ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0313.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainability; solar energy; photovoltaic energy; renewable energy; self-consumption; rooftop pv
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:29:01 CEST)
This article has been developed to assess the economic feasibility of a roof-top photovoltaic installation of industrial self-consumption. Numerical models that enable an interested person to obtain the main expected parameters will be generated. To do this, a calculation methodology will be generated through which the reader, knowing the location of the facility and dimensions of the roof, will be able to calculate the maximum installable power, the main parameters related to production, the cost of the installation, and the LCOE of the plant. The use of actual costs will be facilitated in case they are known, but it will remain possible to apply the costs of the major equipment (modules, inverter, and structure) considered throughout the article. This developed calculation methodology will also allow a quick comparison of the forecasts of production, CAPEX, and LCOE of plants designed with different inclinations and different types of modules. Consequently, it will be especially useful for decision-making before developing the plant's basic engineering. Moreover, the calculations used for modeling the LCOE will be analyzed in depth. This analysis will allow evaluating how the different technical variables affect the profitability of a photovoltaic installation, such as the selected tilt, the location, the module's technology, or the available area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Consumption, Saudi Arabia, Renewable Energy, Building Envelope, Energy Efficiency
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:37:43 CEST)
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), residential buildings’ energy consumption accounts for almost 50% of the building stock electricity consumption. The electricity generation consumes over one-third of the daily oil production. KSA was ranked as one of the highest countries in fossil fuel consumption per capita in 2014. Moreover, the KSA’s economy heavily relies on fossil fuel sources, namely oil reservoirs, whereby depletion will negatively affect the future development of the country. The total electricity consumption is annually growing by approximately 5-8%, which would lead to identical oil consumption to oil production in 2035. Currently, the KSA government is concerned to generate more renewable energy using large renewable energy plants. The government is investing in energy generation through renewable sources, by financing large scale photovoltaic farms to stop an economic crisis that may occur in 2035. The existing building stock consumes around 80% of the total current Saudi electricity that is generated. According to the Saudi energy efficiency report, the primary energy consumption per capita is over three times higher than the world average. Therefore, the residential buildings need further assessment as to their current energy consumption. This research used a survey to explore current user behaviour in residential buildings energy performance in the city of Jeddah, KSA. The findings of the survey showed: • The buildings thermal properties were found to be poorly designed • The majority of users within the buildings prefer a room temperature of below 24 °C, which requires a massive amount of cooling • Due to the climate conditions and the cultural aspects of KSA, housing units are occupied for more than 18 hours per day • An increase in user awareness has helped to slightly improve residential buildings energy efficiency Knowing the current high energy consumption sources and causes and being able to define available opportunities for further developments on building thermal properties enhancements and how to increase user awareness to reach self-sustaining buildings is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: water–energy nexus; energy use; energy intensity
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:44:36 CET)
The water and wastewater sectors are energy-intensive, and so a growing number of utility companies are seeking to identify opportunities to reduce energy use. Though England’s water sector is of international interest, in particular due to the early experience with privatisation, for the time being very little published data on energy usage exists. We analyse telemetry data from Thames Water Utilities Ltd. (TWUL), which is the largest water and wastewater company in the UK and serves one of the largest mega-cities in the world, London. In our analysis, we (1) break down sectoral energy use into their components, (2) present a statistical method to analyse the long-term trends in use, as well as the seasonality and irregular effects in the data, (3) derive energy-intensity (kWh m3) figures for the system, and (4) compare the energy-intensity of the network against other regions in the world. Our results show that electricity use grew during the period 2009 to 2014 due to capacity expansions to deal with growing water demand and storm water flooding. The energy-intensity of the system is within the range of reported figures for systems in other OECD countries. Plans to improve the efficiency of the system could yield benefits in lower the energy-intensity, but the overall energy saving would be temporary as external pressures from population and climate change are driving up water and energy use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1890.v2
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:06:15 CEST)
This research examines the impact of social equity on energy consumption. We constructed a digital twin for residential energy consumption by enriching the synthetic population with real-world surveys and feeding them with other environmental and appliance data to the energy modeling framework. We analyzed household hourly energy consumption data from Albemarle County and Charlottesville City in Virginia, USA, for the year 2019. We used clustering analysis to identify patterns in social equity and energy consumption. The results demonstrated the impact of different residential attributes on energy poverty. Statistical analyses, including ANOVA and Chi-Squared tests, were conducted to test for significant differences between racial groups in quantitative and categorical variables. The study found that race is significant in determining the location and quality of housing. People of color often live in areas with higher pollution and less access to green spaces. Additionally, income levels and the age of the house are influential factors in determining energy efficiency. Future work should focus on collecting and analyzing data at the country level and using qualitative data collection methods to gain a more comprehensive understanding of social equity issues concerning energy consumption. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the relationship between different residential attributes and energy consumption, which can inform policy development to promote more equitable and sustainable communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Energy efficiency, Photovoltaic system, energy audit, rigid scheduled irrigation
Online: 17 October 2018 (12:54:37 CEST)
Due to the fact that irrigation networks are water and energy-hungry and that both resources are scarce, many strategies have been developed to reduce this consumption. Otherwise, solar energy sources have become a green alternative with lower energy costs and, as a consequence, lower environmental impacts. In this work, it is proposed a new methodology to select the scheduled program for irrigation which minimizes the number of photovoltaic solar panels to be installed and which better fits energy consumption (calculated for discrete potential combinations; using a programming software to assist) to available energy obtained by panels without any power conditioning unit. So, the irrigation hours available to satisfy the water demands are limited by sunlight, the schedule type of irrigation has to be rigid (rotation predetermined) and the pressure at any node has to be above the minimum pressure required by standards. A real case study has been performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0694.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Electric energy; Occupant behavior; energy efficiency; lecture halls
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:44:05 CEST)
All over the world energy is used for different purposes and hence its continuous high demand which has brought about an increase in crisis and prices of energy. Ghana has faced a lot of supply and high electricity consumption challenges over a period of time. The Energy Commission of Ghana has developed regulations and guidelines to help reduce high consumption challenges among users, these included the replacement of incandescent bulbs with fluorescent bulbs, ban of importation of low energy efficient appliances. In spite of the effort to reduce electricity wastage, there is still a high increase in electricity consumption. The research investigated what contributed to electricity consumption in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology with the lecture halls as the main focus, the research also analyzed the current occupant behavior characterized by the electrical energy consumption practices. And investigated how the contemporary theories for reducing energy consumption was used in the lecture halls. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate occupants on their energy use practices in lecture halls that causes wastages, observation was made to establish relevant data on the use of contemporary theories for energy reduction in lecture halls. In a total of 110 occupants that responded to the questionnaire, 79 occupants almost always turn off electrical fitting and fixtures when not in use. From the responses, a majority of the occupants claimed to comply to best practices of energy use. The research concluded that some contemporary theories to reduce energy consumptions was not used and considered in the lecture halls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1476.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: hotel energy consumption, data envelopment analysis, hotel benchmarking, building energy efficiency
Online: 21 September 2023 (11:30:58 CEST)
The benchmarking of hotel energy use comprehensively identifies the controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting energy performance, including building characteristics, management strategies, operations, and maintenance systems. Other factors include climatic conditions, floor areas, operating hours, occupancy rates, and guest populations. A benchmarking study on energy consumption patterns in significant hotels (each with less than 100 rooms and an average staff strength of 40 employees), situated in the university town of Nsukka (longitude 70 23' E, latitude 60 52' N), Nigeria, was performed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology. DEA, a linear programming technique that measures the relative performances of units, was chosen as a benchmarking methodology due to its ability to handle multiple inputs and outputs. Following a correlation test, energy use intensity, diesel consumption, and the number of employees were selected as the analysis inputs, while the occupancy rate was chosen as the output variable. Data on these variables spanning 12 months were collected using questionnaires, interviews, site visits, and oral conversations with hotel managers to ensure validity. Grid-supplied electricity accounted for most of the hotels' energy needs, followed by diesel used in generators. More than 70% of the electricity use was for HVAC. From the DEA, Hotel 3 (DMU H3) had a technical efficiency score of 1, whereas adjustments were recommended for improving the efficiency scores of the other hotels, which were deemed inefficient. DMU H7 had the lowest efficiency score (0.474) and the highest identified savings for electricity and diesel. The analysis also revealed that occupancy rates were generally low in the months of June and July, coinciding with the high rainfall season with its accompanying decline in outdoor activities. Consistent with this, electricity consumption was highest in the Christmas and Easter holiday months of December, January, and April following increased travel-related activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Bio-energy; Artificial intelligence; Industry 4.0; Biodiesel; Biogas; Renewable energy; Supply Chain
Online: 2 September 2020 (07:56:48 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is penetrating in all walks of life and is one of the major driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, typically known as Industry 4.0. The purpose of the present study is to review the state-of-the-art ML applications in the biofuels' life cycle stages, i.e., soil, feedstock, production, consumption, and emissions. A keyword search is performed to retrieve relevant articles from the databases of the Web of Science and Google Scholar. ML applications in the soil stage were mostly based on the use of satellite images of land for estimation of biofuels yield or suitability analysis of agricultural land. In the second stage of the life cycle, assessment of rheological properties of the feedstocks and their effect on the quality of biofuels were dominant studies reported in the literature. The production stage included estimation and optimization of quality, quantity, and process conditions. The fuel consumption and emissions stage included analysis of engine performance and estimation of emissions temperature and composition, such as NOx CO, and CO2. This study identified the following trends: dominant ML method, the stage of life cycle getting more usage of ML, the type of data used for the development of the ML-based models, and the stage-wise frequently used input and output variables. The findings of this article are beneficial for academia and industry-related people involved in model development in different stages of biofuel’s life cycle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0451.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Smart Greenhouse; Optimization; Control; Zero energy
Online: 4 August 2023 (19:16:18 CEST)
The global agricultural sector is increasingly pressured to adopt sustainable practices and reduce its environmental impact. In this context, greenhouses play a crucial role in enabling year-round crop production, ensuring food security, and minimizing reliance on traditional open-field farming. However, the energy consumption associated with greenhouse operations poses a significant challenge to achieving sustainability goals. As a result, there is a growing emphasis on transitioning greenhouses towards near-zero energy consumption. Near-zero energy consumption in greenhouses refers to the ambitious objective of minimizing energy usage to the greatest extent possible while maintaining optimal growing conditions for crops. This goal encompasses reducing energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting, and other operational needs, as well as exploring renewable energy sources to power greenhouse operations. This review article offers a comprehensive overview of greenhouse energy consumption, with the main goal of analyzing the present situation, identifying key challenges, exploring potential opportunities, and proposing future perspectives for decreasing energy usage in greenhouse environments. As the focus on sustainable agricultural practices grows, the need to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses becomes increasingly important. The review critically examines current technological models and strategies applied in smart greenhouse applications, as well as the monitoring of microclimatic conditions inside the greenhouse, encompassing factors such as temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, soil quality, and crop cultivation. Moreover, it aims to present existing literature that investigates the advancement of greenhouses toward achieving significant reductions in energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0518.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: NeTrainSim; Network Trains Simulation; energy consumption
Online: 30 August 2022 (10:20:19 CEST)
Although train simulation research is vast, most available network simulators do not track the instantaneous movements and interactions of multiple trains for the computation of energy/fuel consumption. In this paper, we introduce the NeTrainSim simulator for heavy long-haul freight trains on a network of multiple intersecting tracks. Trains are modeled as a series of moving mass points (each car/locomotive is modeled as a point mass) while ensuring safe following distances between them. The simulator considers the motion of the train as a whole and neglects the relative movements between the train cars/locomotives. Furthermore, the powers of the different locomotives are transferred to the first locomotive as such a simplification result in a reduced simulation time without impacting the accuracy of energy consumption estimates. While the different tractive forces are combined, the resistive forces are calculated at their corresponding locations. The output files of the simulator contain pertaining information to the train trajectories and the instantaneous energy consumption levels. A summary file is also provided with the total energy consumed for the full trip and the entire network of trains. Two case studies are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the simulator. The first case study validates the model by comparing the output of NeTrainSim to empirical trajectory data using a basic single-train network. The results confirm that the simulated trajectory is precise enough to estimate the electric energy consumption of the train. The second case study demonstrates the train-following model considering six trains following each other. The results showcase the model’s ability in relation to maintaining safe-following distances between successive trains. Finally, the NeTrainSim is demonstrated to be scalable with computational times of O(n) for less than 50 trains (n) and O(n2) for higher number of trains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Bio-energy; Artiﬁcial intelligence; Industry 4.0; Biodiesel; Biogas; Renewable energy; Supply Chain
Online: 3 September 2020 (09:32:40 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is penetrating in all walks of life and is one of the major driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, typically known as Industry 4.0. This study reviews the state-of-the-art ML applications in the biofuels’ life cycle stages, i.e., soil, feedstock, production, consumption, and emissions. A keyword search is performed to retrieve relevant articles from the databases of the Web of Science and Google Scholar. ML applications in the soil stage were mostly based on the use of satellite images of land for estimation of biofuels yield or suitability analysis of agricultural land. In the second stage of the life cycle, assessment of rheological properties of the feedstocks and their effect on the quality of biofuels were dominant studies reported in the literature. The production stage included estimation and optimization of quality, quantity, and process conditions. The fuel consumption and emissions stage included analysis of engine performance and estimation of emissions temperature and composition, such as NOx, CO, and CO2. This study identiﬁed the following trends: dominant ML method, the stage of life cycle getting more usage of ML, the type of data used for the development of the ML-based models, and the stage-wise frequently used input and output variables. The ﬁndings of this article are beneﬁcial for academia and industry-related people involved in model development in different stages of biofuel’s life cycle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0399.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Correlations; Energy consumption; Urban Density
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:39:48 CEST)
Although impending urbanization is a well-acknowledged problem, there is a rising concern about how the urban forms will change and what can be the impacts on the global energy demand. As hubs of economic, social and cultural activities, cities are major energy consumers and GHG emissions. Energy consumption is a technical or a spatial problem? From Newman and Kenworthy to today, several studies have tried to shed light on this nexus. In this work, the controversial paradigm of urban density is discussed as a key component of the fight against climate change impacts. Concerning energy consumption, an in-depth bibliometric analysis is developed to identify the interdependencies of the terms. As a key ‘promise’ of an efficient urban configuration, density has been the core of diverse studies but with still under exploration arguments. This work provides a way forward for planners seeking to design strategies related to dense urban tissues exploring controversial paradigms as a key solution for energy-efficient problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: renewable energy; energy consumption; air pollution; spatial dubin model; spatial analysis
