ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0623.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: microgranules; eutrophication; corn; phosphorus; DAP
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:06:52 CEST)
The present contribution provides the first agro-economic and ecological account of the in-furrow application of a mineral and an organomineral microgranular fertilizer in comparison to a wide spread mineral band fertilizer in temperate climate regions. The reduction of phosphorus inputs while maintaining the yield of maize plants (Zea mays) is the focus of the study. In a three-year field trial, the dry matter yields gained with the two phosphorus-reduced microgranular fertilizers and standard diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilization were examined. The application of the organomineral microgranular fertilizer resulted in dry matter yields that were 15% higher (2.8 tons per hectare) than the DAP variant, while higher yields using the mineral microgranular fertilizer occurred only in a single year. The higher yield of the organomineral microgranular fertilizer and the lower phosphorus amounts applied with that product resulted in a moderate phosphorus excess of 2.7 kg P ha-1, while DAP fertilization resulted in a surplus of 25.5 kg per hectare. A similar pattern of phosphorus balance was observed on the plots fertilized with the mineral microgranular fertilizer. We conclude that both tested microgranular fertilizers provide an adequate alternative to the wide-spread DAP fertilization in maize cultivation on fertile soils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0227.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Aquaculture nutrition; Phosphorus pollution, Sustainability; Eutrophication
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:20:01 CEST)
Legislation and interest to protect and restore freshwater and marine ecosystems from aquaculture's environmental impact is global. However, aquaculture induced eutrophication continues to be a major environmental issue. Open freshwater fish farms in particular, providing fish with phosphorus-rich feeds pollute aquatic ecosystems since water soluble phosphorus, uneaten feed, feces, and metabolic waste from farmed fish increase phosphorus concentration in the adjacent waters. Several intestinal enzymes, transporters, and regulating factors are implicated in dietary phosphorus retention of farmed fish. For example, alkaline phosphatase and other transporters help the anterior intestine absorb phosphorus, while pH, calcium, and vitamin D affect these enzymes and transporters. Intestinal morphology and gut microbiome may also affect this process. Reducing phosphorus pollution from open-flow fish farms requires a thorough understanding of processes that affect nutrient retention and absorption as well as of the impact of dietary factors, anti-nutritional substances, and intestinal morphology. Optimizing feed composition, adding functional feed ingredients, and managing gut health can reduce phosphorus release and improve aquaculture sustainability. Processing and functional feed additives can mitigate anti-nutritional factors and, addressing these issues will reduce aquaculture's environmental impact, ensuring aquatic ecosystem health and global food security
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1486.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Modelling; Nutrients; Lobo; Eutrophication; Côte d'Ivoire
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:47:29 CEST)
Eutrophication in the Lobo watershed remains a major problem. The work carried out has focused on chemical and biological analyzes in the lake or in its immediate environment: they did not sufficiently take into account the diffuse transfer of nutrients over the entire watershed. This study aims to assess the nutrient (N and P) loads in the Lobo watershed, an agricultural area, to understand the spatio-temporal impacts of land management practices on eutrophication. The methodology uses two steps: streamflow calibration and nutrient (N and P) estimation using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed model. Thus, the nutrient inputs were estimated based on the levels of N and P in every kilogram of NPK-type fertilizers applied by farmers. The average quantities of N and P applied to the crops were 47.24 kg N/ha and 21.25 kg P/ha. Results show a good performance on flow calibration as evidenced by evaluation criteria R2, NSE and PBIAS of 0.63, 0.62 and -8.1, respectively. The yields of inorganic N and soluble P varied from 0 to 0.049 kg N/ha and from 0 to 0.31 kg P/ha. These results show that the crops’ in-organic nitrogen requirements were higher than the demands for soluble phosphorus. Simulations relating to the organic N transfer revealed values ranging from 0.2 to 5 kg N/ha, while the transport of organic phosphorus was estimated to vary from 0.3 to 1.3 kg P/ha.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0277.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: coastal lagoon; phytoplankton; eutrophication; nanoplanktonic algae
Online: 20 July 2020 (04:22:11 CEST)
The Mar Menor is a Spanish coastal lagoon of great ecological and economic interest. The agricultural and tourist activities developed in the surroundings of the lagoon, together with the modifications in its channels of connection with the Mediterranean Sea, have notably affected the quality of its waters, which is altering the natural balance of the ecosystem. In this work, an analysis of the density of phytoplankton present in the lagoon between the months of May to December 2017 has been carried out. There, it has been a notable increase in the density of organisms in post-summer samplings, following the recording of higher temperatures, and the presence of Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chrysophyceae and nanoplanktonic Cryptophyceae stands out. The data collected indicate a significant increase in the eutrophication process of the lagoon that requires the development of management plans to reduce agricultural discharges and promote the recovery of the lagoon and its native species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1077.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: eutrophication; landsat; Chl-a; turbidity; spectral signatures; OLI; Chile
