REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0103.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: zebrafish; models; evaluation; drugs; cardiotoxicity; genotoxicity
Online: 20 December 2016 (10:34:56 CET)
Embryonic and larval Danio rerio is increasingly used as a toxicological model to conduct rapid in vivo tests and developmental toxicity assays; the zebrafish features as high genetic homology to mammals; robust phenotypes; and its value in high-throughput genetic and chemical screening have made it a powerful tool to evaluate in vivo toxicity. New methodologies of genome editing as CRISPR/Cas9; ZFN or Talen make it a suitable model to perform studies to pair human genetic diseases as well. This review surveys recent studies; employing zebrafish as experimental model; comparing it with other in vivo and in vitro models; presenting zebrafish as a potent vertebrate tool to evaluate drug toxicity to facilitate more extensive; easy and comprehensive knowledge of new generation drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Haemophilus influenza; Neisseria meningitidis; meningitis; vaccine efficacy evaluation; immunization schedule.
Online: 2 January 2017 (18:14:59 CET)
Meningitis is a severe disease associated with death in children under five with highest rates of infections under age of one. Vaccines for Neisseria meningitides and Haemophilus influenza are used to prevent the main causative agents of meningitis. Administration of H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is recommended at 2, 4 and 6 months with a booster dose at 18 months. N. meningitidis has two commercially available vaccines, the pure polysaccharide is recommended at 24 months meanwhile the protein-conjugated vaccines at 12 months. We sought in this study to examine if coadministering the vaccines for the two main meningitis causing bacteria might be synergistic as a preliminary step towards the possibility of shuffling immunization schedule. So, we coadministered Hib vaccine with commercially available vaccines either quadrate (ACWY) polysaccharide meningococcal (Men) or conjugated meningococcal (Nim) vaccines in Balb/C mice (n = 6/group) and compared to each vaccine administered separately and controls. Thirty-five days post immunization, we measured specific antibodies titers. Hib vaccine increased Men antibody titers significantly for serotypes Y and W. When Hib vaccine was coadministrated with Nim, antibody titer for Y, W and A significantly increased. For serotype C, there was no significant difference in antibody titers among immunized groups. As for effect of meningococcal vaccines on Hib, Men significantly increased Hib antibody titers while Nim had no effect. Collectively, our data suggested that coadministration of Hib and Men or Nim vaccines was safe and had synergistic effect on immune responses elicited to both vaccines. Further studies are needed before immunization schedule modifications. Such immunization schedule recommendation should provide better protection against this life-threatening disease in young children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: fractal dimension; carotid plaque characterization; three dimensional ultrasound; an evaluation of the vulnerability of the plaques
Online: 1 September 2016 (10:48:18 CEST)
Carotid atherosclerotic lesions are a major cause of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Identification and quantification of carotid plaques are important for categorizing the vulnerability of plaques for rupture and assessing the impact of treatments. The irregularity of plaque surface is associated with previous plaque rupture and plays an important role in the risk of stroke. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop and validate novel vulnerability biomarkers from three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) images by analyzing the surface morphological characterization of carotid plaque using fractal geometry features. 3D box-counting and 3D blanket are the two types of 3D fractal dimension that were employed to describe the smoothness of plaques. This fractal dimension analysis tool was used to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin using 3DUS carotid images, which were acquired from 6 patients treated with atorvastatin with 80 mg daily and 5 patients with placebo. The Student's T Test results showed that those two fractal features were effective for detecting the statin-related changes in carotid atherosclerosis with p<0.0068 and p<0.015 respectively, suggesting that 3D fractal dimension measurements can be used effectively to analyze the surface characteristics of carotid plaques, especially for evaluating the impact of the treatment.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Reliability; Earthquake damageability; Structural evaluation; Safety; Financial risk; MC simulation
Online: 14 May 2021 (13:46:04 CEST)
Abstract: Seismic performance and loss assessments can have widely varying degrees of uncertainty. An essential issue is whether a particular assessed seismic loss or performance result has sufficient reliability to serve as the basis for risk management decisions and actions, including whether or not a code prescribed performance level is met, or if an assessed loss level is acceptable. A method is developed measuring the reliability of performance and loss assessments for individual buildings and for portfolios. Consideration is given to how well the building investigation and corresponding evaluation process have been performed, the qualifications of the person(s) doing the assessment, the thoroughness of the evaluation, and the technical validity of the assessment procedure or model. The approach characterizes the uncertainty of each component of the assessment procedure for each building in qualitative terms. The resulting reliability measure is likely to be most useful for the cases where an entity is determining whether/or not a building has acceptable life safety performance, or if a portfolio has an acceptably low risk of seismic damage loss over a given period of time. In both cases, the reliability must either be sufficient to warrant action, or serve to indicate need for improved assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0076.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: performance evaluation; cloud services; group decision making; multicriteria decision making; fuzzy sets
Online: 22 September 2016 (10:45:55 CEST)
This paper formulates the performance evaluation of cloud services as a multicriteria group decision making problem, and presents a fuzzy multicriteria group decision making method for evaluating the performance of cloud services. Interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used to model the inherent subjectiveness and imprecision of the performance evaluation process. An effective algorithm is developed based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method and the Choquet integral operator for adequately solving the performance evaluation problem. An example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed fuzzy multicriteria group decision making method for solving the multicriteria group decision making problem in real world situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental Evaluation of Land use, Soil sealing soil take, land plus value recapture, transition matrix
Online: 4 November 2016 (17:24:32 CET)
Our work is regarding the analysis of land use changes, in the light of “saving soil” against the expansion due to unearned plus value of land: The loss of natural and agricultural surface in front of the expanding urban environment is a critical aspect of unsustainability of urban development, especially in the way it was carried out in the past decades. The measure of the physical transition of land use and characters from a more natural condition of land surface to a new artificial one, joint with a parallel analysis of the increase of land value due to such change is nowadays a major land-policy tool. The interplay of urban economics regulation with planning, reveals new key issues in urban governance and environmental preservation. In this paper it will be shown some experiment about the impact assessment of soil take, related with the seek of valorization of property inside the planning process. Our paper reports as well about the experimental activity carried out inside the MITO Lab of the Polytechnic of Bari, where reports about property values and environmental values have been produced, specially looking at the reality of the Apulia, a southern Italian Region, that is rich of farmlands and coastlines, often invaded by constructions with a severe loss of nature, landscape and ecosystems services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: parallel loop; line switching; complex network theory; GN algorithm; comprehensive evaluation model
Online: 15 March 2017 (18:00:36 CET)
With the development of higher voltage power grid, the high and low voltage parallel loops are emerging, which lead to energy losses, even threaten the security and stability of power system. The multi-infeed HVDC configurations widely appearing in AC/DC interconnected power system make this situation even worse. Aimed at energy saving and system security, a decision optimization method for power grid operating condition with high and low voltage parallel loops is proposed in this paper. Firstly, considering hub substation distribution and power grid structure, parallel loop opening schemes are generated with GN algorithm. Then, candidate opening schemes are preliminarily selected from all these generated schemes based on a filtering index. Finally, with the influence on power system security, stability and operation economy in consideration, an evaluation model for candidate opening schemes is founded based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP). And a fuzzy evaluation algorithm is used to find the optimal scheme. Simulation results of New England 39-bus system and an actual power system validate the effectiveness and superiority of this proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: benchmarking; evaluation of performance; performance indicator; principal component analysis
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:16:30 CEST)
The Inefficient water use, varying and low productivity in Kenya public irrigation schemes is a major concern. It is therefore necessary to periodically monitor and evaluate the performance of public irrigation schemes. The performance of public irrigation in western Kenya was assessed by combining benchmarking methodology and principal component analysis. The aim was to quantify and rank the performance of pumped public irrigation schemes in Kenya. Eleven benchmarking indicators were computed for the period from 2012 to 2016 and compared to global benchmark values. The indicators used fall under agricultural productivity, water supply and financial performance categories. The computed agricultural productivity was 36%–51% in Ahero, 23%–42% in West Kano and 26%–50% Bunyala irrigation scheme. Water supply performance in Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala irrigation schemes varied from 24% to 58%, 3% to 49% and 19% to 43% respectively. Financial performance varied from 46% to 54% in Ahero, 25% to 32% in West Kano and 54%–56% in Bunyala irrigation scheme. An average overall performance efficiency of 46%, 39% and 31% was obtained in Ahero, Bunyala and West Kano irrigation schemes respectively. The performance of the irrigation schemes is very poor and measures on improving performance are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0443.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: group decision makers; multicriteria analysis; performance evaluation; internet of things; intuitionistic environment
Online: 19 October 2018 (08:08:19 CEST)
The performance evaluation of the Internet of Things (IoT) based supply chain is challenging due to the involvement of multiple decision makers, the multi-dimensional nature of the evaluation process, and the existence of uncertainty and imprecision in the decision making process. To ensure effective decisions are made, this paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria analysis model for evaluating the performance of IoT based supply chain. The inherent uncertainty and imprecision of the performance evaluation process is adequately handled by using intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A new algorithm is developed for determining the overall performance index for each alternative across all criteria. The development of the fuzzy multicriteria group decision making model provides organizations with the ability to effectively evaluate the performance of their IoT based supply chains for improving their competitiveness. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the model for dealing with real world IoT-based performance evaluation problems.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: health; safety and environment management; HSE; performance evaluation; checklist; contractors
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:45:13 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of health, safety and environmental management of civil, traffic and urban services contractors in the 18th district of Tehran municipality in 2015-2016. Methods: This is an applied, longitudinal, descriptive-comparative study. The statistical population of this study was construction contractors, urban services and traffic in the municipality of district 18 of Tehran in the years 2015-2016. from 52 contractors, 18 construction contractors, 21 utilities contractors and 13 traffic contractors, respectively, were selected using census method. the research instrument consisted of periodic direct observation and completion of the HSE standard checklist by researchers. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test by SPSS software.Results: The HSE performance of all contractors (civil, utilities and traffic) was acceptable and the results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the HSE performance of contractors at the second visit of 2015 and the first visit of 2016 was significantly different in favor of civil contractors )p <0.01), but there was no significant difference between the first and third visits of 2015 and the second and third visits of 2016 (p> 0.05). visits in six periods indicate HSE Civil Contractors status increased from 100% unfavorable to 88.88% acceptable level and 11.11% good level, and in the case of civil service contractors who initially had 95.23% in an unfavorable situation and 4.76% in a favorable situation achieved 100% acceptable performance, and finally, the traffic contractors, who were 100% unfavorable, were upgraded to 100% acceptable. Conclusion: According to the findings of the study, it seems that the supervision of municipality inspectors on HSE performance of contractors can be effective in improving and strengthening the commitment to HSE requirements, therefore, it is suggested that periodical visits be made to the municipal contractors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0133.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: data scarcity; actual evapotranspiration; surface energy balance; performance evaluation; remote sensing
Online: 10 April 2018 (16:34:58 CEST)
The Kabul River basin (KRB) of Afghanistan, a lifeline of around 10 million people, has multiplicity of governance, management and development related challenges leading to inequity, inadequacy and unreliability of irrigation water distribution. Prior to any uplifting intervention, there is a need to evaluate the performance of irrigation system on long term basis to identify the existing bottlenecks. Although there are several indicators used for the performance evaluation of the irrigation schemes, but we used the coefficient of variation (CV) of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) in space (basin, sub-basin, and provincial level), relative evapotranspiration (RET) and temporal CV of RET to assess the equity, adequacy and reliability of water distribution respectively, from 2003 to 2013. The ETa was estimated through surface energy balance system (SEBS) algorithm and the ETa estimates were validated using advection aridity (AA) method with R2 value of 0.81 and 0.77 at Nawabad and Sultanpur stations respectively. The global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) products were used as main inputs to the SEBS. Results show that mean seasonal sub-based RET values during summer (May – September) (0.37 ± 0.06) and winter (October – April) (0.40 ± 0.08) are below the target values (RET ≥0.75) during 2003-2013. The CV of mean ETa within sub-basins and provinces for the entire study period has equitable distribution of water from October-January (0.09±0.04) whereas the highest inequity (0.24±0.08) in water distribution is during early summer. The range of the CV of mean ETa (0.04-0.06) on monthly and seasonal basis shows the unreliability of water supplies in several provinces or sub-basins. The analysis of temporal CV of mean RET highlights unreliable water supplies across the entire basin. The maximum ETa during the study period was estimated for Shamal sub-basin (552±43mm) while among provinces Kunar experienced the highest ETa (544±39mm). This study highlights the dire need for interventions to improve the irrigation performance in time and space. The proposed methodology can be used as a framework for monitoring and implementing the water distribution plans in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0039.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:40:59 CET)