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:00:31 CEST)
The rapid development of China's economy has led to a rapid increase in energy production and use. Among them, the excessive consumption of coal in fossil energy consumption is the leading cause of air pollution in China. This paper incorporates renewable energy innovation, fossil energy consumption and air pollution into a unified analysis framework, and uses spatial measurement models to investigate the spatial effects of renewable energy green innovation and fossil energy consumption on air pollution in China, and decomposes the total impact into direct and indirect effects. influences. The empirical results show that China's air pollution, renewable energy green innovation and fossil energy consumption are extremely uneven in geographical space, generally showing the characteristics of high in the east and low in the west, and showing a strong spatial aggregation phenomenon. Fossil energy consumption will lead to increased air pollution, and the replacement of fossil fuels with clean and renewable energy is an important means of controlling pollution emissions. The direct and indirect effects of renewable energy green innovation on air pollution are significantly negative, indicating that renewable energy green innovation not only suppresses local air pollution, but also suppresses air pollution in neighboring areas. The consumption of fossil energy will significantly increase the local air pollution, and the impact on the SO2 and Dust&Smoke pollution in the adjacent area is not very obvious. It is recommended to strengthen investment in renewable energy green innovation, reduce the proportion of traditional fossil energy consumption, and pay attention to the spatial connection and spillover of renewable energy green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Renewable energy; financial development; VAR; Saudi Arabia
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:50:24 CEST)
The demand for renewable energy is increasing globally due to concerns about climate change, pollution, and the finite nature of fossil fuel resources, as renewable energy has been recognized as a significant factor in realizing sustainable development. The government of Saudi Arabia adopted the reduction of fossil fuel subsidies policy as a financial motivation for supporting both the production and consumption of fossil fuels. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the influence and shocks of Saudi’s financial development indicators on renewable energy consumption (REC). And to examine the track of causality between financial development indicators and REC. The study covers the annual data period of 1990-2021 and applies the Basic Vector Autoregressive model (VAR), Granger causality test, forecast error variance decomposition (FEVD), and impulse response function (IRF). The results imply that the financial development indicators have a significant positive impact on REC. The results of causality between REC and financial development indicators were conflicting. The results reveal that REC variation is explained by its innovative shocks and has a positive response to shocks in financial development. Authorities can encourage investment in renewable energy consumption by providing financial incentives also the governments can foster national and international partnerships between investors, policymakers, and industry stakeholders. Employing different determinants of financial development indicators and incorporating population factors in the REC function will be highly recommended for forming the renewable energy demand in Saudi Arabia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; optimization; expert system; irrigation system
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:34:22 CEST)
Innovative practices in irrigation systems can bring improvements in terms of economic efficiency and in the same time can reduce environmental impact. Investment in high tech technologies frequently involves additional costs, but an efficient water management can increase the lifetime of the equipment. The main objective of this article is to reduce the energy consumption by one thousand cubic meters pumped and automatically to increase the economic efficiency of the pumping groups. This paper develops a new operating algorithm that ensures the operation of the pumping group at safe operating intervals and in the same time identifies the equivalent pump operating points for the entire flow range and pumping height of the pumping group. This methodology is based on the principles of an Expert System to perform the optimization process of the energy consumption in pumping groups. The resulting methodology avoids the combinatorial explosion of the solutions to be analyzed and determines the point of maximum efficiency without violation of any of the system constraints under any operating condition. The proposed methodology is tested on an irrigation system that includes a pumping group with 5 pumps, showing its effectiveness in obtaining the optimal solution with a relatively low computational burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0787.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: cubesat; integrated antenna systems; remote sensing; attitude control; energy budget
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:52:33 CET)
One of the future challenges of increasing the harnessed solar power is efficiency using of CubeSat sides. One of the approaches is using integrated antenna systems with solar panels or payloads. This study proposes a new approach to the use of integrated antenna systems in remote sensing missions. In this approach, due to the integration of antenna system with payload (in our case, with camera), it is possible to achieve a significant increase in the power generation. Calculations are carried out for cases when the antenna system are integrated with the optical system (α = 0°), which implies that they use one plane, in the second case they are spaced at an angle of α = 90° and in the third case when they are directed to opposite sides (α =180°). In the case of α = 0°, where the camera and antenna module are aligned co-axially, there is no energy expenditure for CubeSat orientation. However, in the other two cases, energy is required for rotation and maintenance of the specified orientation throughout the entire duration of the satellite's flight over the ground station, amounting to 111.99 mW when α = 90° and 44.33 mW when α = 180°.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: D2D communications; 5G systems; energy efficiency
Online: 14 December 2017 (09:38:21 CET)
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential part of the future fifth generation (5G) system that can be seen as “network of networks”, consisting of multiple seamlessly integrated radio access technologies (RATs). Public safety communications, autonomous driving, social-aware networking, and infotainment services are example use cases of D2D technology. High data rate communications and use of several active air interfaces in the described network create energy consumption challenges for both base stations and the end user devices. In this paper, we review the status of 3GPP standardization and define a set of application scenarios. We use the recent models of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and WiFi interfaces in analyzing the power consumption both from the infrastructure and user device perspectives. The results indicate that the number of active interfaces should be minimized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy consumption prediction; Time-series forecasting; Forecasting Building Energy Consumption; Long Short-Term memory
Online: 2 June 2023 (05:11:04 CEST)
The global demand for energy has been steadily increasing due to population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. Numerous researchers worldwide are striving to create precise forecasting models for predicting energy consumption to manage supply and demand effectively. In this research, a time-series forecasting model based on multivariate multilayered long short-term memory (LSTM) is proposed for forecasting energy consumption and tested using data obtained from commercial buildings in Melbourne, Australia: the Advanced Technologies Center, Advanced Manufacturing and Design Center, and Knox Innovation, Opportunity, and Sustainability Center buildings. This research specifically identifies the best forecasting method for subtropical conditions and evaluates its performance by comparing it with the most used methods at present, including LSTM, bidirectional LSTM, and linear regression. The proposed multivariate multilayered LSTM model was assessed by comparing mean average error (MAE), root-mean-square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values with and without labeled time. Results indicate that the proposed model exhibits optimal performance with improved precision and accuracy. Specifically, the proposed LSTM model achieved a decrease in MAE by 30%, RMSE by 25%, and MAPE by 20% compared to the LSTM method. Moreover, it outperformed the bidirectional LSTM method with a reduction in MAE by 10%, RMSE by 20%, and MAPE by 18%. Furthermore, the proposed model surpassed linear regression with a decrease in MAE by 2%, RMSE by 7%, and MAPE by 10%. These findings highlight the significant performance increase achieved by the proposed multivariate multilayered LSTM model in energy consumption forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: real monitoring; energy efficiency management system; wsan; majmaah university
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:58:31 CEST)
This research presents alternative solutions for an Energy Efficiency Management System (EEMS) serving as a framework for optimizing the energy consumption algorithm and lowering energy consumption. First, a monitoring Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is used for sensing, measuring, gathering data, and modeling all the dynamic disturbance parameters of the rooms in the building. Second, integrated software for metering and controlling the processes of digital data flow is used. Third, an alternative solution is proposed to reduce energy consumption. The primary benefits of this system are real-time monitoring; rapid, alternative solutions; and the ability to make a prudent decision on how to lower energy consumption. The system shows instant and accumulated solutions for short and long-term time planning. The solutions identified can be implemented in the same buildings under the same circumstances. The universities of Majmaah and Philadelphia have buildings with similar infrastructure. The system was applied to the buildings at Philadelphia University. The results were generalized to both universities. After implementation, the energy consumption of the EEMS using WSAN (based on the monitoring was reduced up to 23% when compared to that of the initial state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Energy Savings; Insulation; Sustainability; Energy Cost; CO2 Emissions; HAP
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:11:18 CEST)
This study investigates the role of insulation, in commercial buildings and how it affects energy efficiency and sustainability in different climate regions. Commercial buildings consume an amount of energy making them ideal candidates for energy saving measures. Insulation plays a role in maintaining indoor conditions reducing energy usage and minimizing carbon emissions by limiting heat transfer through the building’s envelope. By conducting simulations using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) this research examines how insulation thickness, climate conditions and building characteristics impact energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The study covers climate zones with a focus on Afghanistan, semi-arid, arid and mountainous regions where sustainable construction practices are highly important. The findings demonstrate that insulation has an effect on enhancing energy efficiency particularly when it comes to heating. Additionally, economic factors, future research directions and broader implications, for construction practices are thoroughly discussed. Considering that the construction industry contributes significantly to carbon emissions this research provides insights into promoting sustainable building practices. By optimizing insulation strategies, architects, builders and policymakers can reduce the impact of commercial buildings while advancing energy efficiency and supporting a more sustainable urban future.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Energy consumption monitoring system; Building energy conservation management; Insect Intelligent Building technology; Computing process node; Insect intelligent algorithm
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:27:48 CEST)
In this paper, the methodology using Insect Intelligent Building (I^2B) technology for establishing energy consumption monitoring system of public buildings is prevailed. The computing process node and distributed algorithm are utilized to implement the energy consumption collection and data transmission and data pre-processing. Taking a commercial building as a case study, CPNs are applied to set up the building energy consumption monitoring system, with the Spanning Tree Algorithm for generating network topology，and BPNN method for solving abnormal data and recovering missing data. The research results demonstrate the proposed method can effectively improve the performance of plug-and-play and self-identified and self-configuration of energy consumption monitoring system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1960.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: fuel cell; hybrid energy storage system; energy management strategy; fuzzy logic control; equivalent minimum hydrogen consumption
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:11:10 CET)
Nowadays, the increasingly serious environmental pollution and energy problems urgently require internal combustion engine-based transportation vehicles to upgrade or replace, so the new energy transportation vehicles based on hybrid power and fuel cells have gradually stepped on the stage and continue to innovate. The shipping industry is one of the main sources of global greenhouse gas emissions. The development of clean energy ships represented by fuel cells has attracted wide attention. Fuel cell has the advantages of clean, pollution-free and low noise, but it has some disadvantages such as insufficient dynamic response performance and fast performance decay. Limited by the characteristics of a single energy source, a variety of energy sources and bidirectional DC converters are usually mixed together to form a hybrid ship to improve the flexibility, stability and economy of the ship, and enhance its adaptability to complex sea conditions through the reconfiguration of power system energy. Taking fuel cell ferry "FCS Alsterwasser" as the research object, this study proposed an improved equivalent minimum hydrogen consumption energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic control. First, the power system of the modified mother ship was simulated, and a hybrid power system including fuel cell, lithium iron phosphate battery and supercapacitor was proposed. Then, the dynamic system simulation model and double closed loop PI control model are established in MATLAB/Simulink, and the reliability of the model is verified by the simulation analysis of charge and discharge characteristics. Then, the feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by designing simulation experiments based on typical working conditions of the mother ship. The simulation results show that under the premise of meeting the load requirements, the control strategy designed in this paper has a better optimization effect than the S-type penalty function in terms of lithium battery power, lithium battery SOC, bus voltage stability and equivalent hydrogen consumption, which improves the stability and economy of the power system, and has certain engineering practical value.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Covid-19 process; Electricity production; Electricity consumption; Energy demand
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:06:39 CEST)
With the year 2020, the world faced a new threat that affects all areas of life, negatively affects production in all areas, and paralyzes social life. The measures and restrictions taken by the country's governments to prevent the epidemic from spreading rapidly in the society with the effect of the Covid-19 virus, which first appeared in China and spread all over the world, brought a new lifestyle. Covid-19 has been much the impact on electricity use and electricity production in the period in Turkey as in other countries. There was a sharp decline in commercial and industrial electricity use. The coronavirus effect has also been reflected in the electricity demand and the consumption amount has undergone a great negative change. Due to the enactment of measures against the new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic and the partial or full-time curfews, electricity consumption was moved to homes, supermarkets, and hospitals in April 2020 from places where mass consumption is intense, such as industry, workplaces, and educational institutions. In this study, Covid-19 period, the first cases were examined electricity production and consumption in Turkey as of the date it is seen throughout, in comparison with electricity consumption data in the same month of the previous years corresponding to this period, the effects on electricity generation and consumption habits of this period were examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0105.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: energy drinks; adolescent lifestyle; alcohol; caffeine; sports
Online: 12 January 2018 (05:12:03 CET)
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has identified some risk factors for the occurrence of side effects linked to energy drinks (EDs) consumption by young people. Tachycardia, sleeplessness, caffeine addiction may be caused by excessive consumption of EDs during parties, sport matches, ect. EDs consumption has been evaluated in a sample of students in Italy together with some aspects of their lifestyle. The survey was performed in two high schools from September 2014 to June 2015. 583 students between 14 to 18 years were recruited and a standard questionnaire (EFSA checklist) was used to collect information on responders characteristics, beverages consumption, EDs with alcohol, and EDs and sports. 350 out of 583 responders (60%) consumed EDs and 146 out of 583 responders (25%) reported an occasional alcohol consumption. Despite 82 out of 146 alcoholic drinkers (56%) were EDs-alcohol consumers, only 70 out of 583 adolescents (12%) reported habitual EDs consumption. Moreover, 38 out of 379 (10%) of all physically active adolescents reported frequent EDs consumption before sportive trainings. Study results highlight the need for primary prevention measures in communication campaigns and training delivered by school to limit potential health threats related to excess of EDs consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0844.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Regional integrated energy system; Fine energy storage model; Condition Value at Risk; Demand response mechanism; Wind power consumption
Online: 13 November 2023 (16:50:59 CET)
To address the problems of wind abandonment in the regional integrated energy system (RIES), which occurs when cogeneration unit operates in a heat-determined electricity operation mode, and the low efficiency of the energy storage system in a low-temperature environment, we propose an optimal scheduling method for RIES based on fine energy storage and wind power dissipation. First, a fine energy storage model is established on the source side and the conditional value at risk(CvaR) theory is used to quantify the uncertainty of wind power; then a combined heat and power demand response mechanism is introduced on the load side to reduce the peak-to-valley difference between heat and power loads, and to promote the consumption of wind power. Finally, with the objective of minimizing the total cost of RIES optimal dispatch, the example is solved on the MATLAB platform. The simulation results show that compared with the traditional model, the proposed model is not only more adaptable to the low-temperature environment, but also can effectively improve the system economy and wind power consumption.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy efficiency; Heating loads; heating ventilation and air conditioning; metaheuristic; optimization algorithms.
