ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0121.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: eternal Space-time; Big Bang and Big Crunch; cosmology; gravitational force; dark energy
Online: 19 August 2022 (04:35:00 CEST)
We present a cosmological model in which the Big Bang was not the beginning of space and time; there was a previous phase leading up to it, with multiple cycles of contraction and expansion that repeat indefinitely. In this paper we propose a unique property of Space-time, this particular and marvelous nature of space shows us that space can stretch, expand, and shrink. When matter comes closer to each other, the space also shrinking between them. As space shrunk it produced the pressure, which pressure stretching the Shrunk space. This property of space is causes the size of the Universe changed over time: growing or shrinking. The observed accelerated expansion, which relates the stretching of Shrunk space for the new theory, is derived. When space exponentially shrunk, it creates the pressure, which leads to stretching the shrink volume of space. As pressure of shrink space decreases, the stretching of shrunk space increases, that is although in general, decelerate in the pressure of shrink space leads to accelerate the expansion of space. The pressure of the shrunk space will cease at the certain cosmic scale, so the expansion of the Universe will eventually stop, after that a period of slow contraction will begin, thus bringing the universe back to contract to its initial state, ending in a Big Crunch. The universe will not continue to expand forever, no need however, for dark energy. The new definition of eternal space and its unique properties enables us to describe a sequence of events from the Big Bang to the Big Crunch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0019.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Quantum Space; spaceons; cosmic evolution; Friedmann equation; cyclic eternal universe; gravitational force; space force
Online: 4 April 2022 (14:39:11 CEST)
We present a Quantum Space Model (QSM) of cosmic evolution based on the theory that space consists of energy quanta which participates in the evolution of the universe. It shows that Dark Energy is the energy of space which causes its accelerating expansion. We used the Friedmann equations to trace the history of the cosmos from a time before the Big Bang to its ultimate end. The universe started from a quantum size volume of space with high energy density.Quantum fluctuations triggered the release of energy in a Big Bang at very high temperature and pressure. It then expanded and cooled undergoing phase transitions to radiation, fundamental particles, and matter. Matter grew into galaxies, and was further consolidated by gravity into Dark Energy Stars/Black Holes, ending in a Big Crunch at about 1.380 trillion years, thus bringing the universe back to its initial state. It can stay in a Deep Feeeze inside a Black Hole and through fluctuations or other mechanism may start a new cycle in its life with a new Bang. If the Law of Conservation of Energy is universal, then the cosmos is eternal. Space and energy are equivalent just as matter and energy are. This is well founded in Planck’s energy equation. They are the two most fundamental quantities in the universe that govern cosmic evolution. The two principal long range forces are the gravitational force and the space force.The latter could be the fifth force in the universe. They may provide the clockwork mechanism that operates our eternal cyclic universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0350.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Singularity; 2-Time dimensions; Simulations; Big Bang; Entanglement; Entropy; Mandela Effect; Eternal Inflation; Multiverse
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:47:13 CEST)
The anisotropy in the CMBR detected by the COBE satellite has sprouted the research and theories of the void that got created, after being washed away by a parallel universe after its collision. This details of the roadmap to the parallel universe, that are previously been entangled, but now, separated, with the concept of 2-time dimensions as a time curve of containing the closed curves embedded on the surface area, thereby time running backward in orientation in the parallel universe, along with the perspective of eternal inflation and divided subspaces giving birth to twin universes are provided here. This time curve being responsible for creating an exponentiality of time frames, growing in layers, giving us the perception of the confabulations being an indication of the previously connected worlds.