REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: performance evaluation; poultry meat; ergonomics; injuries; industry
Online: 2 January 2018 (06:36:04 CET)
Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, have bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute on the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the Knowledge Development Process – Constructivist (Proknow-C) as theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, it was obtained a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords. The ProKnow-C process allowed identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for research future. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge to identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0377.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Ergonomic Workplace Analysis; ergonomics solutions; collaborative environment; drilling centers
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:28:01 CEST)
Drilling centers are collaborative environments dedicated to facilitate decision-making in the well construction, where multidisciplinary teams work to support operations. The oil operators usually have drilling centers with different types of ergonomic features with considerable potential of integration, creating the opportunity to an Ergonomic Workplace Analysis. This paper aims to present the analysis of infrastructure requirements of one specific company in Brazil. The method was based on a survey with employees, which, coped with a statistical analysis, enabled understanding the impact of the layout requirements. The result is an approach to design collaborative environments, standardizing and defining models for the industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: haptic master; force feedback; VR- based interaction; ergonomics assessments
Online: 3 December 2017 (06:02:50 CET)
This paper presents a novel 3-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) haptic master with rubber bands for self-resetting. The mechanical design avoids coupling between three directions mechanically by using three perpendicular axis intersecting at one point. Bevel gear transmission is adopted to increase the compactness of the overall structure. VR-based interactive system is designed and built by incorporating the proposed haptic master. The proposed haptic device can generate force feedback along 3-degree-of-freedom motion using motors and provide command signals to the avatar in the virtual environment. In order to analyze the performance of the developed device in terms of haptic feedback operation, ergonomics assessments are designed and experimentally implemented. Preliminary studies on the influencing factor including the guidance force, the reset force, the speed of the avatar and the arm the length have been conducted. The results of this paper are of great significance for the design of the haptic master and interactive system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0103.v1
Subject: Keywords: less is more; opera characters; comic creation; simplification; cognitive ergonomics
Online: 4 August 2021 (09:23:11 CEST)
A simplification of Chinese traditional painting approach was proposed to study whether or not “Less is More” is still truly a design trend. A total of 225 volunteers from a website participated in the study. Through a questionnaire survey and analysis, this study explored the feasibility of “simplified” in comedy. The results show that the proposed approach of “simplification” can be applied to the drama character creation, but the simplification scale needs to be flexibly adjusted according to different topics. For viewers, there is not much recognition and liking for the works that are simplified to the extreme and present symbolization. In future research, the proposed “simplified” approach is needed to adjust and improve for practical use. It also needs more analysis of the differences in cognition of different participants according to the cognitive and communication theories of artistic creation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0287.v1
Subject: Keywords: ergonomics; keyboard layout; optimized keyboard layout; keyboard; touch typing; bigram frequencies
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:24:58 CET)
Most computer keyboard layouts (mappings of characters to keys) do not reflect the ergonomics of the human hand, resulting in preventable repetitive strain injuries. We present a set of ergonomics principles relevant to touch typing, introduce a scoring model that encodes these principles, and outline a systematic approach for developing optimized keyboard layouts in any language based on this scoring model coupled with character-pair frequencies. We then create a keyboard layout optimized for touch typing in English by constraining key assignments to reduce lateral finger movements and enforce easy access to high-frequency letters and letter pairs, applying open source software to generate millions of layouts, and evaluating them based on Google’s N-gram data. We use two independent scoring methods to compare the resulting Engram layout against 10 other prominent keyboard layouts based on a variety of publicly available text sources. The Engram layout scores consistently higher than other keyboard layouts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0123.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: work context; work conditions; work stress; job satisfaction; lifestyle; sonographers; ergonomics
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:53:13 CET)
Work context is essential to understand in relation to handle the stress at work that ultimately creates a feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among health professionals. The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship of work context and work stress among sonographers (n=153) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Additionally, the study provided a gender-based comparison of both variables among sonographers. Work context was measured by administering subscale of work context derived from Work Design Questionnaire. Whereas, work stress was measured by Job Stress Scale. In addition, relationship of lifestyle was explored with work context and work stress. Data was collected through survey research forms. Results revealed the significant relationship of work context and work stress (r=.251, p=.002). Among lifestyle variables, perceived good health (r= .214, p=.008) and sleep (r=.242. p=.003) were found positively related with satisfaction toward work. Whereas, the strong positive correlation was found between work context and frequency of physical activity (r=.255, p=.005). No significant difference was found among male and female sonographers. The findings of this study contributed to evaluating the working condition of sonographers in relation to work stress. Effective strategies for better working settings as well as strategies for achieving satisfaction in work will be discussed to enhance the performance of sonographers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Virtual Reality; Digital Human Modeling; Physical Ergonomics Analysis; Product Development; Automotive Industry
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:13:48 CET)