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:00:33 CET)
Reliable prediction of sustainable energy consumption is the key to designing environmental friend buildings. In this study, two novel hybrid intelligent methods, namely grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA), wind-driven optimization (WDO), and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is employed to optimize the multitarget prediction of heating loads (HLs) and cooling loads (CLs) in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Concerning the optimization of applied hybrid algorithms, a series of swarm-based iteration is performed, and the best structure for the abovementioned methods are proposed. Besides, through sensitivity analyzing the relationship between the HLs and CLs and influential factors are highlighted. In other words, the GOA, WDO, and BBO algorithm are mixed with a class of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANN), which called MLP (multi-layer perceptron) to predict the HLs and CLs. According to the provided sensitivity analysis, the WDO with swarm size = 500 proposes the most proper-fitted terms after it has been combined with optimized MLP. The proposed WDO-MLP (training (R2 correlation=0.977 and RMSE error=0.183) and testing (R2 correlation=0.973 and RMSE error=0.190)) provided accurate prediction in the heating load and (training (R2 correlation=0.99 and RMSE error=0.147) and testing (R2 correlation=0.99 and RMSE error=0.148)) presents the most-fit prediction in the cooling load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy strategy; improved cook stoves; Honduras
Online: 13 November 2019 (03:23:21 CET)
The high consumption of firewood in Honduras requires the search for alternatives that reduce its negative effects on health, economy, and the environment. One of these alternatives has been the promotion of improved cooking stoves, which achieve a large reduction in firewood consumption. This paper shows a cost-benefit analysis for an improved cooking stove adoption strategy for Honduras. The methodology uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System, LEAP, a tool globally used in the analysis and formulation of energy policies and strategies. The energy model considers the demand for firewood as well as the gradual introduction of improved cooking stoves, according to premises of a National Strategy. Hence, it is demonstrated that the costs of implementing this adoption strategy are lower than the costs of not implementing it, taking into consideration various scenarios up to and including the year 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy consumption; prediction; machine learning models; deep learning models; 21 artificial intelligence (AI); computational intelligence (CI); forecasting; soft computing (SC)
Online: 11 March 2019 (10:09:33 CET)
Machine learning (ML) methods has recently contributed very well in the advancement of the prediction models used for energy consumption. Such models highly improve the accuracy, robustness, and precision and the generalization ability of the conventional time series forecasting tools. This article reviews the state of the art of machine learning models used in the general application of energy consumption. Through a novel search and taxonomy the most relevant literature in the field are classified according to the ML modeling technique, energy type, perdition type, and the application area. A comprehensive review of the literature identifies the major ML methods, their application and a discussion on the evaluation of their effectiveness in energy consumption prediction. This paper further makes a conclusion on the trend and the effectiveness of the ML models. As the result, this research reports an outstanding rise in the accuracy and an ever increasing performance of the prediction technologies using the novel hybrid and ensemble prediction models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1567.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy consumption prediction; Energy management; Time series forecasting; Building energy consumption forecast; Covid-19 pandemic
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:47:09 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent implementation of lockdown measures have significantly impacted global electricity consumption, necessitating accurate energy consumption forecasts for optimal energy generation and distribution during a pandemic. In this study, we propose a new forecasting model called the Multivariate Multilayered LSTM with Covid-19 case injection ($\proposedModel$) for improved energy forecast during the next occurrence of a similar pandemic. We utilize data from commercial buildings in Melbourne, Australia during the Covid-19 pandemic to predict energy consumption and evaluate the model's performance against commonly used methods such as LSTM, Bi-LSTM, Linear Regression, Support Vector Machine and the previously published work of Multilayered LSTM (M-LSTM). The proposed forecasting model was analyzed using the following metrics of mean percent absolute error (MPAE), normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), and $R^2$ score values. The model $\proposedModel$ demonstrates superior performance, achieving the lowest MPAE values of 0.061, 0.093, and 0.158 for data sets from 3 different buildings, respectively. Our results highlight the improved precision and accuracy of the model, providing valuable information for energy management and decision-making during the challenges posed by the occurrence of a pandemic like Covid-19 in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: dynamic control; UAV; model predictive control; nonlinear MPC; trajectory tracking; energy consumption
Online: 10 November 2022 (01:56:54 CET)
For a decade, the studies of dynamic control for unmanned aerial vehicles took a large interest, where drones as a useful technology in different areas were always suffering from several issues like instability-high energy consumption of batteries - inaccuracy of tracking targets. Different approaches are proposed for dealing with the non-linearity issues which present the most important features of this system. This paper describes our focus on the most common control strategies, known as model predictive control MPC, by developing a model based on the sensors embedded in our Tello quadrotor used for indoor purposes. The original controller of Tello quadrotor is supposed to be a slave, where the designed model predictive controller is created in MATLAB and imported to another embedded system, considered as a master; the objective of this model is to track the reference trajectory, almost keeping the stability of the system and ensure the low energy consumption. In the first part, a profound description of the modelling process of a dynamic model for drones is presented, explaining the design of MPC controller with both linear and non-linear strategies built in MATLAB. In the final part, simulation and results are discussed regarding its behaviour and performance, highlighting the MPC model's important role on drones' energy consumption profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0316.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic growth; energy consumption; KEC; MENA countries; TG emissions
Online: 28 October 2019 (05:28:14 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to test the Kuznets Environmental Curve (KEC) hypothesis for 10 MENA (Middle East and North Africa) countries during the period 1987-2017. To do this, the translogical functional form has been adopted to estimate the relationship between Toxic Gases (TG) emissions, energy consumption and GDP per capita. The results confirm the presence of KEC, GDP per capita and energy consumption have a positive influence on TG emissions, and the presence of a feedback relationship between GDP per capita and energy consumption. As a result, the environmental framework of the selected countries improves as their level of growth has become more advanced. In addition, to reduce TG emissions, MENA countries are expected to significantly increase the use of renewable energy and a more efficient energy policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0219.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: space-air-ground integrated network; renewable energy; twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient; latency; energy consumption
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:24:56 CEST)
The ubiquitous connectivity for the space-air-ground integrated network (SAGIN) of the beyond fifth generation of communication and sixth generation of communication (B5G/6G) is envisaged to meet the needs for the demanded quality of service (QoS), green communication, and "dual carbon" target. However, the offloading and computation of massive latency-sensitive tasks dramatically increases the energy consumption of the network. Furthermore, the traditional power supply technology of the network base stations (BSs) enhances the carbon emission. To address these issues, we first propose a SAGIN architecture with energy harvesting devices, where the BS is powered by both renewable energy (RE) and the conventional grid. The BS explores wireless power transfer (WPT) technology to power the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for stable network operation. RE sharing between neighbouring BSs is designed to fully utilize RE for reduce carbon emission. Secondly, on the basis of task offloading decision, UAV trajectory, and RE sharing ratio, we construct cost functions with joint latency-oriented, energy consumption, and carbon emission. Then, we develop a twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient (TD3PG) algorithm based on deep reinforcement learning to minimize the cost function. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the benchmark algorithm in terms of reducing latency, energy saving, and lower carbon emission.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Recurrent Neural Network; Renewable Energy; Power consumption; Open Power System Data; Multivariate Exploratory; Time series forecasting
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:44:29 CEST)
The environmental issues we are currently facing require long-term prospective efforts for sustainable growth. Renewable energy sources seem to be one of the most practical and efficient alternatives in this regard. Understanding a nation's pattern of energy use and renewable energy production is crucial for developing strategic plans. No previous study has been performed to explore the dynamics of power consumption with the change in renewable energy production on a country-wide scale. In contrast, a number of deep learning algorithms demonstrated acceptable performance while handling sequential data in the era of data-driven predictions. In this study, we developed a scheme to investigate and predict total power consumption and renewable energy production time series for eleven years of data using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). The dynamics of the interaction between the total annual power consumption and renewable energy production are investigated through extensive Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and a feature engineering framework. The performance of the model is found satisfactory through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) value of 0.084. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyperparameter tuning. The proposed framework can be used and transferred to investigate the trend of renewable energy production and power consumption and predict the future scenarios for different communities. Incorporation of the cloud-based platform into the proposed pipeline may lead to real-time forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0171.v1
Subject: Automotive Engineering, Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; efficiency; EV (electric vehicle); simulation; optimization
Online: 4 December 2023 (10:11:59 CET)
In this study, we focused on the eco-driving of electric vehicles (EVs). The target vehicle is an electric bus developed by our research team. Using the parameters of the bus and speed pattern optimization algorithm, we derived the EV eco-driving speed pattern. Compared to eco-driving of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs), we found several different characteristics. We verified these characteristics with actual vehicle driving test data of the target bus, and the results confirmed its rationality. The EV eco-driving method can improve electricity consumption by about 10% - 20% under the same average speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0547.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: smart antenna systems; MANET; MAC; energy consumption; beamforming; round robin
Online: 24 October 2018 (05:03:20 CEST)
The use of Smart Antenna Systems (SAS) in pervasive environments such the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) has been promoted as the best choice to improve Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) and throughput. Although directional communications are expected to provide great advantages in terms of network performance, directional MAC (Medium Access Control) protocols introduce several issues. One of the most known problems in this context is represented by the fact that, attempting to solve or at least mitigate the problems introduced by these kinds of antennas especially at MAC layer, a large amount of energy consumption is achieved ; for example, due to excessive retransmissions introduced by very frequently issue such as deafness and handoff. The expedients proposed in order to reduce these drawbacks attempting to limit beamforming time of nodes in cooperation with a Round-Robin scheduling, can grant high performance in terms of fairness and throughput. However the overall energy consumption in the network is not efficent due to the static approach. In view of this, we propose an Adaptive Beamforming Time with Round-Robin MAC providing for a dynamic assignment of the beamforming time with the purpose to limit the waste of energy of nodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0180.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; smart cities; IoT; deep learning; big data; soft computing; sustainable urban development; building energy; energy demand and consumption; sustainable cities
Online: 17 August 2019 (04:11:44 CEST)
Building energy consumption plays an essential role in urban sustainability. The prediction of the energy demand is also of particular importance for developing smart cities and urban planning. Machine learning has recently contributed to the advancement of methods and technologies to predict demand and consumption for building energy systems. This paper presents a state of the art of machine learning models and evaluates the performance of these models. Through a systematic review and a comprehensive taxonomy, the advances of machine learning are carefully investigated and promising models are introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: maritime safety; energy efficiency; green and sustainable port; ships safety; environmental impact; emissions
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:02:02 CEST)
In many ports, the ship's speed is limited for the safety of navigation. At the same time, ship captains and port pilots choose the speed of the ship, but not higher than the permitted speed of the ship in the port, therefore the speed of the ship also depends on the experience of the ship captains and port pilots and the sailing conditions of the ship in specific conditions. Choosing the optimal speed of ships in port, including the effect of shallow depth, can reduce fuel consumption and ship emissions in ports, which is important for the development of green and sustainable ports. In all cases, shipping safety is the highest priority. The main objectives of the article are determining the optimal speed of ships in ports with low clearance, ensuring navigational safety, reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and at the same time creating a sustainable port. The article presents the methodology of optimal ship speed calculation, minimum ship controllable speed maintenance, fuel consumption and emission reduction methodology and their impact on sustainable and green maritime transport and port development. The developed methodology was tested on real ships and with the help of a calibrated simulator, sailing through harbor channels and harbor waters in low clearance conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1778.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; artificial neural network; predictive analysis; MBT; energy efficiency
Online: 27 October 2023 (10:02:08 CEST)
The aims of this paper can be traced back to goals number seven, twelve and thirteen introduced by Agenda 2030, namely "affordable and clean energy", “responsible consumption and production” and "climate action”, respectively. This is due to the fact that the present work supports decarbonization processes acting in a direct way on the electricity consumption achieved by plants pertaining to the waste industry; in fact, this study aims at the realization of a machine learning model for predicting the energy consumption achieved by a mechanical biological treatment (MBT) waste plant located in central Italy, given the distribution of the entering waste. This model is implemented in MATLAB. The model can be used to tune the distribution of the entering waste in order to adapt the plant energy consumption to the capability of the energy sources and can serve as a play-ground model for other energy transformation plants. The results of the study, which feed the literature on the application of artificial intelligence to real industrial plants, could be used to determine energy efficiency actions that could be incorporated into Property’s strategic planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hauling operations; optimum schedule; energy consumption; CO2 emission; hauler
Online: 26 September 2016 (10:12:16 CEST)
Mass hauling operations play central roles in construction projects. They typically use many haulers that consume large amounts of energy and emit significant quantities of CO2. However, practical methods for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of such operations during project planning are lacking. This paper presents a detailed model for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of mass haulers that integrates the mass hauling plan with a set of predictive equations. The mass hauling plan is generated using a planning program such as DynaRoad in conjunction with data on the productivity of selected haulers and the amount of material to be hauled during cutting, filling, borrowing, and disposal operations. This plan is then used as input for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the selected hauling fleet. The proposed model will help planners to assess the energy and environmental performance of mass hauling plans, and to select hauler and fleet configurations that will minimize these quantities. The model was applied in a case study, demonstrating that it can reliably predict energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and hauler productivity as functions of the hauling distance for individual haulers and entire hauling fleets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0630.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Integrated energy systems (IES); Buildings, Optimization; Indoor somatosensory comfort; PV consumption
