ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: clinical S.aureus; skin carriage; geriatric-MRSA pneumonia; endogenous-S.aureus
Online: 11 July 2022 (04:33:22 CEST)
The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus has created several gaps in its population structure and emergence of strains. Two global shifts in the aftermath of the past methicil-lin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pandemic are: a rise in healthcare-associated infections and evolu-tion of cutaneous and soft tissue infections with high morbidities and mortalities. Furthermore, bitter lessons from COVID-19 showed S. aureus necrotizing-pneumonia and skin conditions ag-gravating Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Monkeypox manifestations. Limited data and paucity of high-quality evidence exist for many key clinical questions. Using clinical microbiology, molecular characterization, hospital data on age and in-fection sites, and antibiograms, we have investigated S. aureus infection patterns. We showed that age-specific distribution in both intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU revealed highest infection rates (94.7%) in senior-patients >50 years; most were MRSA (81.99%). However, specific distribu-tions of geriatric MRSA and MSSA rates were 46.5% and 4.6% in ICU and 35.48% and 8.065% in non-ICU, respectively. Intriguingly, age groups 0-20 years showed uniquely similar MRSA pat-terns in ICU and non-ICU patients (13.9%, 9.7%, respectively) and MSSA in ICU (11.6%). In age groups 20-50 years, MRSA were 2-fold in non-ICU (35%) than ICU (18.6%). Interestingly, highly significant association was found between infection-site and age-groups (P-value .000). Skin in-fections remained higher in all ages; pediatrics 32.14%, adults 56%, and seniors 25% while res-piratory infections were lower in pediatrics (14.3%) and adult 17%), and highest in seniors (38%). Blood and “other” sites in pediatrics recorded (28.6%; 25%, respectively), slightly lower in adults (18.6%; 8.6%) and seniors (14%); 22.8%), respectively. Further, significant association existed between infection-site and MRSA (Chi-Square Test, P-value .002). The common cutaneous infec-tions across all age-groups and the significant association of MRSA to geriatric-respiratory infec-tions have a high potential for skin-carriage as reservoir for endogenous infection. The similar frequencies of both lineages in youth in all settings imply MSSA-carriage as potential evolutionary origins for MRSA. These findings have important clinical implications for strategic planning in patient management and S. aureus control particularly in age-specific infections and vigilance for potential viral coinfections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: xenotransplanation; microchimerism; porcine endogenous retroviruses; detection methods
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:59:16 CET)
Microchimerism is the presence of cells in an individual that have originated from another individual. The most common form of microchimerism is fetomaternal microchimerism, i.e., cells from a fetus pass through the placenta and establish cell lineages within the mother. Microchimerism was also described after transplantation of human organs in human recipients. Consequently, microchimerism may also be expected in xenotransplantation using pig cells or organs. Indeed, microchimerism was described in patients after xenotransplantations as well as in non-human primates after transplantation of pig organs. Here for the first time a comprehensive review of microchimerism in xenotransplantation is given. Since pig cells contain porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) in their genome, detection of proviral DNA in the transplant recipients may be misinterpreted as infection of the recipient with PERV. To prevent this, methods discriminating between infection and microchimerism are described. This knowledge will be important for the interpretation of screening results in forthcoming human xenotransplantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; inflammation; endogenous opioid; opioid receptor
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:49:14 CEST)
Background: There is now evidence that immune and opioid systems show functional reciprocal relationships and that both systems may participate in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Objective: The present study was carried out to delineate differences between MDD patients and healthy controls in dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor (KORs) in association with levels of β-endorphins and mu opioid receptors (MORs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Method: The present study recruited 60 drug-free male participants with MDD aged 24-70 year and 30 age-matched healthy males as control group and measured serum levels of dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10. Results: Serum dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin and MOR are significantly increased in MDD as compared with controls. The increases in the dynorphin/KOR system and β-endorhin/MOR system are significantly intercorrelated and are both strongly associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Dynorphin, β-endorphin, KOR and both cytokines showed a good diagnostic performance for MDD versus controls, whereby both opioid peptides and cytokines show a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the receiver operating curve of 0.972. KOR and the dynorphin/KOR system are both significantly decreased in depressed subjects with comorbid nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in MDD, immune activation is associated with a simultaneous activation of dynorphin/KOR and β-endorhin/MOR signaling and that these opioid systems may participate in the pathophysiology of depression by a) exerting immune regulatory activities attenuating the primary immune response; and b) modulating reward responses and mood as well as emotional and behavioral responses to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Stock Beta, Endogenous Structural Breaks, Time Horizon
Online: 8 July 2016 (08:35:15 CEST)
The stock beta coefficient literature extensively discusses the proper methods for the estimation of beta as well as its use in asset valuation. However, there are relatively few references with respect to the appropriate time horizon that investors should utilize when evaluating the risk-return relationship of a stock. We examine the appropriate time horizon for beta estimation differentiating our results by sector according to the Industry Classification Benchmark. We employ data from the NYSE and we estimate varying lengths of beta employing data from 30 to 250 trading days. The constructed beta series is then examined for the presence of breaks using the endogenous structural break literature. Results show evidence against the use of betas that employ more than 90 trading days of data provisional to the sector under study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: endogenous; retrovirus; SERV; Old World monkey; phylogeny; evolution; paleovirology
Online: 12 November 2021 (16:29:10 CET)
Simian endogenous retrovirus, SERV, is a successful germ line invader restricted to Old World monkey (OWM) species. (1) Background: The availability of high quality primate genomes warrants a study of the characteristics, evolution and distribution of SERV proviruses; (2) Methods: Cercopithecinae OWM genomes from public databases were queried for the presence of full length SERV proviruses. A dataset of 81 Cer-SERV genomes was generated and analyzed; (3) Results: Full length Cer-SERV proviruses were mainly found in terrestrial OWM, and less so in arboreal, forest- dwelling monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the existence of two genotypes, Cer-SERV-1 and Cer-SERV-2, with Cer-SERV-1 showing evidence of recent germ line expansions. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) variation indicated that most proviruses were of a similar age, and were estimated to be between <0.3 and 10 million years old. Integrations shared between species were relatively rare. Sequence analysis further showed extensive CpG methylation-associated mutation, variable Primer Binding Site (PBS) use with Cer-SERV-1 using PBSlys3 and Cer-SERV-2 using PBSlys1,2, and the recent gain of LTR motifs for transcription factors active during embryogenesis in Cer-SERV-1; (4) Conclusions: sequence analysis of 81 SERV proviruses from Cercopithecinae OWM genomes provides evidence for the adaptation of this retrovirus to germ line reproduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0664.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Overlapping generation; Climate justice; Endogenous labor; OLG model; Intergenerational Sustainability
Online: 26 November 2020 (10:47:45 CET)
Climate justice as a commons is conceived as the intertemporal climate equity and equal- ity exchange amongst generations. Sustainability, intended as the interplay amongst the economy, the society, the environment, and the governance, is essential to forge the climate justice theoretical framework. On this base, the study attempts to model intertemporal choice amongst generations in these four domains, making use of an over- lapping generations (OLG) model. The proxies detected are GDP growth (economy), environmental quality (environment), and labor growth, and environmental investment (society) as assumptions. The governance dimension is captured by the di¤erence in wealth between young and old generations. The work aims at replying to the follow- ing research question: Which are the conditions for sustainable development such that climate justice holds? The intra-intergenerational exchange is de ned in two periods, while the individual provides their preferred economic and environmental choice mix as consumption-saving. This study shows that sustainable growth is achievable only with increased young e¤ort and less leisure and consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Ionotropin; Steroid phosphocholine esters; pre-eclampsia; endogenous ouabain; DLM; PTSD
Online: 10 July 2020 (09:55:05 CEST)