Part 1 of this 2-paper series identified a wide and deep network of context, generative mechanisms and outcomes responsible for psychosocial development in a performance basketball club. In this – part 2 – study, the stakeholder’s programme theories were tested during a full-season ethnography of the same club. The findings confirm the highly individualised nature of each young person’s journey. Methodologically, immersion in the day-to-day environment generated a fine-grain analysis of the processes involved, including: i) sustained attentional focus; ii) structured and unstructured skill building activities; iii) deliberate and incidental support; and iv) feelings indicating personal growth. Personal development in and through sport is thus shown to be conditional, multi-faceted, time-sensitive and idiosyncratic. The findings of this two-part study are considered to propose a model of psychosocial development in and through sport. This heuristic tool is presented to support sport psychologists, coaches, club administrators and parents to deliberately create and optimise developmental environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0244.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cost containment; Performance Evaluation; Multi-level System; Diagnosis-related Group (DRG); Health system sustainability
Online: 11 May 2021 (11:29:16 CEST)
This study aims to develop a performance evaluation system that can facilitate performance evaluation at region, hospital, and department levels to enable better cost management for sustainable development. A multi-level system of performance evaluation informs a hierarchical assessment of cost management from regions to hospitals to departments using diagnosis-related group (DRGs). Various metrics are developed employing the variances between targets and actuals where targets are determined from two perspectives: benchmarking using external regional prices and change management using internal data. Targets for the latter are statistically based and specifically incorporate variability. The model is applied to two hospitals, twenty departments, nine DRGs and 1071 inpatients. The analyses indicate that the approach can provide a practical evaluation tool that allows for particular characteristics at multiple levels. The system provides macro-micro and external-internal perspectives in performance, enabling high-level variances to be decomposed thereby identifying sources of performance variability and financial impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0019.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: emotion classification; machine learning classifiers; ISEAR dataset; data mining; performance evaluation; data science; opinion-mining
Online: 2 August 2019 (08:49:27 CEST)
Emotion detection from the text is an important and challenging problem in text analytics. The opinion-mining experts are focusing on the development of emotion detection applications as they have received considerable attention of online community including users and business organization for collecting and interpreting public emotions. However, most of the existing works on emotion detection used less efficient machine learning classifiers with limited datasets, resulting in performance degradation. To overcome this issue, this work aims at the evaluation of the performance of different machine learning classifiers on a benchmark emotion dataset. The experimental results show the performance of different machine learning classifiers in terms of different evaluation metrics like precision, recall ad f-measure. Finally, a classifier with the best performance is recommended for the emotion classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0085.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: passenger flow distribution model; simulation design; performance evaluation; passenger flow volume; service level; urban rail transit hub platform
Online: 2 December 2016 (07:52:00 CET)
Urban rail transit hub platform is the most important area for passenger flow distribution. In order to calculate passenger flow volume in platform and evaluate platform service level during rush hours, this paper presents a method for modeling and simulation of passenger flow distribution in platform. Passenger flow distribution model (PFDM) is proposed based on the basic analysis and the superposition principle of passenger flow. Simulation design for PFDM is proposed by Anylogic, which contains simulation process and simulation model. Experiment results show that PFDM and simulation design are effective and accordant with the reality scenario, and the simulation precision is comparatively ideal. This research could provide a beneficial reference for train scheduling and operation management under the viewpoint of traffic safety and service level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0038.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development, psychosocial development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:39:46 CET)
Sport has the potential to support psychosocial development in young people. However, extant studies have tended to evaluate purpose-built interventions, leaving regular organised sport relatively overlooked. Moreover, previous work has tended to concentrated on a narrow range of outcomes. To address these gaps, we conducted a season-long ethnography of a youth performance sport club based on a novel Realist Evaluation approach . We construed the club as a social intervention within a complex system of agents and structures. In this - Part 1 - account we detail the perceptions of former and current club parents, players and coaches, using them to build a set of programme theories. The resulting network of outcomes (i.e. self, emotional, social, moral and cognitive) and generative mechanisms (i.e., the attention factory, the greenhouse for growth, the personal boost, and the real-life simulator) spanning across multiple contextual layers provides a nuanced understanding of stakeholders’ views and experiences. This textured perspective of the multi-faceted process of development provides new insights for administrators, coaches and parents to maximise the developmental properties of youth sport, and signposts new avenues for research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0386.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: information systems; middleware applications; Application Programming Interfaces (APIs); web services; Quality of Services (QoS); performance evaluation
Online: 22 September 2021 (13:29:56 CEST)
Currently, most middleware application developers have two choices when designing or implementing API services: They can either stick with REST or explore the emerging GraphQL technology. Although REST is widely considered the standard method for API development, GraphQL is believed to overcome the main drawbacks of REST, especially data fetching issues. Yet, doubts remain as there are no experimental studies with convincing results to evaluate the performance of the two services. In this paper, we propose a research methodology to evaluate the performance of REST and GraphQL API services, which includes two main contributions. The first contribution is that the performance evaluation of the two services is conducted in the real operation of a massive and intensively accessible management information system. The second contribution is the fair and independent performance evaluation results obtained for both API services. The performance evaluation was studied using basic measures of QoS, including response time, throughput, CPU load, and memory usage. The results show that REST is still faster in response time and throughput, while GraphQL is very efficient in resource utilization, i.e., CPU load and memory utilization. Therefore, GraphQL is the right choice when data requirements change frequently and resource utilization is the most important consideration. REST is used when some data is frequently accessed called by multiple requests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0204.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: sonification evaluation, auditory display evaluation, visualization
Online: 14 June 2022 (11:10:46 CEST)
Comparing sonification with visualization is like comparing apples and oranges. While visualizations are ubiquitous to the public and have established names, principles, application areas, and sophisticated designs, sonifications tend to be unique, self-made and completely new to users. In this study we developed a rudimentary visualization that is related closely to the principle of the sonification designs that we want to evaluate. In addition, we implemented a prototypical sonification that uses the most common mapping principles. Experiment results show that participants perform similarly well using the rudimentary visualization and the prototypical sonification, which is much better than chance but significantly worse than using our new sonification results. We therefore argue that both rudimentary visualization and prototypical sonifications can serve as a suitable benchmark to evaluate new sonifications designs against.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0018.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: NMT Evaluation, Meta-Evaluation, SacreBLEU, Korean
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:24:43 CET)
SacreBLEU, by incorporating a text normalizing step in the pipeline, has been well-received as an automatic evaluation metric in recent years. With agglutinative languages such as Korean, however, the metric cannot provide a conceivable result without the help of customized pre-tokenization. In this regard, this paper endeavors to examine the influence of diversified pre-tokenization schemes –word, morpheme, character, and subword– on the aforementioned metric by performing a meta-evaluation with manually-constructed into-Korean human evaluation data. Our empirical study demonstrates that the correlation of SacreBLEU (to human judgment) fluctuates consistently by the token type. The reliability of the metric even deteriorates due to some tokenization, and MeCab is not an exception. Guiding through the proper usage of tokenizer for each metric, we stress the significance of a character level and the insignificance of a Jamo level in MT evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: micro-surface imaging; evaluation; nondestructive; enhancement techniques; thin plate spline; linear sequential estimation; windowing technique, Lenna image, MEMS imaging
Online: 27 August 2016 (10:43:36 CEST)
This article develops algorithms for the characterization and the visualization of micro-scale features by using a small number of sample points, and with a goal to mitigate for the measurement shortcomings which are often destructive or time consuming. We implement the algorithms to rapidly examine the microscopic features of a Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) surface. Such images are highly dense; therefore, traditional image processing techniques might be computationally expensive. The contribution of this research include first, we develop local and global algorithm based on modified Thin Plate Spline (TPS) model to reconstruct high resolution images of the micro-surface’s topography, and its derivatives by using low resolution images. Second, we obtain a bending energy algorithm from our modified TPS model, and use it to filter out image defects. Finally, we develop a computationally efficient Windowing technique, which combines TPS and Linear Sequential Estimation (LSE), to enhance the visualization of images. The Windowing technique allows rapid image reconstruction based on the reduction of inverse problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0021.v1
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:22:25 CEST)
This article is about school evaluation. The objective was to explain critically the mediating relationships between educational evaluation and the production of school knowledge from the perspective of the Dialectical Historical Materialism. With this interest, a documentary analysis was made, obtaining as result four explanatory categories: production, subsumption, distribution and exchange of knowledge, which form a concrete totality with distinctions and antagonistic relationships between them, limited by their opposite. It is concluded that the evaluation as a mediating form lacks antagonistic pair and consequently of control by opposition, emerging from the school daily as autonomous and sovereign entity, oppressive of school subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0295.v1
Subject: Keywords: Preexposure prophylaxis; transmission model; PrEP; economic evaluation; HIV; economic evaluation; health economics
Online: 16 November 2021 (14:36:41 CET)
Introduction: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention has been implemented in several countries. Previous literature has shown that its cost-effectiveness (and, under some specifications, cost-saving character) is dependent on the reduction in price due to generics, the time-horizon and its effectiveness. The intervention has never been studied in Catalonia, a territory with extensive implementation. Methods: Economic evaluation of the implementation of HIV pre-exposition prophylaxis using administrative data from Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) who receive the treatment (at the generic price). A deterministic compartmental model and a social perspective with a micro-costing approach over the time horizon 2022-2062 are used. A baseline 86% effectiveness of PrEP is assumed. Results: Daily oral PrEP is found to be cost-saving: discounted savings in costs are attained after 16 years, and after 40 years they reach 81 million euros. In terms of health indicators, 10,322 additional discounted QALYs are generated by the intervention. Results are sensitive to sexual behavioral patterns among MSM, the price of PrEP (reduced if offered on-demand), its effectiveness and the discount rate. Conclusions: The use and promotion of PrEP in Catalonia is predicted to result in substantial health and monetary benefits because of reductions in HIV infections. Short-term investments in the promotion of PrEP will result in important cost-savings in the long term.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0294.v1
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:48:04 CEST)
Ethics is a research field that is obtaining more and more attention in Computer Science due to the proliferation of artificial intelligence software, machine learning algorithms, robot agents (like chatbot), and so on. Indeed, ethics research has produced till now a set of guidelines, such as ethical codes, to be followed by people involved in Computer Science. However, a little effort has been spent for producing formal requirements to be included in the design process of software able to act ethically with users. In the paper, we investigate those issues that make a software product ethical and propose a set of metrics devoted to quantitatively evaluate if a software product can be considered ethical or not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0387.v1
Subject: Keywords: Scholarship evaluation; Tenure and promotion; Teaching and mentoring; Researcher evaluation; Academic career; Open science
Online: 19 January 2021 (16:37:50 CET)
In most world’s countries, scholarship evaluation for tenure and promotion continues to rely on conventional criteria of publications in journals of high impact factor and grant funding. Continuing to hire and promote scholars for their achievements in research and in securing research funds exposes universities at risk because students, directly and indirectly through government funds, are the main source of revenues for academic institutions, whereas talented young researchers are those who actually carry out most of the published research. Purposeful scholarship evaluation needs to include all three areas of scholarly activity: research, teaching and mentoring, and service to society. Young scholars seeking tenure and promotion benefit from the practice of open science because it provides better and more impactful results with respect to each of the three areas of scholarship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0600.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Natural language processing; Extrinsic evaluation; Intrinsic evaluation; Word analogy; Word embedding
Online: 23 December 2020 (17:26:11 CET)
Distributional word vector representation orword embedding has become an essential ingredient in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as machine translation, document classification, information retrieval andquestion answering. Investigation of embedding model helps to reduce the feature space and improves textual semantic as well as syntactic relations.This paper presents three embedding techniques (such as Word2Vec, GloVe, and FastText) with different hyperparameters implemented on a Bengali corpusconsists of180 million words. The performance of the embedding techniques is evaluated with extrinsic and intrinsic ways. Extrinsic performance evaluated by text classification, which achieved a maximum of 96.48% accuracy. Intrinsic performance evaluatedby word similarity (e.g., semantic, syntactic and relatedness) and analogy tasks. The maximum Pearson (ˆr) correlation accuracy of 60.66% (Ssˆr) achieved for semantic similarities and 71.64% (Syˆr) for syntactic similarities whereas the relatedness obtained 79.80% (Rsˆr). The semantic word analogy tasks achieved 44.00% of accuracy while syntactic word analogy tasks obtained 36.00%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0160.v1
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:27:12 CEST)