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:04:47 CET)
Building energy consumption is the main urban energy consumption component, which mainly serves people-centered work and living energy demands. Based on the physical requirements of humans in urban buildings and to determine the comfortable body temperature in each season, this paper establishes a sizing optimization model of building-type integrated energy systems (IES), where the cooling and heating loads required to maintain indoor somatosensory body comfortable temperature are calculated. Depending on the external energy price, internal power balance and other constraints, the model develops an optimal sizing and capacity panning method of energy conversion and storage unit in a building-type IES with PV generation. The operating principle is described as follows: the PV generation is fully consumed, a gas engine satisfies the electric and thermal base load requirements, while the power system and a heat pump supply the remaining loads. The gas price, peak-valley electricity price gap and heat-topower ratio of gas engines are considered as important factors for the overall techno-economic analysis. The developed method is applied to optimize the economic performance of building-type IES and verified by practical examples. The results show that using the complementary characteristics of different energy conversion units is important to the overall IES cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Energy Consumption; Natural Ventilation; Dwelling Design; CFD Simulation; Hot Dry Climate.
Online: 5 January 2023 (11:02:08 CET)
This paper evaluates an architectural design using an Energy Consumption consideration of Natural Ventilation in a hot dry climate (Khartoum State), at dwellings design applied. Method was used analysis of Autodesk IEVS software natural ventilation and energy consumption simulation. It resulted that to cooling, by natural ventilation in dwelling design used to get indoor temperature at the comfortable level during the summer. The Best-Case Situation of natural ventilation with consider of energy saving Based on the CFD simulation analysis, the performance of internal air velocity is approximately 0.7m/s. The wind velocity starts to slow down towards the rear of the apartment spaces. Approximately 95% of the internal areas have average air velocity between 0.43 m/s to 0.9 m/s. Internal Air flow pattern single floor house plan at Khartoum (Alazhari City); showing the internal air velocity of 0.7m/s near the window opening positions with the wind directions in the details and pressure of the air as worst-case situation, with velocity and temperature of the air with average 22o as a best-case situation. during a year. Architectural design process in the urban area of Alazhari City for dwelling towards to saving energy was applied and determined into an urban planning neighbourhood at Khartoum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0138.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Energy consumption; BRICS; GM (1, 1); Fractional-order; GREY; Forecasting accuracy
Online: 5 April 2021 (13:51:38 CEST)
Brazil, Russia, China, India, and the Republic of South Africa (BRICS) represent developing economies facing different energy and economic development challenges. The current study aims to forecast energy consumption in BRICS at aggregate and disaggregate levels using the annual time series data set from 1992 to 2019 and to compare results obtained from a set of models. The time-series data are from the British Petroleum (BP-2019) Statistical Review of World Energy. The forecasting methodology bases on a novel Fractional-order Grey Model (FGM) with different order parameters. This study contributes to the literature by comparing the forecasting accuracy and the forecasting ability of the FGM(1,1) with traditional ones, like standard GM(1,1) and ARIMA(1,1,1) models. Also, it illustrates the view of BRICS's nexus of energy consumption at aggregate and disaggregates levels using the latest available data set, which will provide a reliable and broader perspective. The Diebold-Mariano test results confirmed the equal predictive ability of FGM(1,1) for a specific range of order parameters and the ARIMA(1,1,1) model and the usefulness of both approaches for energy consumption efficient forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: power consumption; material removal rate; specific energy consumption; grain density; modeling
Online: 25 February 2019 (10:01:43 CET)
The energy efficiency of grinding depends on the appropriate selection of cutting conditions, grinding wheel and workpiece material. Additionally, the estimation of specific energy consumption is a good indicator to control the energy consumed during the grinding process. Consequently, this study develops a model of material removal rate to estimate the specific energy consumption based on the measurement of active power consumed in a plane surface grinding of C45K with different thermal treatments and AISI 304. This model identifies and evaluates the power dissipated by sliding, ploughing and chip formation in a industrial-scale grinding process. Furthermore, the instantaneous positions of the abrasive grains during cutting are described to study the material removal rate. The estimation of specific chip formation energy is similar to that described by other authors in laboratory scale, which allows to validate the model and experiments. Finally, the results show that the energy consumed by sliding is the main phenomenon of energy dissipation in industrial-scale grinding process, where it is denoted that sliding energy by volume unity decreases as the depth of cut and speed of workpiece increase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: ANN; energy consumption; optimization; direct fired absorption chiller; validation
Online: 5 September 2023 (11:28:53 CEST)
With an increasing concern for global warming, there have been many attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About 30 % of total energy has been consumed by buildings and much attention has been paid to reducing building energy consumption. While there are many ways of reducing building energy consumption, accurate energy consumption prediction becomes more significant. As mechanical systems are the most energy-consuming components in the building, the present study developed the energy consumption prediction model for a direct-fired absorption chiller by using the ANN technique for the short term. The ANN model was optimized and validated with the actual data collected through a BAS. For the optimization, the numbers of input variables and neurons, and the data size of training were applied. By changing these parameters, the predictive performance was analyzed. In sum, the outcome of the present study can used to predict the energy consumption of the chiller as well as improve the efficiency of the energy management. The outcome of the present study can be used to develop a more accurate prediction model with a few datasets in that it can improve the efficiency of building energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Virtual Choreograhies; Behaviour-change; Energy consumption; Human-behaviour representation
Online: 28 April 2022 (08:55:28 CEST)
Reducing office buildings’ energy consumption can contribute significantly towards carbon reduction commitments since it represents 10% of total energy consumption. Major components are lighting (40% of consumption), electrical equipment (35%), and heating and central cooling systems (25\%). Occupants’ behaviours impact these energy consumption components, with solid evidence on the role of individual behaviours. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses virtual choreographies to identify and prioritize behaviour-change interventions towards office users based on the potential impact on energy consumption. The data shows that some behaviours with significant consumption have little potential for behavioural change impact, while other behaviours hold substantial potential for lowering energy consumption via behavioural change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0455.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy modeling; biomass transformation efficiency; global change assessment model; integrated assessment model; cooking fuel
Online: 31 January 2022 (12:45:00 CET)
The building sector of most tropical countries still use predominantly primary biomass as the principal fuel. This has adverse effects like CO2 emission and deforestation and is associated with issues like poverty, ill-health, and low standard of living. Therefore, energy policies try to improve on the efficiency of firewood and charcoal end-use technologies, to palliate the negative effects. In this research, the global change assessment model (GCAM) is used, to investigate the impact of efficiency improvement on the energy consumption pattern of the building sector of developing countries. The aim of the study is to provide empirical data that would better inform policymakers on the effects of modernizing these primary fuels. The study developed three scenarios with different levels of efficiency improvements. The results show that efficiency improvement rather increases primary biomass consumption and CO2 emission. However, there is a fall in the consumption of traditional biomass in the second half of the modelling period. The increase in biomass-based fuels consumption was seen to be linked to their affordability. Therefore, policymakers need not only elaborate policies that improve biomass efficiency, but also introduce and motivate other clean cooking fuels like butane, biogas, and electricity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1036.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Renewable energy, CO2 emission, Economic growth, FMOLS, DOLS, ARDL, Panel data
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:11:35 CEST)
The study presents empirical results investigating the relationships among renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and GDP within the Visegrád Group (V4) countries. Using FMOLS/DOLS and ARDL approaches, along with causality tests based on the Toda-Yamamoto method, the study explores these relationships at a regional level. The findings indicate that renewable energy has a small positive impact on long-term economic growth, with non-renewable energy having a more significant effect. Moreover, CO2 emissions have a negative impact on economic growth, suggesting ongoing reliance on non-renewable energy sources and a burden on economic expansion. On an individual country level, the effects vary. Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary exhibit a negative relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth. Energy sources also differ in impact: in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, non-renewable energy significantly affects economic growth, while in Hungary, renewable energy plays a more substantial role. Causality tests reveal a causal relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the Czech Republic and Poland, suggesting CO2 emissions significantly influence economic expansion. In terms of energy production, renewable energy is causally related to economic growth in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. All countries demonstrate significant causality between non-renewable energy and economic growth. Additionally, a relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions is confirmed in Poland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1697.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CNC milling system; the energy consumption of the operator; exergy analysis; the specific exergy loss
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:25:36 CEST)
Modeling and assessing the sustainability of machining systems has been considered to be a crucial approach to improving the environmental performance of the machining processes. As the most common machining system, the computer numerical control (CNC) milling system is a typical man-machine cooperative system where the activities of the machine tool and operator generate material and energy consumption. However, the energy consumption of the operator in the CNC milling system has often been ignored in most existing research. Therefore, existing methods fail to provide a comprehensive understanding of the sustainability of the CNC milling system. To fill this gap, an exergy loss assessment method is proposed to investigate the sustainability of the CNC milling system, where the energy consumption of the operator, the energy consumption of the machine tool, and material consumption are taken into consideration. The key performance indexes of the energy consumption of the operator, the energy consumption of the machine tool, the exergy loss, and the specific exergy loss (SEL) are analyzed and modeled. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, a case study was carried out on a three-axis machining center (XH714D), in which SEL was found to be 88.04J/mm3. The proposed method is effective to assess the sustainability of the CNC milling system, and the established exergy loss models build a good basis for exergy efficiency optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0319.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: co2 emission; energy consumption; production of electricity; gdp
Online: 26 November 2019 (15:22:44 CET)
Results of rapid economic growth, China, USA, and India have become the largest energy stealer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world and burn over 45% of global fuels in 2016. Meanwhile, the developing strategies of 24 polluted countries to decrease the energy consumption without additional economic output. This paper is exploring the effect of world top polluted countries C02 emission and their GDP and the production of electricity by energy indicators. The GLM model is not predict logistic and probit analysis directly; instead, it is mainly used for instinct to response of CO2 emission, using data for the period 1968-2017. The huge production of electricity will cause of abnormal CO2; this study offers true indication of exploring consumption of energy issues from the perspective of Granger casual and a positive unidirectional causality is detected between energy consumption to economic growth, while short-run bidirectional casualty exists among energy indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0338.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: renewable energy; economic; institutional factors; social factors; Bayesian Average Classical Estimates (BACE); Paris Agreement
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:39:27 CEST)
The aim of the paper is to identify the most likely factors that determine the demand for Renewa-ble Energy Consumption (R.E.C.) in European countries. Although in Europe a high environmen-tal awareness is omnipresent, countries differ in scope and share of R.E.C. due to historical ener-getic policies and dependencies, investments into renewable and traditional energetic sectors, R&D development, structural changes required by energetic policy change, and many other fac-tors. The study refers to a set of macroeconomic, institutional, and social factors affecting energetic renewable policy and R.E.C. in selected European countries in two points of time: i.e., before and after the Paris Agreement. The Bayesian Average Classical Estimates (BACE) is applied to indicate the most likely factors affecting R.E.C. in 2015 and 2018. The comparison of the results reveals that the G.D.P. level, nuclear and hydro energy consumption were the determinants significant in both analyzed years. Furthermore, it became clear that in 2015 the R.E.C. depended strongly on the energy consumption structure, while in 2018, the foreign direct investment and trade openness played their role in increasing renewable energy consumption. The direction of changes is positive and complies with sustainable development goals (S.D.G.s).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0850.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: decomposition analysis; driving factors; energy consumption; logarithmic -mean divisa Index method; road transport
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:47:31 CEST)
The population growth, economic development and urbanization of the city of Douala in Cameroon are facing great challenges, particularly environmental and economic problems. However, there is an evolution of the road transport sector that has led to an excessive increase in the consumption of fossil fuels and over the last decades to an increase in greenhouse gases in the road transport sector. From this observation, no real policy has yet been put in place with a view to improving the energy efficiency of the transport sector. This work aim at analyzing the driving force factors of energy consumption in road transport in the city of Douala. In this study, a decomposition analysis through the Logarithmic Mean Divisa Index (LMDI) method is used during the period 2010-2019 to quantify their respective contributions in energy consumption. We have broken down road transport energy consumption into four main factors as main determinants such as: vehicle energy intensity, vehicle intensity, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and population. The results show that vehicle energy intensity, vehicle intensity, GDP per capita and population effect all have a positive impact on energy consumption and therefore main responsible for the increase in fuel consumption energy contributing respectively to 13.06%, 31.30%, 12.85% and 42.76% of the total variation of energy consumption. It is therefore necessary to implement several energy saving strategies in order to achieve a rationalization of energy consumption for a reduction of road transport energy. Political decision-makers must take such a study into account to better integrate the notion of sustainable transport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0285.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Mobile Edge Computing; Internet Of Things; Cost Minimization Model; Energy Consumption; Scheduling Algorithm
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:23:33 CET)
Advances in communication technologies have made the interaction of small devices, such as smartphones, wearables, and sensors, scattered on the Internet, bringing a whole new set of complex applications with ever greater task processing needs. These Internet of Things (IoT) devices run on batteries with strict energy restrictions. They tend to offload task processing to remote servers, usually to Cloud Computing (CC) in datacenters geographically located away from the IoT device. In such a context, this work proposes a dynamic cost model to minimize energy consumption and task processing time for IoT scenarios in Mobile Edge Computing environments. Our approach allows for a detailed cost model, with an algorithm called TEMS that considers energy, time consumed during processing, the cost of data transmission, and energy in idle devices. The task scheduling chooses among Cloud or Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) server or local IoT devices to better execution time with lower cost. The simulated environment evaluation saved up to 51.6% energy consumption and improved task completion time up to 86.6%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Forecast, Power, Monkeypox, COVID-19, Fuel, Price, Energy, Pandemic, Stochastic, ARIMAX.