Online: 16 November 2023 (15:19:03 CET)
This study aims to develop and implement a methodology for retrieving bio-optical parameters in a lagoon located in the Biobío region, in south-central Chile by analyzing time series of Landsat-8 satellite images, specifically using the multispectral OLI sensor. The bio-optical parameters, i.e., chlorophyll-a (mg·m-3) and turbidity (NTU) were also measured in-situ synchronized with the satellite passes to minimize the impact of atmospheric distortions. To calibrate the satellite images, various atmospheric correction methods (including ACOLITE, C2RCC, iCOR, and LaSRC) were evaluated during the image preprocessing phase. Spectral signatures obtained from the scenes for each atmospheric correction method were then compared with spectral signatures acquired in-situ on the water surface. In short, the ACOLITE model emerged as the best fit for the calibration process. Subsequently, we harnessed the reflectance data derived from the ACOLITE model to establish correlations between various spectral indices and the in-situ data. The empirical retrieval models (based on band combinations) that showed superior performance, as indicated by higher R2 values, were subjected to rigorous statistical validation and optimization by applying a bootstrapping approach. Our analysis covered a spectrum of dates, seasons, and years, which allowed us to search deeper into the evolution of the trophic state associated with the lake. We identified a striking eight-year period (2014-2022) characterized by a decline in chlorophyll-a concentration in the lake possibly attributable to governmental measures in the region for the protection and conservation of the lake. The results of this initial study serve as the basis for the creation of a modern monitoring system that enhances traditional point-based methods, offering a holistic view of the ongoing processes within the lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0340.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: eutrophication; phosphorus sorption; soil Olsen P; soil organic matter
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:40:00 CEST)
The Mediterranean region offers good weather conditions for outdoor pig production (OPP), which is considered more environmentally friendly than intensive indoor production. However, the continuous input of food and pigs' excreta increases the soil organic matter (SOM) and phosphorus (P), increasing the risk of waterbodies eutrophication. This work aimed at evaluating in OPP areas soil P dynamics and the role of SOM on P sorption and P release. The experiment was done for two years, at an area of 2.8 ha with an animal charge of 9 adults ha-1. Georeferenced soil samples were taken at 0.20 m depth, and a soil P sorption experiment was carried out. At the end of the experiment, for the background value, the levels of SOM increased between 85–376%, and Olsen P values ranged between -82–884%. SOM levels above 2% caused a decrease in the binding energy of P sorption according to the linear model b=-15.541SOM+115.20 (p <0.01) as well as a decrease of the soil P sorption capacity Qmax=-41.272SOM+298.37 (p <0.01). To avoid the accumulation of SOM and P preventing hotspots for waterbodies eutrophication, an adequate animal charge together with soil cultivation for pig grazing can be a cost-effective practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0778.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Nitrogen and phosphorus discharges; green port; fertilizers; BRT models; eutrophication
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:32:00 CET)
Abstract: Marine eutrophication is a pervasive and growing threat to global sustainability. Thereby nutrient discharges to the marine environment should be reduced to a minimum. When fertilizers are loaded to vessels in ports, a significant amount of nutrients are released into the sea, but so far these actions have received little attention. Here, we employed the Boosted Regression Trees modeling (BRT) to define relationships between fertilizer loading, loading area, rain intensity and nutrient discharge to the marine environment and then used the established relationships to predict daily nutrient discharge due to fertilizer loading. The studied subject was a port in the Gulf of Finland, where significant amount of both nitrogen and phosphorus are loaded to vessels. BRT models accounted for a significant proportion of the variability of nutrient discharge. As expected, the nutrient discharge increased with the amounts of fertilizers loaded and the intensity of rain. On the other hand, with increasing loading area the amounts of total nitrogen discharge increased, but phosphorus discharge decreased. The latter result may be due to different char-acteristics of the loading areas of different terminals. The model predicted that at the studied port the total nitrogen and phosphorus discharge into the marine environment due to fertilizer loading was 272,906 and 196 kg per year, respectively. Im-portantly, the developed model can be used to predict nutrient loads for different future scenarios to propose the best mitigation methods for nutrient discharges to the sea.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0235.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: surface water; anthropogenic loads; warming climate; eutrophication; acidification; critical loads