The Coronavirus outbreak that began in December, 2019 became a worldwide pandemic by March, 2020. The education industry had to adapt to this new change in a speedy and most feasible way by shifting to virtual classes over the internet and other available resources. WhatsApp has turned out to be a boon in academic’s section where in all the teachers have their own subject-wise groups on the said application. This not only helps them to share the necessary information resources but also to have discussion regarding the subject matter. On the other side, this application allows easy access for the students to all the resources shared by the teacher, and they can share their assignments without much difficulty with their subject teachers. Therefore, it has become a primary tool for conducting teaching, learning and evaluation online. The researchers have tried to analyze impact of online classes and the efforts required by the students to learn online with the help of survey conducted with the sample size of 514. The survey questionnaire was grouped into 4 categories namely; Opinion on Information and Communications Technology (ICT) based Teaching, Changes in communication behavior due to ICT using WhatsApp, the main hindrance for integration of ICT (Information Communication Technology) in the teaching-learning process and disadvantages of using ICT for teaching and learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0275.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: transposable elements; genome annotation; software evaluation
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:07:14 CEST)
Background: Transposable elements (TEs) constitute the vast majority of all eukaryotic DNA, and display extreme diversity, with thousands of families. Given their abundance and diversity, TEs discovery and annotation becomes challengeable. At present, tools and databases have built libraries to mask TEs in genomes based on de novo- and homology-based identification strategies, but no consensus criteria about which tools should be used have been proposed. Results: In the de novo-based strategy, we compared performances of TE libraries developed by four commonly used tools, including RepeatModeler, LTR_FINDER, LTRharvest, and MITE_Hunter, by using a simulated genome as a standard control. The results showed that the performance of RepeatModeler decreased as it was combined with either LTR_FINDER or LTRharvest. Combination of RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter showed better performance than RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter alone. In the homology-based strategy, we evaluated different sources from a taxonomic point of view to build an accurate TE library. When we selected a library from databases to identify TEs for Arabidopsis thaliana genome, the library from a genus genetically closer to Arabidopsis achieved better performance than other genera with further genetic distance. Without the Arabidopsis, combination of top three genera closer to Arabidopsis showed better performance than combination of all genera. Conclusion: This study proposes a series of recommendations to perform an accurate TE annotation: 1) For de novo-based strategy, RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter are suggested to build a TE library; 2) For homology-based strategy, it is recommended to use library of genus genetically close to the species rather than use combined library from all genera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: construction industrialization; dimensions; index system; evaluation
Online: 24 March 2017 (11:21:31 CET)
In recent years, there have been concerns raised about construction industrialization in China, which have initiated a wave of policy change in both governmental and industrial organizations in order to change the mode of conventional construction. However, the current development level of regional construction industrialization (RCI) in China has not been well-characterized. This study screened preliminary index systems in five dimensions: technical, economic, sustainable, enterprise development and development environment. Based on the data gathered from the questionnaire surveys and subsequently analyzed, twenty-two critical evaluation indicators were identified. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was then employed to determine the weighting of each indicator. The evaluation method of the development level was formulated on the basis of the evaluation criteria. Jiangsu Province was used as an example in this study, with the development level of this province being comprehensively examined using a combination of the index system and evaluation method. The results show that Jiangsu has a relatively high RCI development level. The data from analysis scores of five dimensions and twenty-two indicators show that the index system is feasible, with evaluation results being consistent with actual practice. These findings provide a good practical reference for making decisions about how best to guide the development of RCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: furcation anatomy; furcation measurement; furcation evaluation
Online: 6 May 2022 (13:50:48 CEST)
Objectives: Few studies in literature evaluate the "mean measure" of root divergence. Most of them are linear measurements, they hardly describe the dental furcation conformation. It is left to the subjectivity of the operator deciding whether a furcation is convergent or divergent. The goal of this study is to create a visual evaluation method to overcome these problems giving a conformation of the entire interradicular space. Material and methods: A user-friendly software (Paint®, Windows10®) was used to measure endo-oral radiographs of upper and lower molars. Three kinds of measurements were taken. Three operators used the software to measure 20 radiographs, then the technique was repeated on 250 radiographic images to identify an average measurement. The ratio of these three measurements allowed to develop a new visual evaluation method of the interradicular space. Results: Intra and inter-operator reproducibility was statistically assessed on a sample of 20 anonymous endo-oral radiographs measured by 3 blind operators. Then, a sample of 250 anonymous endo-oral radiographs were measured by a blind operator and were statistically evaluated to identify an average value to define a main conformation of the interradicular space. Measurements made by the 3 operators on the 20 radiographic images showed that the technique is reproducible, and a mean value of the interradicular space was obtained. Conclusions: A new anatomical evaluation of the interradicular space in its entirety, which could help the clinicians in the therapy of furcated molars, can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal drilling; material; visual evaluation; macrostructure; microstructure
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:52:21 CET)
The contribution deals with the joining of various types of materials by technology of thermal drilling. In various branches of industries, also in the automotive industry must be joining operations, service, repairing, substitution or protection workpieces, components with various types of materials. Equally, the important role as joint, is also used material, and a product preparation by assembly and disassembly operations. By utilization of new friction hybrid joining technologies we can shortage the production time, provide automation in operations, increase the quality of joints, spare of economical expenses and also we can protect the environment. In this paper authors have investigated the effect of friction drilling on the tested material, aluminium alloy AlMgSi, which was used for material testing. The created joints were evaluated visually and by microscopy methods. The errors of tested joining were documented and described, too. This contribution was made with cooperation of Technical University of Kosice and with U. S. Steel Kosice, s.r.o.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: performance evaluation; poultry meat; ergonomics; injuries; industry
Online: 2 January 2018 (06:36:04 CET)
Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, have bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute on the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the Knowledge Development Process – Constructivist (Proknow-C) as theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, it was obtained a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords. The ProKnow-C process allowed identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for research future. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge to identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; online learning; higher education; evaluation
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:39:04 CET)
As a consequence of the global sanitary crisis in early 2020, universities had to tackle with a sudden shift in their teaching-learning strategies so that the preset competences could be fulfilled. This study presents the learning outcomes of the tasks implemented, student experiences and feedback, as well as some reflections from the instructors with a holistic perspective of the courses due to the measures and adaptations adopted. Six courses taught at Civil Engineering degrees of three universities, two from Spain and one from Peru, are analyzed. The teaching and evaluation strategies are described and some reflections are made by comparing the student’s performance with the previous course. Although the shift to online learning had to be made from day to day, with no time for preparation, the experience has proved that online learning can be beneficial in some aspects and have probably come to stay, although some others are difficult to replace with respect to face-to-face learning, especially students’ engagement and motivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0199.v1
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:37:27 CEST)
With the advent of Neural Machine Translation, the more the achievement of human-machine parity is claimed at WMT, the more we come to ask ourselves if their evaluation environment can be trusted. In this paper, we argue that the low quality of the source test set of the news track at WMT may lead to an overrated human parity claim. First of all, we report nine types of so-called technical contaminants in the data set, originated from an absence of meticulous inspection after web-crawling. Our empirical findings show that when they are corrected, about 5% of the segments that have previously achieved a human parity claim turn out to be statistically invalid. Such a tendency gets evident when the contaminated sentences are solely concerned. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first attempt to question the “source” side of the test set as a potential cause of the overclaim of human parity. We cast evidence for such phenomenon that according to sentence-level TER scores, those trivial errors change a good part of system translations. We conclude that to overlook it would be a mistake, especially when it comes to an NMT evaluation.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; bariatric surgery; preoperative evaluation
Online: 10 November 2020 (09:55:37 CET)
Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Weight losse is associated with improvement or even cure of cardiovascular risk factors with cardiometabolic benefit. nonsurgical measures for weight loss is rarely successful in the long term. Bariatric surgery has achieved clear success in reversing the abnormal metabolic profile associated with obesity. Pre surgical evaluation is important to rule out any medical or psychological problems that increased the surgical mortality or adversely affect the outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ATO; Performance Evaluation; Scenario-based Testing; Simulation
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:42:05 CET)
There is increasing interest in automating train operations of mainline services, e.g. to increase network capacity. Automatic train operation (ATO) is already achieved by several pilot projects, but not implemented on a large scale. Before the general introduction of new or adapted technologies can have a transformative effect on the operation of such a complex system as train operation on mainlines, they have to pass functional, interoperability and performance tests. A virtual preliminary analysis is one way to ensure a smooth as well as safe introduction and implementation. This paper aims to present an approach that applies to the performance testing of ATO systems. Therefore, methods and test standards for technologies enabling automatic operation in other transport sectors are reviewed. The main findings have been adapted, transformed and combined to be used as a general strategy for virtual performance testing in the railway sector. Specifically, universal performance indicators, namely punctuality, accuracy, energy consumption, safety and comfort, are presented. A layer model for scenario description is adapted from the automotive sector, as well as the definition of different scenario types. Lastly, factors that can influence the performance of an ATO algorithm are identified. To demonstrate the developed approach, a straightforward investigation of a case study is conducted using a microscopic train simulator in combination with an ATO algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0251.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: remote sensing; collaborative application; observation capability; evaluation
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:27:14 CET)
This paper proposed a new evaluation model based on analytic hierarchy process to quantitatively evaluate the capability of multi-satellite cooperative remote sensing observation. The analytic hierarchical process model is a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis of systematic decision analysis method. According to the objective of the remote sensing cooperative observation mission, we decompose the complex problem into several levels and a number of factors, compare and calculate various factors in pairs, and obtain the combination weights of different schemes. The model can be used to evaluate the observation capability of resource satellites. Taking the optical remote sensing satellites such as China’s resource satellite series and GF-4 as examples, this paper verifies and evaluates the model for three typical tasks: point target observation, regional target observation and moving target continuous observation. The results show that the model can provide quantitative reference and model support for comprehensive evaluation of the collaborative observation capability of remote sensing satellites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; test and evaluation; methodology; benchmarking
Online: 3 March 2022 (14:00:15 CET)
Despite their enormous potential the use of Indoor Localization Systems (ILS) remains seldom. One reason is the lack of market transparency and stakeholders’ trust in the systems’ performance as a consequence of insufficient use of Test and Evaluation (T&E) methodologies. The heterogeneous nature of ILS, their influences, and their applications pose various challenges for the design of a methodology that provides meaningful results. Methodologies for building-wide testing exist, but their use is mostly limited to associated indoor localization competitions. In this work, the T&E 4iLoc Framework is proposed - a methodology for T&E of indoor localization systems in semi-controlled environments based on a system-level and black-box approach. In contrast to building-wide testing, T&E in semi-controlled environments, such as test halls is characterized by lower costs, higher reproducibility, and better comparability of the results. The limitation of low transferability to real world applications is addressed by an application-driven design approach. The empirical validation of the T&E 4iLoc Framework, based on the examination of a contour-based Light Detection and Ranging ILS, an Ultra Wideband ILS, and a camera-based ILS for the application of Automated Guided Vehicles in warehouse operation, demonstrates the benefits of T&E with the T&E 4iLoc Framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0656.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Evaluation, Distinction, Fuzzy DEMATEL, Higher education, Cluster
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:52:01 CEST)
The aim of this paper is the evaluation of the success of graduating with distinction in higher education (SGDHE) using the fuzzy DEMATEL method. The observation has been done using cause and effect criteria. 11 cause and 14 effect clusters have been used in this study. The study result of this work shows that all the effects are connected to the given causes and a cause-effect graph has been generated for each connection. This proposed approach is demonstrated with the empirical case of Dire Dawa University students in Dire Dawa Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: transnational oil investment, risk assessment, Fuzzy-Grey comprehensive evaluation, Delphi expert scoring system, risk factors, evaluation indicators system
Online: 20 April 2018 (09:11:15 CEST)
Oil has become the object of global exploits and fierce competition among the major world powers as it is a key strategic non-renewable resource. Transnational petroleum investment is therefore an important mechanism available to countries and international corporations to control oil resources even though there are numerous inherent uncertainties and risks. A new risk assessment index system is proposed in this paper based on use of the Delphi expert scoring system and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation that aims to minimize the potential risks inherent to multinational petroleum investment. This approach encapsulates political, legal, socioeconomic, and infrastructural factors to develop a technical method that can be used for transnational petroleum investment risk assessment. An evaluation of oil investment risk within a case study area is also presented; results provide reference data that can be applied by national and international oil companies to mitigate risks of transnational oil investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0548.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Gated Communities; Opening Scenarios; Accessibility Benefits; Evaluation; Shanghai
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:36:59 CET)