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:59:31 CEST)
The COVID-19 epidemic and the measures adopted to contain it have had a significant impact on energy patterns throughout the world. The pandemic and movement restrictions led to unpredictable fluctuations in power systems demand and the fuel price for a delayed period. Monkeypox, another viral disease, appeared during the post-COVID period. It is assumed that the outbreak of monkeypox is unlikely due to the implication of preventive measures experienced by COVID-19. At the same time, the probability of an epidemic cannot be blindly overlooked. This paper aims to examine and analyze historical data to look at how much petroleum fuel was used for generating power and how the price of petroleum fuel changed over seven years, from January 2016 to August 2022. This period covers the time before the COVID-19 pandemic, during the pandemic, and after the pandemic. Several time-series forecasting models, including all four benchmark methods (Mean, Naïve, Drift, and Snaïve), Seasonal and Trend decomposition using Loess (STL), Exponential Smoothing (ETS), and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) methods have been applied for both fuel consumption and price prediction. The best forecasting method for fuel price and consumption has been identified among these methods. The paper also utilizes the ARIMAX model by incorporating multiple exogenous variables, such as monthly mean temperature, mean fuel price, and mileage of vehicles traveling during a certain period of pandemic lock-down. It will assist in capturing the non-smooth and stochastic pattern of fuel consumption and price due to the pandemic by separating the seasonal influence and thus provide a prediction of the consumption pattern in the event of any future pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0491.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; KNN; energy consumption; energy-intensive manufacturing; time series prediction; industry
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:19:45 CEST)
To minimise environmental impact, avoid regulatory penalties, and improve competitiveness, energy-intensive manufacturing firms require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. Deep learning is widely touted as a superior analytical technique to traditional artificial neural networks, machine learning, and other classical time series models due to its high dimensionality and problem solving capabilities. Despite this, research on its application in demand-side energy forecasting is limited. We compare two benchmarks (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and an existing manual technique used at the case site) against three deep learning models (simple Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)) and three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVM), Random Forest, and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)) for short term load forecasting (STLF) using data from a Brazilian thermoplastic resin manufacturing plant. We use the grid search method to identify the best configurations for each model, and then use Diebold-Mariano testing to confirm the results. Results suggests that the legacy approach used at the case site is the worst performing, and that the GRU model outperformed all other models tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0277.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Collaborative forecast; Support vector regression; China-Japan-South Korea; Primary energy consumption
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:13:35 CEST)
This study aims at improving the forecast accuracy of primary energy consumptions in China, Japan and South Korea and verifying the correlation in primary energy consumptions among the neighboring countries. Considering the diversity of primary energy composition, this study selects 6 components of primary energy, including oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, hydropower and renewable energy as characteristic variables. A collaborative prediction model based on SVR for primary energy consumption prediction is proposed to explore the correlation of primary energy consumption among three countries in China, Japan and South Korea. The results show that there is a strong correlation between primary energy consumption when multiple countries make collaborative prediction, among which the primary energy consumption of South Korea has the largest impact on the primary energy consumption of China and Japan. In the primary energy cooperation of China-Japan-South Korea, a primary energy cooperation system with the South Korea as the link should be established through regional coordination to alleviate the shortage of traditional fossil energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: climate change; energy policy; exergy analysis; exergetic intensity; greenhouse gases
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:11:11 CEST)
Diverse factors may have an impact in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; thus, three main contributors, energy consumption, exergy indicator and gross domestic product (GDP) are examined in this work. This study explores the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by means of the hypothesis postulated for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Panel data for 10 countries, from 1971 to 2014 have been studied. Despite all this wide gamma of research, the role of an exergy variable has not been tested to find the EKC; then exergy analysis is proposed. Exergy analyses were developed to propose an exergetic indicator as a control variable and a comparative empirical study is developed to study a multivariable framework with the aim to detect correlations between them. High correlation between CO2, GDP, energy consumption, energy intensity and trade openness are observed, conversely not statistically significant values for trade openness and energy intensity. The results do not support the EKC hypothesis, however exergy intensity opens the door for future research once it proves to be a useful control variable. Exergy provides opportunities to analyze and implement energy and environmental policies in these countries, with the possibility to link exergy efficiencies and the use of renewables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0204.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Carbon emissions; infant mortality rate; per capita income; nonrenewable energy; Asia and the Pacific region
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:26 CEST)
This study aligns with the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals- 3 which aim to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. It contributes to the nascent literature stream on energy-health dynamics by introducing a holistic theoretical model to empirically examine the mediation effect of carbon emissions on the relationship between nonrenewable energy and infant mortality rates. Using an unbalanced panel data on 42 Asia and the Pacific countries from 2005 to 2015 and deploying the structural equation modeling approach, the empirical results are surmised as follows: (i) in regard to the full sample of countries, nonrenewable energy indirectly increases infant mortality rates through increasing carbon emissions. In other words, carbon emissions play a partial mediation role between nonrenewable energy and infant mortality rates; and (ii) for the different income groups, carbon emissions show varying mediation effects. For example, the mediation effects of carbon emissions in lower-middle and upper-middle income countries are found to be similar to those of the full sample of countries. Therefore, based on these findings, we conclude that nonrenewable energy is an essential determinant of infant mortality rates. Policy recommendations are put forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Grocery Delivery, Energy-Savings, CO2-Savings, Munich, Break-Even Point, Electric Delivery Vehicle, Customer Pickup, Modal Shift
Online: 20 December 2018 (12:46:13 CET)
TThe number of supermarkets offering a grocery delivery has been increasing during the last years. Many studies deduce CO2 emission savings using this concept. Since the delivery of groceries also consumes energy and produces emissions, break-even points can be calculated, from where the delivery has environmental advantages compared to the customer pickup. In this paper, influences of differing vehicle use on break-even points for savings of energy and CO2 emissions are analyzed for the case of Haidhausen Süd, a city district of Munich in Germany. Internal combustion engine and electric vehicles are investigated to depict current as well as future trends. After an introduction to the used methodology, the potential to save energy and CO2 emissions related to the delivery of groceries in the chosen district of Munich is evaluated. Afterwards, influences on the break even points are presented and discussed. As the results show, a delivery of groceries leads to energy and carbon dioxide savings in a wide range of private vehicle use for grocery shopping trips. Nevertheless, if the complete customer vehicle fleet is electrified, the use of delivery vehicles with an internal combustion engine can cause an additional environmental impact at the current modal split for shopping trips in Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy use; demand-controlled ventilation; hybrid ventilation; humidity; multi-unit residential building; simulation; CONTAM
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:16:41 CET)
A humidity-sensitive demand-controlled ventilation system is known for many years. It has been developed and commonly applied in regions with an oceanic climate. Some attempts were made to introduce this solution in Poland in a much severe continental climate. The article evaluates this system's performance and energy consumption applied in an 8-floor multi-unit residential building, virtual reference building described by the National Energy Conservation Agency NAPE, Poland. The simulations using the computer program CONTAM were performed for the whole hating season for Warsaw's climate. Besides passive stack ventilation that worked as a reference, two versions of humidity-sensitive demand-controlled ventilation were checked. The difference between them lies in applying the additional roof fans that convert the system to hybrid. The study confirmed that the application of demand-controlled ventilation in multi-unit residential buildings in a continental climate with warm summer (Dfb) leads to significant energy savings. However, the efforts to ensure acceptable indoor air quality require hybrid ventilation, which reduces the energy benefits. It is especially visible when primary energy use is analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: agent-based model; electric vehicles; traffic simulation; energy intake; urban environment; fuel costs; public policy; electric mobility
Online: 29 April 2022 (11:05:15 CEST)
By 2020, over 100 countries expanded electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (EV/PHEV) technologies, with global sales surpassing 7 million units. Governments are adopting cleaner vehicle technologies due to proven environmental and health implications of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), evidenced by the recent COP26 meeting. This article proposes an agent-based model of vehicle activity as a tool for quantifying energy consumption by simulating a fleet of EV/PHEVs within an urban street network at various spatio-temporal resolutions. Driver behaviour plays a significant role in fuel consumption, thus, simulating various levels of individual behaviour enhancing heterogeneity should provide more accurate results of potential energy demand in cities. The study found that 1) energy consumption is lowest when speed limit adherence increases (low variance in behaviour) and is highest when acceleration/deceleration patterns vary (high variance in behaviour) and 2) on average, for tested vehicles, EV/PHEVs were £116.33 cheaper to run than ICEVs across all experiment conditions. The difference in the average fuel costs (electricity and petrol) shrinks at the vehicle level as driver behaviour is less varied (more homogeneous). This research should allow policymakers to quantify the demand for energy and subsequent fuel costs in cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: carbon emissions; energy consumption; technology efficiency; Gini index; generalised entropy index; fossil fuels; non-fossil fuels; petroleum; coal; natural gas
Online: 16 February 2020 (15:20:21 CET)
Primary energy consumption is one of the key drivers of global CO2 emissions that, in turn, heavily depend on the efficiency of involved technologies. Either the improvement in technology efficiency or the expansion of non-fossil fuel consumption require large investments. The planning and financing of such investments, by policy makers or global energy firms, require, in turn, reliable measures of associated global spreads and their evolution in time. In this paper, our main contribution is the introduction of index measures for accessing global spreads (that is, measures of inequality or inhomogeneity in the statistical distribution of a related quantity of interest) of technology efficiency and CO2 emission in primary energy consumption. These indexes are based on the Gini index, as used in economical sciences, and generalised entropy measures. Regarding primary energy sources, we consider petroleum, coal, natural gas and non-fossil fuels. Between our findings, we attest some stable relations in the evolution of global spreads of technology efficiency and CO2 emission, and a positive relation between changes in global spreads of technology efficiency and use of non-fossil fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: energy saving; lighting control; smart lighting; green buildings; building automation
Online: 18 March 2022 (04:19:49 CET)
Global temperature rise due to hydrocarbon gases emission that are produced by generating the electrical power has a great attention by the researchers to reduce it till zero emission is successfully achieved. Sustainable energy source such as solar energy, wind, hydro-energy and sea wave energy are focal areas to replace the fossil fuel by clean energy. In this article, daylight is used to minimize the power consumption that required for indoor lighting using electric roller blind. Smart controller is designed to adjust the position of the roller blind stepper motor, and hence, adjust the roller blind opening, based on the preset light intensity, to achieve precise utilization of daylight inside the room. If the desired Lux is not achieved for any reason, the smart controller adjusts the LED circuit current to boost the light intensity to achieve precisely the desired Lux. Comprehensive test cases using MATLAB-Simulink is carried out to verify the performance of the proposed smart controller. Techno-economic analysis is introduced to evaluate the benefits of installing the controller. Summary and recommendation are given at the end.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0249.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Green energy; Natural resource rents; Economic growth; SDGs; FGLS; PMG & MG
Online: 16 September 2022 (11:37:20 CEST)
The concept of green energy is now at the forefront of development discourse, with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 7, 11, and 12 all aimed at promoting green energy consumption to combat the three planetary crises: climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution. Similarly, issues regarding Africa’s natural resource curse have caused a stir in the growth and development literature for some time now and there is no sign that it will die out. This study, the first of its kind, simultaneously assesses the impact of green energy consumption and Africa’s natural resources rents on economic growth by applying the Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS) estimator and the dynamic panel models of the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) and Mean Group (MG) estimators on data from 1990 to 2020 for 24 selected African countries. The results show that green energy consumption has a short-run growth-limiting effect and a long-run growth-enhancing effect in Africa. The study also found evidence of the natural resource curse phenomenon in Africa. The study, therefore, calls for the advancement and usage of green energy for both domestic and industrial production in Africa. The study further calls for a revamp in the global tax policy to curb illicit financial activities and strengthening institutional quality for transparency and accountability in the entire value chain of natural resource management in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1046.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing; Life Cycle Assessment; carbon footprint; solid waste; greenhouse gas emissions; energy consumption; environmental impact; sustainable development
