ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: esketamine; arketamine; bioinformatical analysis; depression; suicide
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:24:53 CEST)
Ketamine, a racemic mixture of esketamine (S-ketamine) and arketamine (R-ketamine), has re-ceived particular attention for its rapid antidepressant and antisuicidal effects. NMDA receptor inhibition has been indicated as one of the main mechanisms of action of the racemic mixture, but other pharmacological targets have also been proposed. This study aimed at exploring the possible multiple targets of ketamine enantiomers related to their antidepressant and antisuicidal effects. To this end, targets were predicted in SwissTargetPrediction software for each ketamine enan-tiomer. The targets related to depression and suicide were collected by GeneCards database. The intersections of targets were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Network pharmacology analysis was performed in GeneMania and Cy-toscape softwares. Molecular docking was used to predict the main targets of the network. The results indicated that esketamine and arketamine share some biological targets, particularly NMDA receptor and phosphodiesterases 3A, 7A and 5A, but have specific molecular targets. While esketamine is predicted to interact with the GABAergic system, arketamine may interact with macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Both ketamine enantiomers activate neuroplas-ticity-related signaling pathways and show addiction potential. Our results identified novel poorly explored molecular targets that may be related to the beneficial effects of esketamine and arketamine against depression and suicide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0156.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: esketamine; ketamine; ketamine assisted psychotherapy; eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; binge eating disorder; pharmacology; psychedelics; treatment
Online: 7 March 2022 (08:34:11 CET)
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious, life-threatening psychiatric conditions associated with physical and psychosocial impairments, as well as high morbidity and mortality. Given the chronic refractory nature of EDs and the paucity of evidence-based treatments, there is a pressing need to identify novel approaches for this population. The noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ketamine, has recently been approved for treatment-resistant depression, exerting rapid and robust antidepressant effects. It is now being investigated for several new indications, including obsessive-compulsive, post-traumatic, and substance use disorder; and shows transdiagnostic potential for EDs, particularly among clinical non-responders. As such, the aim of this review is to examine contemporary findings on the treatment of EDs with ketamine, whether used as a primary, adjunctive, or combination psychopharmacotherapy. Avenues for future research are also discussed. Overall, results are encouraging and point to therapeutic value, yet are limited to case series and reports on anorexia nervosa. Further empirical work is thus needed to explore ketamine efficacy across ED subgroups; establish safety profiles and optimize dosing; and develop theory-driven, targeted treatment strategies at the individual patient level.