ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: information; end of life; humanisation; health care system; qualitative research
Online: 23 May 2019 (06:09:36 CEST)
Health information and communication are key elements that allow patients and family members to make decisions about end-of-life process and guarantee a death with dignity. Objective: To understand carers’ experiences regarding health information and communication during the illness and death of family members. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in Andalusia based on the paradigm of hermeneutic phenomenology. Participants were carers who had accompanied a family member at the end of life for over 2 months and less than 2 years. Five nominal groups and 5 discussion groups were established, and 41 in-depth interviews with 123 participants were conducted. Atlas.ti 7.0 software was used to analyse the discourses. Results: Four dimensions of the dying process emerged: differences in carers’ perceptions of information and communication, a conspiracy of silence, consequences of the absence or presence of information, and the need for a culture change. Conclusions: Poor management of health information and communication at the end of life suffering and discomfort patients and their families. The culture of denying and avoiding death is still present today. A change in education about death would better enable health professionals to care for patients at the end of life.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: life extension; wind turbines; end-of-life issues; probabilistic modelling; economic optimization; fatigue; risk; remaining useful life
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:02:18 CET)
Reassessment of the fatigue life for wind turbines structural components is typically performed using deterministic methods with the same partial safety factors as used for the original design. However, in relation to life extension, the conditions are generally different from the assumptions used for calibration of partial safety factors; and using a deterministic assessment method with these partial safety factors might not lead to optimal decisions. In this paper, the deterministic assessment method is compared to probabilistic and risk-based approaches, and the economic feasibility is assessed for a case wind farm. Using the models also used for calibration of partial safety factors in IEC61400-1 ed. 4 it is found that the probabilistic assessment generally leads to longer additional fatigue life than the deterministic assessment method. The longer duration of the extended life can make life extension feasible in more situations. The risk-based model is applied to include the risk of failure directly in the economic feasibility assessment and it is found that the reliability can be much lower than the target for new turbines, without compromising the economic feasibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Palliative Care; Physical Therapy; End-of-Life Care; Non-pharmacological Intervention; Physiotherapy
Online: 30 April 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
Abstract The aim of this research is to conduct a systematic review analysing the role of the physiotherapy interventions in palliative care. PRISMA as a critical appraisal tool was utilised for the selection of the research articles. The inclusion criteria were based on the year of publication, ease of availability, language, geographical location, and study type. To ensure the credibility, databases such as Elsevier, Proquest, and EBSCO Host were used to filter the grey content. Data published in the past ten years (2009-onwards) was only included to ensure the selection of the most recent interventions used by the physiotherapists. A total of 11 articles were selected which determined that physiotherapy interventions involving breathing exercises, aerobic exercises, manual therapies, and educational awareness were critical to promoting the functional capability and empower the patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: neonatal palliative care; Doctrine of Double Effect; perinatal palliative care; neonatal end-of-life care
Online: 10 February 2021 (15:38:55 CET)
Neonatal palliative care (NPC) is an integrated and holistic approach that is an integral part of the contemporary neonatal treatment delivery paradigm. It is the highest fulfillment of the notion of beneficence (doing or creating 'good') that has otherwise been neglected/underestimated by the focus of modern medicine on technology and instrumental treatments by its commitment to alleviating patient pain and quality of life. For decades, the Double-Effect Doctrine (DDE) has been used to consider and address a range of ethically questionable circumstances, often at the end of life, including euthanasia, termination of pregnancy to save maternal life, and morally justified warfare. The theory has continued to be mired in controversy as ethicists, legal scholars, theologians, and philosophers discuss the abstract concepts of moral reasoning, purpose, foresight, and other underlying moral theories. In this paper, the moral theory of DDE is discussed in its clinical application to the ethical decision-making process in neonatal palliative and end-of-life treatment, specifically 1) the administration of opioids as required for symptom control and 2) the use of palliative sedation for intractable symptom care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: palliative care team; seriously ill patients; end-of-life; quality of life; symptom relief; acute palliative care unit; cost savings
Online: 25 December 2017 (08:50:18 CET)
Traditionally, palliative care (PC) systems focused on the needs of advanced cancer patients. But, most patients needing PC have end-stage organ diseases. Similarly, PC models focused on the needs of patients in hospice or at home; however, in most cases PC is provided in acute hospitals. Indeed, the symptom burden that these patients experience in the last year of life frequently forces them to seek care in Emergency Department. The majority of them are admitted to the hospital and many die. This issue poses important concerns. Despite the efforts of attending healthcare professionals, inhospital patients do not receive optimal care near the end-of-life. Also, evidence is emerging that delay in identifying patients needing PC have a detrimental impact on their quality of life (QoL). Therefore, there is an urgent need to early and properly identify these patients among those hospitalized. Several trials reported the efficacy of PC in improving the QoL in these patients. Each hospital should ensure that a multidisciplinary PC team is available to support attending physicians to achieve the best QoL for both PC patients and their families. This review discusses the role and the impact of inhospital PC in patients with end-stage disease or advanced cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0046.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: end-of-life (EOL); relational dialectics theory (RDT); older adults (OA); aging; families
Online: 7 April 2017 (12:56:28 CEST)
For older adults, approaching end-of-life (EOL) brings unique transitions related to family relationships. Unfortunately, most families greatly underestimate the need to discuss these difficult issues. For example, parents approaching EOL issues often struggle with receiving assistance from others, avoiding family conflict, and maintaining their sense of personhood. In addition, discussions of EOL issues force family members to face their parents’ mortality, which can be particularly difficult for the adult children to process emotionally. This study explored aging issues identified by aging parents and their families as they traverse these impending EOL changes. Ten focus groups of seniors (n = 65) were conducted. Focus groups were organized according to race (African American/Caucasian), gender, and whether the older adult was living independently or in an assisted care facility. When asked open-ended questions about discussing aging and EOL issues with family members, participants revealed tensions that led us to consider Relational Dialectics Theory as a framework for analysis. The predominant tension highlighted in this report was certainty versus uncertainty, with the two sub-themes of sustained life versus sustained personhood and confronting versus avoiding EOL issues. For these data, there were more similarities than differences as a result of gender, race, or living situation than one might expect, although culture and financial status were found to be influential in the avoidance of EOL discussions. The results of this study help to provide additional insight into relational dialectics related to aging, EOL, and the importance of communication in facilitating family coping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0208.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: End of Life; Advance Directives; Advance Care Planning; Intensive Care, Medical Oncology; malignant hemopathy
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:34:51 CET)
Patients living with cancer often experience serious adverse events due to their condition or its treatments. Those events may lead to a critical care unit admission or even result in death. One of the most important but challenging part of care is to build a caring plan according to the patient’s wishes, meeting his goals and values. Advance directives (ADs) allow everyone to give their preferences in advance regarding life sustaining treatments, continuation, and withdrawal or withholding of treatments in case one is not able to speak his mind anymore. While the absence of ADs is associated with a greater probability of receiving unwanted intensive care around the end of his life, their existence correlates with the respect of the patient’s desires and his greater satisfaction. Although progress has been made to promote ADs’ completion, they are still scarcely used among cancer patients in many countries. Several limitations to their acceptation and use can be detected. Efforts should be made to provide tailored solutions for the identified hindrances. This narrative review aims to depict the situation of ADs in the oncology context, and to highlight the future areas of improvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0762.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Composites; Recycling; Composite materials; Sustainability; End-of-life; Circularity; Circular Economy; Cars; Society; Technology
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:30:36 CET)
Recently, significant events took place that added immensely to the sociotechnical pressure for developing sustainable composite recycling solutions, namely (1) a ban on composite landfilling in Germany in 2009, (2) the first major wave of composite wind turbines reaching their End-of-Life (EoL) and being decommissioned in 2019-2020, (3) the acceleration of aircraft decommissioning due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and (4) the increase of composites in mass production cars, thanks to the development of high volume technologies based on thermoplastic composites. Such sociotechnical pressure will only grow in the upcoming decade of 2020s as other countries are to follow Germany by limiting and banning landfill options, and by the ever-growing number of expired composites EoL waste. The recycling of composite materials will therefore play an important role in the future, in particular for the wind energy, but also for aerospace, automotive, construction and marine sectors to reduce environmental impacts and to meet the demand. The scope of this manuscript is a clear and condensed yet full state-of-the-art overview of the available composite recycling technologies of both low and high Technology Readiness Levels (TRL). TRL is a framework that has been used in many variations across industries to provide a measurement of technology maturity from idea generation (basic principles) to commercialization. In other words, this work should be treated as a technology review providing guidelines for the sustainable development of the industry that will benefit the society. The authors propose that one of the key aspects for the development of sustainable recycling technology is to identify the optimal recycling methods for different types of composites. Why is that the case can be answered with a simple price comparison of E-glass fibers (~2 $/kg) versus a typical carbon fiber on the market (~20 $/kg) – which of the two is more valuable to recover? However, the answer is more complicated than that – the glass fiber constitutes about 90% of the modern reinforcement market, and it is clear that different technologies are needed. Therefore, this work aims to provide clear guidelines for economically and environmentally sustainable End-of-Life (EoL) solutions and development of the composite material recycling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:20:50 CET)
Not a lot is known about either death or the dying process. Politicians and many in the medical profession in the UK tend to shy away from interfering with it by not allowing euthanasia as an end of life option for the patient. This is the first paper in a series of two, comparing the situation in human medicine and veterinary medicine, in which euthanasia is well practiced for relieving suffering at the end of an animal’s life. This first part takes the form of a literature review including best practice around end of life care, its deficiencies and the need for assisted dying. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. In countries which have legalized physician assisted suicide for the terminally ill reporting indicates that it works well, without increases in involuntary euthanasia and most importantly without intimidation of the vulnerable. However, there is still an ever increasing tendency to overuse sedation and opioids at the end of life, which merits further investigation. With advances in medical science able to significantly prolong the dying process, patient autonomy demands a review of the law in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: palliative and end-of-life care; older adults; advance care planning (ACP); health care professionals.