Online: 17 October 2022 (11:00:41 CEST)
The paper presents a review of currently available evaluations of the effects of continuously increasing anthropogenic loads on water resources. The increase in the fluxes of elements and compounds into the environment, such as the emission of greenhouse gases and dispersion of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), acidifying gases, and toxic elements and compounds that adversely affect the water quality are considered. The significance of fresh waters as a life support factor of the human populations is demonstrated. Examples are presented to illustrate how key anthropogenic induced processes develop in land waters under the effect of anthropogenic loads, as exemplified by the Russian Kola regions. Climate warming and the increasing dispersion of elements are demonstrated to result in the eutrophication of surface waters even in areas remote from anthropogenic impacted regions. Although the emissions of acidifying gases diminish, the waters are still acidified in acid-vulnerable areas, and the chemical compositions of the waters have been significantly modified over the past decades, which indicates that the changes in the chemical composition of the waters are of irreversible. A new feature of the waters is distinguished: the toxicity of the habitats for aquatic organisms. Arguments are presented for establishing a theoretical approach for evaluating critical loads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Shanghai; water quality; eutrophication; conventional water treatment; secondary water pollution
Online: 5 September 2019 (07:47:59 CEST)
Shanghai is experiencing water supply problems caused by heavy pollution of its raw water supply, deficiencies in its treatment processes and water quality deteoriation in the distribution system. However, little attention has been paid these problems of water quality in raw water, water treatment and household drinking water. Based on water quality data we show that the raw water sources of the Huangpu River and the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary are polluted by microbes (TBC), eutrophication (TP, TN and NH3-N), heavy metals (Fe, Mn and Hg) and organic contamination (chemical oxygen demand [COD], detergent and volatile phenols [VP]). The average concentrations of these contaminants in the Huangpu River are almost double that of the Changjiang estuary forcing a rapid shift to the Changjiang estuary for raw water. In spite of filtering and treatment, TN, NH3-N, Fe, COD and chlorine maxima of the treated water and drinking water still exceed the Chinese National Standard (GB5749). We determine that the relevant threats from water source to household water in Shanghai are: 1) eutrophication arising from highly concentrated TN, TP, COD and algal density in the raw water; 2) increasing salinity in the river estuary, especially at the Qingcaosha Reservoir (currently the major freshwater source for Shanghai); 3) more than 50% of organic constituents and by-products remain in treated water; 4) bacteria and turbidity increase in the course of water delivery to users. The analysis presents an holistic assessment of the water quality threats to metropolitan Shanghai in relation to the city’s rapid development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0311.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Secchi disk depth; water quality; remote sensing; eutrophication; optical modeling; water management
Online: 6 September 2023 (15:14:09 CEST)
In this study, we investigated water transparency estimation models in the hypertrophic lagoon of the Albufera of Valencia using Sentinel-2 images. Water transparency, a crucial environmental indicator, was assessed via Secchi disk depth (ZSD) measurements. Three optical models (R490/R560, R490/R705, R560/R705) were explored to establish a robust algorithm for ZSD estimation. Through extensive field sampling and laboratory analyses, weekly data spanning 2018 to 2023 were collected, including water transparency, temperature, conductivity, and chlorophyll-a concentration. Remote sensing imagery from the Sentinel-2 mission was employed, and images were processed using SNAP software. The R560/R705 model, calibrated for turbid lakes, emerged as the most suitable. The algorithm's calibration was validated with high correlation coefficients (R2) in both calibration (0.6149) and validation (0.916) phases, demonstrating the model's accuracy in estimating ZSD. This new algorithm significantly outperformed a previous approach, highlighting the importance of tailoring algorithms to specific water body characteristics. The study contributes to improved water quality assessment and resource management, underscoring the value of remote sensing in environmental research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0715.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Western South Atlantic continental margin; benthic Foraminifera; fresh water; nutrients; eutrophication; anoxic
Online: 30 October 2018 (08:51:08 CET)