Opening gated-communities (GCs) has been widely discussed for urban inclusion and revitalization. With the policies of opening GCs being promoted in China, quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of the potential benefits is heavily needed. Taking Shanghai as an example, this study quantifies and analyzes the accessibility benefits and risks of opening GCs with factors including GC types, opening levels, travel modes, and travel destinations considered. We found that (1) opening GCs can bring 50m+ accessibility gains to 17% and 52% of the residents in Moderately Opening (MO) and Completely Opening (CO) scenarios, respectively. (2) Cycling benefits more than walking in all cases and scenarios. (3) For different GCs, conventional GCs have fewer benefits in MO but more in CO than the newly-established one. For different facilities, trips to bus stations demonstrate the largest accessibility gains. (4) The accessibility benefit of a residential building is highly determined by its closeness to the gates and relative location in the block. (5) Only 1% and 5-7% of external trips may penetrate the opened communities in MO and CO scenarios, respectively, which are far less than both expectation and the benefits. These findings precipitate at least two policy implications in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0227.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: chess; elo; evaluation; equal play; handicap
Online: 26 April 2022 (04:41:40 CEST)
Chess is an interesting game for artificial intelligence research and an entertaining hobby and sport for a growing number of people. However, humans differ greatly in their ability to play. Typically, the Elo rating is used to determine a player's skill and to predict who will win. When differences in Elo are too great the weaker player is almost guaranteed to lose. While on one hand, the Elo rating allows players to be matched to equally well-playing opponents, it also to some degree restricts the games to be played between equally strong opponents since otherwise the result is known beforehand. Here a handicap system where stronger players remove pieces at the start of the game is evaluated. Specifically, the effect each removed piece or combination of pieces have on a player. Interestingly, pieces do not always reduce the Elo of a player by a predefined amount, but their effect depends strongly on the player's current Elo. The results presented here are from playing the computer engine Stockfish because data about humans playing this scheme is limited. However, the results make direct predictions about the effect of piece removal on Elo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0129.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Pineapples; Ripening; Proximate composition; Sensory evaluation
Online: 10 January 2022 (16:15:22 CET)
The number of artificially ripened pineapples is outnumbered than the naturally ripened pineapples. However, there is a lack of understanding between artificially ripened and naturally ripened pineapples. Thus the inquiry was anticipated to explore the physicochemical changes and organoleptic acceptability of the naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Farmers used different chemicals such as calcium carbide, ethylene, besides growth hormones to reduce production loss. Here we evaluated the content of moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber, reducing sugar, total sugar, titratable acidity, sucrose, and vitamin C in both naturally ripened and artificially ripened pineapples. Artificially ripened pineapples showed a significantly lower vitamin C than naturally ripened ones, but arsenic content was nil in both samples. In the case of color and appearance, there was no significant difference between the two samples, but in case of the other organoleptic properties, such as flavor, sweetness, sourness, the natural one was more acceptable. Thus naturally ripened pineapples are more beneficial to consumers than artificially ripened ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0611.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Mean surface temperature; CMIP6; evaluation; projections; East Africa
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:35:29 CET)
This study evaluates the historical mean surface temperature (hereafter T2m) and examines how T2m changes over East Africa (EA) in the 21st century using CMIP6 models. An evaluation was conducted based on mean state, trends, and statistical metrics (Bias, Correlation Coefficient, Root Mean Square Difference, and Taylor skill score). For future projections over EA, five best performing CMIP6 models (based on their performance ranking in historical mean temperature simulations) under the shared socioeconomic pathways SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios were employed. The historical simulations reveal an overestimation of the mean annual T2m cycle over the study region with fewer models depicting underestimations. Further, CMIP6 models reproduce the spatial and temporal trends within the observed range proximity. Overall, the best performing models are as follows: FGOALS-g3, HadGEM-GC31-LL, MPI-ESM2-LR, CNRM-CM6-1, and IPSL-CM6A-LR. During the three-time slice under consideration, the Multi Model Ensemble (MME) project many changes during the late period (2080 – 2100) with expected mean changes at 2.4 °C for SSP2-4.5 and 4.4 °C for the SSP5-8.5 scenario. The magnitude of change based on Sen’s slope estimator and Mann-Kendall test reveal significant increasing tendencies with projections of 0.24°C decade-1 (0.65°C decade-1) under SSP2-4.5 (SSP5-8.5) scenarios. The findings from this study illustrate higher warming in the latest model outputs of CMIP6 relative to its predecessor, despite identical instantaneous radiative forcing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0213.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Food Analysis; Texture Profile Analysis; FTIR, Sensory Evaluation
Online: 12 October 2020 (07:57:48 CEST)
The popularity of functional gummies has increased, which is evident from the growing line of functional gummies from almost every nutraceutical companies. Sensory evaluation serves the purpose of determining which brand of functional gummy would capture the largest market share. Texture profile analysis was used to determine the mechanical properties of functional gummies. The brands of functional gummies that came under the scope of this study were denoted as Brand A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was utilised to detect organic material and functional groups in the functional gummies. Texture profile analysis gave valuable insights into the gummies’ mechanical properties which are cohesiveness, springiness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Amongst the gummies that were studied, Brand F gummy has the highest value of cohesiveness of 0.92. Brand A gummy has a high springiness value of 1.0. Brand B gummy possesses the highest value of hardness, gumminess and chewiness of 12 532.2 g, 7617.6 N, and 6256.8 J, respectively. Qualitative sensory evaluation reveals that Brand G gummy has the best aesthetic qualities in terms of colour and appearance. Brand B gummy tastes the best while brand A gummy claims the top spot for gumminess and chewiness. Overall, the respondents in this study preferred brand A gummy over other brands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0111.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CMIP5/6; Precipitation; Climate extremes; evaluation; East Africa
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:22:24 CET)
This study examines the improvement in coupled intercomparison project phase six (CMIP6) models against the predecessor CMIP5 in simulating mean and extreme precipitation over the East Africa region. The study compares the climatology of the precipitation indices simulated by the CMIP models with the CHIRPS dataset using robust statistical techniques for 1981 – 2005. The results display the varying performance of the general circulation models (GCMs) in the simulation of annual and seasonal precipitation climatology over the study domain. CMIP6-MME shows improved performance in the local annual mean cycle simulation with a better representation of two peaks, especially the MAM rainfall relative to its predecessor. Moreover, simulation of extreme indices is well captured in CMIP6 models relative to its predecessor. The CMIP6-MME performed better than the CMIP5-MME with lesser biases in simulating SDII, CDD, and R20mm over East Africa. Remarkably, most CMIP6 models are unable to simulate extremely wet days (R95p). A few CMIP6 models (e.g., NorESM2-MM and CNRM-CM6-1) depicts robust performance in reproducing the observed indices across all analyses. Conversely, OND season shows the overestimation of some indices (i.e., R95p, PRCPTOT), except for SDII, CDD, and R20mm. Consistent with other studies, the mean ensemble performance for both CMIP5/6 shows better performance due to the cancellation of some systematic errors in the individual models. Generally, the CMIP6 depicts improved performance in the simulation of MAM season akin CMIP5 models. However, the new model generation is still marred with uncertainty, thereby depicting substandard performance over the East Africa domain. This calls for further investigation of attribution studies into the sources of persistent systematic biases and a prerequisite for identifying individual models with robust features that can accurately simulate observed patterns for future usage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Antibody titer; Broiler chicken; IBD vaccines; Immunogenicity evaluation
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:51:54 CEST)
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most endemic diseases of commercial poultry in Ethiopia. Vaccination has been practiced as the major means of IBD prevention and control. A study was conducted to determine and compare the immunogenicity of two commercially available IBD vaccines in broiler chicken with maternally derived antibody (MDA). Day-old chickens of 270 were randomly assigned to three groups, group 1 vaccinated with brand 1 vaccine at 7th and 19th days and group 2 with brand 2 vaccine at 15th and 22nd days while group 3 were kept as control. Six chickens were also randomly selected and bled on day 1 for differential leukocyte count (DLC) and determination of MDA. Representative chickens from each group were bled at 24th and 42nd days of age for antibody titration using the indirect ELISA test. DLC scores were determined in the 1st and 24th days. The result revealed highly significant differences (P = 0.001) between group 1 and group 2 in DLC at 24th days of age. Antibody titers against IBD were differed significantly (P = 0.02) at 24th and 42nd days of age in broilers vaccinated with brand 1 and brand 2 vaccines. It is concluded that although both brands of vaccine induce an adequate immunological response at the end of the experiment, brand 1 vaccine has shown significantly high antibody titers against the IBDV and DLC than brand 2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0611.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: validity; reliability; assessment; body image; self-evaluation; students
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:05:42 CEST)
Body-Esteem Scale is an assessment tool for adolescents and adults that evaluate three dimensions of self-evaluations of one’s body. Body-Esteem Scale has been translated and validated in some countries since America down to Europe. Lack of translation and reliability evidence in Portugal was detected. This study aimed to translate and test the validity and reliability of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) in students in the context of Portuguese higher educa-tion. A total of 173 students (60.7% are female) with a mean age of 19.7 (standard deviation = 2.2) years participated. Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the underlying dimensions of BESAA. Construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and a three-factor model (“Appearance”, ‘‘Weight’’ and “Attribu-tion’’) was established. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the construct validity of the instrument. Items that had factor weights (λ)<.40 were removed, as well as those that were considered redundant by the modification indices estimated by the Lagrange Multipliers (LM) method (LM>11, p<.001). We observed high correlations between theoretically similar factors, and low correlations between different factors. The Portuguese BESAA showed adequate validity and reliability.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: badminton; amateurs; lunge evaluation; contact time; microseismic; feasibility
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:38:14 CET)
The fast and flexible characteristics of badminton determine the necessity of its lunge, and fast lunge will have an important impact on the results of the game in actual combat. In lunge evaluation, the contact time to the ground is a key indicator. This article selects two middle-aged male badminton amateurs with similar body shape and age， but different skill levels as the research objects to carry out comparative experiments. The microseismic equipment is used to record the floor vibration which is caused by the running of badminton amateurs in sports. The microseismic signals of lunge are processed and analyzed by MATLAB software. And we evaluate the pro and cons of various time to touch the ground from amateurs with different skill levels. The research found that 1. Microseismic technology can detect the contact time to the ground. 2. High-level badminton amateurs have obvious advantages in the footwork contact time. Microseismic technology has a certain feasibility as a tool for evaluating the footwork contact time of badminton.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Kinect; validation; assessment; functional evaluation; shoulder; markerless system
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:59:51 CEST)
Optoelectronic devices are gold standard for 3D evaluation in clinics but due to the complexity of such kind of hardware and the lack of access for patients affordable, transportable and easy to use systems must be developed to be largely used in daily clinics. The KinectTM sensor presents various advantages compared to optoelectronic devices: price, transportability but also some limitations: (in)accuracy of the skeleton detection and tracking as well as the limited amount of available points that make 3D evaluation impossible. To overcome these limitations a novel method has been developed to perform 3D evaluation of the upper limbs. This system is coupled to rehabilitation exercises allowing functional evaluation while performing physical rehabilitation. To validate this new approach a double step method was used. The first step is a laboratory validation where the results obtained with the KinectTM have been compared with results obtained with an optoelectronic device, 40 healthy young adults participated in this first part. The second step was to determine the clinical relevance of such kind of measurement. Results of the healthy subjects were compared with a group of 22 elderly adults and a group of 10 chronic stroke patients to determine if different patterns can be observed. The new methodology and the different steps of the validations are presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Superhighway; Travel cost; Economic evaluation; Use cost; Price analysis
Online: 21 December 2018 (15:28:11 CET)
In order to evaluate the economy of superhighway, on the basis of the analysis of the cost of the ordinary expressway and high speed railway, the cost of superhighway is estimated. On this basis, the standard of the toll of superhighway at all levels is determined by reference to the standard of the construction cost and the toll collection standard of the ordinary expressway. According to the toll collection standard of superhighway and the fuel consumption cost of superhighway at all levels, the cost of single car and the single person cost of superhighway are calculated. Based on the analysis of highway passenger transport, railway passenger transport and civil aviation ticket price, the single person cost per kilometer of the above travel modes is calculated and compared with the single person travel cost per kilometer of superhighway. The results show that the single person cost of superhighway is between 0.29 and 0.47 yuan /km, which is 0.28 yuan /km higher than the highway bus, 0.18 yuan /km higher than the ordinary expressway self driving and 0.23 yuan /km higher than the express train, but 0.78 yuan/km lower than that of the first class seat of high-speed train, and is 0.92 yuan/km far lower than that of civil aviation flight economy class and 2.42 yuan/km lower than the business class. Therefore, the superhighway trip has certain advantages in economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0247.v1
Online: 15 May 2020 (03:47:36 CEST)
This study presents a prediction model based on Logistic Growth Curve to evaluate the effectiveness of Movement Control Order (MCO) on COVID-19 pandemic spread. The evaluation assesses and predicts the growth models. The estimated model is a forecast-based model that depended on partial data from the COVID-19 cases in Malaysia. The model is then studied together with the effectiveness of the three phases of MCO implemented in Malaysia. Evidence from this study suggests that results of the LGC prediction model match with the progress and effectiveness of the MCO to flatten the curve, thus helped to control the spike in number of active COVID-19 cases and spread of COVID-19 infection growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0264.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; biosorption; milk; ICP-MS; isotherm; sensory evaluation