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:59:45 CEST)
This paper reports the findings from a pilot study designed to explore the barriers, facilitators and similarities with the delivery and implementation of two distinct models of Advance Care Planning (ACP) documentation for older adults in their last year of life used by health care professionals in their clinical practice. PACe (Proactive Anticipatory Care Plan): a GP led model and PEACE (Proactive Elderly Persons’ Advisory CarE): a nurse led model with community geriatrician oversight were used by participants in their clinical practice. Telephone interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs) to explore their views of using the PACe tool. Hospital admission avoidance matrons took part in face to face interviews and care staff employed in private residential care homes took part in individual telephone interviews to explore their views of using the PEACE tool. GPs and admission avoidance matrons were employed by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and all study participants were recruited from the South East of England where data collection took place in 2015. Nine telephone interviews and two face-to-face interviews (one joint and one individual) were conducted with twelve participants. The data was analysed thematically. Participants highlighted the similarity of both tools in providing focus to ACP discussions to inform individual end-of-life care preferences. The importance of relationships was a pivotal theme-established, trusting inter-professional relationships to enable multidisciplinary teamwork and a prior relationship with the older person (or their proxy in the case of cognitive impairment) to enable conversations of this nature. Using both tools enabled participants to think critically and reflect on their own practice was another theme identified. Notwithstanding participants’ views to improve the layout of both tools, using a paper-based approach to deliver streamlined ACP and end-of-life care was a theme to emerge as a barrier which focused on the problems with access to paper-based documentation, accuracy and care co-ordination in the context of multidisciplinary team working. The value of technology in overcoming this barrier and underpin ACP as a means to help simplify service provision, promote integrated professional practice and provide seamless care was put forward as the solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nursing homes; quality indicators; quality measurement; palliative care; quality of care; end of life care; advance care planning
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:07:43 CET)
An increasingly frail population in nursing homes accentuates the need for high quality care at the end of life and better access to palliative care in this context. Implementation of palliative care and its outcomes can be monitored by using quality indicators. Therefore, we developed a quality indicator set for palliative care in nursing homes and a tailored measurement procedure using a mixed-methods design. We developed the instrument in three phases: 1) literature search, 2) interviews with experts and 3) indicator and measurement selection by expert consensus (RAND/UCLA). Second, we pilot tested and evaluated the instrument in nine nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. After identifying 26 indicators in the literature and expert interviews, 19 of them were selected through expert consensus. Setting-specific themes were advance care planning, autonomy and communication with family. The quantitative and qualitative analyses showed the indicators were measurable, had good preliminary face validity and discriminative power and were considered useful in terms of quality monitoring according to the caregivers. The quality indicators can be used in a large implementation study and process evaluation in order to achieve continuous monitoring of the access to palliative care for all residents in nursing homes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0094.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying; moral stress
Online: 1 December 2017 (16:58:27 CET)
This is the second of a series of two papers comparing the end of life issues in human and veterinary medicine. We outline the main differences between human and animal patients such as patient communication, finance and ‘conflicts of interest’ between animal, owner and veterinarian. We discuss striking similarities between human and veterinary issues such as assessing quality of life and the primary role of the attending veterinarian or doctor being the welfare and care of the patient. This paper takes the form of an ethical argument in favour of allowing euthanasia in human medicine, by providing insights into end of life issues for humans from an independent veterinary perspective. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. Doctors in the UK are limited and unwilling to put forward a case for the option of euthanasia for those patients who face a slow and agonizing death. With advances in medical science being able to significantly prolong the dying process, autonomy for the patient demands a review of the law regarding patient choice in the UK.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0234.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Theory of Life; Definition of Life; Origin of Life; Electron Bifurcation; Hydrothermal Vents; Biophysics; Biological Physics
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:30:35 CEST)
The definition, origin and recreation of life remain elusive. As others have suggested, only once we put life into reductionist physical terms will we be able to solve those questions. To that end, this work proposes the phenomenon of life to be the product of two dissipative mechanisms. From them, one reinterprets extant biological life and deduces a testable scenario for its origin. The proposed theory of life allows its replication, reinterprets ecological evolution, creates new constraints on the search for life and lays the foundations for groundbreaking technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: rubber; environmental sustainability; end-of-life tires; critical raw materials; rubber processing; disintegrator; reclaiming; devulcanisation; ozone cutting; grinding; composite material
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:29:25 CEST)
Despite the development of technologies, modern methods of disposal of end-of-life tires most often represent either the incineration in cement kilns or the destruction of tires in special landfills, showing a lack of sustainable recycling of this valuable material. The fundamental role of recycling is evident, and the development of high-efficiency processes represents a priority for the European market. Therefore, investigation of end-of-life rubber processing methods is of high importance for manufacturers and recyclers of rubber materials. In this paper, methods of processing of end-of-life tires are reviewed in order to obtain rubber crumb, which can later be used in the production of new industrial rubber goods and composite The processes of separation end-of-life tire into fractions by type of materials using mechanical processing methods along with mechanochemical and mechanical processes of processing the materials of used tires in order to obtain crumb rubber of various fractions and chemical reactivity are considered.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.3390/sci2030073
Subject: Keywords: emergence of life; game of life; inefficiency objection; simpson’s paradox; astrobiology
Online: 18 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
We address the need for a model by considering two competing theories regarding the origin of life: (i) the Metabolism First theory and (ii) the RNA World theory. We discuss two inter-related points. (I) Models are valuable tools in understanding both the processes and intricacies of the origin of life issues. (II) Insights from models also help us to evaluate the core objection to origin of life theories called “the inefficiency objection” commonly raised by proponents of both the Metabolism First theory and the RNA World theory against each other. We use Simpson’s paradox as a tool for challenging this objection. We will use models in various senses ranging from taking them as representations of reality to treating them as theories/accounts that provide heuristics for probing reality. In this paper, we will frequently use models and theories interchangeably. Additionally, we investigate Conway’s Game of Life and contrast it with our Simpson’s Paradox (SP)-based approach to emergence of life issues. Finally, we discuss some of the consequences of our view. A scientific model is testable in three senses: (i) a logical sense, (ii) a nomological sense, and (iii) a current technological sense. The SP-based model is testable in the logical sense. It is also testable nomologically. However, it is not currently feasible to test it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0535.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Meaning of Life; Existential Vacuum; Antecedents; Meaning of Life Model; Psychological Wellbeing
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:41:22 CET)
The debate about the meaning of life in the literature has been around for a while and portraits a fundamental human need to find a personal path of existence. The meaning of life phenomenon purpose lies in its impact on the psychological wellbeing. Knowing your purpose in life can make it more structured and in balance, therefore more meaningful and comprehensible. However, in the existing body of the academic literature meaning of life is discussed more from the philosophic perspective rather than a practical area, which is not helping to solve the global issues of increasing mental health problems. When social and emotional wellbeing is being affected, it is urgent to apply a practical approach to effectively overcome these states. Introduction of a new, holistic meaning of life model is an attempt to offer a practical solution for society to maintain their mental health through awareness of their life’s purpose. Previously in the pilot study (Dombrovskis, 2017) in a sample group of 100 citizens of Latvia who self-reported being in a crisis situation at the given moment, using qualitive analysis the first component for the model structure was identified – antecedent. In our research antecedent is defined as something that triggers certain action, so in crisis situation person can regain a structure and stability in life. We found 8 different antecedents that trigger behavior of those affected by crisis: achievements; power; success; development; freedom; uniqueness; interesting life and fleeing. To continue to explore other components for our model in the setting of Latvia, this study aims to investigate the demographic and personality related variables that may serve as antecedents and as such become one of component in our model structure. The study used a sample of residents of Latvia representing the total population of 1,110 respondents (633 women, 57%, and 477 men, 43%) who have completed the self-assessment questionnaire Meaning of life scale (MOLS) (online and frontally) designed by the authors on their satisfaction with different factors regarding the meaning of life. Average age of respondents (M=33.88; SD=8,527) varied from 18 to 67. The exploratory and confirmatory analysis confirms the data regarding existence of totally 16 factors: 8 antecedents identified in the pilot study and 8 new antecedents identified in the present study - family relations; level of income; relations with friends/acquaintances; state of health; organization of free time; career growth (achievements); sexual life quality and quality of education. Findings confirm a model’s structure to be complex phenomenon consisting of various components. However, findings suggest that more research should be done to fill the following gaps: 1) identify actions, which are triggered by 16 antecedents; 2) figure out F1, F2 and F3 factor role in the model structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0354.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Definition of life; self-replicators; paralife; Utility-Product paralife; abiotic life; mechanical life; complexity
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:06:48 CET)
Here I describe an overlooked form of non-biological paralife (i.e., near-life) that has been evolving on Earth for millions of years, and is currently in the final stages of transitioning into a new form of life. Any consideration of non-biological life or paralife is complicated by the fact that there is no consensus among biologists for the definition of life. This ambiguity has caused disagreement about whether subcellular reproduction systems like viruses are a form of life, despite having genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes and system-improving evolution. To resolve this problem, I develop a definition of life that is entirely functional and independent of any of the structural idiosyncrasies of biological life on Earth: an order-generating system controlled by internally-encoded information that perpetuates itself by functioning to counteract its entropic decay. Using this definition, subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses are paralife because they match the definition of life in all ways except that they induce their order-generating functioning by a living host rather through their own self-sustaining production system. Using this functional definition of life, I show that utility- products (UPs) like fabricated hand tools are part of induced-reproduction systems that have features equivalent to biological genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes, and a process of system-improving evolution. The perceived benefit of utility-products causes them to induce their reproduction by a biological life-form (humans). For these reasons, human utility products are functionally just as close to being a form of life as subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses, i.e., they are Utility-Product paralife (UP-parlife). I also show that some forms of UP-paralife are currently evolving into mechanical life that is capable of both self- sustaining reproduction and system-improving evolution without outside assistance. This transition requires the development of a high level of factory and/or UP automation and artificial intelligence (AI) that is capable of complex reasoning, imagination and creativity. Finally, I consider the influence of UP-life and UP-paralife on the development of the level of structural complexity in the universe, and I briefly speculate about how these non-biological forms of life and paralife will influence the expansion of scientific knowledge about the universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Hypertension management; Complications of cardiovascular; Quality of Life
Online: 23 September 2021 (09:03:57 CEST)
The aim of this study as to determine the relationship between the factors of demography, comor-bidity, medication, lifestyle, and access to health services related to the QoL of people with hy-pertension and its complications in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional manner using data from Sleman HDSS (Health and Demographic Surveillance System) from 2015 to 2018 in cycles 3 and 2 with the inclusion criteria of hypertensive patients and their complications aged 25 years or older obtained by using a total sampling of 532 people. Measurement of QoL using Short Form 12v2 2a and 2b questionnaires presented in the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Data analysis using Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis test. The results showed factors related to the QoL in PCS were variables of gender, age, diagnosis of hypertension and its complications, the presence of comorbidities, fatty foods, drug consumption in the last two weeks, while factors related to the mental component (MCS) were education and occupation seen from the p-value <0.05. QoL with hypertension and its complications influence and decrease the physical than the patient's mental condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-laminated timber floors; End supports; End fixity factor; Vibration serviceability
Online: 4 October 2018 (13:21:12 CEST)
As an emerging building solution, cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors have been increasingly used in mass timber construction. The current vibration design of CLT floors is conservative due to the assumption of simple support conditions in the floor-to-wall connections. It is noted that end fixity occurs as a result of clamping action at the ends, arising from the gravity load applied by the structure above the floor and by the mechanical fasteners. In this paper, the semi-rigid floor-to-wall connections are treated as elastically restrained edges against rotations to account for the effect of partial constraint. A rotational end-fixity factor was first defined to reflect the relative bending stiffness between CLT floors and elastic restraints at the edges. Then, for the design of vibration serviceability of CLT floors as per the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86), restraint coefficients were defined and their analytical expressions were derived for natural frequencies and the mid-span deflection under a concentrated load, respectively. In particular, a simplified formula of the restraint coefficient for the fundamental frequency was developed to assist engineers in practical design. At last, by comparing with reported experimental data, the proposed design formula showed excellent agreement with test results. In the end, the proposed end fixity factor with their corresponding restraint coefficients is recommended as an effective mechanics-based approach to account for the effect of end support conditions of CLT floors.
Subject: Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:43:44 CET)
This paper presents a hypothesis about the origins of life in a clay mineral, starting with the earliest molecules, continuing through the increasing complexity of the development, in neighboring clay niches, of “Metabolism First,” “RNA World,” and other necessary components of life, to the encapsulation by membranes of the components in the niches, to the interaction and fusion of these membrane-bound protocells, resulting finally in a living cell, capable of reproduction and evolution. Biotite (black mica) in micaceous clay is the proposed site for this origin of life. Mechanical energy of moving biotite sheets provides one endless source of energy. Potassium ions between biotite sheets would be the source of the high intracellular potassium ion concentrations in all living cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microelectromechanical systems (MEMS); electrostatic Discharge (ESD); back-end-of-line (BEOL); Memory Switch
Online: 24 December 2018 (04:59:31 CET)
This paper discusses a MEMS switch that can be fabricated using low temperature (<100oC) deposition and patterning techniques suitable for the back-end-of-the-line integration with CMOS. The resulting cross-bar switches can be used for electrostatic discharge protection, FPGA implementation, chip security assessment and lock-down, and circuit block power management. We discuss platinum and iron switch with turn-on voltages of ~ 1.8 V. In the case of the iron switches, we also show that they can be magnetized to have “memory” and stay on when turned on. Platinum switch cycling of up to 1000 times did not show any changes in their turn-on voltage and their contact resistance was unchanged. The 10-100 nm switch airgaps were formed using low temperature sputtered sacrificial polysilicon and XeF2 etching. XeF2 does not attack any of the metals used in CMOS enabling fabrication of cross-bar switches with any of these metals. Once activated, it takes ∿ 6 to mechanically turn on the switch that can be decreased to ~1 ns by optimizing the device structure. Interestingly, the nm-scale gaps can be used as spark gap as a fast plasma switch to discharge first followed by the activation of the MEMS switch.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0370.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: GADV hypothesis; origin of life; protein 0th-order structure; origin of protein; [GADV]-microsphere; origin of gene: the core life system