The present work focuses on fresh water signatures at the sediment-water interface (1 cm) using foraminiferal species in both austral winter and summer in eleven longitudinal transects on the Western South Atlantic continental margin between 27° and 37° S, at water depths of 11.7 to 250 m. Here we show that depth, salinity, temperature, oxygen, grain size (mud and sand percentage), suspended matter, organic matter, SiO4, NO2, and NO3 in this order of importance are responsible for the distribution of foraminiferal species and thecamoebians. The presence of these microfossils indicate freshwater influx in four sectors over the continental shelf: Itajaí-Açu River, Laguna estuarine system, Patos Lagoon and RdlP (Rio de la Plata) will be explored further in detail. Our findings on freshwater signature on the continental shelf sediments through benthic species indicator are comparable to other continental systems worldwide, and a paleo record study would be useful for three South American countries (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay). A freshwater signature in the continental shelf indicates deposition sites probably linked to anthropogenic impact since most of the pollutants and contaminants are dumped into water bodies that eventually reach and accumulate in the ocean. Therefore, the freshwater-related species on the continental shelf reflects exactly where the depositional sediment sites are, and where anthropogenic impacts accumulate. Foraminiferal microhabitat occupation within these zones is discussed in detail. And we conclude that together with the fauna, the abiotic parameters play an important role in determining the occurrence and degree of marine eutrophication induced by the input of polluted river waters, also showing possible anoxic environments on the shelf.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water quality; model calibration; estuary; eutrophication; CE-QUAL-W2; phytoplankton, algal growth kinetics
Online: 2 October 2018 (16:56:46 CEST)
The two-dimensional, laterally-averaged mechanistic eutrophication model CE-QUAL-W2 version 3.72 was used to predict chlorophyll-a concentrations across two different time periods in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Chlorophyll calibration was performed for two time periods simultaneously by performing by a full-factorial experiment that tested seven algal kinetic growth parameters over three levels for a single algal group. A cluster of up to six computers each running between two and ten instances of the program was used to complete and manage the data for 2187 runs for each time period. A set of six criteria were used to determine which runs performed acceptably, yielding a group of 27 cases that met all of the criteria. Calibration performance of the set of cases outperformed a previously calibrated model using three algal groups that met only four of the six selection criteria. Calibration performed this way allowed for a more rational specification of model calibration performance and provided uncertainty estimates of model predictions, albeit at the cost of a considerable increase in computational requirements that necessitated the use of a computer cluster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2090.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: data-driven models; eutrophication; coastal water quality; self-organizing map; feed-forward neural network
Online: 1 November 2023 (02:38:33 CET)
Eutrophication is a major environmental issue with many negative consequences, such as hypoxia and harmful cyanotoxins production. Monitoring coastal eutrophication is a crucial, especially for island countries like the Republic of Cyprus, which are economically dependent on the touristic sector. Additionally, the open-sea aquaculture industry in Cyprus has been exhibiting an increase in the last decades and environmental monitoring to identify possible signs of eutrophication is mandatory according to the legislation. Therefore, in this modelling study, two different types of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are developed based on in situ-data collected from stations located in the coastal waters of Cyprus. Theses ANNs aim to model the eutrophication phenomenon based on two different data-driven modelling procedures. Firstly, the self-organizing map (SOM) ANN examines several water quality parameters (specifically water temperature, salinity, nitrogen species, ortho-phosphates, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity) interactions with the Chlorophyll-a parameter. The SOM model enables us to visualize the monitored parameters relationships and to comprehend complex biological mechanisms related to Chlorophyll-a production. A second feed-forward ANN model is also developed for predicting the Chlorophyll-a levels. Based on this ANN model, several scenarios associated to the eutrophication-related water quality parameters can be extracted. The combination of these two ANNs models is considered a holistic modelling approximation for the identification of eutrophication scenarios, since it enables not only the prediction of the Chlorophyll-a parameter levels, but also the “capturing” of hidden biological mechanisms associated with algal production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0075.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality; eutrophication; tropic state index; Landsat-8, RapidEye, tropical inland water bodies, Brazil
Online: 13 November 2017 (03:33:35 CET)
We aimed at analyzing Chlorophyll-a and CDOM dynamics from field measurements and at assessing the potential of multispectral satellite data for retrieving water-quality parameters in three small surface reservoirs in the Brazilian semiarid region. More specifically, this work comprises i) analysis of Chl-a and trophic dynamics; ii) characterization of CDOM; iii) estimation of Chl-a and CDOM from OLI/Landsat-8 and RapidEye imagery. The monitoring lasted 20 months within a multi-year drought, which contributed to water-quality deterioration. Chl-a and trophic state analysis showed a highly eutrophic status for the perennial reservoir during the entire study period, while the non-perennial reservoirs ranged from oligotrophic to eutrophic, with changes associated with the first events of the rainy season. CDOM characterization suggests that the perennial reservoir is mostly influenced by autochthonous sources, while allochthonous sources dominate the non-perennial ones. Spectral-group classification assigned the perennial as CDOM-moderate and highly eutrophic reservoir, whereas the non-perennial ones were assigned as CDOM-rich and oligotrophic-dystrophic reservoirs. The remote sensing initiative was partially successful: the Chl-a was best modelled using RapidEye for the perennial; whereas CDOM performed best with Landsat-8 for non-perennial reservoirs. This investigation showed high potential for retrieving water quality parameters in dry areas with small reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0387.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: hyperspectral imager; UAV remote sensing; water quality monitoring; space-ground data; buoy spectrometer; water eutrophication; absorption characteristics