Cardiotonic glycoside toxins, originally isolated from plants or amphibians, have been proposed as mammalian cardiotonic hormones. This paper is a review and update of the discovery of [i] a new class of steroid hormones, [ii] the path for their biosynthesis and [iii] some preliminary data on their function. The compounds are phosphoester conjugates and share a characteristic structural feature, a lactone ring, with [a] one class of synthetic potassium sparing diuretics and with [b] plant and amphibian cardiotonic steroids. Purification was initially monitored by cross reaction with steroid sulfate assays and later with digoxin-specific assays. Six compounds were purified by HPLC to near homogeneity and characterized by Tandem mass spectroscopy (MS-MS) and 31P-NMR. Three were digoxin-like materials (DLM) with 23 carbon atoms. The two extra carbon atoms form a spiral lactone E-ring. Several additional spiral lactones have been identified by MS-MS. In a pilot study, based on MS analysis, we evaluated phosphocholine steroid levels in individual serum samples in patients with pre-eclampsia (n=20). The control group of normotensive pregnant women (n=20) was used to estimate the mean and standard deviation. Twelve of the women with pre-eclampsia had a z-score over 2 for at least one of the four phosphocholine steroids. In contrast, only 1 sample from the normotensive women had a z-score over 2. The observation that there are two patterns, one with elevated phosphocholine steroid levels and one without the elevation, suggests that there may be two different underlying causes of pre-eclampsia. We now need to extend the study to determine which pattern predicts progression to life-threatening hypertension in pregnant women. This pilot study illustrates that it is possible to evaluate individual endogenous cardiotonic hormones without relying on antibodies developed to plant or amphibian toxins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0353.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cancer stem cells; competing endogenous RNAs; ceRNA; lncRNA; micro-RNA; miRNA
Online: 25 July 2022 (06:18:30 CEST)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the cell types that account for cancer heterogeneity. They arrest in the G0 phase and generate non-CSC progeny by self-renewing and pluripotency activity, resulting in tumor recurrence, metastasis, and chemoresistance. One CSC can stimulate tumor relapse and can re-grow a metastatic tumor. So, CSC is a promising target for eradicating tumors, and developing an anti-CSC method has become a top priority in cancer therapy. In recent years competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) have emerged as an important class of post-transcriptional regulators that affect gene expression via competition for microRNA (miRNA) binding. Furthermore, aberrant ceRNA expression is associated with tumor progression. To overcome therapeutic resistance due to CSCs, we need to improve our existing understanding of the mechanisms by which ceRNAs are implicated in CSC-related relapse. Thus, this review was designed in order to discuss the role of ceRNAs in CSCs function. We reviewed the role of ceRNAs in acquiring CSCs characteristics in the form of different pathways including Rho GTPase/F-actin_ Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) (Hippo), Wnt/β-catenin pathway, transforming growth factor (TGF)-b–urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1)–Slug pathway, etc. Finally, considering the comprehensive impacts of the ceRNA network on different pathways, a treatment strategy driving the ceRNA network might be effective. Targeting ceRNAs may open the path for new cancer therapeutic targets and can be used in clinical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0223.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: endogenous retroviruses; HERV-K; mouse mammary tumor virus; dolutegravir; 4T1 cells
Online: 18 February 2022 (05:10:41 CET)
Increasing evidence points to the role of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in driving cancer cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of repurposing antiretroviral agents to inhibit ERVs as a new approach in cancer treatment. We found that an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor, dolutegravir (DTG), effectively inhibited the proliferation of multiple cancer cell lines and its antiproliferative potency was positively correlated with the expression levels of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K). DTG inhibited the expression of HERV-K in multiple human cancer cell lines and the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) in the murine 4T1 mammary cancer cell line. We chose the fast-growing BT-20 cell line as a model to study the in vitro antiproliferative mechanisms of DTG. BT-20 cells overexpressing both HERV-K env and pol genes became more resistant to DTG than cells transduced with vector alone. Knockdown of HERV-K also increased DTG resistance of BT-20 cells. The antiproliferative effect of DTG correlated with enhanced expression of E-cadherin and reduction in cell motility and invasiveness. Surprisingly, DTG stimulated expression of the env gene of MMTV in vivo and promoted metastasis of 4T1 tumor cells to the lungs. Taken together, our data support a role of ERVs in tumor development and encourage further search for antiretroviral agents to treat malignancies in which endogenous retroviruses are active.