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:41:15 CEST)
One of the problems, which make it difficult to solve the mystery of the origin of life, would be how life emerged in chemically complex messy environments on the primitive Earth. It is considered that three main points contributed to open the way to the emergence of life. (1) A characteristic inherent in [GADV]-amino acids, which are easily produced with prebiotic means. (2) Protein 0th-order structure or [GADV]-amino acid composition generating water-soluble globular protein with some flexibility, which can be produced even by random joining of [GADV]-amino acids. (3) Formation of versatile [GADV]-microspheres, which can grow, divide, proliferate even without genetic system, was the emergence of proto-life. (4) [GADV]-microspheres with a higher proliferation ability than others could be selected. The proto-Dawin evolution made it possible to proceed forward to creation of the core life system composed of (GNC)n gene, anticodon stem-loop tRNA or AntiC-SL tRNA (GNC genetic code) and [GADV]-protein. (5) Eventually, the first genuine life with the core life system emerged. Thus, the formation processes of [GADV]-protein and (GNC)n gene in chemically complex messy environments were the steps to the emergence of genuine life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0049.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: intelligent driving vehicle; trajectory planning; end-to-end; deep reinforcement learning; model transfer
Online: 2 August 2018 (13:06:39 CEST)
Aiming at the problem of model error and tracking dependence in the process of intelligent vehicle motion planning, an intelligent vehicle model transfer trajectory planning method based on deep reinforcement learning is proposed, which obtain an effective control action sequence directly. Firstly, an abstract model of the real environment is extracted. On this basis, Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) and vehicle dynamic model are adopted to jointly train a reinforcement learning model, and to decide the optimal intelligent driving maneuver. Secondly, the actual scene is transferred to equivalent virtual abstract scene by transfer model, furthermore, the control action and trajectory sequences are calculated according to trained deep reinforcement learning model. Thirdly, the optimal trajectory sequence is selected according to evaluation function in the real environment. Finally, the results demonstrate that the proposed method can deal with the problem of intelligent vehicle trajectory planning for continuous input and continuous output. The model transfer method improves the model generalization performance. Compared with the traditional trajectory planning, the proposed method output continuous rotation angle control sequence, meanwhile, the lateral control error is also reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: multimedia; self-care; quality of life; enterostomy
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:08:14 CEST)
(1)Background: This report was an effective evaluation of using multimedia educational program for self-care and quality of life in patients with a stoma at postoperative and established a simple threshold for enterostomy self-care skills.(2)Methods:108 patients with enterostomy were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention multimedia education program (including information about preparation for enterostomy care, cleaning method, manual bag replacement steps and precautions). The primary outcome was self-care ability and quality of life (defined as overall enterostomy self-care ability and overall quality of life), which was assessed at 2 weeks after intervention via an interview.(3)Results: Compared with those who in the conventional stoma education program, patients received the multimedia education program significantly improved their overall self-care ability and quality of life in statistically. The threshold of the enterostomy self-care skill scale was 20 points, and its corresponding sensitivity was 77.8%, and the specificity was 75.7%.(4)Conclusions: According to our study, the multimedia education program could enhance self-care ability of home care and quality of life in patients with enterostomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: disability; quality of life; cerebral palsy; surveillance
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:51:51 CET)
Secondary and tertiary prevention strategies targeting people with disabilities to improve their health and wellbeing is important. In Sweden, >95% of all children with cerebral palsy (CP) participate in a follow-up program, where one of the goals is the prevention of hip dislocations. We reviewed the incidence of hip dislocations from 2010 to 2019 and the number of children who underwent different types of hip surgeries. The number of hip dislocations was reduced from 8.8% before introduction of the program to 0.3-0.4% up to 2015, followed by a gradual increase to 0.8% in 2019. The proportion of children who underwent adductor-psoas lengthening as their primary preventive surgery decreased from 50% in 2017 to 37% in 2019 with a corresponding increase of children undergoing femoral osteotomy, indicating more children underwent surgery at a later stage. Reasons for the increased number of children with hip dislocation may be that more children have moved to Sweden in recent years without corresponding compensation in health care resources and increased waiting times for surgery due to, among other things, a shortage of nurses. The results highlight the importance of constantly monitoring follow-up programs.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0017.v1
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:54:19 CEST)
Maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) has been formulated in the mid-twentieth century, and today it has acquired the status of an important principle of science, which is extremely effective in considering various non-equilibrium problems. In this study, for the first time, definition of life is based on an easily measurable physical quantity that is entropy production. Life and evolution are discussed from the point of view of MEPP and the Universe, but not a human
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0201.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Iran; sanctions; mental health; quality of life
Online: 17 November 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In order to synchronize foreign policies of governments, firm actions in the form of economic sanctions have long been employed by western countries. Those countries that tend to have independent views and policies are made to undergo economic adversity to fall in line. But the hardest hit by these coercive actions are the ordinary citizens who have to endure immense difficulty with social and economic issues not to mention the human rights violations. This paper provides a review regarding the effect of economic sanctions on mental health and quality of life of Iranian citizens based on data available from Iran post-sanctions. From 2012 stronger sanctions have been implemented on Iran as its nuclear program failed to draw faith in terms of its peaceful execution. Evidence have pointed out that economic sanctions imposed by western countries have a detrimental and destructive effect on the health of individual Iranians and they violated some basic human rights.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: quality of life; celiac disease; parents; caregivers
Online: 20 September 2019 (19:04:08 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten and affects approximately 1% of the global population. Currently, the only treatment available is lifelong strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Chronic diseases such as CD affect patients and their family members’ quality of life (QoL); particularly parents and caregivers who play an essential role in the child’s care and treatment. A higher level of psychological distress has been found in the parents of children with chronic ailments due to limited control over the child’s daily activities and the child’s illness. In this context, the validation of a specific questionnaire of QoL is a valuable tool to evaluate the difficulties faced by parents or caregivers of children with this chronic illness. A specific questionnaire for this population can elucidate the reasons for stress in their daily lives as well as the physical, mental, emotional, and social impact caused by CD. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a specific questionnaire to evaluate the QoL of parents and caregivers of children and adolescents with CD. The study was developed in six steps: (i) development of the CD parent/caregiver QoL questionnaire (CDPC-QoL); (ii) subjective evaluation; (iii) validation of the questionnaire by the Delphi method; (iv) evaluation of the internal consistency and reproducibility of the CDPC-QoL; (v) application of the questionnaire to Brazilian CD parents or caregivers; and (vi) statistical analysis. Overall results showed that a higher family income resulted in a higher score of the worries domain. In addition, having another illness besides CD decreased the QoL (except in the worries domain). The other variables studied did not present a statistically significant impact on the QoL, which was shown to be low in all aspects. Knowledge of the QoL is important to help implement effective strategies to improve celiac patients’ quality of life and reduce their physical, emotional, and social burden.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0564.v2
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:32:02 CET)
Current cellular facts allow us to follow the link from chemical to biochemical metabolites, from the ancient to the modern world. In this context, the "RNA world" hypothesis proposes that early in the evolution of life, the ribozyme was responsible for the storage and transfer of genetic information and for the catalysis of biochemical reactions. Accordingly, the hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) and the hairpin ribozyme, belong to a family of endonucleolytic RNAs performing self-cleavage that might occur during replication. Furthermore, regarding the ultraconserved occurrence of HHR in several genomes of modern organisms (from mammals to small parasites and elsewhere), these small ribozymes have been regarded as living fossils of a primitive RNA world. They fold into 3D structures that generally require long-range intramolecular interactions to adopt the catalytically active conformation under specific physicochemical conditions. By studying viroids as plausible remains of ancient RNA, we recently demonstrated that they replicate in non-specific hosts, emphasizing their adaptability to different environments, which enhanced their survival probability over the ages. All these results exemplify ubiquitously features of life. Those are the versatility and efficiency of small RNAs, viroids and ribozymes, as well as their diversity and adaptability to various extreme conditions. All these traits must have originated in early life to generate novel RNA populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: oral health; quality of life; postmenopausal women
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:14:09 CEST)
Interrelationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far reaching aspects of life such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with poor oral health (POH) with QoL in PMW with good oral health. 200 randomly recruited PMW received a dental evaluation and completed Utian Quality of Life Survey. The participants were divided into POH and healthy groups based on dental exam. Mean scores were calculated for each QoL item, domain and the overall summary score. For each of the four parameters for periodontitis diagnosis, periodontitis patients’ QoL outcomes were compared to those of healthy patients using T-test with threshold of significance at p<0.05. QoL in all fields measured were significantly poorer in the POH compared to the healthy patients, occupational (19.95±5.35vs. 27.56±6.13), health (18.02±8.23 vs. 26.59 ±6.45), emotional (15.68±10.22vs. 21.15±9.15), sexual (6.2±5.98vs. 10.02±5.35), and total score (60.21±25.85 vs. 84.26±22.35). This study finds that PMW with POH, report significantly poorer quality of life. Clinicians caring for PMW should be aware of that oral health impacts QoL and make appropriate referral decisions for patients’ dental care. Keywords: Quality of Life, Oral Health, Post-menopause, Women
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:51:38 CEST)
Forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various other forms of energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ESSAY | doi:10.3390/sci2020019
Subject: Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; mechanochemistry; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 25 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Mechanical forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because mechanical forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various forms of chemical energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0002.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Emergence of Life; Hydrothermal vents; Electrotrophy; Prebiotic synthesis; Electroreduction of CO2
Online: 1 December 2022 (01:06:47 CET)
The emergence of Life has been a subject of intensive research for decades. Different approaches and different environmental “cradles” have been studied, from space to the deep-sea. Since the recent discovery of a natural electrical current through the deep-sea hydrothermal vent, a new energy source is considered for the transition from inorganic to organic. This energy source is used by modern microorganisms using a new trophic type, called electrotrophy. In this review, we draw the parallel between this metabolism and a new theory for the emergence of Life based on this electrical electron flow. Each step of the creation of Life is revised in the new light of this prebiotic electrochemical context, going from the evaluation of similar electrical current during the Hadean, the CO electroreduction into a prebiotic primordial soup, the production of proto-membranes, the energetic system inspired of the nitrate reduction, the proton gradient, and the transition to a planktonic proto-cell. Finally, this theory is compared to the two other theories in hydrothermal context, to assess its relevance to overcome the limitations of each one. Many critical factors that were limiting each theory can be overcome with the effect of the electrochemical reactions and the environmental changes produced.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0341.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: prebiotic chemistry; origin of biomolecules; origin of nucleotides; origin of amino acids; origin of life
Online: 12 March 2021 (11:39:50 CET)
The origin of life was a cosmic event happened on primitive Earth. A critical problem to better understand the origins of life in Earth is to glimpse in which chemical scenarios the basic building blocks of biological molecules could be produced. Classic works in pre-biotic chemistry frequently considered early Earth as a homogeneous atmosphere constituted by chemical elements such as methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), water (H2O), hydrogen (H2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Under that scenario, Stanley Miller was capable to produce amino acids and solved the question about the origin of proteins. Conversely, the origin of nucleic acids has tricked scientists for decades as nucleotides are complex though necessary molecules to allow the existence of life. Here we review possible chemical scenarios that allowed not only the formation of nucleotides but also other significant biomolecules. We aim to provide a theoretical solution for the origin of biomolecules at specific sites named “Prebiotic Chemical Refugia”. A prebiotic chemical refugium should therefore be understood as a geographic site in prebiotic Earth on which certain chemical elements were accumulated in higher proportion than expected, facilitating the production of basic biomolecules. Plus, this higher proportion should not be understood as static, but dynamic; once the physicochemical conditions of our planet changed periodically. This different concentration of elements, together with geochemical and astronomical changes along days, synodic months and years provided somewhat periodic changes in temperature, pressure, electromagnetic fields, and conditions of humidity; among other features. Recent and classic works suggesting most likely prebiotic refugia on which the main building blocks of biological molecules might be accumulated are reviewed and discussed.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0279.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SDG; Dayalbagh Way of life; Agroecology; Sustainable Agriculture
Online: 15 December 2022 (09:04:03 CET)
The multiple crises that the world is facing – climate change, COVID-19 and war have halted or reversed the progress of the world towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. Using a case study of Dayalbagh, a locality in metropolitan Agra, India, and headquarters of the Radhasoami faith, we examine the potential benefits of employing agroecology to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The active, disciplined and cooperative community-based lifestyle followed in Dayalbagh with a strong focus on agriculture and service demonstrates how most of the SDGs can be achieved. It offers lessons for policy makers in terms of focus areas for policy support and reaching the last, lowest, least and the lost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: multi scale; quality of life; wavelets; mathematical models
Online: 1 March 2022 (13:32:59 CET)
The present paper is concerned with the study of the quality of life index. Such an index has become an important index for measuring the well-being of individuals. However, the quality of life index is always a subjective, intangible, and often hard to quantify with precision due to the lack of quantitative models dealing with. The main goal of the present paper is thus to propose a mathematical, quantitative model for the measurement of a quality of life index. The main novelty is firstly the construction of a wavelet dynamic multiscale model to quantify and investigate the effect of time scale on the quality of life index measuring. The proposed procedure is acted empirically on a sample corresponding to Saudi Arabia as a case of study during the period from 2003 to 2020 as part of the 2030-vision plan. Saudi Arabia has implemented the so-called 2030-vision plan where the quality of life improvement is one of the main goals to be attempted. The findings show that wavelets are capable to localize the time-wise behavior of the index contrarily to classical studies which estimate a global view of the index. Moreover, the study shows the link between the quality of life behavior and many other indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0205.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: taste; smell; quality of life; sensitivity; threshold; QUEST
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:00:37 CET)