Online: 30 May 2022 (05:59:36 CEST)
The effective integration of aerial remote sensing data and ground multi-source data has always been one of the difficulties of quantitative remote sensing. A new monitoring mode is designed which installs the hyperspectral imager on the UAV and places a buoy spectrometer on the river. Water samples are collected simultaneously to obtain in situ assay data of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, COD, turbidity and chlorophyll during data collection. The cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) algorithm is used to match the data of the buoy spectrometer with the UAV spectral data to reduce the UAV data noise significantly. An absorption characteristics recognition algorithm (ACR) is designed to realize a new method for comparing UAV data with laboratory data. This method takes into account the spectral characteristics and the correlation characteristics of test data synchronously. It is concluded that the most accurate water quality parameters can be calculated by using the regression method under five scales after the regression tests of multiple linear regression method (MLR), support vector machine method (SVM) and neural network (NN) method. This new working mode of integrating spectral imager data with point spectrometer data will become a trend in water quality monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Cumulative effects; fine sediment; particulate phosphorus; sediment geochemistry; gravel-bed rivers; forest disturbance; wildfire; eutrophication; climate change
Online: 8 October 2021 (08:07:28 CEST)
Cumulative effects of landscape disturbance in forested source water regions can alter the storage of fine sediment and associated phosphorus in riverbeds, shift nutrient dynamics and degrade water quality. Here, we examine longitudinal changes in major element chemistry and particulate phosphorus (PP) fractions of river-bed sediment in an oligotrophic river during environmentally sensitive low flow conditions. Study sites along 50 km of the Crowsnest River were located below tributary inflows from sub-watersheds and represent a gradient of increasing cumulative sedi-ment pressures across a range of land disturbance types (harvesting, wildfire, and municipal wastewater discharges). Major elements (Si2O, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, Ti2O, V2O5, P2O5), loss on ignition (LOI), PP fractions (NH4CI-RP, BD-RP, NaOH-RP, HCI-RP and NaOH(85)-RP) and absolute particle size were evaluated for sediments collected in 2016 and 2017. While total PP concentrations were similar across all sites, bioavailable PP fractions (BD-RP, NaOH-RP) increased downstream with increased concentrations of Al2O3 and MnO and levels of landscape disturbance. This study highlights the longitudinal water quality impacts of increasing landscape disturbance on bioavailable PP in fine riverbed sediments and shows how the convergence of climate (wildfire) and anthropogenic (sewage effluent, harvesting, agriculture) drivers can produce legacy effects on nutrients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: fish assemblages; community dynamics; alternate stable states; eutrophication; submerged aquatic vegetation; nutrient load reduction; point-source pollution
Online: 11 May 2017 (07:54:59 CEST)
After a local pollution control plant significantly reduced phosphorus loading into a phytoplankton-dominated tributary of the Potomac River in the early 1980’s, water quality and biological communities were monitored bi-weekly from April-September. After a 10-year time-lag, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), once abundant in this freshwater tidal embayment, returned to the area in 1993. After additional reductions in nitrogen load starting in 2000, the system completely switched to a SAV-dominated state in 2005. Fish abundance didn’t change during these distinct phase changes, but the fish community structure did. Increases in SAV provided refuge and additional spawning substrate for species with adhesive eggs such as Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), which is now the most abundant species in the embayment. Other changes seen were a decrease in the relative contribution of open water dwelling species such as White Perch (Morone americana), and an increase of visual predators such as Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). The 30-year record of data from this Potomac River tributary has revealed many important long-term trends that validate the effectiveness of initiatives to improve water treatment, and will aid in the continued management of the watershed and point source inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0282.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanopeptides; eutrophication; harmful bloom; liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; Global Natural Product Social networking (GNPS); Dereplication strategy.
