REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: ROS; CDDP; erythrocyte oxygen delivery capacity; AMS
Online: 19 December 2019 (11:12:08 CET)
Hypoxia is the main survival challenge that human beings encounter in high altitudes, it is also the leading cause of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). Studies have shown that hypoxia induces a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in AMS patients, and the surge of ROS leads to the reduction of oxygen delivery capacity of erythrocyte, senescence and inflammatory impairment of erythrocyte and vascular endothelial cells to a certain extent. Through depicting a target-pathway network, our study indicates that Compound Danshen Dropping Pills (CDDP), which is one of the best-known traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of myocardial ischemic diseases, can improve red blood cell oxygen delivery capacity in AMS patients, alleviate tissue and organ damage, relieve a series of clinical symptoms caused by hypoxia through ROS clearance and related mechanisms. We further elucidate the active ingredients of CDDP targeting ROS related pathway by target-ingredient correspondence analysis. Tanshinone IIA, catechol and some other compounds of CDDP were identified to have certain targeting effect on ROS and ROS dependent pathways. This study provides new understandings of CDDP in clinical application on AMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1568.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: regular exercise; red blood cell distribution width; erythrocyte indices; erythrocyte deformability; trained subjects.
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:59:31 CET)
. Background: regular exercise elicits adaptive changes from several organs and physiological processes, including erythrocyte properties. Methods: in a group of 79 subjects (62 men and 17 women; mean age 31.37 +/- 10.19 years) who trained several times a week as they practiced amateur sports, we evaluated the elongation index, marker of erythrocyte deformability, the red blood cell distribution width (RDW), indicator of erythrocyte anisocytosis, hematocrit, hemoglobin and the main erythrocyte indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC) in basal conditions. Results: in comparison with a group of healthy not trained volunteers, the values of the elongation index, and not the RDW, are increased and this datum is accompanied by an increase of MCV and MCHC, likely related to an increased presence of circulating young erythrocytes in trained subjects. We also divided the same group according to the median of the VO2max, observing that the subgroup above the median shows both an increase in the elongation index values and a decrease in MCH and MCHC. Conclusions: in trained subjects there is no correlation between the values of elongation index and the RDW, while of particular interest and of a certain complexity seem the interrelations among elongation index, RDW and the main erythrocyte indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0643.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: rhEPO; anemia of prematurity; erythrocyte transfusions
Online: 11 October 2023 (04:41:38 CEST)
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) treatment is an alternative to erythrocyte transfusions in neonates with anemia of prematurity (AOP). This study assesses the impact of rhEPO administration within the first week of life on the incidence of AOP (any stage, individual AOP stages, and red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusions. Out of 108 preterm neonates, 49 were administered rhEPO and compared to the remaining group using univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariately, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), and RBC levels, and iron administration were significantly associated to AOP (p<0.05 each); however, only the latter remained significant after adjusting for covariates (AOR: 2.75, 95% CI, 1.06–7.11). Multinomial analysis revealed rhEOP therapy was associated with a near 3-fold reduction in moderate AOP incidence (OR: 0.36, 95% CI, 0.15–0.89). Furthermore, ANCOVA revealed positive correlations between rhEPO administration and 21-day Hb (p<0.01), HCT (p<0.05), and EPO (p<0.001) levels. The results confirm previously reported benefits of rhEPO treatment, such as reduced moderate AOP incidence and increased Hb, HCT, and serum EPO levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: COVID-19; erythrocyte; red blood cells; cytokine storm; severe COVID-19; low voltage scanning electron microscopy; erythrocyte size
Online: 4 October 2023 (04:10:30 CEST)
Severe COVID-19 alters the biochemical and morphological characteristics of blood cells in a wide variety of ways. To date, however, the vast majority of research has been devoted to the study of leukocytes, while erythrocyte morphological changes have received significantly less attention. The purpose of this research was to identify erythrocyte types that were unique to COVID-19, compare the number of different poikilocyte types, and measure erythrocyte sizes to provide data on size dispersion. Red blood cells obtained from 6 control donors (800-2200 cells for each donor) and 5 COVID-19 patients (800-1900 cells for each patient) were examined using low voltage scanning electron microscopy. We did not discover any forms of poikilocytes that would be unique to COVID-19. Among COVID-19 patients, we observed an increase in the number of acanthocytes (p=0.01) and a decrease in the number of spherocytes (p=0.03). In addition, our research demonstrates that COVID-19 causes an increase in the median (p=0.004) and interquartile range (p=0.009) when assessing erythrocyte size.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0689.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Plasmodium vivax; Erythrocyte Invasion Mechanisms; Duffy Negative; Africa; Immunology; Epidemiology
Online: 27 November 2020 (13:08:59 CET)
Plasmodium vivax malaria is a neglected tropical disease, despite being more geographically widespread than any other form of malaria. The documentation of P. vivax infections in different parts of Africa where Duffy-negative individuals are predominant suggested that there are alternative pathways for P. vivax to invade human erythrocytes. Duffy-negative individuals may be just as fit as Duffy-positive individuals and are no longer resistant to P. vivax malaria. In this review, we describe the complexity of P. vivax malaria, characterize pathogenesis and candidate invasion genes of P. vivax, and host immune responses to P. vivax infections. We provide a comprehensive review on parasite ligands in several Plasmodium species that further justify candidate genes in P. vivax. We also summarize previous genomic and transcriptomic studies related to the identification of ligand and receptor proteins in P. vivax erythrocyte invasion. Finally, we identify topics that remain unclear and propose future studies that will greatly contribute to our knowledge of P. vivax.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0652.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; alcohol dehydrogenase; erythrocyte-bioreactor; ethanol; glycolysis; mathematical model; NAD; oscillations