The efficacy of the product development process is measured by the ability to launch a project with product and production process specifications that could guarantee that the manufacturing can produce it with the least impact. If a problem is detected late, they bring consequences beyond the high cost of the solution, if related to physical ergonomics, which will influence the well-being of operators, productivity, and quality. Virtual Reality (VR) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) are ones of the enabling technologies of Industry 4.0 and has already been applied on a large scale in industries such as automotive, construction, and aeronautics. However, even though the huge applications, these technologies are not yet applied by these industries for the analysis of physical ergonomics during product development phases. This study aims to characterize the state of the art and technology about the application of Virtual Reality and Digital Human Modeling for the physical ergonomics analysis in the during product development phases in the industry through a systematic review of the literature and patents. In patent documents recovery, we used Derwent Innovation database. The research is based on searching the selected terms in the title, summary, and claims of the documents through a search strategy containing IPC code and keywords. In articles recovery, we searched ScienceDirect, Springer, and IEEExplore databases for scientific publications. The search resulted in 311 patents documents and 16 articles in the scientific database. This study analyzed the patents to map out the technological progress in this area, where we found in the charts and data an increasing number of publications per year and a spread application with a considerable number of new technologies presented in these recent patents. The literature review indicated that Virtual Reality technology complements the Digital Human Modeling during physical ergonomics analysis for manufacturing process already designed. The majority of research on the use of VR and DHM technologies for physical ergonomics analysis focus on the automotive industry and the ergonomic assessment of workstations and current processes. Further research is needed to investigate how Virtual Reality and Digital Human Modeling might assist in the understanding of physical ergonomics in certain tasks throughout the product development process, such as the simulation of worker posture or effort when assembling parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0352.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: artificial agents; human machine teaming; metrics; synthetic agents; human factors; ergonomics; empirical studies
Online: 12 November 2020 (14:48:50 CET)
This paper presents a multi-year research study conducted at the University of Toledo, aimed at improving human-machine teaming (HMT) methods and technologies. With the incorporation of artificial intelligence (AI) into 21st-century machines, collaboration between humans and machines has become highly complicated for real-time applications. The penetration of intelligent and synthetic assistants (IA/SA) in virtually every field has opened a path for the new area of HMT. When it comes to crucial tasks such as patient treatment and care, defense, and industrial production, the use of non-standardized HMT technologies may pose a risk to human lives as well as up to billions of taxpayer dollars. A thorough literature survey revealed that there are not many established standards or benchmarks for HMT. In this paper, we aim to address the lack of HMT design and development standards. We propose a method to design an HMT based on a generalized architecture. This design includes the development of an intelligent collaborative system and human team. Followed by processes and metrics to test and validate the proposed model, we present a novel human-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation method using two controlled HMT scenarios; first, emergency care provider (ECP) training, and second, patient treatment by an experienced medic. Both scenarios include humans processing visual data and performing actions that represent real-world applications while responding to a Voice-Based Synthetic Assistant (VBSA) as a collaborator that keeps track of actions. As part of these HMT simulation studies, the impact of each parameter related to machines, humans, and HMT (such as errors made by humans and by the VBSA) is presented from the perspective of performance, rules, roles, and operation limitations. In addition, based on the analysis of results from two case studies, we presented guidelines for designing future HMT. Our conclusions indicate that the proposed HIL can be used to perform standardization studies in the pursuit of developing techniques for benchmarking HMT that can be used in critical situations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0044.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Open-plan office; socio-technical systems; green ergonomics; biophilic design; sustainable development; human factors.
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:20:49 CEST)
Open-plan office (OPO) layouts emerged to allow organizations to adapt to changing workplace demands. We explore the potential for OPOs to provide such adaptive capacity to respond to two contemporary issues for organizations: the chronic challenge of environmental sustainability, and the acute challenges emerging from the great COVID-19 homeworking experiment. We apply a socio-technical systems perspective and green ergonomics principles to investigate the relationship between an OPO environment and the occupants working within it. In doing so, we consider the relevant technical and human factors such as green technology and employee green behavior. We also consider how a green OPO might provide non-carbon benefits such as improving occupant wellbeing and supporting the emergence of a green organizational culture. Our investigation highlights several avenues through which an OPO designed with green ergonomic principles could benefit occupants, the organizations they work for, and the natural environment of which they are a part and on which they depend. We find reason to suspect that green OPOs could play an important role in sustainable development; and offer a research agenda to help determine whether in fact OPOs are another example of how going green is good business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: workplace; health promotion; work-related stress; anxiety; depression; participatory ergonomics; wellbeing; best practice; work organization
Online: 12 February 2018 (09:09:57 CET)
The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers' wellbeing using a holistic approach that goes beyond the simple prevention of occupational risks enables us to promptly identify problems in work organization and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach. In this study participatory ergonomics groups were used to improve occupational life in a small company. After intervention we observed a reduction in levels of perceived occupational stress measured with the effort / reward imbalance model, and an improvement in psychological wellbeing assessed by means of the Goldberg anxiety / depression scale. Although the limited size of the sample calls for a cautious evaluation of this study, the GEP© strategy proved to be a useful tool due to its cost-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0141.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: low back pain; women; exercise; physical activity; health education; Oswestry Disability Index; Back Pain Functional Scale; ergonomics
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:07:50 CEST)
Back pain is a common symptom that affects all age groups across the globe, when left untreated may eventually lead to disability. A convenient sample selection method was used in this study due to the global Covid-19 pandemic lockdown which was effective in Turkey during the investigation period. Thus, virtual data collection and health education including some health risks were employed. A total population of two hundred adult women was involved in the study but one hundred and twenty-one responses were collected. Findings show that, for socio-demographic characteristics, the pain was found highest in women between the ages of 41-50 and obese/overweight individuals. Although, there was no significant difference recorded in the marital status category. Moreover, statistical mean differences were detected between the scales for ODI (4.18) and BPFS (6.09). Also, p<0.05, paired sample t-test was 0.001 ODI and 0.001 BPFS after the training exercise. This suggests that exercise training is inversely correlated with pain severity which implies that training has a significant influence on pain intensity. Thus, it could be concluded that there is a relationship between the training exercise and ODI/BPFS.