Online: 12 July 2020 (15:29:26 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Cadmium absorption in Milk. Nowadays one of the most serious problems is heavy metals pollution. Applying microorgaisms as a novel biotechnology is so useful especially in foodstuffs. Among the biosorbents for heavy metals’ removal, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has got an increasing attention due to its popularity in food industry. In this regard, the effects of some important factors such as the initial metal concentration, biomass concentration and contact time on the biosorption capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The biosorption was analyzed by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The maximum Cd bioremoval (70%) was at 80 μg/L of this metal concentration in milk samples containing 30×108 CFU Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the end of storage time (the 4th day). There were no significant differences in sensory and physicochemical properties of milk samples during storage (p < 0.05). The isotherm studies followed by two popular models; Langmuir and Freundlich and the results showed a better fit to the Langmuir isotherm. All together, the results of this project demonstrated that the approach of using this valuable yeast, could be applied for food and drinks’ detoxification and producing healthier foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0612.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: inherent safety analysis; sustainability evaluation; SWROIM; shrimp exoskeleton; chitosan
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:54:49 CET)
The recovery and valorization of waste are some of the key aspects of sustainable production. The crustacean exoskeletons can be potentially used to obtain value-added products such as chitosan. A comprehensive analysis including both safety and sustainability aspects of chitosan production from shrimp shells is presented in this study. The inherent safety analysis and sustainability evaluation was performed using the Inherent Safety Index (ISI) methodology and the Sustainable Weighted Return on Investment Metric (SWROIM), respectively. The process was designed for a processing capacity of 57,000 t/y according to shrimp production in Colombia. The economic (%ROI), environmental (PEI output), energy (exergy efficiency), and safety (ITI) technical parameters were included in the sustainability evaluation. The three first were obtained from the previous analysis performed by the authors. The total inherent safety index was estimated at 25 indicating that the process is inherently unsafe. The main process risks were given by the dangerous substance, reactivity, and inventory subindices. The overall sustainability evaluation showed a SWROIM of 36.23% indicating that the case study showed higher weighted performance compared to the return on investment (ROI) metric of 18.08%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0277.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: link prediction; AUC-ROC; Early retrieval evaluation
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:31:53 CEST)
Link prediction is an unbalanced early retrieval problem, whose goal is to prioritize a small cohort of positive links on top of a list largely populated by unlabelled links. Differently from binary classification, here the evaluation focuses on how the predictor prioritizes the positive class because, in practice, a negative class does not exist. Previous studies explained that AUC-ROC is not apt for unbalanced class problems and is misleading for early retrieval problems, therefore standard AUC-ROC is not appropriate for evaluation of link prediction. However, some scholars argue that an AUC-ROC like evaluation accounting for the relative positioning of the few positive links among the vastness of unlabelled links remains a valid concept to pursue. Here we propose the area under the magnified ROC (AUC-mROC), a new measure that adjusts the standard AUC-ROC to work also for unbalanced early retrieval problems such as link prediction.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: frustration; racial bias; political ideology; implicit evaluation
Online: 13 September 2021 (10:34:53 CEST)
North American Whites tend to evaluate members of their own race more positively than members of other races. One exception may be White Liberals, who appear politically motivated to evaluate members of (disadvantaged) racial outgroups more positively than members of their own racial group. We confirmed this claim presently, where 75 White Liberals, 95 White Conservatives, 49 Black Liberals and 71 Black Conservatives evaluated biracial faces using explicit and implicit evaluation tests. We instrumentally ‘frustrated’ half our participants to note whether incidental anger influenced ideologically-motivated racial attitudes. Evaluations towards racial outgroups were largely unaffected by negative mood induction -White Liberals were pro-Black relative to White Conservatives, and Black Conservatives were pro-White relative to Black Liberals, independent of mood. Negative mood induction selectively influenced own-race evaluations. Black Liberals and White Conservatives became respectively more pro-Black and pro-White when frustrated.Conversely, Black Conservatives and White Liberals became respectively less pro-Black and pro-White. Frustration significantly amplified negative own-race attitudes across explicit and implicit evaluation measures for White Liberals. We speculate on some social consequences that may follow from frustration-amplified ‘anti-White’ bias across White Liberals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0112.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CMIP6; extreme precipitation; model evaluation; east Africa
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:37:37 CET)
This paper presents an analysis of precipitation extremes over the East African region. The study employs six extreme precipitation indices defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) to evaluate possible climate change. Observed datasets and CMIP6 simulations and projections are employed to assess the changes during the two main rainfall seasons of March to May (MAM) and October to December (OND). The study evaluated the capability of CMIP6 simulations in reproducing the observed extreme events during the period 1995 – 2014. Our results show that the multi-model ensemble (herein referred to as MME) of CMIP6 models can depict the observed spatial distribution of precipitation extremes for both seasons, albeit with some noticeable exceptions in some indices. Overall, MME's assessment yields considerable confidence in CMIP6 to be employed for the projection of extreme events over the study area. Analysis of extreme estimations shows an increase (decrease) in CDD (CWD) during 2081 – 2100 relative to the baseline period in both seasons. Moreover, SDII, R95p, R20mm, and PRCPTOT demonstrate significant OND estimates compared to the MAM season. The spatial variation for extreme incidences shows likely intensification over Uganda and most parts of Kenya, while reduction is observed over the Tanzania region. The increase in projected extremes during two main rainfall seasons poses a significant threat to the sustainability of societal infrastructure and ecosystem wellbeing. The results from these analyses present an opportunity to understand the emergence of extreme events and the capability of model outputs from CMIP6 in estimating the projected changes. More studies are encouraged to examine the underlying physical features modulating the occurrence of extremes incidences projected for relevant policies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; serological diagnostic test; performance evaluation
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:58:20 CEST)
In only a few months after initial discovery in Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 and the associated COVID-19 disease has become a global pandemic causing significant mortality and morbidity. In the absence of vaccines and effective therapeutics, reliable serological testing can be a key element of public health policy to control further spread of the disease and gradually ease quarantine measures. However, prior to launch of large-scale seroprevalence studies to assess herd immunity, it is critical to understand the limits and potential of current SARS-CoV-2 serological tests on the market. In this study, we provide an overview of serological testing and conduct a systematic review of independent evaluations of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests performance. Our findings show significant variability in the accuracy of marketed tests and highlight several lab-based and point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests with high performance level in detecting SRAS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. The findings of this review highlight the need for ongoing independent evaluations of commercialized COVID-19 diagnostic tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0058.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: speech synthesis; evaluation; hesitation; virtual agents; interaction
Online: 11 December 2017 (07:03:14 CET)
Conversational spoken dialogue systems that interact with the user rather than merely reading text can be equipped with hesitations to manage the dialogue flow and the users' attention. Based on a series of empirical studies, we built an elaborated hesitation synthesis strategy for dialogue systems that inserts hesitations of scalable extent wherever needed in the ongoing utterance. So far, evaluations of hesitating systems have shown that synthesis quality is affected negatively by hesitations, but that there is improvement in interaction quality. We argue that due to its conversational nature, hesitation synthesis needs interactive evaluation rather than traditional MOS-based questionnaires. To prove this point, we dually evaluate our system’s speech synthesis component: on the one hand, linked to the dialogue system evaluation, on the other hand, in the traditional MOS way. This way we are able to analyze and discuss differences that arise due to the evaluation methodology. Our results suggest that MOS scales are not sufficient to assess speech synthesis quality, which has implications for future research that are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, our results indicate that hesitations work well to increase task performance and that an elaborated strategy is necessary to avoid likability issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: concrete protection; infrared detection; image processing; cluster analysis; uniformity evaluation
Online: 23 July 2021 (11:02:54 CEST)
With the continuous development of urbanization and industrialization in the world, concrete is widely used in various engineering constructions as an engineering material. However, the consequent problem of durability of concrete structures is also becoming increasingly prominent. As an important additional measures, protective coating can effectively improve the durability of concrete performance. Moreover, the uniformity of the concrete surface coating will directly affect its protective effect. Therefore, we propose a nondestructive inspection and evaluation method of coating uniformity based on infrared imaging and cluster analysis for concrete surface coating uniformity detection and evaluation. Based on the obtained infrared images, a series of processing and analysis of the images were carried out using MATLAB software to obtain the characteristics of the infrared images of concrete surface. Finally, by extracting the temperature distribution data of the pixel points on the concrete surface, an evaluation method of concrete surface coating uniformity based on a combination of cluster analysis and hierarchical analysis was established. The evaluation results show that the determination results obtained by this method are consistent with the actual situation. This study has a positive contribution to the testing of concrete surface coating uniformity and its evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0181.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Scoring; Rubrics; Health; Personnel; Program Evaluation; Distance Education; Residency Education; Speciality
Online: 31 May 2022 (14:06:26 CEST)
Introduction: In the medical area, teaching is essential since it must offer the appropriate instruments to demonstrate that graduates have acquired the necessary skills. Objective: Evaluate the quality of research in residents of medical specialties after a standardized digital training program with rubrics. Methods: An observational, prospective research study in resident physicians of seven medical specialties first-year of an introductory program to methodology. It is integrated with the result variable through the quality of the final product and the quality variable will be measured with an ad hoc questionnaire validated by the Delphi method with a consistency level of 3-3. The data will be integrated into a base of the SPSS system and determined with the Chi-square test considering a minimum significance of 0.05. Results: 85 first-year medical residents (n=85) enrolled in the Research Seminar. The mean age was 31.34 years (± 3.96). About gender Male 38±31.13 Female 31.51±3.83. The global final grade was 80.61 (± 9.59) and the global sat-isfaction of the course was referred to as good by 62.2%. We observed a positive relationship between the scope of evaluation and the level of satisfaction. Conclusion: The research seminar implementation in a b-learning mode in response to the educational needs in medical residents for the field of health education showed a relationship between higher qualification, higher satisfaction, as well as determining that the comprehensive evaluation through the use of rubrics standardized allowed to delimit the deficiencies and strengths for timely feedback influencing the process of acquiring skills and the quality of the final product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: interior design; questionare; life situation; data evaluation; different age groups
Online: 23 April 2019 (13:12:57 CEST)
The role of the submission was to find out what changes people think they need to make in their home because of getting older. At advanced age, the likelihood of different limitations such as vision impairment, hearing impairment or physical inability is increased. Currently, tenants are often forced to leave their long-term living space, as these spaces cannot serve “new” individual needs. This transition from the privacy of their home to the new environment often appears to be a painful change. They will not have a well-known environment because their homes cannot be adapted to their new needs. The aim is a comprehensive approach to the design of such an exterior and interior space which could serve people at all stages of their life, including the terms of mobility. This means that even if there is an unexpected situation and changes in movement abilities and physiological limitations of man, not only by natural aging, but according to accidents or disabilities we can adapt the living space to the given conditions. The survey results are presented in Germany and Slovakia. In the survey, respondents expressed their opinion on what they considered important in creating an adaptive environment considering various life changes. Results are processed graphically with explanation. The results could be of an interest to architects and designers of the environment. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, studies of possible modifications of flats and houses were developed. The contribution brought these results to three age groups of respondents; people aged 35, 50 and over 50.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: co2 emission reduction; wind power industry; ebm; efficiency evaluation
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:42:29 CET)
In 2015, the new installed capacity of global renewable energy power generation exceeded the newly installed capacity of conventional energy power generation, marking a structural change in the construction of the global power system. With the continuous improvement of wind energy utilization technology, the global wind power industry has developed rapidly in recent years. The world's available wind energy is 20 billion kilowatts and has become one of the most economical green power. In China, wind power has become the third largest source of electricity, with the installed capacity increasing from 3.1% in 2010 to 9.2% in 2017. In 2017, China's new installed capacity was 19,660 MW, accounting for 37.45% of the world's new installed capacity. This paper evaluates and compares the efficiency of wind power industry in the four regions of eastern, central, western and northeastern China through EBM models based on radial and non-radial factors. This paper discusses the contribution of China's wind power industry to CO2 emission reduction from the relationship between installed capacity efficiency and CO2 emission reduction efficiency. The conclusions show that the overall efficiency score and ranking of wind power in 2013-2017 is the best in the eastern region, followed by the northeast region and the western and central regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: air cap; roller module; energy saving; performance evaluation; building envelope
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:44:24 CEST)