Subject: Keywords: Smallholder farmer; Vocational training; Income; Endogenous transformation regression model; Moderating effect
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:20:07 CEST)
This article explores the impact of farmers’ vocational training on their income. Survey data concerning agricultural product quality and agricultural product sales were collected by the research team in Yantai City, China. An endogenous transformation regression model (ESR) was then used to analyze the impact of training on farmers’ family income, and the income mechanism was further tested. The results from the empirical analysis suggest that (1) Participating in training can significantly increase farmers’ income; (2) Farmers who pay more attention to the quality of their agricultural products during the production process are more likely to see their incomes increase after participating in the training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: industrial policy, endogenous economic growth, new combinations, Schumpeter, technology, stimulant factor
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:28:07 CET)
In this study, the prevalent methodology for design of the industrial policy in developing countries was critically assessed, and it was shown that the mechanism and content of classical method is fundamentally contradictory to the goals and components of the endogenous growth theories. This study, by proposing a new approach, along settling Schumpeter's economic growth theory as a policy framework, designed the process of entering, analyzing and processing data as the mechanism of the industrial policy in order to provide "theoretical consistency" and "technical and Statistical requirements" for targeting the growth stimulant factor effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0211.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: metacontrast; attention; exogenous attention; endogenous attention; visual masking; masking attention interactions
Online: 13 June 2018 (11:06:02 CEST)
To efficiently use its finite resources, the visual system selects for further processing only a subset of the rich sensory information. Visual masking and spatial attention control the information transfer from visual sensory-memory to visual short-term memory. There is still a debate whether these two processes operate independently or interact, with empirical evidence supporting both arguments. However, recent studies pointed out that earlier studies showing significant interactions between common-onset masking and attention suffered from ceiling and/or floor effects. Our review of previous studies reporting metacontrast-attention interactions revealed similar artifacts. Therefore, we investigated metacontrast-attention interactions by using an experimental paradigm in which ceiling/floor effects were avoided. We also examined whether metacontrast masking is differently influenced by endogenous and exogenous attention. We analyzed mean absolute-magnitude of response-errors and their statistical distribution. Our results support the hypothesis that metacontrast and endogenous/exogenous attention are largely independent with negligible likelihood for interactions. Moreover, statistical modeling of the distribution of response-errors suggests weak interactions modulating the probability of “guessing” behavior for some observers in both types of attention. Nevertheless, our data suggest that any joint effect of attention and metacontrast can be adequately explained by their independent and additive contributions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: suicide; social pain; psychache; endogenous opioid system; oxytocin; serotonin; endocannabinoids; buprenorphine; psilocybin; ketamine
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:43:48 CEST)
Suicidal behaviour is a public health problem whose magnitude is both substantial and increasing. Since many individuals seek medical treatment following a suicide attempt, strategies aimed at reducing further attempts in this population are a valid and feasible secondary prevention approach. An evaluation of the available evidence suggests that existing treatment approaches have limited efficacy in this setting, highlighting the need for innovative approaches to suicide prevention. Existing research on the neurobiology of social pain has highlighted the importance of this phenomenon as a risk factor for suicide, and has also yielded several attractive targets for pharmacological preventive strategies. In this paper, the available evidence related to these targets is synthesized and critically evaluated. The way in which social pain is related to the “anti-suicidal” properties of recently approved treatments, such as ketamine and psilocybin, is also examined. Such strategies may be effective for the short-term reduction of suicidal ideation and behaviour in individuals who have made a suicide attempt suicide prevention, particularly in cases where social pain is identified as a contributory factor. These pharmacological approaches may be effective regardless of the presence or absence of a specific psychiatric diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: individual travel cost method; zero truncated poisson regression model; endogenous stratification; consumer surplus
Online: 10 February 2017 (11:10:04 CET)
To estimate the recreational value provided by the Foy’s Lake annually using the most applicable model for on-site data is the main objective of this study. Adhere to the objective of this study; Individual Travel Cost Method (ITCM) has been applied and Zero Truncated Poisson Regression Model has been found plausible among other models to estimate consumer surplus. Based on the findings of the study, an estimate of the consumer surplus or recreational benefits per trip per visitor can be recommended as BDT 5,875 or US $ 73.44 and counting the consumer surplus per trip per visitor, the annual recreational value (total consumer surplus) provided by the lake is found to be BDT 321 million or US $ 40.2 million.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0080.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: implementation; adoption; health interventions; community prevention; obesity prevention interventions; system dynamics; systems thinking; endogenous dynamics; qualitative modeling; case studies
Online: 27 July 2017 (17:54:29 CEST)
In this study, we present case studies to explore the dynamics of implementation and maintenance of health interventions. We analyze how specific interventions are built and eroded, how the building and erosion mechanisms are interconnected, and why we can see significantly different erosion rates across otherwise similar organizations. We use multiple comparative obesity prevention case studies to provide empirical information on the mechanisms of interest, and use qualitative systems modeling to integrate our evolving understanding into an internally consistent and transparent theory of the phenomenon. Our preliminary results identify reinforcing feedback mechanisms, including design of organizational processes, motivation of stakeholders, and communication among stakeholders, which influence implementation and maintenance of intervention components. Over time, these feedback mechanisms may drive a wedge between otherwise similar organizations, leading to distinct configurations of implementation and maintenance processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: High fat diet; conditioned place preference; mu opioid receptor; knockout mice; wildtype mice; endogenous opioid system; oxycodone.