Taste and smell function decline with age, with robust impairment in the very old. Much less is known about taste and smell function in young and middle old. We investigated taste and smell sensitivity via thresholds in a sub-sample of the NutriAct Family Study (NFS), the NFS Examinations cohort (NFSE; N=251, age M=62.5 years). We examined different aspects relating to taste and smell function: the degree to which taste and smell sensitivity relate to another and to taste and smell preferences, the role of gender and age, as well as effects on Quality of Life (QOL). Taste thresholds were highly correlated but no correlation was observed between taste and smell thresholds and between thresholds and preference. Women were more sensitive for both taste and smell than men. We found no effect of age on sensitivity and no effect of sensitivity on QoL. All null-findings were corroborated with Bayesian statistics providing evidence for the null hypotheses. Together our results indicate the independence of taste and smell despite their overlap during sensorial experiences. We found no evidence for age-related sensory decline, which could be due to our sample´s characteristics of non-clinical volunteers with good dental health and 93% non-smokers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0554.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: philosophy of science; information; artificial life; scales; causality
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:59:04 CEST)
When we attempt to define life, we tend to refer to individuals, those that are alive. But these individuals might be cells, organisms, colonies... ecosystems? We can describe living systems at different scales. Which ones might be the best ones to describe different selves? I explore this question using concepts from information theory, ALife, and Buddhist philosophy. After brief introductions, I review the implications of changing the scale of observation, and how this affects our understanding of selves at different structural, temporal, and informational scales. The conclusion is that there is no single ``best'' scale for a self, as this will depend on the scale at which decisions must be made. Different decisions, different scales.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0743.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: origin of life; virus; evolution; symbiosis; progenotes; fuca;
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:28:30 CEST)
Viruses were classically named after the very same Latin word virus, originally meaning poison or venom. Public understanding of viruses reinforces their “malign” aspects, especially nowadays under the COVID-19 global pandemic. It is our aim here to propose a new way to view viruses and understand their origins and evolution. First, viruses are the most abundant biological systems found on Earth. They can be found almost everywhere and form a subtle biological layer named virosphere. Second, viruses are probably the most important drivers of molecular evolution and they are active agents of ecosystems maintenance and homeostasis, allowing and driving their dynamic modification. A significant number of eukaryotic genomes are composed by genome elements similar to viruses and these endogenous viruses are continuously acting for our equilibrium and fitness. They are responsible for the origin of species-specific orphan genes that allow adaptation through the development of specific traits in separate lineages of eukaryotes. Accumulated evidence indicate that a viral infection was responsible to create the eukaryotic nucleus and, also, it is a syncytium structure caused by viral replication that allows the formation of the placenta. Therefore, viruses were fundamental for the evolutionary fate of eukaryotes and mammals. The presence of virus-specific genes that are absent in cellular organisms indicates that viruses existed before cells. Besides, such as progenotes, viruses are simply ribonucleoproteic entities and their capsids are orders of magnitude simpler than proteolipidic membranes. Here, we (i) propose a complete scenario to describe the major transitions in prebiotic evolution, (ii) present the possibility that viruses emerged before LUCA, and (iii) suggest that viruses originated at the age of progenotes. However, viruses do not form a monophyletic clade. They should be seen as an evolutionary stable strategy recurrently achieved by biological systems to survive. We propose that the word “VIRUS”, known as venom, is historically mistaken and introduce a new interpretation for their name as an acronym for “Very Important Replicator Unit and Symbiont”. But more than being “very important”, viruses are of “Utmost” relevance for the maintenance of life in biosphere, by which reason we suggest referring to them as “UIRUS” to reinforce their incredible role in symbiosis and their beneficial characteristics over the infectious ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0086.v1
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:43:24 CEST)
Phylogenies depict shared evolutionary patterns and structures on a tree topology, enabling the identification of hierarchical and historical relationships. Recent analyses indicate that phylogenetic signals extend beyond the primary structure of protein or DNA, and various aspects of codon usage biases are phylogenetically conserved. Several functional biases exist within genes, including the number of codons that are used, the position of the codons, and the overall nucleotide composition of the genome. Codon usage biases can significantly affect transcription and translational efficiencies, leading to differential gene expression. Although systematic codon usage biases originate from the overall GC content of a species, ramp sequences, codon aversion, codon pairing, and tRNA competition also significantly affect gene expression and are phylogenetically conserved. We review recent advances in analyzing codon usage biases and their implications in phylogenomics. We first outline common phylogenomic techniques. Next, we identify several codon usage biases and their effects on secondary structure, gene expression, and implications in phylogenetics. Finally, we suggest how codon usage biases can be included in phylogenomics. By incorporating various codon usage biases in common phylogenomic algorithms, we propose that we can significantly improve tree inference. Since codon usage biases have significant biological implications, they should be considered in conjunction with other phylogenetic algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0463.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nocturia; aging male symptoms; Quality of life; Health-related Quality of life; Male adults; NQoL; Urinary frequency; Bedtime urination; sleep
Online: 29 July 2022 (13:13:15 CEST)
Background: The link between nocturia and aging male symptoms (AMS) has not been scientifically established. This study aimed to measure the degree of severity of AMS that impact on the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in adult males living with nocturia, and to determine the predictive values of nocturnal factors on AMS. Methods: It is an extended analysis of new data collected by using the Hong Kong Traditional AMS (HK-AMS) scale and Cantonese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a recently published cross-sectional population-based survey. Results: Of the 781 respondents that have completed the set of questionnaires, 68% and 61% of men living with nocturia reported clinically significant (at moderate-to-severe levels) somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, whereas the prevalence and severity were increased with advancing nighttime voiding frequency. The nocturia-specific QoL (NQoL) score and nocturnal frequency were found to be significant predictive factors for composite, somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, in addition to age, global OSQI score, and certain metabolic diseases. Conclusions: Current findings suggested the inclusion of nocturia when measuring the male-specific HRQoL related to aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0169.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescents; diabetes type I; quality of life; family conflicts; fear of injecting
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:54:28 CEST)
A good management of diabetes requires at the same time self-regulation behaviour and a balanced involvement of family components. This study’s aims were: understanding fear of injections and perceptions of family conflicts in preadolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers, comparing their perceptions, and identifying the risk factors impacting patients’ quality of life. Participants were one hundred and two patients (Mean age = 14.63, SD = 2.43; age range = 10-19 years; Females = 52) and their mothers (Mean age = 46.94, SD = 6.2, age range = 27-63 years), who filled in self and proxy-report questionnaires. Twenty % of patients and 14.7% of their mothers reported clinical score for fear of self-injection and blood testing. Mothers reported higher fear of injecting and family conflicts compared with the patients. Age, fear of injecting and family conflicts impacted significantly on patients’ quality of life perceptions. Clinical consideration and recommendations are given basing on the empirical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0102.v1
Online: 5 July 2018 (16:26:39 CEST)
Tanzania like any other developing countries is depending on uncertain rainfall for their subsistence and commercial agriculture. In this paper the start and end of rains for Mbeya Meteorological Station in Tanzania Mainland was analyzed and critically examined. Data were kindly given by Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA) during face to face Statistics in Applied Climatology (fSIAC) workshop which was held at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) the year 2013 prior to online Course on Statistics in Applied climatology (eSIAC). In this study data were analyzed using Instat (for windows version 3.3.7) package developed by the Statistical Services Centre of the University of Reading. The analysis showed that much of rains start early December all the way to May. There is also 50 percent chance of having below and above the mean for both total annual rainfall and number of rains, in other word one in two years the total rains are below means likewise the number of rain days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0351.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Tuberculosis; Health-related quality of life; COVID-19; Guinea
Online: 25 July 2022 (05:37:10 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on all facets of life and has exacerbated many challenges faced by people living with tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of TB patients in Guinea during the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-methods study was conducted using two validated psychometric tools to assess HRQoL and qualitative interviews among TB patients enrolled in treatment at three centers in Conakry, Guinea. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the deterioration of HRQoL. We included 439 participants in the study, among whom 44% and 31% experienced pain and anxiety, respectively. We found that an increase in the number of household members and the distance from participants’ residence to the health centre were significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Qualitative interviews highlighted nutritional and financial concerns which were exacerbated during COVID-19 pandemic and beliefs that the Guinean Government’s assistance plan was insufficient. This study supports the implementation of specific relief plans for TB patients which includes nutritional and psychological support, especially those whose movements are limited by travel restrictions, impeding access to TB care, reducing work opportunities and exacerbating financial needs and stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nursing; Spiritual care; Quality of life; Chronic disease; Children
Online: 13 June 2022 (05:17:18 CEST)
Background: Chronic disease is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Various complex stressors faced by children due to illness and a series of treatments can negatively impact children's welfare, which can negatively affect children's quality of life.Objectives: This literature aims to study the philosophy of spiritual-based care interventions to improve the quality of life of children with chronic diseases viewed from three philosophical perspectives, namely ontology, epistemology, and axiology.Methods: A literature search was performed on five databases, namely SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SAGEPub. Population limitations and diagnoses in this literature of children with chronic disease. This research is a quantitative study focusing on publications between 2017-2021.Results: The philosophy of spiritual care intervention is humanistic, pragmatic, and religious intervention. Humanistic interventions are interventions in which nurses are actively involved in spiritual care. Pragmatic intervention is the activeness of a nurse in assessing the spiritual needs of patients. Meanwhile, religious intervention is an intervention that is directly related to the practice or ritual of a specific belief system. Spiritual care is an essential part of holistic care, which is considered an indicator of improving the quality of care. It will ultimately affect the optimal quality of life of children.Conclusion: Spiritual-based care interventions are essential to improve the quality of life of children with chronic diseases. Spiritual care given to children with chronic illnesses must consider all aspects such as developmental stage, life experience, and socio-cultural of the child.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0031.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: photosynthesis; photosystem; water oxidation; oxygenic; evolution; origin of life
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:17:37 CET)
What if oxygenic photosynthesis is a primordial process with roots at the origin of life? What would the impact of this change in perspective be on our understanding of the early Earth and of the emergence and diversification of life? In here, I will examine some of the historical context of the study of the evolution of photosynthesis, which led to the consolidation of the current notion that the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis occurred before the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis. I will show with a few examples how the mainstream view on the evolution of photosynthesis traces back to Oparin’s ‘primordial soup’ scenario for the origin of life, fuelled by the century-old perception that oxygenic photosynthesis is a plant rather than a bacterial trait. However, it has become more evident than ever before that the mainstream view is not supported by the evolution of the photosystems. In other words, the origin of biological water oxidation appears to be the seed from where photosynthesis sprout. Somewhat troubling and contrary to all predictions that derive from the mainstream view, photosystem II—the water-splitting and oxygen-evolving enzyme—shows features that are better explained if photochemical reaction centres originated during the establishment of oxygenic photosynthesis. An urgent revision of the evolution of photosynthesis procured to be free from biases of interpretations and presuppositions is strongly encouraged from all angles of the Life and Earth Sciences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0171.v1
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:31:59 CEST)
Background: Breast cancer is the second type of cancer diagnosed in women and is the first cancer in women worldwide. Breast cancer also causes high morbidity and mortality in women and becomes a heavy burden due to the incidence of disability due to the disease. Purpose: This literature review aims to examine how social support affects anxiety, depression and quality of life in breast cancer sufferers. Method: The data were obtained by searching for reputable and trustworthy journals. have high quality criteria, namely Scopus, Proquest, Science Direct, Elsevier, Pubmed. Journals or articles used in this review literature are searched using keywords and Boolean operators (AND, OR NOT, or AND NOT). Keywords in this review literature are as follows: social support OR family support, quality of life OR Quality, anxiety OR depression, AND Cancer OR cancer treatment OR Chronic disease. Results: The results of this literature review show that there is a significant influence between the social support received by breast cancer patients on the improvement of their quality of life. The social support provided is also able to reduce anxiety and depression in breast cancer sufferersConclusion: Social support given to breast cancer patients is proven to have an effect on improving the quality of life, reducing anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0287.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Covid-19; quality of life; mental health; physical health
Online: 8 March 2021 (09:51:55 CET)
Introduction: The majority of epidemiological reports focus on confirmed cases of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to assess the health and well-being of adults not infected with Covid-19 after two months of quarantine in Morocco. Materials and methods: Two months after the declaration of quarantine in Morocco following the Covid-19 epidemic, we carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 279 Moroccan citizens. We used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a determinant of quality of life, which is based on eight dimensions of health. The data were collected using an electronic questionnaire distributed online. The participants also indicated their socio-demographic data, their knowledge and practices regarding the Covid-19 pandemic and whether they had chronic health problems. Results: The quality of life of all participants was moderately disrupted during the Covid-19 pandemic with a mental health score (MCS) of 34.49 (± 6.44) and a physical health score (PCS) of 36.10 (± 5.82). Participants with chronic diseases scored lower with 29.28 (± 1.23) in mental health (MCS) and 32.51 (± 7.14) in physical health (PCS). The seriousness of COVID-19 has an impact on the quality of life and health well-being of people and this impact is more marked in people with chronic health problems. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need to pay attention to the health of people who have not been infected with the virus. Our results also point out that uninfected people with chronic illnesses may be more likely to have well-being problems due to quarantine restrictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0500.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: origin of life; disspative structuring; prebiotic chemistry; abiogenisis; adenine
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:57:05 CET)
I describe the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the photochemical mechanisms which may have been involved in the dissipative synthesis, proliferation, and evolution of the fundamental molecules at the origin of life from simpler and more common precursor molecules such as HCN, H2O and CO2 under the impressed UVC photon flux of the Archean. The fundamental molecules absorb strongly in this UVC region and exhibit strong coupling between their electronic excited and ground states which endows them with efficient photon disipative capacity (broad wavelength absorption and rapid radiationless dexcitation) suggestive of dissipative structuring. The autocatalytic nature of the synthesized molecules in dissipating the same photochemical potential that directed their synthesis leads to their proliferation. The non-linearity in the photochemical and chemical reaction rates provides numerous stationary states which can be reached by amplification of a molecular concentration fluctuation near a bifurcation, promoting the system into states of generally higher photon disspative efficacy. An example is given of the UV photochemical dissipative structuring, proliferation, and evolution of molecules on route to the nucleobase adenine from the common precursor molecules HCN and H2O occurring within a fatty acid vesicle. The kinetic equations are resolved under different environmental conditions, providing a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of the appearance of an early important molecule for the origin of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0700.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: physical fitness; exercise self-efficacy; quality of life; adulthood