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:02:04 CEST)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been proving suitable to support or even replace traditional manufacturing in several industries, offering many advantages such as delivery time and reduction in terms of material waste, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study aimed to carry out a comparative assessment of the life cycle, from gate to gate, in the production of a low alloy carbon steel flange part using ER-90 wire. The methods utilized were Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) and conventional manufacturing (CM) by forging, and comparative factors were energy demands, GHG emissions and generated solid waste. The total energy consumption in WAAM was 10,239.40 MJ, total carbon footprint in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) was 714.1 kgCO2e kg-1, and generated solid waste was 68.6 kg, respectively, 90%, 95% and 76% lower than consumption calculated in conventional manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0283.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: energy policy; energy economics; renewable energy; fossil energy; nuclear energy; hybrid energy; teaching
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:33:09 CEST)
Issues related to safe and abundant energy production have been prominent in recent years. This is particularly tr ue when society considers how to increase the quality of life by providing low-cost energy to citizens. A significant concern of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relates to the environmental effects of energy production and energy use associated with climate change. Efforts to reduce fossil fuel use and increase the use of renewable energy, together with the price volatility of fossil fuels, have seriously impacted the economics of many of the oil-producing countries, particularly the Gulf States, which has led to efforts to make their economies more diverse and less dependent on oil production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2079.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Energy literacy; energy reviews; energy-related knowledge; energy transitions; energy education.
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:21:33 CEST)
The world is facing an energy crisis. Governments are seeking to provide universal energy access and guarantee energy security while trying to mitigate climate change. One possible solution is energy transitions towards low carbon energy systems. Among other things (physical infrastructure, public policy and regulatory enablers and knowledge and capacities) changes in the energy systems require a well informed and participative citizenship. Within this context the concept of energy literacy appears. Energy literacy is the understanding of how energy is generated, transported, stored, distributed and used, awareness about its environmental and social impacts and the knowledge to use it efficiently in the different sectors of the economy. This paper provides a systematic literature review in the Web of Science’s Core Collection. Most of the work done around energy literacy addresses its evaluation among different groups, particularly students at different levels, and the construction, application and evaluation of tools for improving energy literacy. Other frequently studied issues are the influence of energy literacy in decision making, its drivers and conceptual research about the topic. Energy enables citizens to effectively contribute to energy efficiency and sustainable development, nevertheless energy literacy is not strongly correlated to energy consumption habits.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0294.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Dark Energy; Entropic Energy; Suprathermal Energy
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:53:59 CET)
The Universe at last scattering is locally treated as an unbound gas. The internal kinetic energy of the gas effectively constitutes a scalar energy field. The gas’s adiabatic expansion is entropic, giving repulsive entropic pressure. Gas kinetic energy is converted into entropic energy gain (63%) and isoentropic work against gravity (37%) at a constant 63:37 ratio. A three-term expression of the gas’s Hubble parameter is derived and found to be exclusively dependent on its mass density. At last scattering, this model gives a Hubble constant that is 125% of the value found from the ΛCDM model. After partition of Universal mass into the cosmic web of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM), expansion came mostly from the IGM, presently comprising about 84% of total Universal mass and 90% of its volume. The onset of star formation within the cosmic web increased the IGM’s kinetic energy through the action of starlight, giving free electrons as an additional repository. Many of these free electrons are suprathermal. Suprathermal energy from both electrons and protons comprises about half of the IGM’s total kinetic energy and is expressed in the ΛCDM model as “dark energy” Λ. Entropic pressure derives from thermodynamic laws not found within general relativity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Energy efficiency; Lifecycle analysis (LCA); Embodied energy; Source energy; Site energy; Energy savings; Energy payback period.
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:13:47 CET)
This article aims to assess the benefits of floor-slab insulation measures using extruded polystyrene (XPS) and polyisocyanurate (polyiso) insulation materials at various levels of insulation thicknesses for a detached residential building. The EnergyPlus simulation analysis was carried out within the seven energy zones (represented by eight locations) of South Africa in accordance with the South African national code for building energy efficiency (SANS10400-XA). The energy savings and payback periods due to use of the insulation over a lifecycle period of 50 years were assessed. Cape Town (zone 4) behaved differently from other locations and hardly benefitted from the application of floor-slab insulation measures. Generally, polyiso insulation performed better than XPS, for vertical gap insulation. For vertical gap insulation, lower insulation thicknesses required higher insulation depths to maximize energy savings. Similarly, lower insulation thicknesses required higher perimeter insulation widths to maximize energy savings, for the horizontal perimeter insulation method. The locations that benefitted most from vertical gap floor-slab insulation were Pretoria (zone2), Kimberley (zone6), Nelspruit (zone3), Fraserburg (zone7), Welkom (zone1), Mthatha (zone5), Ixopo (zone5H) and Cape Town (zone4) in that order. This order was almost similar with those for the horizontal perimeter floor-slab insulation and horizontal full floor-slab insulation methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy poverty; primary energy; renewable energy; distributed generation; energy storage
Online: 5 February 2020 (03:31:29 CET)
Following an updated outlook of global energy production and utilization, we show through selected examples from both developing and developed countries how distributed generation from renewable energy sources, and from solar energy in particular, is the key solution to ending energy poverty across the world. Guidelines aimed at policy makers suggest a systems view of energy that will be instrumental in guiding the transition from fossil fuels to combustion-free renewable energy for all energy end uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0705.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; batteries; energy storage; energy challenges
Online: 9 August 2023 (04:24:25 CEST)
This analysis focuses on identifying the most efficient and cost-effective method of supplying power to a remote site, exploring photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines as primary power sources, and evaluating battery banks and hydrogen storage fuel cell systems as potential storage options. The hydrogen storage system converts surplus renewable power into hydrogen through an elec-trolyzer, storing it for later use in a fuel cell when renewable sources produce less power, enabling efficient energy storage during peak production periods. A sensitivity analysis of wind speed and hydrogen subsystem cost was conducted to evaluate the hydrogen storage system's performance. The optimal system graph suggests that the hydrogen subsystem must significantly decrease in cost to rival the battery bank, and in most cases, both the hydrogen system and battery bank were recommended together, offering reliable and efficient power for the remote site. While the battery bank is presently the more feasible option for powering the remote site, continuous monitoring and evaluation of both systems, considering site location, energy needs, and available resources, are essential to determine the most suitable power supply approach as technology advances and costs evolve over time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; energy harvesting; thermal energy; mechanical energy
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:09:42 CEST)
The evolution of transportation has been inextricably tied to the progress of civilization. Through innovation, the automobile business has been working to improve safety, quality, and compliance with environmental regulations. Electric vehicles have made significant strides in this area, but optimizing their efficiency requires a special focus because they expend energy that can be recovered in a variety of ways. Energy harvesting, a cutting-edge technology that captures wasted energy from vehicles, has recently received a lot of attention as it constitutes a means to improve the efficiency of electric vehicles. Dissipated energy can be converted into electricity using regenerative energy recovery systems and put to various uses. This study tenders a thorough examination into energy recovery technologies which could be applied to the various types of energy dissipated in electric vehicles. Firstly, the paper investigates the possible sources of energy recoverable from an electric vehicle, as well as the various types of energy dissipated. Secondly, the article examines the energy recovery technologies most frequently used in vehicles, categorizing them according to the type of energy and application. Finally, it determines that with further research and development, energy harvesting holds considerable potential for improving the energy efficiency of electric vehicles. New and innovative methods for capturing and utilizing wasted energy in electric vehicles can be established. The potential benefits of applying energy recovery systems in electric vehicles is a vital issue for the automobile industry to focus on due to the potential benefits involved. The ongoing progress currently being made in this field is expected to play a significant role in shaping the future of transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; BIPV; energy transition; energy efficiency; photovoltaics
Online: 12 January 2018 (10:23:45 CET)
Large-scale integration of solar energy technologies in Rome’s built environment epitomizes the needed general adoption of distributed generation via functionalization of buildings of all size and end use across the world, to become active energy generators and no longer energy users only. This paper identifies selected technology solutions and critical policy and educational initiatives to effectively achieve within the next decade (2018-2027) the widespread uptake of decentralized solar energy systems in the built environment on a global scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nuclear energy; renewable energy; fossil energy; small modular reactors; resilience; hybrid energy
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:13:28 CEST)
Small modular reactors (SMR) (<300 MW) offer a potentially attractive nuclear energy option for the middle-east region (MER). Currently, the MER uses a significant amount of fossil fuel to process heat applications such as water desalination and in petroleum refineries and chemical plants, besides generating electricity. SMR technologies represent an opportunity to meet future energy demand in the MER. This paper discusses issues related to the future development and use of SMR technology in nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems for application in the middle east. SMRs have also been examined as part of a resilient hybrid energy system that combines nuclear energy with renewable energy and traditional fossil energy to produce chemicals, fuels, and electricity. This paper presents the results of a techno-economic analysis of a Nuclear-Renewable-Conventional Hybrid Energy System. The paper concludes that SMR technology will be an essential feature of future hybrid energy systems for the MER.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy System Modelling; Energy Optimization; Energy Simulation; Multi Energy Systems Simulator (MESS)
Online: 21 July 2021 (14:50:24 CEST)
Energy system modelling is an essential practice to assist a set of heterogeneous stakeholders in the process of defining an effective and efficient energy transition. From the analysis of a set of open source energy system models, it has emerged that most models employ an approach directed at finding the optimal solution for a given set of constraints. On the contrary, a simulation model is a representation of a system that is used to reproduce and understand its behaviour under given conditions, without seeking an optimal solution. Given the lack of simulation models that are also fully open source, in this paper a new open source energy system model is presented. The developed tool, called Multi Energy Systems Simulator (MESS), is a modular, multi-node model that allows to investigate non optimal solutions by simulating the energy system. The model has been built having in mind urban level analyses. However, each node can represent larger regions allowing wider spatial scales to be be represented as well. MESS is capable of performing analysis on systems composed by multiple energy carriers (e.g. electricity, heat, fuels). In this work, the tool’s features will be presented by a comparison between MESS itself and an optimization model, in order to analyze and highlight the differences between the two approaches, the potentialities of a simulation tool and possible areas for further development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1567.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: energy balance; energy expenditure; energy intake; energy imbalance gap; underweight; overweight; Latin America
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:24:43 CET)
Energy imbalance gap (EIG) is defined as the average daily difference between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE). This study aimed to examine the associations between EIG and sociodemographic and anthropometric variables in the adolescent population of eight Latin American countries. A total of 680 adolescents aged 15 to 18 were included in this study. EI was estimated using two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. EE was predicted from Schofield equations using physical activity levels obtained through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. A descriptive analysis and multilevel linear regression models were used to examine associations between variables. The mean EI, EE, and EIG were 2091.3 kcal, 2067.8 kcal, and 23.5 kcal, respectively. Argentina and Colombia had the highest EI and EIG, whereas Chile and Costa Rica had the lowest EI and EIG. Males had a higher EI (2262.4 kcal) and EE (2172.2 kcal) than females (1930.1 kcal and 2084.5 kcal), respectively (p<0,05). Overweight subjects had a lower EIG than did underweight and normal-weight subjects (p<0,05). Subjects with high SES had a lower EE (2047.0 kcal) than those with low SES (1963.7 kcal) (p<0,05). Sex and BMI were associated with EIG in adolescents from Latin America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: sustainability; energy transition; nautical tourism; energy independence; renewable energy
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:45:09 CEST)
In the last 20 years, the share of renewable energy sources in the production of electricity in the European Union has doubled, from about 15% to almost 35%. The main driver of this development has been the increase in the share of wind energy and solar photovoltaic energy. The authors aim to analyze the influencing factors that affect the energy transition process applied to nautical tourism, from polluting energy to renewable solar energy. The authors' research approach consists in using the framework offered by the energy transition process from the perspective of the socio-technical and economic approach, by applying the qualitative research method with a deductive approach. The tool used to achieve the objective was the semi-structured interview. The research unitarily, holistically, and specifically approaches the problem of energy transition from polluting sources to renewable ones offered by solar energy, in the case of nautical tourism with direct implications on the specific industry in the Netherlands. The research results are structured in the fields of technology, governance, economics, and user preferences. This research has the potential to provide support to find optimal solutions that encourage users to accelerate the energy transition process by adopting sustainable solutions for nautical tourism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sustainability; energy sources; renewable sources; energy efficiency; energy demand