Online: 22 January 2023 (03:51:26 CET)
Excessive high fat diet (HFD) consumption can induce food addiction which is believed to involve the communication between the hypothalamus and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These brain regions are densely populated with opioid receptors, raising the possibility that these receptors, and particularly mu opioid receptors (MORs), are involved in mediating reward induced by palatable foods. This study sought to investigate the involvement of MORs in high fat diet (HFD)-induced reward and if there is any difference between male and female subjects in this response. We also assessed if exposure to HFD would potentiate the rewarding action of oxycodone, a relatively selective MOR agonist. The place conditioning paradigm was used to determine if conditioning for a short time (STC, 2 h) or long time (LTC, 16 h) with HFD induces reward or alters the rewarding action of oxycodone. Male and female C57BL/6J mice as well as MOR knockout and wildtype mice of both sexes were tested for basal place preference on day 1 and then conditioned with HFD in one chamber and regular chow diet (RCD) in another chamber and tested for place preference again after three sets of STC and again after a set of LTC. Each set consisted of two conditioning with RCD and two conditioning with HFD. Controls were conditioned with RCD in both conditioning chambers. Following the last place preference test, mice were treated with oxycodone and conditioned in the HFD-paired chamber and saline in the RCD-paired chamber for one hour once a day to explore the possibility if the HFD could alter oxycodone reward. The result showed that HFD induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in both male and female subjects following the LTC. This response was further potentiated after oxycodone conditioning. The latter response was mediated via MORs, as it was blunted in MOR knockout mice. However, HFD-induced CPP was observed following LTC in only female MOR knockout mice, suggesting for sexual dimorphism in this response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0345.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: travel cost method (TCM); contingent valuation (CV); consumer surplus (CS); willingness to pay (WTP); endogenous stratification; springs
Online: 20 August 2018 (05:37:01 CEST)
Fresh water springs are unique natural resources in Florida, currently under threat from increasing groundwater pumping and pollution resulting from a variety of sources. This paper estimates current recreation benefits from visiting springs using the travel cost method and elicits residents’ willingness to contribute for springs restoration using the contingent valuation method. It further compares the performance of count data models correcting for endogenous stratification and truncation, and finds that the annual consumer surplus per person per trip is between $20 and $43. Furthermore, visitors are willing to contribute $12 to $14 per person per trip for springs restoration without reducing trip demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0246.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: oriental melon; squash; graft; exogenous naphthylacetic acid; transcriptomic analysis; endogenous hormone; signal transduction; ROS scavenging; vascular bundle formation
Online: 19 May 2022 (03:22:20 CEST)
The plant graft healing process is an intricate development influenced by numerous endogenous and environmental factors. This process involves the histological changes, physiological and biochemical reactions, signal transduction, and hormone exchanges in the grafting junction. Studies have shown that applying exogenous plant growth regulators can effectively promote the graft healing process and improve the quality of grafted plantlets. However, the physiological and molecular mechanism of graft healing formation remains unclear. In our present study, transcriptome changes in the melon and cucurbita genomes were analyzed between control and NAA treatment, and we provided the first view of complex networks to regulate graft healing under exogenous NAA application. The results showed that the exogenous NAA application could accelerate the graft healing process of oriental melon scion grafted onto squash rootstock through histological observation, increase the SOD, POD, PAL, and PPO activities during graft union development and enhance the contents of IAA, GA3, and ZR except for the IL stage. The DEGs were identified in the plant hormone signal-transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and phenylalanine metabolism through transcriptome analysis of CK vs. NAA at the IL, CA, and VB stage by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Moreover, the exogenous NAA application significantly promoted the expression of genes involved in the hormone signal-transduction pathway, ROS scavenging system, and vascular bundle formation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Non-invasive direct current stimulation; Cortical, Suboccipital and Spinal stimulation; Quantitative sensory testing, Pain outcome measures, Endogenous pain modulation.