Online: 29 July 2020 (12:57:08 CEST)
Background: The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a systematic review of existing research on physical fitness, self-efficacy for physical exercise, and quality of life in adulthood. Method: Using the PRISMA statement guidelines, and based on the findings in 396 articles, the final sample was composed of 31 articles, which were reviewed to show whether self-efficacy has previously been studied as a mediator in the relationship between physical fitness and quality of life in adulthood. Results: The results indicate that little research exists in relation to healthy, populations with the majority being people with pathology. Physical fitness should be considered as a fundamental aspect in determining the functional capacity of the person. Conclusions: We discuss the need to investigate the mediation of self-efficacy in relation to the value of physical activity on quality of life and well-being in the healthy adult population in adult life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0345.v1
Subject: Keywords: mortality; Alzheimer's; education; life expectancy; mentality; level of development
Online: 29 May 2019 (08:39:53 CEST)
Study nature of epidemiological risk factors and patterns of distribution of mortality from Alzheimer's (DA) in 160 countries. An exponential Malthus model was used to construct adequate approximations of statistical data. Proportionality of average lifetime after 55 years (Δt) to education index (Ψ) was established. Ranking of countries by increasing value of ΨΔt showed that DA depends exponentially on ΨΔt and all countries can be divided into three groups in accordance with level of their economic development. In series of countries of low, medium and highly developed, their average values of DA increase exponentially. Growth of DA in developed countries in post-industrial epoch was explained by emergence of a new risk factor Alzheimer's of a mental nature. A mismatch of complexity or, on contrary, primitiveness of profession with level of mental development of worker, provokes development of chronic stress in him, fraught with pathologies of cognitive function metabolism in elderly. The geography of Alzheimer's disease was explained by the dependence of the human mentality on latitudinal climate change and on the chiral factor of a solar nature acting at night on a sleeping person.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0547.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: proteinoids; microspheres; dissipative structure; molecule selection; origin of life
Online: 31 August 2018 (11:44:37 CEST)
The microspheres constituted by proteinoids synthesized from Fox’s simulation experiments. They had peptide bond structure and weak catalysis, as well as proliferated themselves. Such microspheres were believed the models for primitive life. Due to lack of metabolism and self-reproduction, the microspheres could not meet requirements of life. Thus, how microspheres could evolved into primitive life remain unsolved mysteries. The microspheres were supposed a dissipative structure and the processes of absorption and hydrolysis could be balanced to maintain their stability by consuming proteinoid. Proteinoid molecules differed in their life spans, which were mainly determined by their multi-space structures. Consequently, molecule selection and retention could occur spontaneously in microspheres and lead to a more organized and stabilized structure of the whole microsphere with time through dissipative process. More complex chain network of chemical reactions could happen in microspheres because the proteinoid with complex, ordered multi-space structure and relatively high catalytic activity would retain. In such microspheres, nucleotides could produce and further aggregate into RNA. The synthesis of real proteins could take place with RNA as the template catalyzed by proteinoids or RNA inside microspheres. When template-based protein molecules replaced the proteinoid inside the microspheres, a protein-based self-catalyzed network of chemical reactions could take place. It is plausible if Fox’s proteinoids microspheres is to dawn on a dissipative structure, then molecule selection could occur spontaneously by “dissipative” proteinoids, and the microspheres would acquire catalytic activity due to preserved the proteinoid with a large molecular weight and relatively complex and ordered multi-space structure, and relatively high catalytic activity. Thus the microspheres would spontaneously go to self-organizing, and evolve into primitive life.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0416.v1
Subject: Keywords: Natural selection; individuality; levels of selection; evolutionary biology; physics; philosophy of biology; exobiology; origins of life
Online: 20 August 2021 (13:42:15 CEST)
Natural selection is commonly seen not just as an explanation for adaptive evolution, but as the inevitable consequence of “heritable variation in fitness among individuals”. Although it remains embedded in biological concepts, such a formalisation makes it tempting to explore whether this precondition may be met not only in life as we know it, but also in other physical systems. This would imply that these systems are subject to natural selection and may perhaps be investigated in a biological framework, where properties are typically examined in light of their putative functions. Here we relate the major questions that were debated during a three-day workshop devoted to discussing whether natural selection may take place in non-living physical systems. We start this report with a brief overview of research fields dealing with “life-like” or “proto-biotic” systems, where mimicking evolution by natural selection in test tubes stands as a major objective. We contend the challenge may be as much conceptual as technical. Taking the problem from a physical angle, we then discuss the framework of dissipative structures. Although life is viewed in this context as a particular case within a larger ensemble of physical phenomena, this approach does not provide general principles from which natural selection could be derived. Turning back to evolutionary biology, we ask to what extent the most general formulations of the necessary conditions or signatures of natural selection may be applicable beyond biology. In our view, such a cross-disciplinary jump is in large part impeded by reliance on individuality as a central yet implicit and loosely defined concept. Overall, these discussions thus lead us to conjecture that understanding, in physico-chemical terms, how individuality emerges and how it can be recognised, will be essential in the search for instances of evolution by natural selection outside of living systems.  Natural Selection Beyond Life? Observing the physico-chemical world through Darwinian glasses; 12-15 November 2019 - Institut d'Etudes Scientifiques, Cargèse, France
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0540.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: work-life balance; work-life enrichment; outside-of-work activity; sustainable human capital development; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:04:46 CET)
Nowadays, the development of civilization requires a vision of balancing the interests of employees and employers in the sphere of work as never before. Work-life balance is directly linked to social sustainability. The aim of this article is to analyse various dimensions of mutual enrichment of the professional and private life of an individual and to describe how positive experiences in professional and non-professional life influence the improvement of satisfaction, health and achievements, thus enabling the sustainable development of the individual. The conducted research was of a qualitative nature. Thematic exploration was used to analyse the findings of 34 in-depth interviews with experienced HR managers and employees at various levels of enterprises in Poland. The research shows that the work and personal life of the respondents interact, complement, and enrich in different ways, depending on the stage of the employee’s life. Habits developed by practicing a specific sport discipline or other type of hobby are helpful in the effective implementation of professional tasks. Also, non-professional interests, including communing with culture and art have a positive impact on professional activities. On the other hand, the respondents emphasized that thanks to their professional activities, specific to the type of work they perform, they are sometimes more extroverted, meticulous, organized and consistent when performing activities outside of work and in other aspects of private life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0134.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: nucleoside triphosphates; prebiotic chemistry; RNA world; origin of life; polipeptide
Online: 9 January 2023 (02:22:40 CET)
The central dogma of molecular biology dictates that, with only a few exceptions, information proceeds from DNA to protein through an RNA intermediate. Examining the enigmatic steps from prebiotic to biological chemistry, we take another road suggesting that primordial peptides acted as template for the self-assembly of the first nucleic acids polymers. Arguing in favour of a sort of archaic “reverse translation” from proteins to RNA, our basic premise is a Hadean Hearth where key biomolecules such as amino acids, polypeptides, purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides were available under different prebiotically plausible conditions, including meteorites delivery, shallow ponds and hydrothermal vents scenarios. Supporting a protein-first scenario alternative to the RNA world hypothesis, we propose the primeval occurrence of short peptides termed “selective amino acid- and nucleotide-matching oligopeptides” (henceforward SANMAOs) that noncovalently bind at the same time the polymerized amino acids and the single nucleotides dispersed in the prebiotic milieu. We describe the chemical features of this hypothetical oligopeptide, its biological plausibility and its virtues from an evolutionary perspective. We provide a theoretical example of SANMAO’s selective pairing between amino acids and nucleosides, simulating a poly-Glycine peptide that acts as a template to build a purinic chain corresponding to the glycine’s extant triplet codon GGG. Further, we discuss how SANMAO might have endorsed the formation of low-fidelity RNA’s polymerized strains, well before the appearance of the accurate genetic material’s transmission ensured by the current translation apparatus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; physical activity; physical exercise; sedentarism; quality of life
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:39:54 CET)
Obesity is related to the establishment of chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases, but it can be positively influenced by the regular practice of physical activity. The study aimed to compare the anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters of physically active Military Police Officers (MPOs) with those who are less physically active. Sixty male MPOs, low activity (n=28) and physically active (n=32) participated. The following parameters were measured: plasma cytokine levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, circulating glucose triglyceride (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and plasma glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities. The physically active group presented lower body fat and reduced TAG and IL-8 levels compared to the low activity group. Moreover, a negative correlation between SPE and SBP, DBP, BPM was detected for the physically active group (p<0.05) but not in the low activity group. Furthermore, the physically active group's work time (WT) values were not correlated with the important metabolic markers SBP, DBP, BPM, GLU, TAG (p>0.05) but could be in the low activity group (p<0.05). These findings highlight the fundamental protective role of physical activity in controlling body composition, subclinical inflammation, and cardiovascular risk in MPOs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Wavelets; Quality of life index; Pandemics, Social media; Mathematical models.
Online: 19 October 2022 (05:37:25 CEST)
In the present paper, we investigate the impact of the timescale factor on the quality of life index behavior on specific time intervals characterized by the presence of socio-economic, political, and/or health severe movements such as pandemics and crises. We essentially aim to show that effectively the quality of life measuring based on a single index in the existing studies may be described more adequately by a variable index due to the social, political, economic, and also healthy environment. The variability discovered is expressed by the existence and the estimation of a multi-index instead of a single one relatively to many factors. Our focus is mainly on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life. Our model is applied empirically to a sample corresponding to Saudi Arabia as a case of study during the period from January 1990 to December 2021 as the main period affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample is based on social media conversations and texts discussing and describing the satisfaction with the quality of life. The study confirms effectively that the role of the timescale factor is more described when considering a multi-index rather than measurement on the whole time interval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: crohn's disease; inflmmatory bowel disease; quality of life; ulcerative colitis
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:33:57 CEST)
Background: Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis Questionnaire-32 (CUCQ-32) is a validated questionnaire to measure the quality of life (QoL) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it does not have stoma specific questions and can be lengthy. This study aimed to validate a subset of the CUCQ-32 that would be suitable for patients with a stoma. Methods: Baseline data were collected from a cohort of patients with acute ulcerative colitis who were participating in the CONSTRUCT multi-centre clinical trial. A subset of the CUCQ-32 questions was selected by stepwise regression. Further validation was examined using data from the UK IBD biological therapies audit. Construct validity was carried out using the EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ5D) questionnaire, Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Literature review and an expert focus group identified supplementary questions to cover patients with a stoma. Test-retest analysis was done during the patients’ second follow up visits. Results: Using the data from 124 patients, a short version questionnaire (CUCQ-12) was developed. Further validation using data from 484 patients with IBD as part of the UK IBD biological therapies audit. Using the data from 61 patients with a stoma, we identified 5 stoma specific questions for the CUCQ-12+. The CUCQ-12+ demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α= 0.86); established effective reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient= 0.74); correlated well with the EQ5D (r= - 0.48), HBI (r= 0.45) and SCCAI (r= 0.43); and represented good responsiveness statistics (>0.5). Conclusions: CUCQ-12+ is a valid and reliable QoL measure that can be used for all patients with IBD in clinical practice including patients with a stoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0243.v1
Subject: Keywords: Early Psychosis; Cardiovascular Disease Risk; Quality of Life; Lifestyle Behaviours.
Online: 11 August 2021 (08:55:02 CEST)
Introduction: People with schizophrenia have poor cardiometabolic health, with elevated 10-year cardiovascular disease risk (CVD-R) scores and poor quality of life (QOL). There is lack of understanding of these issues in early psychosis. Aims: To quantify CVD-R in people with early psychosis and profile their obesity prevalence, lifestyle behaviours and QOL. Secondary aim was to explore associations between lifestyle behaviours/treatment characteristics and CVD-R/QOL. Method:Baseline data from 81 RCT participants were used to profile cardiometabolic health risks (QRISK®3, BMI and waist circumference). Participants self-reported lifestyle behaviours and QOL. Relationships between modifiable treatment/lifestyle factors and QOL/CVD-R were explored using bivariate analyses. Results: Participants’ relative risk for CVD over 10 years was 1.93 times higher than healthy counterparts; 39% also had an obese BMI and physical QOL was poor. No significant associations were observed between CVD-R or QOL with treatment characteristics and lifestyle factors. Discussion: Despite positive lifestyle behaviours, participants had elevated CVD-R scores and poor physical health related QOL. Quantifying CVD-R with QRISK®3 may highlight the need for health promotion interventions. Implications for practice: Mental health professionals should be alert to elevated cardiometabolic health risks in early psychosis, particularly as these can occur in the context of relatively healthy lifestyle behaviours.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0352.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: paralysis; dogs; cats; quality of life; physiotherapy; recovering standing position
Online: 14 June 2021 (11:28:45 CEST)
Paralyzed patients have always been ideal candidates for physiotherapy due to their body's inability to recover on its own. Regardless of the cause that led to the onset of paralysis (whether localized or generalized), physiotherapy helps these patients with devices and methods designed to restore their proper functioning of the body, as well as quality of life. Obtaining the standing position is the main stage in the therapeutic process, being the indispensable element for the entire protocol. The present study focused on the devices we developed over time, adapting them for each patient, depending on the degree of damage they presented and the possible associated pathologies. At the same time, we wanted these devices to be available for any therapist or even owner, being made of common materials, easy to find, but also affordable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0478.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Down's Syndrome; perception; quality of life; sport; age; gender; scale
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:17:41 CET)
The hypothesis posed was whether participation in LaLiga Genuine Santander (competitive football) influenced the quality of life (QL) of the people who participated in it, since their perception of themselves is enhanced by all the aformentioned factors (self-determination, social inclusion, emotional well-being, physical well-being, material well-being, rights, personal development, interpersonal relationships). The objective was to evaluate the QL of people with Down's Syndrome (DS) using their self-perception (n=39) and the perception of the informants (family members, teachers) (n=39). The KidsLife-Down Scale, with a few modifications was used. In general, differences of opinion between the subgroups of participants with DS and informants showed that results were higher in terms of perception for participants in the DS subgroup. Scores for all variables were higher for those participants with DS who said they did engage in practicing competitive football. Despite the perception of informants provides a great deal of information regarding the QL of participants with DS, the latter should be involved in the evaluation process and their self perceptions taken into account. Our research shows that participation in the league modifies the perceptions of the participants with Down's Syndrome regarding their quality of life. However, these perceptions are not shared by the informants.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Disabled Persons; Health Status; Iran; Psychometrics; Quality of Life; Reliability