Online: 12 August 2020 (10:15:46 CEST)
Man-made shallow fishponds in the Czech Republic have been facing a high eutrophication since 1950s. Anthropogenic eutrophication and feeding of fish have strongly affected the physico-chemical properties of water and its aquatic community composition leading to harmful algal bloom formation. In our current study, we have characterised the phytoplankton community across three hypertrophic ponds to assess the phytoplankton dynamics during the vegetation season. We microscopically identified and quantified 29 cyanobacterial taxa comprised of non-toxigenic and toxigenic species. Further, a detailed cyanopeptides (CNPs) profiling was performed using molecular networking analysis of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) data coupled with dereplication strategy. This MS networking approach coupled with dereplication on online global natural product social networking (GNPS) web platform led us to putatively identify forty CNPs: fourteen anabaenopeptins, ten microcystins, five cyanopeptolins, six microginins, two cyanobactins, a dipeptide radiosumin, a cyclooctapeptide planktocyclin and epidolastatin12. We have applied the binary logistic regression to estimate the CNPs producer by correlating the GNPS data with the species abundance. Usage of The combination of molecular networking and dereplication on online global natural product social networking (GNPS) web platform has proved as a valuable approach for rapid and simultaneous detection of high number of peptides, and rapidly assessing the risk for harmful bloom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0721.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: eutrophication; water management; hypolimnetic warming; boundary mixing; mixing events; internal waves; long-term series; Valle de Bravo; biogeochemistry; nutrient flux
Online: 28 October 2021 (16:12:32 CEST)
Physical processes play important roles in controlling eutrophication and oligotrophication. In stratified lakes, internal waves can cause vertical transport of heat and nutrients without breaking the stratification, through boundary mixing events. Such is the case in tropical Valle de Bravo (VB) lake, where strong diurnal winds drive internal waves, boundary mixing and hypolimnetic warming during stratification periods. We monitored VB during 18 years (2001-2018) when important water-level fluctuations (WLF) occurred, affecting mixing and nutrient flux. Mean hypolimnetic temperature increase (0.06–1.04°C month-1) occurred in all the stratifications monitored. We analyzed temperature distributions and modeled the hypolimnion heat budget to assess vertical mixing between layers (26,618–140,526 m-3h-1), vertical diffusivity coefficient KZ (6.2x10-7–3.3x10-6 m2s-1) and vertical nutrient entrainment to epilimnion on monthly scale. Stability also varied as a function of WLF. Nutrient flux to the epilimnion ranged 0.36–5.99 mg m-2d-1 for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and 5.8–97.1 mg m-2d-1 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). During low water-level years, vertical nutrient fluxes increase and can account for up to >40% of the total external nutrients load to the lake. Vertical mixing changes related to WLF affect nutrient recycling, their flux to sediments, ecosystemic metabolic balance and planktonic composition of VB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: microcystin; saxitoxin; cylindrospermopsin; anatoxin-a; anatoxin-a(S); cyanobacteria; organic anion transporting polypeptide; phosphatase inhibitor; acetylcholinesterase; neurotoxicity; water quality; eutrophication; drinking water
Online: 20 March 2017 (06:17:48 CET)
Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous phototrophic bacteria that inhabit diverse environments across the planet. They dominate many eutrophic lakes impacted by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forming dense accumulations of biomass known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms or cyanoHABs. Their dominance in eutrophic lakes is attributed to a variety of unique adaptations including N and P concentrating mechanisms, N fixation, colony formation that inhibits predation, vertical movement via gas vesicles, and the production of toxic or otherwise bioactive molecules. While some of these molecules have been explored for their medicinal benefits, others are potent toxins harmful to humans, animals, and other wildlife known as cyanotoxins. In humans these cyanotoxins affect various tissues, including the liver, central and peripheral nervous system, kidneys, and reproductive organs among others. They induce acute effects at low doses in the parts-per-billion range and some are tumor promoters linked to chronic diseases such as liver and colorectal cancer. The occurrence of cyanoHABs and cyanotoxins in lakes presents challenges for maintaining safe recreational aquatic environments and the production of potable drinking water. CyanoHABs are a growing problem in the North American (Laurentian) Great Lakes basin. This review summarizes information on the occurrence of cyanoHABs in the Great Lakes, toxicological effects of cyanotoxins, and appropriate numerical limits on cyanotoxins in finished drinking water.