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:44:44 CET)
Background: Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of direct current stimulation (DCS) applied at the transcranial, suboccipital and spinal level on experimental sensory modalities and pain outcome measures in healthy subjects. The hypothesis of this study was that systematic analysis of the efficacy of DCS on modulating evoked thermal and mechanical pain modalities and mechanisms such as endogenous pain modulation in healthy individuals would reveal sensitive outcome measures help develop this technique for the control of chronic pain. Materials and Methods. Database searches were conducted up to December 2019 for randomized controlled trials that performed sham-controlled DCS of experimental sensory modalities and pain outcomes following transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations in healthy participants. Standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for sensory modalities, including random-effect metanalysis. Results: Thirty-one studies were included for analysis (647 participants). A significant decrease in pain intensity for active vs sham transcranial stimulation was identified for pain intensity (n=158; SMD=0.79; 95% CI=0.56 to 1.02), a significant increase in heat pain threshold (n=222; SMD=1.16; 95% CI=0.95 to 1.37), and a significant increase in cold pain threshold (n = 155; SMD = 0.77, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.01). No significant modulation of pressure pain threshold was identified with DCS and only a limited number of studies focused on experimental pain modulation following neuromodulation at the suboccipital or spinal level. Conclusions: These results show significant transcranial DCS neuromodulation of pain intensity and on thermal pain modalities. Future studies should focus on endogenous pain and sensory modality modulation with sham-controlled DCS applied at transcranial, suboccipital and spinal locations.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0153.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Tree of Life; origins of species; cellular lineage escape; endogenous compartmentation; proto-organelles; eukaryogenesis; origins of sex; syntrophic biofilms; endosymbiosis
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:27:17 CEST)
This article reevaluates the Woesean concept of crossing a ‘Darwinian threshold’ from pre-genomic communality, as prevailing in an ancestral ‘progenote’ state, to vertically stable lineages of autonomous and self-similar cells. This transition from collective trunk-line evolution to Darwinian speciation is dependent on the generation of modular organismal genomes. The same general principle should be valid at subcellular levels, allowing the emergence of semi-autonomous genomic agents, such as viruses and plasmid-carrying endogenous vesicles with organelle-like properties. As compartmentalized agents of endogenous nature could start with smaller genomes than those required for fully autonomous cells, it is conjectured that stable subcellular lineages emerged earlier than their cellular counterparts. Referring to the recent ‘pre-endosymbiont hypothesis’, it is proposed that free-living bacteria (the first ‘prokaryote’ cells) arose by ‘lineage escape’ from plasmid-bearing organelle-like compartments, evolving inside the internally complexifying ‘paracells’ of the progenote community. The double-membrane envelopes of diderm bacteria may have resulted from cell-biological processes facilitating cellular lineage escape. The later emergence of archaeal cells (resembling bacteria in ‘prokaryote’ appearance with unichromosomal genomes) and eukaryotic organisms (with compartmented cells and multichromosal genomes) can also be interpreted in terms of this modified progenote hypothesis. Conceivably, the multichromosomal genomes of eukaryotes were bundled in endogenous nuclear compartments to organize a ‘nuclear-cytoplasmic lineage’, which became vertically stable by perfecting mitosis/meiosis-like divisions and yet retained some intra-species population confluence by sexual division-fusion cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0358.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fibromyalgia; Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS); HERV (Human Endogenous Retrovirus); transposable elements; epigenetics; DNA methylation; tsRNAs (transfer RNA small fragments); interferon; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Online: 27 December 2019 (03:30:53 CET)
The development of nucleic acid sequencing technology and the unprecedented availability of metadata has evidenced that 45% of human genome constituted by transposable elements (TEs) is not only transcriptionally active but also physiologically needed. Aberrant regulation of TEs, and of human retroviral endogenous sequences (HERVs) in particular, associates with several neurologic and autoimmune diseases, including the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) frequently comorbid with fibromyalgia (FM). However, no study has yet addressed whether abnormal expression of these sequences correlates with FM. The work presented here shows, for the first time, that in fact HERVs of the H, K and W types are overexpressed in the cells of the immune system of FM patients with or without comorbid ME/CFS. The patients with increased HERV expression (N=14) presented increased levels of interferon (INF-β and INF-γ) but unchanged levels of TNF-α. In support of our proposal that TE activation is a contributor to FM, we find that the tRNA pools are decreased in comparison to matched healthy participants (N=14). The findings reported here could explain the flu-like symptoms FM patients present with in the absence of concomitant infections. Future work towards identifying specific genomic loci differentially affected in FM and ME/CFS is granted.