While previous research has shown the use of attachable air-caps on windows to efficiently reduce a building’s energy consumption, the air-caps considered had to be attached to the entire window’s surface, thus limiting the occupants’ view and creating the inconvenience of needing to detach and attach the air-caps. In this study, a window-mounted air-cap roller module using Velcro tape that may be easily attached, detached, and rolled up or down was developed and performance tested in a full-scale test bed. It was found that as the area of the air-caps attached on a window increased, the required indoor lighting energy increased. However, the window insulation improved, thus reducing the cooling and heating energy needed. Attaching the air-caps to the entire window surface effectively reduced the building’s energy consumption, but views through the window may be disturbed. Thus, the developed window-mounted air-caps enable an occupant to reduce the building energy consumption and maintain their view according to their need. The findings of this study may contribute to a reduction in building energy consumption without sacrificing a pleasant indoor environment. Further studies may be needed to verify their efficacy under varying indoor and outdoor conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0188.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: ecological sensitivity; ecological sensitivity evaluation; land consolidation; ecological value; Guanling
Online: 9 October 2018 (14:35:04 CEST)
Land consolidation engineering inevitably interferes with terrestrial ecosystems, leading to natural capital loss. Therefore, conducting an ecological sensitivity evaluation of a project area before consolidation engineering is very important for reducing unnecessary human interference. Conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and the biodiversity therein to the greatest possible extent is urgently needed. This research analyzes the interference by human activities caused by land consolidation engineering in terrestrial ecosystems. GIS technology, ecological values, landscape pattern indexes, and an ecological risk evaluation were used to construct an ecological sensitivity evaluation index. The coefficient of variation method and a comprehensive sensitivity rating evaluation were used to calculate the weights and results. The project area was divided into sensitivity zones according to the results, and the results and suggestions are as follows: In the highly eco-sensitive zone, where bare rocks, gravel, and grass-covered areas compose the main landscape type, vegetation should be restored, and forests should be planted. In the medium eco-sensitivity zone, where irrigated paddy fields and arid land compose the main landscape type, land parcels should be merged, and agricultural infrastructure should be constructed or improved. In the low eco-sensitivity zone, where forests compose the main landscape type, roads should be closed, natural habitat should be restored, and buffer zones should be created. This study provides suggestions for future land management decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: project portfolio configuration; synergetic management; data envelopment analysis; efficiency evaluation
Online: 18 September 2017 (11:25:21 CEST)
Project portfolio configuration (PPC) is an important approach to maintain the sustainable development of enterprises and achieve organizations’ strategy. However, the synergetic efficacy of PPC which determines the degree of the project's strategic objectives achieved is a fuzzy problem and hard to be measured. To solve this problem, this paper takes the data envelopment analysis (DEA) as the tool to measure the efficacy of PPC under deterministic conditions. First, a portfolio evaluation index system which takes financial indicators and non-financial indicators into consideration is developed based on the review of the literature; Second, an evaluation model based on DEA is built to reduce the number of decision making-unit with the perspective of synergetic theory; Then, a computational experiment is studied to verify the feasibility of this proposed model. The results of this computational experiment show that this model can effectively narrow scope of decision-making, improve the decision-making level and provide a reference to decide the DEA effective project portfolio decision-making unit. To our knowledge, this study is the first time to apply the notion of synergetic efficacy and DEA to the PPC domain. It is hoped that this paper may shed lights on any further study about PPC and enterprise competitiveness of sustainable development.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: soil temperature; data evaluation; climatology; interannual variation; Poyang Lake Basin
Online: 24 February 2020 (01:38:30 CET)
Soil temperature reflects the impact of local factors，such as vegetation，soil and the atmosphere of a region. Therefore, it is important to understand the regional variation of soil temperature. However, lack of observations with adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage, it would be difficult to use the observation data to study the regional variation. Based on the observation data from Nanchang and Ganzhou stations and ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis data, this study analyzed the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of soil temperature over Poyang Lake Basin. The results showed close correlations between observation data and reanalysis data at different depths. Reanalysis data could mainly reproduce the temporal-spatial distributions of soil temperature over the Poyang Lake Basin, but generally underestimate their magnitudes. Temporally, there is an obvious warming trend in the basin. Seasonally, the temperature raised fastest in spring and slowest in summer, except for the ST4, which rising fastest in spring and slowest in winter. In terms of depths, the temperature of ST1 rises fastest. For the other layers, the warming trend is almost similar. An abrupt change of annual soil temperature at all depths occurred in 1997, and annual soil temperatures at all depths were abnormally low in 1984. Spatially, annual soil temperature decreased with latitude, except for the summer ST1. Because of the high temperature and precipitation in summer, the ST1 are higher around the lake and the river. The climatic trend of soil temperature presents the general increase trend from south to north, opposite to the distribution of soil temperature. The findings provide a basis for understanding and assessing the variation of the soil temperature over the Poyang Lake Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: evapotranspiration; spatial patterns; model evaluation; remote sensing; hydrological modeling; climate normalization
Online: 12 November 2021 (14:49:18 CET)
Spatial pattern-oriented evaluations of distributed hydrological models have contributed towards an improved realism of hydrological simulations. This advancement was supported by the broad range of readily available satellite-based datasets of key hydrological variables, such as evapotranspiration (ET). At larger scale, spatial patterns of ET are often characterized by an underlying climate gradient, and with this study, we argue that gradient dominated patterns may hamper the potential of spatial pattern-oriented evaluation frameworks. We hypothesize that the climate control of spatial patterns of ET overshadows the effect model parameters have on the simulated variability. To solve this limitation, we propose a climate normalization strategy. This is demonstrated for the Senegal River basin as modeling case study, where the dominant north-south precipitation gradient is the main driver of the observed hydrological variability. Two multi-objective calibration experiments investigate the effect of climate normalization. Both calibrations utilize observed discharge (Q) in combination with remote sensing ET data, where one is based on the original ET pattern and the other utilizes the normalized ET pattern. We identify parameter sets that balance the tradeoffs between the two independent observations and find that the calibration using the normalized ET pattern does not compromise the spatial patern performance of the original pattern. However, vice versa, this is not necessarily the case, since the calibration using the original ET pattern showed a poorer performance for the normalized pattern. Both calibrations reached comparable performance of Q. With this study, we identified a general shortcoming of spatial pattern-oriented model evaluations using ET in basins dominated by a climate gradient, but we argue that this also applies to other variables such as, soil moisture or land surface temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0096.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Qinling mountains; Wild Chinese prickly ashes; HPLC fingerprint; Resource evaluation.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:55:32 CEST)
Wild Chinese prickly ash with elevated antioxidants is a valuable genetic resource for Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim improvement. There are rich wild germplasm resources in the Qinling Mountains. In a study with wild germplasm resources from different altitudes and six cultivated varieties, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatograms of them were basically the same, although their chemical composition content was greatly different. The thirty samples were divided into three categories through the hierarchical clustering analysis. And catechin, hyperoside and quercitrin were considered to be key compound for the quality evaluation, by contrast, the wild samples with an altitude of 2300±50 m (Ⅳ group) had the highest content of key compounds, and showed stronger antioxidant activity and antibacterial ability, indicating that these wild samples could be used as an excellent breeding resource. This is the first time to evaluate the quality of wild Chinese prickly ash in different altitude areas of Qinling Mountains. These excellent wild germplasm resources provided substantial potential accessions for use directly in Chinese prickly ash breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0159.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Maritime Silk Road; investment environment; dynamic evaluation; projection pursuit cluster
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:47:02 CEST)
Understanding and evaluating urban investment environment is essential for effectively improving the efficiency of resource allocation between cities and promoting overall development of the regional economy. This paper takes 15 node cities on maritime Silk Road covered by the “Belt and Road” as the research object, establishes a dynamic evaluation index system for investment environment, and uses projection pursuit cluster to analyze and evaluate the investment environment of the cities. It is found that the investment environment potential of a city is directly related to the level of social development, economic development, and the degree of opening to the outside world. It is recommended that node cities should seize the important opportunity of the construction of the Maritime Silk Road, introduce world-wide human, financial and material resources to promote regional resources allocation and flow, and continuously improve and upgrade the investment environment quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0379.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SDGs; Green Deal; simulation modeling; soil survey interpretation; land evaluation
Online: 29 March 2022 (09:57:22 CEST)
Reaching the land-related UN-Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and similar goals articulated by the EU-Green Deal (GD) by 2030 presents a major challenge and requires a pragmatic approach to be focused on joint learning by land users (mostly farmers), researchers and other stakeholders in “Living Labs” and system experiments at experimental farms of research organizations. Defining specific indicators and thresholds for ecosystem services in line with land-related SDGs, are crucial to establish: “Lighthouses” that can act as inspiring examples if they meet the various thresholds. This exploratory paper discusses indicators and thresholds for an arable farm operating on marine, calcareous light clay soils in the Netherlands. Studies of a system experiment are used to discuss and test operational methodology to be widely applied when characterizing many “Living Labs” in future as planned by the European Union. The important role of soils, contributing to ecosystem services, is discussed in terms of soil health. Recommendations are made for innovative methodology to be associated with all land-related SDGs. Satisfying thresholds of ecosystem services, that will vary by soil type, region and farm-type, can be the basis for farm subsidies such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Research on Living Labs and in system experiments has to be judged by different criteria than those associated with traditional linear research. Important contributions by soils to achieve ecosystem services are framed in terms of soil health and are the most effective way to promote soil science in a by now widely desired inter- and transdisciplinary context.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: economic evaluation; techno-economic sensibility; biorefinery; shrimp; chitin; chitosan; astaxanthin
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:41:00 CEST)
Huge amounts of wastes are generated during shrimp processing, representing approximately 65% of the initial shrimp weight, which can become an environmental problem when accumulated. Residues such as shrimp shells can be processed to obtain value-added products such as chitin, chitosan, astaxanthin, and a nitrogenous extract under the biorefinery concept. In this work, the economic evaluation and the techno-economic sensibility analysis for a mass integrated biorefinery based on shrimp were developed to determine the economic feasibility of the project and to identify the critical techno-economic variables that affect the profitability of the process. The results showed that a biorefinery for the annual processing of 4,113.09 tons of fresh shrimp in Colombia is profitable, with a return on investment percentage (%ROI) equal to 65.88% and a net present value (NPV) of 10.40 MM USD. The process supports decreases of up to 28% in capacity of production and increases of 12% and 11% in the cost of raw materials and variable operating costs without incurring losses, respectively. However, the decrease over 500 USD/t in the shrimp meat selling price is not supported, thus it is mainly recommended to increase the selling price of this product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0483.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Pulsed thermography; Deep learning; Defect detection; Nondestructive evaluation
Online: 26 January 2023 (17:11:04 CET)
Pulsed thermography is a vital technique in the nondestructive evaluation field. However, its data analysis can be complex and requires skilled experts. Advances in deep learning have yielded exceptional results, including image segmentation. Therefore, many efforts have been made to apply deep learning methods to data processing for nondestructive evaluation. Despite this, there is currently no public Pulsed thermographic dataset available for evaluating various spatial-temporal deep methods of segmenting pulsed thermographic data. This article aims to provide such a dataset and assess the performance of commonly used deep learning-based instance segmentation models on it. Additionally, the impact of the number of frames and data transformations on model performance is examined. The findings suggest that suitable preprocessing methods can effectively reduce the data size without compromising the deep models’ performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0562.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous driving; LiDAR; perception systems; evaluation and testing
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:44:38 CET)
The world is facing a great technological transformation towards full autonomous vehicles, where optimists predict that by 2030, autonomous vehicles will be sufﬁciently reliable, affordable and common to displace most human driving. To cope with these trends, reliable perception systems must enable vehicles to hear and see all the surroundings, being light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors a key instrument for recreating a 3D visualization of the world in real time. However, perception systems must rely in accurate measurements of the environment. Thus, sensors must be calibrated and benchmarked before being placed on the market or assembled in a car. This article presents an Evaluation and Testing Platform for Automotive LiDAR sensors with the main goal of testing not only commercially available sensors, but also sensor prototypes currently under development in Bosch Automotive Electronics division. The testing system can benchmark any LiDAR sensor under different conditions, recreating the expected driving environment to which such devices are normally subjected. To characterize and validate the sensor under test, the platform evaluates several parameters such as the ﬁeld of view (FoV), angular resolution, sensor’s range, etc. This project results from a partnership between the University of Minho and Bosch Car Multimedia Portugal, S.A.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: lane line; comprehensive evaluation; BP; parameter search; maintenance
Online: 22 September 2021 (15:20:30 CEST)
Efficient quality evaluation provides support for the timely and good maintenance of the lane line marking. This paper searches and optimizes the back propagation(BP) network model which referred to the analytic hierarchy process(AHP) model structure, as well as the number of nodes in the middle layer network. Based on this, a comprehensive evaluation method of multi-dimensional lane line quality such as shape, color and contrast is established. The experimental results show that the parameters of the model are more simplified, and the scoring and classification results of lane lines are more accurate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0608.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Cape Verde; cereals; metals; dietary intake; risk evaluation
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:05:17 CET)
