOR, and AMPK signaling pathways together with Ovarian steroidogenesis pathway. Among caner pathways, the most important pathway was Central carbon metabolism in cancer. Through multiple analysis query, Progesterone, Serotonin, citric acid, Pyridoxal, L-Lysine, Succinic acid, L-Glutamine, L-Leucine, L-Threonine, L-Tyrosine, Vitamin B6, Choline, and CYP1B1, MAOB, VEGFA, WNT11, AOX1, ADCY2, ICAM1, PYGM, SLC2A4, SLC16A3, HSD11B2 and NOS2 appeared to be important enriched metabolites and genes, respectively. These genes, metabolites, metabolic, cellular and cell signaling pathways com-prehensively elucidate the mechanisms underlying the intricate fight between death and survival in acute heat-stressed bovine granulosa cells, and essentially help further our understanding and future quest of research in this direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0579.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: heterostructures; TiO2 nanosheets; few layers MoS2/TiO2; ex-situ and in-situ approaches; FTIR; Raman; UV-Vis; XRD; HRTEM
Online: 23 November 2020 (10:17:48 CET)
MoS2/TiO2 nanostructures made of MoS2 nanoparticles covering TiO2 nanosheets have been synthesized, either via ex-situ or in-situ approaches. Morphology and structure of MoS2/TiO2 hybrid nanostructures have been investigated and imaged by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), while the vibrational and the optical properties have been investigated by Raman, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV−visible (UV-Vis) techniques. The different stacking degrees together with the size distribution of the MoS2 nanosheets, decorating the TiO2 nanosheets, have been carefully obtained from HRTEM images. The nature of the surface sites on the main exposed faces of both materials has been detected by means of in-situ FTIR spectra of adsorbed CO probe molecule. The results coming from the ex-situ and in-situ approaches will be compared, by highlighting the role of the synthesis processes in affecting morphology and structure of MoS2 nanosheets, including their curvature, surface defects, and stacking order. Some more, it will be shown that the in-situ approach is affecting the reactivity of the TiO2 nanosheets too, hence in turn affects the MoS2/TiO2 nanosheets interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0097.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Decision-Making Process; Creative Re-generation; Cultural and Landscape Heritage; Low Entropy Economy; Innovative Management; Creative Practices; Complex Values; Ex-Post Evaluation; PROMETHEE-GAIA method
Online: 5 January 2021 (14:11:27 CET)
According to the current European and Italian scenario related to urban re-generation, cultural and landscape heritage, valorisation is being also enhanced by the activation of innovative processes. These involve the development of methodologies and tools that are able to address decision-making processes among low entropy economy, complex values and creative practices. In this perspective, the research aims to investigate the possibilities of developing a Cultural Heritage Low Entropy Enhancement (CHLEE) approach by considering how the complex values of cultural heritage can vary not only through a physical transformation of spaces but also through a program of uses and activities able to produce new values, where the human experience is essential. This type of model modifies the objectives that characterise the valorisation of cultural heritage and landscape, recognising that the fruition is no longer “consumerist” but “experiential”. A crucial role is represented by the heterogeneity of creative practices that contribute to the identificationidentifying and implementation ofimplementing innovative management and governance models. The present paper explores the components of creative regenerative processes, based upon the ex-post evaluation of some Italian experiments, across the PROMETHEE-GAIA multi-criteria method, to understand how creative experiences are building innovation ecosystem thanks to low entropy economy and improve the ex-ante evaluation for new strategies and policies.