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:24:54 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the SF-36 health survey (SF-36) in a sample of subjects with physical disabilities. Material and Methods: 305 patients recruited using the convenient sampling method from September 2019 to March 2020 in Kermanshah, Iran. Another similar 300 patients were selected to assess the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: The Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.70 to 0.93, and intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.71 to 0.88; and with the no ceiling and floor effect for two main subscales. Convergent validity was supported by moderate to good correlation between SF-36 subscales and Moorong self-efficacy subscales (r= 0.25- 0.53). The SF-36 divergently validated with HADS total score and subscales (r= -0.24- -0.65), concurrently validated with its subscales (r=0.49- 0.88), and physically discriminated between persons with different level of disability (t-test: p<0.001). Factorial analysis identified seven factors, confirmed with second-order in another 300 samples (chi-square (χ2/df) = 2.61(p < .001); RMSEA = 0.07 (90% CI = 0.07–0.08); AGFI=0.75; GFI = 0.78; CFI= 0.85; and NFI = 0.78). Conclusions: the SF-36 is a reliable and valid tool in physical disables. However, SF-36 shows insufficient eight-factor validity. Future studies should focus on evaluating other psychometric properties, such as sensitivity to change in subjects with physical disabilities.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0302.v1
Subject: Keywords: origin of life; DOM; DOC; choanoflagellate; sponge; Porifera; Neoproterozoic; Cryogenian
Online: 13 August 2020 (11:24:48 CEST)
The most widely accepted scientific theory for the origin of life on Earth is that prokaryotic microbes evolved from simple organic compounds in seawater under anoxic conditions. For about 1 billion years thereafter, these microbes consumed the same dissolved organic matter (DOM) from which they had evolved before scarcity of DOM forced the evolution of cyanobacterial photosynthesis followed by eukaryosis. Could the more efficient consumption of DOM have also stimulated the subsequent origin of multicellular animal life? In this report, we synthesize past and recent evidence to propose the “DOM uptake hypothesis” for the origin of metazoans. A choanoflagellate-like protozoan was the likely ancestor of the first sponge-like metazoan to evolve on Earth. Choanoflagellates have outwardly facing flagellae that are subject to viscous water movement, while sponges have choanocytes in chambers with flagellae directed to pump water with greater fluidity across an aquiferous system with a huge cellular surface area. While generally considered particle feeders, both choanoflagellates and sponges absorb DOM, with some sponges relying on DOM for as much as 90% of their diet. We propose that the earliest metazoans may have evolved to survive the dire nutritional conditions of the Cryogenian “snow-ball Earth” period (~700 million years ago) by developing a body plan with the enhanced ability to absorb low concentrations of DOM in seawater from sources such as the viral lysis of microbes, exudates of benthic stromatolites, or refractory DOM compounds. Additionally, species of extant sponges that have a high abundance of microbes living in their bodies consume the greatest amounts of DOM, suggesting that the DOM uptake hypothesis may also be dependent on microbial symbiosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: gluten neuropathy; coeliac disease; gluten free diet; quality of life
Online: 16 April 2018 (08:19:54 CEST)
Background: Gluten neuropathy (GN) is defined as an otherwise idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in the presence of serological evidence of gluten sensitivity (positive antigliadin and/or transglutaminase or endomysium antibodies). We aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) of GN patients with control subjects and to investigate the effect of a gluten free diet (GFD) on the QoL. Methods: All consecutive patients with GN attending a specialist neuropathy clinic were invited to participate. Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS) was used to assess the severity of neuropathy. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to measure participants’ QoL. A strict GFD was defined as effectively been able to eliminate all circulating gluten sensitivity-related antibodies whilst on the diet. Results: Fifty-three patients with GN and 53 age and gender matched controls were recruited. Compared to controls, GN showed significantly worse scores in physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health, energy/fatigue and general health subdomains of SF-36. After having adjusted for age, gender and disease severity, being on a strict GFD correlated with better SF-36 scores on the pain domain of the SF-36 (beta 0.317, p=0.019) and the overall health change domain of the SF-36 (beta 0.306, p=0.017). Conclusion: In GN physical dysfunctioning is the major determinant of poor QoL compared to controls. Routine checking for elimination of gluten sensitivity-related antibodies that results from a strict GFD should be encouraged as such elimination ameliorates the overall pain and health scores, indicating better QoL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0164.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Origin of life; evolution; molecular evolution; prebiotic chemistry; peptides; vesicles
Online: 19 March 2018 (13:01:33 CET)
Based on a new model of a possible origin of life, we establish an efficient and stable system undergoing structural reproduction, self-optimization and molecular evolution. This system is being formed under realistic conditions by the interaction of two cyclic processes, one of which offering vesicles as the structural environment, the other supplying peptides from a variety of amino acids as versatile building blocks. We demonstrate that structures growing in a combination of both cycles have the potential to support their own existence, to undergo chemical and structural evolution and to develop unpredicted functional properties. The key mechanism is the mutual stabilization of the peptides by the vesicles and of the vesicles by the peptides together with a constant production and selection of both. The development of the proposed system over time not only would represent one of the principles of life, but could also be a model for the formation of self-evolving structures ultimately leading to the first living cell. The experiment yields clear evidence on a vesicle-induced accumulation of membrane-interacting peptide which could be identified by liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectroscopy. We found that the selected peptide has an immediate effect on the vesicles, leading to i) reduced vesicle size, ii) increased vesicle membrane permeability, and iii) improved thermal vesicle stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0089.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: origin of life; selection; accumulation; prebiotic chemistry; molecular evolution; vesicles
Online: 16 December 2016 (08:46:10 CET)
A basic problem in all postulated pathways of prebiotic chemistry is the low concentration which generally is expected for interesting reactants in fluid environments. Even though compounds like nucleobases, sugars or peptides principally may form spontaneously under environmental conditions, they will always be rapidly diluted in an aqueous environment. In addition, any such reaction leads to side products which often exceed the desired compound and generally hamper the first steps of a subsequent molecular evolution. Therefore, a mechanism of selection and accumulation of relevant prebiotic compounds seems to be crucial for molecular evolution. A very efficient environment for selection and accumulation can be found in the fluid continuum circulating in tectonic fault zones. Vesicles which form spontaneously at a depth of approximately 1 km present a selective trap for amphiphilic molecules, especially for peptides composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids in a suitable sequence. The accumulation effect is shown in a numeric simulation on a simplified model. Further, possible mechanisms of a molecular evolution in vesicle membranes are discussed. Altogether, the proposed scenario can be seen as an ideal environment for constant, undisturbed molecular evolution in and on cell-like compartments, the latter offering preferential starting conditions for a subsequent RNA world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: ancestry of orthogs, ancestry of gene families; gene genealogy; FUCA; LUCA; origins of life; gradualism; evolutionary biology
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:24:09 CEST)
Genes and gene trees have been extensively used to study the evolutionary relationships among populations, species, families and higher systematic clades of organisms. This brought modern Biology into a sophisticated level of understanding about the evolutionary relationships and diversification patterns that happened along the entire history of organismal evolution in Earth. Genes however have not been placed in the center of questions when one aims to unravel the evolutionary history of genes themselves. Thus, we still ignore whether Insulin share a more recent common ancestor to Hexokinase or DNA polymerase. This brought modern Genetics into a very poor level of understanding about sister group relationships that happened along the entire evolutionary history of genes. Many conceptual challenges must be overcome to allow this broader comprehension about gene evolution. Here we aim to clear the intellectual path in order to provide a fertile research program that will help geneticists to understand the deep ancestry and sister group relationships among different gene families (or orthologs). We aim to propose methods to study gene formation starting from the establishment of the genetic code in pre-cellular organisms like the FUCA (First Universal Common Ancestor) until the formation of the highly complex genome of LUCA (Last UCA), that harbors hundreds of genes families working coordinated into a cellular organism. The deep understanding of ancestral relationships among orthologs will certainly inspire biotechnological and biomedical approaches and allow a deep understanding about how Darwinian molecular evolution operates inside cells and before the appearance of cellular organisms.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: self-simulation hypothesis; principle of efficient language; quasicrystals; game of life; emergence; state sum models
Online: 9 September 2021 (11:08:57 CEST)
In light of the self-simulation hypothesis, a simple form implementation of the principle of efficient language is discussed in a self-referential geometric quasicrystalline state sum model in three dimensions. Emergence is discussed in context of geometric state sum models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0627.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: utility; peak-end rule; smoothing; perception; system dynamics
Online: 31 July 2018 (15:16:00 CEST)
Utility perceived by individuals is believed to be different from the utility experienced by that individual. System dynamicists implicitly categorize this phenomenon as a form of bounded rationality and traditionally employ a simple smoothing function to capture it. We challenge this generalization by testing it against an alternative formulation of utility perception that is suggested by modern theories of behavioral economics. In particular, the traditional smoothing formulation is compared with the peak-end rule in a simple theoretical model as well as in a medium-size model of electronic health record implementation. Experimentation with the models reveals that the way utility perception is formulated is important and might affect behavior and policy implications of system dynamics models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; GAD-7; mental health; quality of life; Asia
Online: 14 March 2022 (16:20:20 CET)
This study aims to identify factors associated with anxiety levels of adults living in Singapore before the pandemic and during the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected using a cross-sectional web-based survey conducted from July to November 2020 accruing 264 eligible participants. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), ranked as minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and severe (15-21) before the pandemic and during the pandemic. About 74% of participants were female, 50% were aged 25-34, and 50% were married. The GAD-7 level went up from pre-pandemic for both moderate (from 12.5% to 16%) and severe GAD (from 2% to 11%). Alcohol consumption (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.04-3.06), loneliness (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and difficulty in switching off social media (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.29-3.79) predicted increased GAD-7 levels. The quality of life (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90) was significantly associated with decreased GAD-7 levels. The results heighten the awareness that early initiation of mental health support is crucial for the population in addition to the various financial support measures provided by the government as they are adapting to live with the COVID-19 pandemic.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Purplewashing; gender equality; quality of life for women; International Women's Day
Online: 10 March 2022 (02:14:45 CET)
Gender parity, is an important standard to be achieved by a society in which men and women are treated equally. The distinctions in the treatment may arise from psychology, biology, or cultural norms constructed by society. Studies show the different experiences of genders across many areas including health, education, personality, life expectancy, sports, interests, political empowerment, and careers. However, we are still far from reaching the objective, because there are conducts such as gender discrimination and expressions such as the purplewashing. In relation to feminism, purplewashing is used to define a diversity of marketing and political strategies intended at promoting people, companies, associations, and other organizations through an appeal to gender equality: they use only some of the feminist values at their convenience and in its actions, they are not really supportive of gender equality. In this opinion we aimed to address some of the reasons for inequality of opportunities based on gender; purplewashing is described as an expression that takes away the visibility of women's struggle. Additionally, we touch on some actions that promote gender equality in the family, educational, and work environments. Global leaders have an unprecedented opportunity to build gender-sensitive societies and economies. The challenges facing women today are essentially the same as they were a long time ago. It is time to break the bias.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0332.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Origins of Life; RNA World; Uracil; Ribosylation; Metal Cation; Clay Mineral
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:35:29 CET)
We report a prebiotically relevant solution to the N1-ribosylation of pyrimidine nucleobases, a well-known challenge in the RNA World hypothesis. It is found that the presence of metal cations and clay mineral enables the previously unachievable direct ribosylation of uracil, providing by far the highest yield. Spectroscopy and chromatography analyses confirmed the formation of ribosylated uracil. The method can also be extended to the ribosylation of 2-pyrimidinone. These findings are also compatible with the metal-doped-clay model developed by our lab for the unified route of the selection of ribose and subsequent syntheses of nucleotide and RNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0394.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Modularity; Protein-to-protein interaction networks; Spectral characterization; Tree of life
Online: 17 May 2021 (16:56:57 CEST)
Modularity and organizational hierarchy are important concepts in understanding the structure and evolution of interactions in complex biological systems. In this work, we introduce and use a spectral characterization measure (Spectral Entropy) to quantify modularity in protein-to-protein interaction (PPI) networks in species across the tree of life. We evaluated the relation between the size of a PPI network and its (Spectral Entropy-based) modularity, and found a sigmoidal response between the two. We also found significant differences in the distribution of Spectral Entropy values among the three domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes). To explore further correlations with biological traits, we focused solely on bacterial PPI networks, which are the most numerous among the three domains and had associated trait metadata, and investigated how modularity impacts or is impacted by growth, aerobicity, selection and location on the tree of life. We found no relation between maximal growth rate and Spectral Entropy, but a strong dependence between G-C content (a proxy for selection) and Spectral Entropy. We also discovered that Spectral Entropy is negatively affected by phylogenetic placement (evolutionary distance from the last universal common ancestor). The general nature of the Spectral Entropy measure of hierarchical modularity in networks suggests that it will be useful in other settings where structural properties of real-world networks are being compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0469.v5
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Physical Foundations; Quantum mechanics; Nonlocality; Time; Entropy; Complexity; Origin of Life
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:48:36 CET)
The prevailing interpretations of physics are based on deeply entrenched assumptions, rooted in classical mechanics. Logical implications include: the denial of entropy and irreversible change as fundamental physical properties; the inability to explain random quantum measurements or nonlocality without untestable and implausible metaphysical implications; and the inability to define complexity or explain its evolution. We propose a conceptual model based on empirically justifiable assumptions. The WYSIWYG Conceptual Model (WCM) assumes no hidden properties: “What You can See Is What You Get.” The WCM defines a system’s state in the context of its actual ambient background, and it extends existing models of physical reality by defining entropy and exergy as objective contextual properties of state. The WCM establishes the irreversible production of entropy and the Second law of thermodynamics as a fundamental law of physics. It defines a dissipative system’s measurable rate of internal work as an objective measure of stability of its dissipative process. A dissipative system can follow either of two paths toward higher stability: it can 1) increase its rate of exergy supply (and maximize entropy production) or 2) utilize existing exergy supplies better to increase its internal work rate and functional complexity. These paths guide the evolution of both living and non-living systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0352.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adsorption; astrobiology; chemical evolution; origin of life; polymerization; surface complexation modeling