Cereals and their derivatives are the basis of human nutrition. However, cereals also contribute to the dietary exposure to toxic metals that may pose a risk. Strengthening food security and nutrition information is a high priority challenge for the Cape Verde Government. The toxic metals content (Cr, Ni, Sr, Al, Cd, Pb) has been determined in 126 samples of cereals and derivatives (rice, corn gofio, corn flour, wheat flour, corn, wheat) consumed in Cape Verde. Wheat flour samples stand out for registering the highest Sr (1.60 mg/kg), Ni (0.25 mg/kg) and Cr (0.13 mg/kg). The results show relevant Al levels (1.17 – 13.4 mg/kg) with its highest levels in corn gofio. The mean Pb average content in the cereals is 0.03 – 0.08 mg/kg with the highest level observed in corn gofio. The Al and Pb levels are lower in cereals without husks. A consumption of 100 g/day of corn gofio provide an intake of 1.34 mg Al/day (13.7% of the tolerable weekly intake established at 1 mg/kg bw/week) and 8 µg Pb/day (20% of the BMDL set at 0.63 µg/kg bw/day for nephrotoxic effects). The minimization of the dietary exposure of the Cape Verdean population to toxic metals is through the importation of higher quality cereals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0094.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: robot; robotic teaching assistant; teaching; user engagement; evaluation
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:30:51 CET)
We report on an exploratory study conducted at a graduate school in Sweden with a humanoid robot, Baxter. First, we describe a list of potentially useful capabilities for a robot teaching assistant derived from brainstorming and interviews with faculty members, teachers, and students. These selected capabilities consist of reading, greeting, alerting, remote operation, clarification, and motion. Second, we present feedback on how the robot's capabilities, demonstrated in part with the Wizard of Oz approach, were perceived, and iteratively adapted over the course of several lectures, using the \EP tool. Third, we discuss observations and findings regarding the capabilities and the development process. Our findings suggest that using a social robot as a teaching assistant is promising using the chosen capabilities. We find that personalizing the capabilities and the role of embodiment are important topics to be considered in future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0447.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: intelligent radio networks; spectrum sharing; coexistence; experimental evaluation
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:17:38 CEST)
The explosive emergence of wireless technologies and standards, covering licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands has triggered the appearance of a huge amount of wireless technologies, with many of them coexisting in the same band. Unfortunately, the wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the available frequency bands will not scale with the foreseen demand for new capacity. Certain parts of the spectrum, in particular the license-free ISM bands, are overcrowded, while other parts, mostly licensed bands, may be significantly underutilized. As such, there is a need to introduce more advanced techniques to access and share the wireless medium, either to improve the coordination within a given band, or to explore the possibilities of intelligently using unused spectrum in underutilized (licensed) bands. Therefore, in this paper, we present a SDR based framework that can be employed to devise disruptive techniques to optimize the sub-optimal use of radio spectrum that exists today. Additionally, we describe two use cases for the proposed framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; SCADA; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:11:15 CEST)
Full-scale wind turbine technology has been widely developing in the recent years and condition monitoring techniques assist at the scope of making 100\% technical availability a realistic perspective. In this context, several retrofitting techniques are being used for further improving the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions is costly and, furthermore, the estimation of the energy enhancement is commonly provided under the hypothesis of ideal conditions, as for example absence of wakes between nearby turbines. A precise quantification of the energy gained by retrofitting is therefore precious in real conditions, that can be very different from ideal ones. In this work, three kinds of retrofitting are studied through the operational data of test case wind farms: improved start-up through pitch angle adjustment near the cut-in, aerodynamic blade retrofitting by means of vortex generators and passive flow control devices, extension of the power curve by raising cut-out and high wind speed cut-in. SCADA data are employed and reliable methods are formulated for estimating the energy improvement from each of the above retrofitting. Further, an insight is provided about wind turbine functioning under very stressing regimes, as for example high wind speeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Tarim river; ecological service function value; river ecosystem; evaluation indicators
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:33:56 CEST)
The estimation of ecological service system value of water resources in Tarim river basin is of great significance for resource allocation management and ecological protection. However, there is still no unified and complete evaluation method for ecological service system value of inland river in China. Based on the perspective of the whole value chain, the study classifies its ecological service functions, and divides 11 sub-categories into 4 categories (supply, regulation, culture and support) as evaluation indicators to carry out quantitative evaluation. The results showed that the total value of ecological service system in Tarim river basin in 2018 was 4156.5247×108 Yuan, and the value of regulating function, cultural function, supporting function and supply function were successively from high to low, which were as follows: 2565.6825×108 Yuan, 1009.5471×108 Yuan, 884.0770×108 Yuan, 20.3350×108 Yuan, among which the value of regulation function is dominant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0460.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: feeding trial; growth; maintenance; nutrient evaluation; protein utilization; Thai swamp buffalo
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:23:11 CET)
Interpretation of increased gain in the bovine animals is difficult to be validated due to inherent genetic variation to meet their requirement for energy and protein, and those may relate to the bull species, e.g., Thai swamp buffalo. Therein, the study aimed at investigating and predicting protein requirement systems, with providing abundant energy intake 2.20 Mcal/kg DM for maintenance and growth of Thai swamp buffaloes using the comparative prolonged feeding trial for 90 days. Sixteen bull Thai swamp buffaloes at the initial (Age: 18-24 months; BW: 233 ± 25.0 kg) were as-signed into four treatment groups, four buffaloes each, fed 5.42, 6.96, 8.94, and 10.71% DM crude protein (CP). CP intake, BW, and physiological fluid were determined. The net CP requirements for maintenance and growth of Thai swamp buffaloes were 5.41 g CP/kg W0.75 and 0.46 g CP/g average daily gain (ADG), respectively. Our results indicated that CP requirement increases, when BW increases. An increased dietary CP resulted in an increased number at blood urine nitrogen (N), N absorption, total volatile fatty acid, urinary purine derivative, and the microbial N. Notably, the net CP requirement for growth of Thai swamp buffalo was higher than it reported in NRC, but the maintenance was lower.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0657.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: machine learning; drilling problems; artificial intelligence; risk factors evaluation; gradient boosting
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:04:06 CEST)
Drilling of wells for oil and gas production is a highly complex and expensive part of reservoir development. Thus, together with injury prevention, there is a goal to save cost expenditures on downtime and repair of drilling equipment. Nowadays companies have begun to look for ways to improve the efficiency of drilling and minimize non-production time with the help of new technologies. To support decisions in a narrow time frame, it is valuable to have an early warning system. Such a decision support system will help an engineer to intervene in the drilling process and prevent high expenses of unproductive time and equipment repair due to a problem. This work is describing a comparison of machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection during well drilling. Tested models classify drilling problems based on historical data from previously drilled wells. To validate anomaly detection algorithms, we use historical logs of drilling problems for 67 wells at a large brownfield in Siberia, Russia. Wells with problems were selected and analyzed. It should be noted that out of the 67 wells, 20 wells were drilled without expenses for unproductive time. Experiential results illustrated that a model based on gradient boosting can classify the complications in the drilling process best of all.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: evaluation; proximal outcomes; distal outcomes; process research; training process; postgraduate program
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:45:14 CEST)
This contribution illustrates the training evaluation system developed within the Master’s Program in Family and Community Mediation at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan. This is an interim evaluation, which focuses on the training process and which considers fundamental the collaboration with the subjects of the training. The peculiarity of this work concerns the possibility of inserting research within the training process, following a logic of mutual enrichment both in terms of content and learning. The contribution illustrates in detail the outcome and the process evaluation system, defining the perspective, the objectives, and the methodology of implementation. In particular, the outcome evaluation focuses on the distal and proximal outcomes of the training, while the process analysis focuses on the dynamics within the group of participants. Although further evaluations involving different training groups and other training processes are needed, this training evaluation system allows to shed light on both the topic and the context in which training is delivered. The integration between different points of view and several levels of analysis allows the researchers to deepen the individual path of each participant as well as to have feedbacks on the progress of the training group as a whole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0116.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: coffee pulp; coffee by-products; sensory evaluation; fruit spirit; methanol; distillation
Online: 13 April 2022 (05:09:35 CEST)
Coffee pulp, obtained from wet coffee processing, is the major by-product accumulating in the coffee producing countries. One of the many approaches valorising this underestimated agricultural residue is the production of distillates. This research project deals with the production of spirits from coffee pulp using three different Coffea arabica varieties as a substrate. Coffee pulp was fermented for 72 hours with a selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae L.), acid, pectin lyase, and water. Several parameters, such as temperature, pH, sugar concentration and alcoholic strength were measured to monitor the fermentation process. Subsequently, the alcoholic mashes were double distilled with stainless steel pot stills and a sensory evaluation of the products was conducted. Furthermore, the chemical composition of fermented mashes and produced distillates were evaluated. It showed that elevated methanol concentrations were present in mashes and products of all three varieties. The sensory evaluation found the major aroma descriptor for the coffee pulp spirits as being stone fruit. The fermentation and distillation experiments revealed that coffee pulp can be successfully used as a raw material for the production of fruit spirits. However, the spirit quality and its flavour characteristics can be improved with optimised process parameters and distillation equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: optoelectronic sensor; near-infrared spectroscopy; thrombus diagnosis; shock monitoring; fatigue evaluation
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:05:07 CEST)
We attempted to apply the optoelectronic sensor entitled 'OPT101' in intensive care unit clinics, based on its optoelectronic response characteristics in near-infrared wavelength range and near-infrared spectroscopy principle. The successful novel applications in our lab include early-diagnosis and therapeutic effect tracking of thrombus, noninvasive monitoring of patients' shock severity, and fatigue evaluation. This study also expects further improvements of the detector in noninvasive clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: ballistocardiography; seismocardiography; ultra-short heart rate variability; stress evaluation; smartphone; accelerometers
Online: 3 July 2019 (10:49:55 CEST)
Body acceleration due the heartbeat-induced reaction forces can be measured as smartphone accelerometer (m-ACC) signals. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using m-ACC to detect changes induced by stress by ultra-short heart rate variability (USV) indices (SDNN and RMSSD). Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited; m-ACC was recorded while in supine position, during spontaneous breathing (REST) and during one minute of mental stress (MS) induced by arithmetic serial subtraction task, simultaneous with conventional ECG. Beat occurrences were extracted from both ECG and m-ACC and used to compute USV indices using 60, 30 and 10s durations, both for REST and MS. A feasibility of 93.8% in the beat-to-beat m-ACC heart rate series extraction was reached. In both ECG and m-ACC series, compared to REST, in MS the mean beat duration was reduced by 15% and RMSSD decreased by 38%. These results show that short term recordings (up to 10 sec) of cardiac activity using smartphone’s accelerometers are able to capture the decrease in parasympathetic tone, in agreement with the induced stimulus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0415.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: subway traffic; sustainable development; analytic hierarchy process (AHP); evaluation index; index system
Online: 19 November 2018 (04:42:49 CET)
According to the characteristics of the sustainable development of subway traffic, the establishment process of an evaluation index system is determined, and the evaluation method and basis are defined. The evaluation index system is established from the aspects of subway traffic sustainability, economic sustainability and urban coordination sustainability. The comprehensive evaluation method of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model is used to calculate the weights of comprehensive evaluation indexes at each level. Finally, the sustainable development model of Shijiazhuang subway traffic is evaluated. The results show that the proposed evaluation system and model reflect the degree of sustainable development of subway traffic and can be used for reference in the evaluation of regional subway traffic sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0461.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: EEG, Psychophysiological responses, Landscape Evaluation, Nightscapes, Sustainable Landscape Design, Fear, Night Pollution
Online: 24 September 2018 (14:39:10 CEST)
As the necessity for safety and aesthetic of nightscape have arisen, the importance of nightscapes (i.e., nighttime landscape) planning has garnered the attention of mainstream consciousness. Therefore, this study is to suggest the guideline for nightscape planning using electroencephalography (EEG) technology and survey for recognizing the characteristics of a nightscape. Furthermore, we verified the EEG method as a tool for landscape evaluation. This study analyzed the change of relative alpha power and relative beta power and self-reporting of participants in order to investigate the correlation between EEG and fear according to twelve nightscape settings. Our findings indicated the corresponding measures of fear vary accordance with whether there was people or not, and the environmental settings (Built Nightscape Images; BNI vs Natural Nightscape Images; NNI). Based on our physiological EEG experiment, we provided a new analytic view of the nightscape. The approach we utilized enables a deeper understanding of emotional perception and fear among human subjects by identifying the physical environment which impacts how they experience nightscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: economic evaluation; mathematical modeling; HIV vaccines; pre-exposure prophylaxis; cost-effectiveness
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:13:45 CEST)
This economic evaluation aims to support policy-making on the combined use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with HIV vaccines by evaluating the potential cost-effectiveness of implementation that would support the design of clinical trials for assessment of combined product safety and efficacy. The target study population is a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Policy strategies considered include standard HIV prevention, daily oral PrEP, HIV vaccine, and their combination. We constructed a Markov model based on clinical trial data and published literature. We used a payer perspective, monthly cycle length, a lifetime horizon, and a 3% discount rate. We assumed a price of $500 per HIV vaccine series in the base case. HIV vaccines dominated standard care and PrEP. At current prices,PrEP was not cost-effective alone or in combination. A combination strategy had the greatest health benefit but was not cost-effective (ICER=$463,448/QALY) as compared to vaccination alone. Sensitivity analyses suggest a combination may be valuable for higher-risk men with good adherence. Vaccine durability and PrEP drug prices were key drivers of cost-effectiveness. Results suggest that boosting potential may be key to HIV vaccine value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cost-effectiveness evaluation; heart failure; telemonitoring; pulmonary artery pressure; hemodynamic monitoring