Online: 31 October 2017 (16:12:05 CET)
Sustainability of current energy policies and known mid-term policies are analised in their multiple facets. First an overview is given about the trend of global energy demand and energy production, analysing the share of energy sources and the geographic distribution of demand, on the basis of statistics and projections published by major agencies. The issue of sustainability of the energy cycle is finally addressed, with specific reference to systems with high share of renewable energy and storage capability, highlighting some promising energy sources and storage approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvesting; energy management circuit; kinetic energy; vibratory transducer
Online: 17 March 2017 (16:58:48 CET)
Since the requirements in terms of power of the electronic applications range wide, the developed Energy Harvesting (EH) systems limit their availability to the less power demanding applications. However, this paper focuses on increasing the energy levels collected in the EH system so that it can be included in more demanding applications in terms of power. Therefore, an electronic system capable of grouping many single harvesting channels into one single system is analyzed in this paper. This multi-harvester electronic system is able to manage efficiently the energy collected by multiple vibratory transducers. The paper includes a comparison of its performance against some of the State-of-the-Art EH energy management circuits that interface the transducers. The method employed to demonstrate the intrinsic efficiency of each of the electronic circuits tested was based on experimental tests, where the average power transferred from several identical and simultaneous electric sources to a single storage element was measured. It was found out that only one energy management circuit was able to increase the transferred energy in a linear way while new input electric sources were added.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0279.v1
Online: 15 August 2018 (16:06:52 CEST)
Paper presents the energy policy of the Republic of Serbia with special attention to the energy situation on the government controlled territory. South Serbian autonomous province of Kosovo and Metohija is under UN jurisdiction since the 1999 according to UNSC Resolution 1244. Renewable energy sources are rarely used in Serbia with exception of energy from hydropower plants, but in this sector priorities in geothermal and energy coming from biomass recently increased. In natural gas sector, Serbia has the deal with Russia for construction of South Stream gas-line through Serbia and for construction of the first underground storage in depleted gas reservoir in Banatski Dvor. In 2008, Serbia also sold 51% of the government founded petroleum industry – NIS which has exclusive monopoly for exploitation of crude oil. Serbian government has complete monopoly in electric power sector. Electric power infrastructure became technologically obsolete, and operative efficiency is at very low level. Serbia has not yet decided whether Serbian Electric Power Industry – EPS will be privatized. District heating sector mostly natural gas fuelled is highly inefficient and it is in jurisdiction of local municipalities but also has social component dictated by central government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1236.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Compressed Air Energy Storage; Hydrogen; Photovoltaic; Energy Storage; Power flexibility; Ancillary services; Renewable; Energy Shift; Energy Independence; Energy Transition
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:36:46 CEST)
The integration of the increasing share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires the availability of suitable energy storage systems to improve the grid flexibility, and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems could be a promising option. In this study, a CO2-free Diabatic CAES system is proposed and analysed. The plant configuration is derived from a down-scaled version of the McIntosh diabatic CAES plant, where the natural gas is replaced with green hydrogen, produced on site by a Proton Exchange Membrane electrolyser powered by a Photovoltaic power plant. In this study, the components of the hydrogen production system are sized to maximize the Self-Consumption share of PV energy generation and the effect of the design parameters on the H2-CAES plant performance are analysed on a yearly basis. Moreover, a comparison between the use of natural gas and hydrogen in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions is discussed. The results show that the proposed hydrogen fuelled CAES can effectively match the generation profile and the yearly production of the natural gas fuelled plant by using all the PV energy production, while producing zero CO2 emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0693.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; solar energy; renewable energy; machine learning; forecasting ensembles
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:56:29 CEST)
In this paper, solar irradiance and wind speed forecasts were performed considering time horizons ranging from 10 min to 60 min, under a 10 min time-step. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and wind speed were computed using four forecasting models (Random Forest, k-Nearest Neighbours, Support Vector Regression, and Elastic Net) to compare their performance against two alternative dynamic ensemble methods (windowing and arbitrating). Forecasting models and dynamic forecasting ensembles were implemented in Python for performance evaluation. The performance comparison between the prediction models and the dynamic ensemble methods was carried out by evaluating the RMSE, MAE, R² and MAPE, to evaluate whether the dynamic ensemble forecasting method obtained greater. According to the results obtained windowing dynamic ensemble method was the most efficient among the tested. For the wind speed data, by varying its parameter λ (from 1 to 100), a variable performance profile was obtained, where from λ =1 to λ = 74, windowing proved to be the most efficient, reaching maximum efficiency for λ = 19. Windowing was the best method for the GHI analysis, reaching its best performance for λ = 1. The efficiency gain using windowing was 0.56% when using the wind speed model and 1.96% for GHI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: geothermal energy; life cycle analysis; solar photovoltaic energy; wind energy
Online: 28 February 2020 (01:34:44 CET)
A Life Cycle Analysis was performed considering three existing power plants of comparable size operating with different sources of renewable energy: geothermal, solar and wind. Primary data were used for building the life cycle inventories. The geothermal power plant includes emissions treatment for removal of hydrogen sulfide and mercury. The scenario about the substitution of natural emissions from geothermal energy, with specific reference to the greenhouse effect, is also investigated performing a sensitivity analysis. The results are characterized employing a wide portfolio of environmental indicators employing the Recipe 2016 and the ILCD 2011 Midpoint+ methods; normalization and weighting are also applied using the Recipe 2016 method at endpoint level. The results demonstrate a good eco-profile of geothermal power plant with respect to other renewable energy systems and allow for a critical analysis to support potential improvements of the environmental performances.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy diagnosis; energy efficiency; UNAM; IER; energy consumption and demand
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:36:57 CEST)
An energy diagnosis is a tool used to seek the improvement of energy saving measures, environmental conservation and energy efficiency, making relevant its implementation in any kind of buildings. For this article, an energy diagnosis of third level was carried out in buildings of the Instituto de Energías Renovables (IER) from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) through survey and census of the 36 buildings in the IER, in order to characterize current patterns of energy consumption and demand, and generating specific strategies towards savings and energy efficiency, such as indicators and corrective proposals within and non-financial investment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: buildings energy efficiency; climate change; energy efficiency; feedback effects; passive solar energy; renewable energy; transport energy efficiency; urban heat island
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:32:41 CEST)
Energy efficiency is, in principle, a simple idea: an output of human value, for example, vehicle-km traveled, divided by the needed input energy. Efficiency improvements are regarded by many as an important means of mitigating not only climate change, but also other environmental problems. Accordingly, many countries have efficiency ratings for appliances and efficiency standards for road vehicles. Despite the vast number of articles published on energy efficiency, few question whether it is a useful or accurate measure in its present form. This review addresses this lack, by a critical review of the literature, not only in energy efficiency, but in other areas of research, such as ‘energy services’, that can help broaden the scope of this idea, both geographically and conceptually. These shortcomings are illustrated in case studies of road passenger transport and buildings. The main findings are that energy efficiency inevitably has an ethical dimension, that feedbacks are more widespread than generally considered, and that conventional efficiency measures omit important energy input items, particularly those concerned with mining of the materials needed for renewable energy plants. Finally, the key results of this review are summarized, and its limitations are discussed, as is the future research needed to overcome these shortcomings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0582.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy harvesting; triboelectric nanogenerators; vibration energy
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:26:44 CEST)
In this study, we propose a module-type triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) capable of harvesting power from a variety of mechanical energy sources. The potential energy and kinetic energy of water are used for the rotational motion of the generator module, and electricity is generated by the contact/separation generation mode between the two triboelectric surfaces inside the rotating TENG. Through the parametric design of the internal friction surface structure and mass ball, we optimized the output of the proposed structure. To magnify the power, experiments were conducted to optimize the electrical output of the series of TENG units. The electrical signal generated by the module-type TENG can be used as a sensor to recognize the strength and direction of various physical quantities, such as wind or earthquake vibrations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0605.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable energy; Greenhouse gas emissions; sustainable energy system; clean energy; sustainability
Online: 10 October 2023 (08:36:23 CEST)
Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a cornerstone of the global effort to transition towards cleaner and more sustainable energy systems. This paper explores the pivotal role of PV technology in re-ducing greenhouse gas emissions and combatting the pressing issue of climate change. At the heart of its efficacy lies the efficiency of PV materials, which dictates the extent to which sunlight is transformed into electricity. Over the last decade, substantial advancements in PV efficiency have propelled the widespread adoption of solar PV technology on a global scale. The efficiency of PV materials is a critical factor, determining how effectively sunlight is transformed into electricity. Enhanced efficiency, achieved through a decade of progress, has driven the global expansion of solar PV. Multi-junction photovoltaic materials have now exceeded 40% efficiency in lab tests. China leads the world in solar PV installations, boasting over 253 GW of installed capacity by the end of 2021. Other prominent countries in this sector are the United States, Japan, Germany, and India. Supportive policies like feed-in tariffs, net metering, tax incentives, and cost reductions in PV modules have made solar PV increasingly competitive against fossil fuel-based power generation. Solar PV technology holds immense potential for creating a cleaner, reliable, scalable, and cost-effective electricity system. To expedite its deployment and foster a more sustainable energy future, continued investment in research and development, along with supportive policies and market mechanisms, is essential. This paper underscores the pivotal role of solar PV technology in the global energy transition and advocates for a concerted effort to unlock its full potential in achieving a more sustainable and resilient energy future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0495.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: decarbonisation; energy supply security; energy demand; energy systems; industry; capacity planning
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:53:02 CET)
The quickest and easiest way to avoid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is to purchase renewable electricity and offset the remaining emissions. However, the industrial sector’s electricity needs already exceed renewable electricity generation. Moreover, electricity accounts for only one third of the industry’s energy needs. Simultaneously, the advance of sectoral coupling and the decarbonisation of industrial processes, as well as the desire to rapidly decrease dependence on fossil fuels, are creating significant additional demand for renewable energy. Neither existing nor planned generation and transmission infrastructure will suffice to meet the expected short-term demand. Based on survey data from the German Industry Energy Efficiency Index, this article therefore examines the share of GHG savings that companies intend to achieve on- and off-site. Understanding how much additional generation and transmission capacity is needed by the industry to decarbonise and by when is crucial to identify and address the extent of excess demand. On average, companies plan to avoid 22 % of their 2019 emissions by 2025 and 27 % by 2030, primarily through on-site measures. In combination with the extrapolation of the entire industry’s needs for off-site capacity, the data calls for a rapid expansion of planning authority and green generation capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: building energy modeling; energy systems; energy demand; future climate; weather files
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:19:24 CEST)
The building sector accounts for nearly 40% of total primary energy consumption in the U.S. and E.U. and 20% of worldwide delivered energy consumption. Climate projections predict an increase of average annual temperatures between 1.1-5.4°C by 2100. As urbanization is expected to continue increasing at a rapid pace, the energy consumption of buildings is likely to play a pivotal role in the overall energy budget. In this study we used EnergyPlus building energy models to estimate the future energy demands of commercial buildings in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, using locally-derived climate projections. We found significant variability in the energy demand profiles when simulating the study buildings under different climate scenarios, based on the energy standard the building was designed to meet, with reductions ranging from 10% to 60% in natural gas consumption for heating and increases ranging from 10% to 30% in electricity consumption for cooling. A case study, using projected 2040 building stock, showed a weighted average decrease in heating energy of 25% and an increase of 15% in cooling energy. We also found that building standards between ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and 90.1-2016 play a comparatively smaller role than variation in climate scenarios on the energy demand variability within building types. Our findings underscore the large range of potential future building energy consumption which depend on climatic conditions, as well as building types and standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydro-power; hydro-power plant; micro-energy; renewable energy; water energy
Online: 11 February 2019 (09:05:34 CET)