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:01:36 CET)
The ubiquity of amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites has suggested that amino acids are widespread in the Universe, serving as a common class of components for the emergence of life. However, parameters for modeling amino acid polymerization at mineral–water interfaces remain limited, although the interfacial conditions inevitably exist on planets with surface liquid water. Here, we present a set of extended triple-layer model parameters for aspartate (Asp) and aspartyl-aspartate (AspAsp) adsorptions on ferrihydrite, anatase, and γ-alumina determined based on the experimental adsorption data. By combining the parameters with the reported thermodynamic constants for amino acid polymerization in water, the impacts of these minerals on Asp dimerization are calculable over a wide range of environmental conditions. It was predicted, for example, that ferrihydrite strongly increases the AspAsp/Asp equilibrium ratio in neutral to acidic pH; the ratio in the adsorbed state reaches 40% even from a low Asp concentration (0.1 mM) at pH 4. This percentage is approximately 5 × 107 times higher than that attainable without mineral (8.5 × 10–6%). Our exemplified approach enables us to screen wide environmental settings for abiotic peptide synthesis from a thermodynamic perspective, thereby narrowing down the geochemical situations to be explored for life’s origin on Earth and Earth-like habitable planets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dementia; depression; loneliness; activities of daily living; social support; life satisfaction
Online: 27 October 2020 (07:55:52 CET)
As the number of older adults with dementia increases, early diagnosis and intervention are crucially important. The purpose of this study was to conduct dementia screening on older adults to determine whether there are differences in daily activities of living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction between older adults at high-risk for dementia compared with low-risk older adults. We hypothesized a negative relationship between high-risk older adults and these factors. This study also hypothesized a moderating effect for social support on the relationship between daily living activities and life satisfaction. This study used a cross-sectional design with survey data. Participants were recruited at 15 public community health centers in South Korea. A total of 609 older adults (male 208, female 401) living in the community were screened for early dementia, and 113 participants (18.9 %) were assigned to the high-risk group. As hypothesized, participants in the high-risk group showed significantly more negative results in terms of activities of daily living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction compared with participants in the low-risk group. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for the importance of early screening for dementia and policies for effective dementia prevention.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0161.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: preconditions of life; Miller Urey experiment; knowledge representation; ontology log; universality
Online: 7 October 2020 (16:10:50 CEST)
We present an ontology log-OLOG- representation of the classical Miller-Urey experiment, usually considered as a paradigm for spontaneous generation of biomolecules on the prebiotic Earth and also, as a key in understanding the chemical evolution phenomena linked to the origins of life. Ologging The Miler-Urey experiment enables us, through the categorical notion of fibre product or pullback, to define the concept of Biogenic Space, as a space containing low complexity biogenic units subjected to appropriate physical and chemical conditions, facilitating the synthesis of highly complex organic molecules. Also, we characterize the Biogenic Space as a concrete universal object that could be associated with the preconditions for life inside various structures in the universe such as exoplanets and exomoons located in habitable zones, but also in interstellar and intergalactic organic clouds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0063.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Type D; Personality; Stress of Life Events; Anxiety Sensitivity; Breast Cancer
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:34:05 CEST)
Background and Aim: Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and invasion of tissues. It seems that personality differences and psychological factors are important factors that lead to different reactions to cancer. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between type D, stress level of life events, personality traits, and anxiety sensitivity in people with breast cancer attending to Tehran Bu-ali Hospital. Methods: The study was a correlational study in which 100 cancer patients referred to Bu-ali Hospital in Tehran, selected by the available sampling method from April to June 2018. The tools used included the Denollet DS-14 Type D Questionnaire, the Paykel Life events Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the ASI Anxiety Scale, Floyd et al., Data analysis in this study is taken place by using SPSS software, two descriptive levels (percentage, frequency, etc.) and regression. Results: The study results showed that there is a relationship between type D personality with stress of life events, neurosis, extraversion, and psychopath dimensions of personality and anxiety sensitivity in breast cancer patients. Conclusion: Psychological factors play a role in the incidence and exacerbation of breast cancer, and ultimately patients with personality type D and personality traits such as psychosis and high anxiety sensitivity and more stress of life events show more symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Chagas disease; cost of illness; mortality premature; efficiency; organizational; life expectancy
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:18:15 CEST)
Economic burden due to premature mortality has a negative impact not only in health system even though in the society. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential years of work tenure lost (PYWL) due to Chagas disease in Colombia from 2010-2017. National data on mortality by sex and ages between 15 and 62 dues to Chagas from 2010 to 2017. The PYWL methodology was applied to assess the impact of Chagas disease in workers who suffer from them. In total, 1,261 deaths were analyzed in the study, of which 60% corresponded to males. The loss of labor productivity caused by Chagas disease was estimated at $29 million. Overall, 48,621 PYWL were lost, and there was an average of 21 years for all subjects with Chagas. Throughout the analyzed period, PYWL increased substantially, and it is necessary to continue with early detection programs to avoid premature death in working age population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: iron; blood donation; restless legs syndrome; quality of life; sleep; fatigue
Online: 31 March 2020 (22:32:59 CEST)
Background: Besides anemia, iron deficiency may cause more subtle symptoms including those of the restless legs syndrome (RLS), the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or sleeping disorders. Objective: The aim of this pre-planned secondary analysis was to compare the frequency and severity of symptoms associated with iron deficiency before and after (intravenous or oral) iron supplementation in iron deficient blood donors. Methods/Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled, single centre trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01787526). Setting: Tertiary care center in Graz, Austria Participants: 138 female and 38 male whole blood and platelet apheresis donors aged ≥18 and ≤65 years with iron deficiency (ferritin ≤30ng/ml at the time of blood donation). Interventions: Intravenous iron (1 g ferric carboxymaltose, n=86) or oral iron supplementation (10 g iron fumarate, 100 capsules, n=90). Measurements: Clinical symptoms were evaluated by a survey before iron therapy (visit 0, V0) and after 8-12 weeks (visit 1, V1) including questions about symptoms of RLS, CFS, sleeping disorders, quality of life and symptoms like headaches, dyspnoea, dizziness, palpitations, pica and trophic changes of fingernails or hair. Results: We found a significant improvement in the severity of symptoms for RLS, fatigue and sleep quality (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant decrease of headaches, dyspnoea, dizziness and palpitations was reported (p<0.05). There was no difference between the type of iron supplementation (intravenous versus oral) and clinical outcome data. Conclusion: Iron supplementation in iron deficient blood donors may be an effective strategy to improve symptoms related to iron deficiency and the wellbeing of blood donors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0045.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: children with leukemia; parents; health locus of control; depression; life perceptions
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:32:14 CET)
Health locus of control is the set of beliefs a person has about his or her personal influence on health. The current study aimed at identifying types of locus of control in parents of leukemia children and possible association with depressive symptomatology and current life perception. 104 parents were recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of Padua post 1 month from the leukemia diagnosis. Participants were Caucasian with a mean age of 37.28 years (SD=5.89), mostly mothers (87.5%) and with a mean of 12.16 years of education (SD=3.82). After signing the informed consent, they filled in the Ladder of Life questionnaire, the BSI-18 and the Parents Health Locus Of Control (PHLOC). Paired-samples t-test (t= -14.42; df=103; p=0.0001) showed that parents of leukemia children were more inclined to have an external locus of control than an internal one. Hierarchical regression analysis model (R2=0.34; F=4.32; p=0.0001) identified health professional influence (ß= -0.28; p=0.004), current life perception (ß= -0.3; p=0.013) and future life perception (ß= -0.26; p=0.012) as significantly predictors on Parental depression. Improving trust in the medical staff care and parental life perceptions could be a preventive program to cope with parental depression symptomatology.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: cosmology, life, superfluid quantum space, consciousness.
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:38:05 CEST)
The evolution of life on the planet Earth is happening primarily in the universe and secondary on the Earth. We will examine in this article evolution of life as the cosmic phenomena. In our model multidimensional time-invariant superfluid quantum space that is the fundamental arena of the universe and represents about 95% of the energy in the universe has stable entropy. The increase of entropy happens only by about 5% of the energy in the universe that is in the form of matter. The evolution of life in our model is a process of matter organization into living systems that tends to develop towards the constant entropy of the time-invariant multidimensional quantum space. This process runs in the entire universe. The development of life into intelligent organisms is the universal process running throughout the entire universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0035.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: origin of life; LUCA; FUCA; RNA World; PTC; Archaea; translation system
Online: 23 July 2019 (08:13:32 CEST)
The existence of a common ancestor to all living organisms in Earth is a necessary corollary of Darwin idea of common ancestry. The Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) has been normally considered as the ancestor of cellular organisms that originated the three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Recent studies about the nature of LUCA indicate that this first organism should present hundreds of genes and a complex metabolism. Trying to bring another of Darwin ideas into the origins of life discussion, we went back into the prebiotic chemistry trying to understand how LUCA could be originated under gradualist assumptions. Along this line of reasoning, it became clear to us that the definition of another ancestral should be of particular relevance to the understanding about the emergence of biological systems. Together with the view of biology as a language for chemical translation, on which proteins are encoded into nucleic acids polymers, we glimpse a point in the deep past on which this Translation mechanism could have taken place. Thus, we propose the emergence of this process shared by all biological systems as a point of interest and propose the existence of this pre-cellular entity named FUCA, as the First Universal Common Ancestor. FUCA was born in the very instant on which RNA-world replicators started to be capable to catalyze the bonding of amino acids into oligopeptides. FUCA has been considered mature when the translation system apparatus has been assembled together with the establishment of a primeval, possibly error-prone genetic code. This is FUCA, the earliest ancestor of LUCA’s lineage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0070.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: nondestructive testing; thermographic surveys; monitoring of structures; reinforced concrete chimney; corrosion processes; service life of structure
Online: 10 June 2019 (08:15:14 CEST)
The nondestructive testing of reinforced concrete chimneys, especially the high ones, is an important element of the assessment of their condition, making it possible to forecast their safe service lifespan. Industrial chimneys are often exposed to the strong action of acidic substances – they are adversely affected by the flue gas condensate on the inside and by acid precipitation on the outside. Initially, this results in the corrosion of the shell concrete and then in the corrosion of the reinforcing steel. During the service life of such chimneys their condition should monitored in order to prevent structural failures and indicate the most endangered parts of the structure. Owing to thermographic surveys one can monitor the hazards leading to the degradation of the chimney structure, which is particularly vital when due to the character of the production process the chimney cannot be put out of operation. The methods for the interpretation of results from thermovision studies to determine the safety and durability of industrial chimneys are shown.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0153.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Tree of Life; origins of species; cellular lineage escape; endogenous compartmentation; proto-organelles; eukaryogenesis; origins of sex; syntrophic biofilms; endosymbiosis
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:27:17 CEST)
This article reevaluates the Woesean concept of crossing a ‘Darwinian threshold’ from pre-genomic communality, as prevailing in an ancestral ‘progenote’ state, to vertically stable lineages of autonomous and self-similar cells. This transition from collective trunk-line evolution to Darwinian speciation is dependent on the generation of modular organismal genomes. The same general principle should be valid at subcellular levels, allowing the emergence of semi-autonomous genomic agents, such as viruses and plasmid-carrying endogenous vesicles with organelle-like properties. As compartmentalized agents of endogenous nature could start with smaller genomes than those required for fully autonomous cells, it is conjectured that stable subcellular lineages emerged earlier than their cellular counterparts. Referring to the recent ‘pre-endosymbiont hypothesis’, it is proposed that free-living bacteria (the first ‘prokaryote’ cells) arose by ‘lineage escape’ from plasmid-bearing organelle-like compartments, evolving inside the internally complexifying ‘paracells’ of the progenote community. The double-membrane envelopes of diderm bacteria may have resulted from cell-biological processes facilitating cellular lineage escape. The later emergence of archaeal cells (resembling bacteria in ‘prokaryote’ appearance with unichromosomal genomes) and eukaryotic organisms (with compartmented cells and multichromosal genomes) can also be interpreted in terms of this modified progenote hypothesis. Conceivably, the multichromosomal genomes of eukaryotes were bundled in endogenous nuclear compartments to organize a ‘nuclear-cytoplasmic lineage’, which became vertically stable by perfecting mitosis/meiosis-like divisions and yet retained some intra-species population confluence by sexual division-fusion cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0025.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: work engagement; job satisfaction; quality of life; occupational health; nursing practitioners; nursing
Online: 8 July 2022 (04:20:10 CEST)
Objective: To investigate the correlation between engagement and quality of life at work in nursing professionals, from a public hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study, with nursing professionals, conducted between December 2020 and January 2021. We used the Brazilian versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Walton Model scale. Results: The nursing professionals obtained a strong and positive correlation (r≥0.70) between the social integration domain of QWL and vigor dimension of work engagement (r=0.88; p=<0.001); moderate positive correlation (r≥0.40≤0.69) between QWL working conditions and vigor (r=0.40; p=<0.001), dedication (r=0.40; p=<0.001) and overall score (r=0.41; p=<0.001) of the work engagement. The correlations were positive and weak (r≤0.39) for the other domains of QWL and dimensions of work engagement. Conclusion: Professionals with satisfactory levels of quality of life tended to have higher levels of engagement at work. Professionals were strongly engaged and satisfied with their quality of life at work at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Occupational Health; Quality of Life; Nurses; Working Conditions; Work; Primary Health Care.
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:54:29 CET)
Background: The concept of Quality of Work Life (QWL) has been built multidimensionally through social reproduction; it is impacted by the perceptions of each individual and by the relationship between workers and the work environment. Objective: to analyze the Work Process and QWL of assisting nurses in public health. Methods: Research in a critical paradigm, descriptive, exploratory with a qualitative approach. The population corresponds to Nurses who work in care work. Semi-structured guiding questions were applied and were analyzed with content analysis. Results: seven participants declared female; all Chilean; seven are young adults; six singles; only one has children, and one has a person dependent on her care; six are heads of household, and five receive help with housework. All have a nursing degree, five have a diploma, but none have a postgraduate. Work Process has three subcategories: work object, instrument, organization, and work conditions; the QWL category has six subcategories: definition and perception of QWL, QWL potentiating factors, QWL exhausting factors, QWL improvement strategies, the emotional burden associated with QWL, and Health problems. Conclusions: In this way, the lifestyle built by the assistance in the health area has repercussions on the quality of life and health in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: breast cancer; rowing; quality of life; perceived health; IPAQ-SF; SF-36.