Online: 6 January 2023 (04:41:21 CET)
Background: Real-time remote monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures has previously shown to reduce heart failure (HF) related hospitalisations and to improve quality of life of selected HF patients. The value of CardioMEMS in Southern Europe, where healthcare costs are significantly lower, remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the CardioMEMS HF system in the Spanish healthcare setting. Methodology: This single-centre study included 35 HF patients with a CardioMEMS device (treatment group) and compared them with similar patients receiving standard HF treatment (control group). The Propensity Score Matching method was used and the comparators were found using the variables age, sex, New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, and diabetes mellitus. Cost-effectiveness was measured as the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Results: The CardioMEMS HF system outperformed usual management with a net monetary value difference of 2,731€ per patient at 1 year. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained was 15,896€. Results were consistent in the sensitivity analyses performed. Conclusion: This analysis suggests that remote monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure with CardioMEMS HF system is a cost-effective strategy in the Spanish healthcare setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: alcohol control policy; best buys, classification; evaluation; taxation; availability; marketing; Lithuania
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:09:10 CET)
Given the high levels of overall volume of alcohol use, detrimental drinking patterns, and high levels of alcohol-attributable mortality and burden of disease, Lithuania implemented a series of alcohol control policies within a relatively short period of time (2008 to 2019). Based on their expected impact on alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable harm, as well as their target population, the respective policies were classified using a set of objective criteria and expert opin-ion. The classification criteria included: positive vs. negative outcomes, mainly immediate versus delayed outcomes, and general population versus specific group outcomes. The judgement of the alcohol policy experts converged on the objective criteria, and, as a result, two tiers of inter-vention were identified: Tier 1 – general population interventions with an anticipated immediate impact; Tier 2 – other interventions aimed at the general population. In addition, interventions for specific populations were identified. This adaptable methodological approach to alcohol control policy classification is intended to provide guidance and support the evaluation of alcohol policies elsewhere, lay the foundation for the critical assessment of the respective policies to im-prove health and increase life expectancy, and to reduce crime and violence.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: organic rice; agricultural research; participation; public funding; scientists; monitoring and evaluation
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:57:32 CET)
This paper reports on the conception and implementation of a participatory approach within an agricultural research project aimed at fostering the transition towards organic in the Italian rice district. We investigate the relationships among scientists and stakeholders, exploring researchers’ attitudes, barriers, and potential in relation to participatory research. We use participant observation, in-depth interviews, and systematic cataloguing of communication documents, from the beginning to two years into project implementation, for a total period of three years. The results of the analysis show that, despite a high level of authoritative commitment to participation, scientists reveal a scarcity of knowledge and skills, and poor attitudes that come from a negative perception of participatory research. They engage in various forms of collaboration with stakeholders, as long as decision-making remains essentially in their hands. With the deep analysis of a case study, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the quality of participatory agricultural research, in particular presenting evidence on the key role of researchers and their attitudes. The paper also contributes to the development of a culture of learning by doing, through honest monitoring and evaluation, and the capacity to learn from failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0300.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fusarium head blight; deoxynivalenol; triticale; genetic resistance; disease evaluation
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:49:38 CEST)
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease affecting the grain yield and quality of wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Developing varieties with genetic resistance is integral to successfully managing FHB. However, significant knowledge gap exists in the genetic diversity present in triticale for FHB resistance. This information is critical for breeding new varieties of triticale as its production continues to increase. In the present study, a set of 298 winter triticale accessions from a worldwide collection were screened for their type-2 FHB resistance in an artificially inoculated misted nursery with high levels of inoculum density. Most of the triticale accessions were susceptible to FHB, and only 8% of accessions showed resistance in the field nursery screening. The resistant accessions identified in the nursery screening were selected and further screened for three years in greenhouse conditions. Seven accessions were found to show robust FHB resistance over the three years of greenhouse testing. Thirteen accessions showed significantly lower levels of Deoxynivalenol accumulation when compared to the susceptible triticale control. The accessions identified in the study will be useful in triticale and wheat breeding programs for enhancing FHB resistance and reducing DON accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: systems thinking; privacy; questionnaire reliability; skills evaluation; systems engineers
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:19:52 CET)
Systems thinking is a valuable skill that may be required for an individual to be promoted in the business arena to managerial or leading positions. Thus, assessing systems thinking skills is an essential transaction for decision-makers in the organization as a preceding step to the promotion decision. One of the well-known and validated tools for this task is a questionnaire. However, because some of the questions invade the employee / candidate’s privacy, the answer may be biased. In this paper, we consider this potential bias, a phenomenon that is becoming more and more significant as privacy concerns and awareness continuously increase in the modern digital world. We propose a formal methodology to optimize the questionnaire based on the privacy sensitivity of each question, thereby providing a more reliable assessment. We conducted an empirical study (n=142), and showed that a systems skills questionnaire can be enhanced. This research has a significant contribution to improving the systems skills assessment process in particular, and also lays the foundations for improving the evaluation of other skills / traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0721.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Remote sensing; Global discrete grid; Accuracy evaluation; Hexagon grid
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:19:49 CET)
With the rapid development of earth observation, satellite navigation, mobile communication and other technologies, the order of magnitude of the spatial data we acquire and accumulate is increasing, and higher requirements are put forward for the application and storage of spatial data. Under this circumstance, a new form of spatial data organization emerged-the global discrete grid. This form of data management can be used for the efficient storage and application of large-scale global spatial data, which is a digital multi-resolution the geo-reference model that helps to establish a new model of data association and fusion. It is expected to make up for the shortcomings in the organization, processing and application of current spatial data. There are different types of grid system according to the grid division form, including global discrete grids with equal latitude and longitude, global discrete grids with variable latitude and longitude, and global discrete grids based on regular polyhedrons. However, there is no accuracy evaluation index system for remote sensing images expressed on the global discrete grid to solve this problem. This paper is dedicated to finding a suitable way to express remote sensing data on discrete grids, and establishing a suitable accuracy evaluation system for modeling remote sensing data based on hexagonal grids to evaluate modeling accuracy. The results show that this accuracy evaluation method can evaluate and analyze remote sensing data based on hexagonal grids from multiple levels, and the comprehensive similarity coefficient of the images before and after conversion is greater than 98%, which further proves that the availability hexagonal grid-based remote sensing data of remote sensing images. And among the three sampling methods, the image obtained by the nearest interpolation sampling method has the highest correlation with the original image.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0755.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: digital interventions; shop floor; evaluation framework; heuristics; smart factory
Online: 1 November 2018 (17:51:49 CET)
The introduction of innovative digital tools for supporting manufacturing processes has far-reaching effects on an organizational and an individual level due to the development of Industry 4.0. The FACTS4WORKERS project funded by H2020, i.e. Worker-Centric Workplaces in Smart Factories, aims to develop user-centered assistance systems in order to demonstrate their impact and applicability at the shop floor. To do so it is important to understand how to develop such tools and how to assess if advantages can be derived from the created ICT system. This study introduces the technology of a workplace solution that is linked to a specific industrial challenge. Subsequently, a 2-stepped approach to evaluate the presented system is discussed. Heuristics, which are an output of project “Heuristics for Industry 4.0”, are used to test if the developed solution covers critical aspects of socio-technical system design. Insights into the design, development and holistic evaluation of digital tools at the shop floor should be shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0209.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: plant phenotyping; noise filtering; binarization; accuracy evaluation; connected components
Online: 24 April 2018 (17:02:18 CEST)
Plants are such important keys of biological part of our environment, supply the human life and creatures. Understanding how the plant’s functions react with our surroundings, helps us better to make plant growth and development of food products. It means the plant phenotyping gives us bio information which needs some tools to reach the plant knowledge. Imaging tools is one of the phenotyping solutions which consists of imaging hardware such as the camera and image analysis software analyses the plant images changings such as plant growth rates. In this paper, we proposed a preprocessing algorithm to eliminate the noise and separate foreground from the background which results the plant image to help the plant image segmentation. The preprocessing is one of important levels has effect on better image segmentation and finally better plant’s image labeling and analysis. Our proposed algorithm is focused on removing noise such as converting the color space, applying the filters and local adaptive binarization step such as Niblack. Finally, we evaluate our algorithm with other algorithms by testing a variety of binarization methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: sustainable management control; performance evaluation system; resource-based theory; sustainable balanced scorecard.
Online: 24 July 2018 (09:31:34 CEST)
In this article, management control has been studied from the perspective of intention towards sustainable development of companies. The main idea focuses on the analysis of relations between sustainable management control and the system of performance appraisal using as a reference the resource-based theory. These relations have been assessed both theoretically by reviewing literature in the field, and empirically based on data collected in a questionnaire from top management, as well as data from Annual Reports from the main segment of Bucharest Stock Exchange. The authors have shown that financial performance has a significant influence on management control, and the return on capital employed is one of the most recommended indicators. The sustainable nature attributed to management control is the result of institutional theory evolution, provisions of Directive 2014/95/EU and Guide of Global Management Accounting Principles (2015) using stewardship. Consequently, profits are not the main element any more in the assessment of financial „health” of a company. To ensure the sustainable success, sustainable balanced scorecard is one of real measures for managing financial and non-financial performance.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Smart city; demonstration project; multi-criteria evaluation; Delphi method; analytic hierarchy process
Online: 22 December 2021 (10:39:57 CET)
Some researchers in Taiwan argue that the current mechanism by which government subsidies are allocated for smart city demonstration projects warrants improvement. A comprehensive literature review determined that the development potential of smart cities should be prioritized in site selection for such demonstration projects. This study developed an evaluation framework on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation methods to enable the identification of suitable smart community demonstration sites. Evaluation criteria were first identified through the Delphi method. Next, the weights of each criterion were derived through the analytic hierarchy process. Furthermore, the capability of the proposed evaluation model was determined through simulation testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0084.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Vitis spp.; interspecific hybrid grapes; cultivar evaluation; Integrated Pest Management; disease resistance.
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:01:26 CEST)
Susceptibility to economically-important diseases of grapes is critical to the evaluation of germplasm recommended for commercial production and for development of sustainable production systems. In 2018-2019, nine cold-hardy grape cultivars including ‘Brianna’, ‘Crimson Pearl’, ‘Itasca’, ‘Louise Swenson’, ‘Marechal Foch’, ‘Marquette’ ‘Petite Pearl’, ‘St. Pepin’, and ‘Verona’ were evaluated on non-treated vines for susceptibility to downy mildew, powdery mildew, black rot, anthracnose, Phomopsis leaf spot and fruit rot, and Botrytis bunch rot. No cultivars were consistently disease-free, and all exhibited some degree of black rot and powdery mildew infection. Relative susceptibility to disease was not consistent across both years, but ‘Brianna’ had greater incidence of black rot and ‘Louise Swenson’ showed lower incidence of powdery mildew in both years. The relatively new cultivars ‘Crimson Pearl’ and ‘Verona’ exhibited comparatively moderate disease susceptibility overall. Growers typically manage diseases with fungicides on commercial farms, so cultivar susceptibility is just one component of a sustainable pest management and production system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: economic evaluation, micronutrient fortification, iron deficiency anemia, Cote d’Ivoire, model, impact, DALYs
Online: 23 July 2019 (10:25:26 CEST)
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is highly prevalent in the Cote d’Ivoire, and has severe health and economic consequences. In this paper, we apply a health economic model to quantify the burden of IDA, and the contribution of nation-wide mandatory iron fortification of wheat flour and voluntary iron fortification of condiments to the reduction of this burden. The analysis for the population from six months to 64 years builds on published reviews and publicly available datasets, and is stratified by age-groups and socio-economic strata. Without the impact of these fortification strategies, the annual burden of IDA is estimated at 242,100 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and 978.1 million USD. Wheat flour and condiment fortification contributed to a reduction of the IDA burden by approximately 5% each. In places with high prevalence of malaria and environmental factors, such as the Côte D’Ivoire, policy makers should combine nutritional intervention with infectious disease prevention and environmental factors. The findings of this study provide additional input for policy makers about the magnitude of the impact and can support the conception of future fortification strategies.