Online: 9 May 2023 (12:31:49 CEST)
A mathematical model of energy metabolism in erythrocyte-bioreactors loaded with alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was constructed and analyzed. Such erythrocytes can convert ethanol to acetate using intracellular NAD and, thus, can be used to treat an alcohol intoxication. Analysis of the model reveals that the rate of ethanol consumption by the erythrocyte-bioreactors increases proportionally to activity of incorporated ethanol-consuming enzymes until their activity reaches a specific threshold level. When the ethanol-consuming enzyme activity exceeds this threshold, the steady state in the model becomes unstable and the model switches to an oscillation mode caused by a competition of glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and ethanol-consuming enzymes for NAD. An amplitude and period of metabolite oscillations first increase with the increase in the activity of e encapsulated enzymes. A further increase in these activities leads to a loss of the glycolysis steady state, and a permanent accumulation of glycolytic intermediates. The oscillation mode and the loss of the steady state can lead to osmotic destruction of erythrocyte-bioreactors due to an accumulation of intracellular metabolites. Our results demonstrate that the interaction of enzymes encapsulated into erythrocyte-bioreactors with erythrocyte metabolism should be taken into account in order to obtain an optimal efficacy of these bioreactors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0790.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, infection, erythrocyte, pyruvate kinase deficiency, enzymopathy, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, transcriptome, Nanopore technology
Online: 13 November 2023 (09:02:00 CET)
Innovative strategies to control malaria are urgently needed. Exploring the interplay between the Plasmodium sp. parasites and host red blood cells (RBC) offers opportunities for novel antimalarial interventions. Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD), characterized by heightened 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration, has been associated with protection against malaria. Elevated 2,3-DPG levels, a specific mammalian metabolite, may hinder glycolysis, prompting us to hypothesize its potential contribution to PKD-mediated protection. We investigated the impact of the extracellular supplementation of 2,3-DPG on the Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic developmental cycle in vitro. Results showed an inhibition of parasite growth, resulting from significantly less progeny from 2,3-DPG-treated parasites. We analyzed differential gene expression and the transcriptomic profile of P. falciparum trophozoites, from in vitro cultures submitted or not submitted to the action of 2,3-DPG, using Nanopore Sequencing Technology. The presence of 2,3-DPG in the culture medium was associated to a significant differential expression of 71 genes, mostly associated to GO terms nucleic acid binding, transcription, or monoatomic anion channel. Further, several genes related to the cell cycle control were downregulated in treated parasites. These findings suggest that the presence of this RBC-specific glycolytic metabolite impact the expression of genes transcribed during the parasite trophozoite stage and the number of merozoites released from individual schizonts, which supports the potential role of 2,3-DPG in the mechanism of protection against malaria by PKD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0397.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: erythrocyte; non alcoholic steatohepatitis; immunometabolism; thrombospondin-1; arginase-1; phosphatidylethanolamine; metabolic inflammation
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:22:12 CEST)
Background: Hepatic erythrophagocytosis is augmented in NASH and amplifies inflammation and fibrosis. Although various pro-phagocytic signals have been identified on erythrocytes of NASH patients, the role of bound thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which acts as an “eat-me” signal, arginase-1, which regulates the levels of nitric oxide in erythrocytes, and phosphatidylethano-lamine (PE) which can amplify erythrophagocytosis and hepatic inflammation have not been explored. Hence, we sought to investigate the levels of arginase-1 and TSP-1 in erythrocyte lysate and PE in erythrocyte membranes of NASH patients. Methods: Twenty-four patients and 14 healthy controls participated in our study. The levels of TSP-1 and arginase were quantified by ELISA in erythrocyte lysates, and the levels of PE in erythrocyte membranes by thin layer chro-matography. Results: Erythrocytes of NAFLD patients exhibit lower levels of arginase-1 and TSP-1 (p<0.01). Erythrocyte-bound TSP-1 levels correlated with the levels of erythrocyte surface CD47. Phosphatidylethanolamine was increased in erythrocytes of NASH patients and was accompanied by increased release, indicating exposure. Conclusion: Our results imply reduced TSP-1 binding by erythrocytes which could allow free TSP-1 molecules to act on macrophages, enhancing erythrophagocytosis. Increased PE which could amplify inflammation after efferocytosis, while downregulation of arginase-1 could lead to defective efferocytosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); shear stress index; Aggregation index; Blood shear stress; Blood flow intensity; Capillary chip
Online: 5 July 2023 (08:55:46 CEST)
Blood image intensity has been used to detect erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, it does not give an information on biophysical properties of blood sample under continuous ESR. In this study, three physical properties, including, τ0, ESRτ, and AII, are suggested to quantify mechanical variations of blood under continuous ESR. To demonstrate the proposed method, blood sample is loaded into a driving syringe. The blood flow rate is set in a periodic on–off pattern. Blood sample is then supplied into a capillary chip, and microscopic blood images are captured at specific intervals. Blood shear stress is quantified from the interface of blood stream in the coflowing channel. Both τ0 and ESRτ are then obtained by analyzing the blood shear stress. Simultaneously, the AII is evaluated by analyzing the image intensity of blood flow. According to the experimental results, the τ0 exhibits consistent trends with respect to hematocrit as well as diluent. The ESRτ and AII showed a reciprocal relationship each other. Three suggested properties represented substantial differences for suspended blood samples (i.e., hardened red blood cells, different concentration of dextran solution and fibrinogen). In conclusion, the present method can detect variations of blood sample under continuous ESR effectively.