The conceptual reconstruction of Neiwan powerhouse is one of the key activities under the current ongoing mapping project of Taiwanese hydropower plants that mainly took place between 2013 and 2015 and is now focused on micro, pico, and historical power plants. Judging from the fact that the oldest hydropower plant in Taiwan named Guishan starts its operation in 1905, Neiwan powerhouse was among the very first powerhouses that were built across the island to support the electrification of Taiwan. However, the main function of the single turbine equipped Neiwan micro powerhouse was to support mainly the military needs and protect the territories occupied by Japanese troops. Since the powerhouse was built in 1909 and operates only something about 10 year there are very little physical materials or evidence along with contemporaries. Therefore the further reconstruction is based mainly on physical observation of the remains located at the site, old photographs, related articles, treatises and typology of mechanical and civil constructions of other hydropower plant cases in Taiwan hence this paper´s main intention is to pitch a concept reconstruction rather than definite conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydro-power; hydro-power plant; micro-energy; renewable energy; water energy
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:46:08 CET)
This research paper is part of the wider project concerning the very first detailed mapping of the overall Taiwanese hydro-power plants that took place from 2013 up to 2015 and it is currently in evaluation and finalization stage. The case of Shanping hydro-power plant has been carefully studied, photographed, documented and mapped in situ. It was one of the isolated hydro-power plant projects originally built to supply the remote area with the specific designation. Shanping hydro-power plant, as well as the other units from the early hydro-power generation era in Taiwan, are considered to be the technological heritage of civil and mechanical engineering that reflects later in all the further projects up to nowadays modern Taiwanese hydro-power plants. Unfortunately, most of the hydro-power houses from the older periods were severely damaged or destroyed by natural causes which were also the case of Shanping unit. The research is trying to reconstruct the original location of the powerhouse and its supporting structures based on available historical documents, previous studies, comparative methodology, and the current on-site observation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0568.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy transition; sustainable development; efficiency energy; renewable energy; marine natural resources
Online: 26 November 2018 (03:50:26 CET)
The current energy policy recommends the idea of energy efficiency over fossil energy as a primary matter for the coming years. The kingdom of Morocco requires restructuring of its power equipment by increasing the percentage of renewable energy supplies, optimizing their systems and power storage. Therefore, increasing energy efficiency is an as important obligation as reducing the overall energy consumption. The purpose of this research is to present the energy transition in Morocco towards renewable energies and to assess the diversity of available marine natural resources. Recent research in conversion of ocean thermal energy, wave energy, tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and osmotic energy into power supply has started to encourage different technologies. This research has led to commercial deployment in some cases such as our 550 km long Mediterranean coast and 3000 km long Atlantic. This does not only result in fossil energies independency but also provides advantages like less cost and no pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy internet; multi-energy complementary; integrated energy systems; distribution network planning
Online: 19 September 2018 (10:22:42 CEST)
Many research work has demonstrated that taken the Combined Cooling Heating and Power system (CCHP) as the core equipment, the integrated energy system (IES) can bring obvious benefit to energy efficiency, CO2 emission reduction and operation economy in urban areas. Compared with isolated IES, integrated energy micro-grid (IEMG) which is formed by connecting multiple regions IES together, through distribution and thermal network, can further improve the reliability, flexibility, cleanliness and economy of regional energy supply. Based on the existing IES model, this paper describes the basic structure of IEMG and built a IEMG planning model. The planning based on the mixed integer linear programming, and economically construction planning scheme are calculated by using known electricity, heating and cooling loads information and the given multiple equipment selection schemes. At last, the model is validated by a case study. The results show that the application of IEMG can effectively improve the economy of regional energy supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0514.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: photovoltaic systems; pumped hydroelectric; energy storage systems; annual energy production-energy demand.
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:17:09 CEST)
This paper focuses on designing and assessing Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Systems (PHES), connected to the grid and PV system for self-consumption structured at Mutah university in an area of high solar potential. In focusing on PHES and PV literature was made to have data on the field, based on the grid code needed in Jordan. Next, a prospection to find the proper location for the installation was done. Afterward, a load profile was inserted to know the energy demand of the university. Then The productivity of the solar power plant of Mutah University was included. Finally, MATLAB software was used to realize the amount of energy to be stored, this data was used to implement the system which was chosen and sized. PHES layout was created to find the most accurate values for parameters to optimize the system performance, and to investigate the loss analysis. The system attains 9230.89 MWh/year. An annual load yields 4430 MWh/year, which covers the Mutah university demand with an estimated saving of 2039773 JD.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: energy deficiency; energy balance; energy flux; terminology; mitochondrial diseases; glycogen storage diseases
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:26:40 CEST)
This brief commentary challenges the use of the term "energy deficiency" in nutrition and metabolism, providing a critical examination of its scientific and philosophical aspects. It emphasizes the need to consider rare diseases associated with actual energy deficiency, which extend beyond the scope of everyday tiredness or fatigue. By analyzing energy balance and its complexities, this critique underscores the oversimplification associated with the term and its potential for misleading implications. It highlights the dynamic nature of energy metabolism and the intricate mechanisms involved in maintaining energy equilibrium, including the impact of rare genetic and physiological abnormalities. In addition to the discussion on energy balance, this commentary explores the manifestation of rare diseases that disrupt energy production, utilization, or hormonal regulation. Conditions such as mitochondrial diseases, glycogen storage diseases, adrenal insufficiency, and Prader-Willi syndrome are examined, shedding light on their profound impact on individuals' energy levels and overall health. The distinct time courses, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications of protein deficiency, energy deficiency, and vitamin C deficiency are also compared, further emphasizing the complexity of energy metabolism and its relationship with various nutrient deficiencies. To foster a more comprehensive understanding of energy metabolism and enhance clarity in communication within the field, the commentary proposes the adoption of alternative terminology, such as "energy flux," to capture the multifaceted nature of energy balance more accurately. By reevaluating the terminology employed, researchers and healthcare professionals can better convey the intricate dynamics of energy metabolism and address the unique challenges faced by individuals with rare diseases causing actual energy deficiency. In conclusion, this commentary serves as a thought-provoking exploration of the concept of energy deficiency in nutrition and metabolism. It highlights the limitations of the term in capturing the complexities of energy balance, particularly in the context of rare diseases. By broadening the discussion to include these rare conditions, it encourages a more comprehensive understanding of energy metabolism and calls for precise and nuanced terminology to facilitate effective communication and advancements in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0662.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; future perspectives; renewable energy sources; Romania energy structure; exploratory study
Online: 29 October 2018 (07:22:02 CET)
In 2015, Romania was the first country in Europe that achieved EU targets regarding the share of renewables in the generation mix, far ahead of the 2020 deadline. Starting with the energy structure in Romania, the paper: (1) analyses the evolution of the main indicators in the renewable energy sector, (2) discloses the perspectives of renewable energy in Romania synthesizing the main trends of development in the field and (3) analyses the challenges facing with the development of renewable energy in Romania. Based on analyzing the exploratory data, the paper makes a preliminary prediction of the development of the sector for the future decades and proposes targeted countermeasures and suggestions. Romania still has unexploited potential concerning renewable energy sources. Because Romania registered a continuous economic growth, the demand for electricity is steadily growing, and this trend is expected to continue. Also, Romania could introduce a support mechanism for developing the potential of unexploited potential. The results of the present study may be useful for further research regarding public policies for the development of renewable energy. Also, it can represent a useful analysis in order to identify the future trends of renewable energy in Romania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy diagnosis; close-range photogrammetry; energy efficiency; visualization of information; energy feedback
Online: 17 May 2018 (13:31:05 CEST)
Owing to the large ratio of consumption in the building sector, energy saving strategies are required. Energy feedback is an energy-saving strategy that consumers to change their energy-consumption behaviors. The strategy has been principally focused on providing energy-consumption information. However, realization of energy savings using only consumption information remains limited. In this paper, a building-energy three-dimensional (3D) visualization solution is thus proposed. This solution includes the process of diagnosing a building and providing prediction of energy requirements if a building improvement is undertaken. Accurate diagnostic information is provided by real-time measurement data from sensors and building models using a close-range photogrammetry (CRP) method without depending on blueprints. The information is provided by employing visualization effects to increase the energy-feedback efficiency. The proposed strategy is implemented on two testbeds, and building diagnostics are performed accordingly. For the first testbed, the predicted energy improvement amount resulting from the facility upgrade is provided. The second testbed is provided with a 3D visualization of the energy information. The aim is to determine if the building manager will replace the facility after our recommendation is given to improve the building energy efficiency driven from the energy information. Unlike existing systems, which provide only ambiguous data that lack quantitative information, this study is meaningful because it provides energy information with the aid of visualization effects before and after building improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy infrastructure design; system architecture; energy transition; district heating systems (DHS); energy hubs; distributed multigeneration (DMG); multi-energy systems (MES); urban energy systems (UES); community energy; societal prospects
Online: 22 February 2018 (12:47:01 CET)
Energy conversion and distribution (heat and electricity) is characterized by long planning horizons, investment periods and depreciation times, and it is thus difficult to plan and tell the technology that optimally fits for decades. Uncertainties include future energy prices, applicable subsidies, regulation, and even the evolution of market designs. To achieve higher adaptability to arbitrary transition paths, a technical concept based on integrated energy systems is envisioned and described. The problem of intermediate steps of evolution is tackled by introducing a novel paradigm in urban infrastructure design.It builds on standardization, modularization and economies of scale for underlying conversion units. Building on conceptual arguments for such a platform, it is then argued how actors like (among others) municipalities and district heating system operators can use this as a practical starting point for a manageable and smooth transition towards more environmental friendly supply technologies, and to commit to their own pace of transition (bearable investment/risk). environmental friendly supply technologies. Merits are not only supported by technical arguments but also by strategical and societal prospects like technology neutrality and availability of real options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0194.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sufficiency; energy crises; energy poverty; policy instruments
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:37:06 CEST)
In 2021 an acute energy crisis inflicted severe damage on the global economy, leading to escalated prices for electricity, gas, and fuel. In order to shield individuals and businesses from the mounting energy expenses, governments have been compelled to implement policy measures, including tax reductions, price restrictions or discounts, and subsidies. This research paper examines these policy responses through the lens of energy sufficiency. Energy poverty poses a significant threat to social cohesion and support for climate-related initiatives. Therefore, it is imperative to employ compensatory measures. However, the design of such solutions must carefully consider the incentives to reduce energy consumption and associated carbon emissions. The findings of the analysis demonstrate that the escalation of energy costs holds promise for achieving energy sufficiency. Nevertheless, the government's response to the surge in energy prices and energy poverty falls short and lacks precision. Most of the policy changes primarily focus on regressive energy cost subsidies and nudging households away from fossil fuels, but they fail to generate the necessary impetus for achieving energy sufficiency, which involves the elimination of energy poverty and excessive energy consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: CHP; Cascade utilization of energy; Energy level
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:23:52 CEST)
The combined heat and power system is based on the principle of "cascade utilization of thermal energy" for system integration and optimization. The rational utilization of energy, as well as the rational arrangement of energy flow and the process optimization combination of the overall system are taken into account in order to achieve multifunctional goals in the field of thermal engineering. The present paper presents a detailed assessment of combined heat and power systems from above standpoints. This article is divided into two parts “CHP based on thermo-dynamic cycles” and “CHP based on non-thermodynamic cycles”. Each part is then classified based on power subsystem energy consumption efficiency (high or low), including Rankine cycle, ORC, Stirling cycle, gas turbine, reciprocating engine, PVT and fuel cell. The present paper also helps identify the research gaps in this area and provides direction on future studies on combined heat and power systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; primary energy; electricity; DEA analysis
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:12:17 CET)
This paper is about energy as viewed through an integrated model that links energy with environment, technology and urbanisation as related areas. Our goal is to empirically investigate the (in)efficient energy use across 30 developed OECD member states during the period from 2001 to 2018. For that purpose, we set up an output-oriented BCC data envelopment analysis that employs a set of input variables with non-negative values to calculate the efficiency scores on minimising energy use and losses as well as environmental emissions. We develop a couple of baseline models for primary energy and secondary energy (electricity) in which we find that countries have mean inefficiency margins of 16.1 per cent for primary energy and from 10.8 to 13.5 per cent for electricity. Then, we extend the baseline models by adding environment as an important closely related concept and confirm the consistency of the baseline findings. In the context of this analysis, however, the inefficiency scores, on the one hand, point out to a mismatch in the utilisation of the inputs to produce efficiency but, on the other hand, they uncover a hidden potential to increasy efficiency through re-allocation under constant inputs.