Online: 14 May 2021 (17:14:31 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine whether a rowing training program improved the quantity and quality of physical activity and quality of life in female breast cancer survivors (stage I - 4.35%; II - 30.43%; III - 52.17%; and IV - 8.7%) diagnosed 6.57 ± 5.02 years previously, who had undergone a subsequent intervention (preservation 53.52%; total mastectomy 39.13% and double mastectomy 4.35%) and had a current mean age of 53.70 ± 7.88 years. The participants (N = 30) engaged in a 12-week training program, each week comprising three sessions and each session lasting 60-90 minutes. An anthropometric evaluation was performed before and after the program. The short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were also administered. The results showed statistically significant improvements in levels of physical activity and in the dimensions of quality of life. We can conclude that a 12-week rowing training program tailored to women who have had breast cancer increases physical activity levels, leading to improved health status and quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: breast cancer; rowing; quality of life; perceived health; IPAQ-SF; SF-36.
Online: 12 February 2021 (12:09:55 CET)
The aim of this study was to determine whether a rowing training program improved the quantity and quality of physical activity and quality of life in female breast cancer survivors (stage I - 4.35%; II - 30.43%; III - 52.17%; and IV - 8.7%) diagnosed 6.57 ± 5.02 years previously, who had undergone a subsequent intervention (preservation 53.52%; total mastectomy 39.13% and double mastectomy 4.35%) and had a current mean age of 53.70 ± 7.88 years. The participants (N = 30) engaged in a 12-week training program, each week comprising three sessions and each session lasting 60-90 minutes. An anthropometric evaluation was performed before and after the program. The short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were also administered. The results showed statistically significant improvements in levels of physical activity and in the dimensions of quality of life. We can conclude that a 12-week rowing training program tailored to women who have had breast cancer increases physical activity levels, leading to improved health status and quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Health-related quality of life; Vitality; Body composition; Phenolic compounds; Mediterranean diet
Online: 15 December 2020 (13:09:12 CET)
Overweight and obesity adversely affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) through day-to-day impairments of both mental and physical functioning. It is assumed that polyphenols within the Mediterranean diet may contribute to improve HRQOL. This investigation aimed at studying the effects of a polyphenol-rich ingredient on HRQOL in overweight and obese but otherwise healthy individuals. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 72 volunteers was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive for a 16-week period either 900 mg/day of the supplement or a placebo. Dietary recommendations were individually determined, and intakes were recorded; daily physical mobility was monitored. Improvement of HRQOL was set as the primary outcome and assessed at baseline and at the end of the investigation, using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health survey. Body composition was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Physical activity level was calculated using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After 16 weeks, despite there was no adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS), supplemented individuals experienced significant HRQOL improvement (+5.3%; P=0.001), including enhanced perceived physical (+11.2%; P=0.002) and mental health (+4.1%; P=0.021) components; bodily pain, vitality, and general health, being the greatest contributors. Besides, body fat mass significantly decreased (-1.2 kg; P=0.033), mainly within trunk area (-1.0 kg; P=0.002). Engagement in physical activity significantly increased (+1308 Met-min/week; P=0.050). Hence, chronic supplementation with a nutritional diversity and dose of a Mediterranean diet-inspired polyphenol-rich ingredient resulted in a significant amelioration in both perceived physical and mental health, concomitant with the improvement of body composition, in healthy subjects with excessive adiposity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: maintenance cost; patient related outcome measurements; quality of life; mandibular overdentures; edentulism
Online: 26 November 2020 (10:40:14 CET)
Denture wearers often complain about jeopardized function and reduced quality of life due to lack of prosthesis’ retention. Implant retained mandibular overdentures, on 2 non-connected implants (2IOD) are well-proven solutions to overcome these issues. We prospectively assessed 69 patients and scrutinized clinical records until at least 7 years of function. Thirty-six were retained on Locator ® Abutments (LA) and thirty-tree on Ball Abutments (BA). Both systems were compared regarding the type, amount and total cost of required maintenance. One implants was lost, yielding 98.7% survival after 7 years. In total 438 technical issues occurred: 121 (27.35%) in BA and 317 (72.4%) in LA. Out of these, 343 events (78%) were solved chairside: 191 (43.6%) were replacements of retention caps, 113 (25.8%) were minor acrylic repairs, in 26 (5.9%) pressure ulcers had to be relieved and 13 (3%) related to abutments. LA required 179 insert replacements compared to 12 in the BA group. The overall initial treatment cost was 3850 euro. The average total maintenance cost in relation to the initial cost for the LA and BA groups was 19.11% (range 0% - 82.24%) and 18.91% (range 0% - 113.26%) respectively (P=0.540). Conclusions: The 7-years maintenance costs for a 2IOD is acceptable when the patient is regularly checked and professionally maintained. Most events are easily solvable chairside, but a few patients required more expensive interventions, regardless of the type of attachment used.
CONFERENCE PAPER | doi:10.3390/sci2020020
Online: 28 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
How did life begin on Earth? And is there life elsewhere in the Cosmos? Challenging questions, indeed. The series of conferences established by NoR CEL in 2013, addresses these very same questions. The basis for this paper is the summary report of oral presentations that were delivered by NoR CEL’s network members during the 2018 Athens conference and, as such, disseminates the latest research which they have put forward. More in depth material can be found by consulting the contributors referenced papers. Overall, the outcome of this conspectus on the conference demonstrates a case for the existence of “probable chemistry” during the prebiotic epoch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0168.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: prebiotic synthesis; phosphorylation; origin of life; deep eutectic solvents; formamide; mineral catalysis
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:30:50 CEST)
Phosphorylation reactions of glycerol were studied using different inorganic phosphates such as sodium phosphate, trimetaphosphate (a condensed phosphate), and struvite. The reactions were carried out in two non-aqueous solvents: formamide and a eutectic solvent consisting of choline chloride and glycerol in a ratio of 1:2.5. The glycerol reacted in formamide and in the eutectic solvent with phosphate to yield its phosphorylated derivatives in the presence of silicates such as quartz sand and kaolinite clay. The reactions were carried out by heating glycerol with a phosphate source at 85 °C for one week and were analyzed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The yield of the phosphorylated glycerol was improved by the presence of silicates, and reached 90% in some experiments. Our findings further support the proposal that non-aqueous solvents are advantageous for the prebiotic synthesis of biomolecules, and suggest that silicates may have aided in the formation of organophosphates on the prebiotic earth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Benefit matrix; Benefit transfer method; Benefit per ton; Health; Social cost of carbon; Value of statistical life
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:42:35 CEST)
This is the first study to provide a systematic monetary benefit matrix, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction benefits and air pollution reduction health co-benefits, for a change in on-the-road transport to low-carbon types. The benefit transfer method is employed to estimate the social cost of carbon and the health co-benefits via impact pathway analysis in Taiwan. Specifically, the total emissions reduction benefits from changing all internal combustion vehicles to either hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or electric vehicles would generate an average of US$760 million from GHG emissions reduction and US$2,091 million from health co-benefits based on air pollution reduction, for a total benefit of US$2,851 million annually. For a change from combustion scooters to light- or heavy-duty electric scooters, the average GHG emissions reduction benefits would be US$96.02 million, and the health co-benefits from air pollution reduction would be US$1,008.83 million, for total benefits of US$1,104.85 million annually.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0170.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: RNA world; [GADV]-protein world; GADV hypothesis; origin of life; protein 0th-order structure; origin of protein; origin of genetic code; origin of gene
Online: 25 December 2017 (08:08:37 CET)
All life on Earth uses three integrated molecular systems in which genetic information contained in DNA base sequences is transmitted to ribosomes by RNA and a genetic code, then translated into the amino acid sequences of structural and catalytic proteins. Therefore, the most important point for understanding the origin of life is to determine how such systems could emerge from random processes on the early Earth. In this review, two alternatives are compared: the RNA world hypothesis and the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis. [GADV] refers to four amino acids, Gly [G], Ala [A], Asp [D] and Val [V] that are conserved in the amino acid sequences of many common proteins. Here I will argue that the origins of the three primary processes required for life to begin can be better explained by the GADV hypothesis than the RNA world hypothesis. The GADV hypothesis also incorporates a conversion process by which random polymers can evolve into proteins with ordered sequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: end-stage renal disease; peritoneal dialysis; far-infrared therapy (FIR)
Online: 20 January 2022 (09:05:44 CET)
Introduction: The treatment of peritoneal dialysis in end-stage renal disease is increasing in clinical practice. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation therapy on inflammation and the cellular immunity of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Materials and Methods: We recruited 56 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, and we included 32 patients from the experimental group and 24 patients from the control group in the final analysis. The experimental evaluation in our study was as follows: (1) We used abdominal computed tomography to measure the diameter and degree of hardening of the abdominal veins and large blood vessels to explore the changes in abdominal blood vessels. (2) The study compared the effects of peritoneal dialysis using albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Hs-CRP clearance rate, and HBAlC. (3) We compared the cytokine concentration of blood between the two groups while controlling for GM-CSF, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-18, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Results and Discussion: (1) There was no significant difference in the abdominal blood vessels of the experimental group relative to the control group according to abdominal CT measured over 6 months. (2) Our study demonstrates the statistically significant effect of FIR therapy on the following parameters: albumin (p = 0.048*), creatinine (p = 0.039*), and Hs-CRP (p < 0.001**) decreased significantly, and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, p = 0.043*) and glucose (p < 0.001**) increased significantly. Our study found that, in the experimental group, albumin and creatinine decreased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. However, our study also found that, in the experimental group, glucose (p < 0.001**) increased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. Peritoneal dialysis combined with FIR can reduce the side effects of glucose in dialysis buffer, which interferes with peritoneal inflammation and peritoneal mesothelial cell fibrosis. In addition, we also found that, in the experimental group, Hs-CRP (p < 0.001**) decreased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. (3) No statistical significance in the inflammatory cytokines related to FIR therapy differences was observed in our study. IFN-γ (p = 0.124), IL-12p70 (p = 0.093), IL-18 (p = 0.213), and TNF-α (p = 0.254) did not exhibit significant improvements in peritoneal dialysis with FIR treatment over 6 months. IFN-γ and IL-18 in the plasma of patients in the experimental group and the control group were higher in the third month than in the first month. Conclusion: We found that the effect of peritoneal dialysis improved significantly with FIR therapy, and significant improvements in the peritoneal permeability and inflammatory response were observed. end-stage renal disease; peritoneal dialysis; far-infrared therapy (FIR)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0476.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Histone Methylation, DNA repair, homologous recombination, Non homologous end joining
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:26:07 CEST)
Packaging of the eukaryotic DNA genome with histone and other proteins forms a chromatin structure that regulates the outcome of all DNA mediated processes. The cellular pathways that ensure genomic stability detect and repair DNA damage through mechanisms which are critically dependent upon chromatin structures established by histones and, particularly, transient histone post-translational modifications . Though subject to a range of modifications, histone methylation is especially crucial for DNA damage repair as the methylated histones often form platforms for subsequent repair protein binding at damaged sites. In this review, we highlight and discuss how histone methylation impacts the maintenance of genome integrity through effects related to DNA repair and repair pathway choice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: short stature; type 2 diabetes; end-stage renal disease; mortality
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:12:15 CET)
Short stature has been associated with increased various disease and all-cause death, but no reliable data exist the association between height and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetic patients. We investigated the relationship between short stature, development of ESRD, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. This study analyzed clinical data using the National Health Insurance Database in Korea. Height was stratified by five groups according to age and sex. Risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models. During a 6.9-year follow-up period, 220,457 subjects (8.4%) died and 28,704 subjects (1.1%) started dialysis. Short stature significantly increased the incidence of ESRD and all-cause mortality in the overall cohort analysis. In multivariable analysis, hazard ratios (HR) for development of ESRD comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles of adult height were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–0.89). All-cause mortality also decreased with highest height compared to patients with lowest height after fully adjusting for confounding variables (HR 0.79, 95% CI, 0.78–0.81). Adult height had an inverse relationship with newly diagnosed ESRD and all-cause in both males and females. Short stature is strongly associated with an increased risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: parallel manipulator; multiple end-effectors; Klein form; screw theory; kinematics
Online: 7 June 2018 (10:54:07 CEST)
Parallel manipulators with multiple end-effectors bring us interesting advantages over conventional parallel manipulators such as improved manipulability, workspace and avoidance of singularities. In this work the kinematics of a five-bar planar parallel manipulator equipped with two end-effectors is approached by means of the theory of screws. As an intermediate step the displacement analysis of the robot is also investigated. The input-output equations of velocity and acceleration are systematically obtained by resorting to reciprocal-screw theory. In that regard the Klein form of the Lie algebra se(3) of the Euclidean group SE(3) plays a central role. In order to exemplify the method of kinematic analysis, a case study is included. Furthermore, the numerical results obtained by means of the theory of screws are confirmed with the aid of special software like ADAMS.TM
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0140.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: quality of life; physical activity; physical function; food and nutrition; older Japanese adults
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:32:36 CET)
Japan is experiencing a super-aging society faster than is anywhere else worldwide. Consequently, extending healthy life expectancy is an urgent social issue. To understand diet that supports the extension of healthy life expectancy, we studied the relationships among quality of life (QOL: SF-36 questionnaire), physical activity (number of steps and activity calculated using an accelerometer), physical function (muscle strength, movement function, agility, static balance, dynamic balance, and walking function) and dietary intake among 469 older adults living in the Tokyo metropolitan area (65–75 years old, men/women = 166/303) from February 23, 2017, to March 31, 2018. There was a significant positive association between physical QOL and steps, moderate-intensity activity, and high-intensity activity (p < 0.05), and a significant positive association (p < 0.05) between physical activity and movement, static balance, and walking functions, but no association with muscle strength. These three body functions were significantly positively correlated with intake of vegetables, seeds, fruits, and milk, and with magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6, and the dietary fibre/carbohydrate ratio and composition ratios (p < 0.05). Balancing food and nutrition may improve QOL in older adults through increased physical function and physical activity. Future verification of interventions is needed.