TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: micromechanical mirrors, equilibrium model, electrostatic actuators, criteria, coefficient.
Online: 26 July 2016 (16:06:33 CEST)
In this work model of mirror elements equilibrium of the micromechanical components is developed, the behavior analysis of the mirror element of micromechanical mirrors in case changing of control voltages of electrostatic actuators is carried out, an expression for determining the maximum value of deflection voltage at which the snap-down effect will take the following form is obtained in case of the influence of the coefficient of the electrostatic rigidity of electrostatic actuators. The developed equilibrium model of mirror elements and the obtained results of modeling can be used at design of micromechanical mirrors with internal suspensions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: COVID-19; electrostatic feature; salt bridging network; structural update
Online: 5 March 2020 (03:37:44 CET)
Since the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak at the end of 2019, the past two month has seen an acceleration both in and outside China in the R&D of the diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics for this novel coronavirus. As one of the molecular forces that determine protein structure, electrostatic effects dominate many aspects of protein behaviour and biological function. Thus, incorporating currently available experimental structures related to COVID-19, this article reports a simple python-based analysis tool and a LaTeX-based editing tool to extract and summarize the electrostatic features from experimentally determined structures, to strengthen our understanding of COVID-19's structure and function and to facilitate machine-learning and structure-based computational design of its neutralizing antibodies and/or small molecule(s) as potential therapeutic candidates. Finally, this article puts forward a brief update of the structurally observed electrostatic features of the COVID-19 coronavirus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0421.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanoparticles – Bio-nano interfaces – Electrostatic interactions – Supported Lipid Bilayers
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:29:35 CEST)
The impact of nanomaterials on lung fluids or on the plasma membrane of living cells has prompted researchers to examine the interactions between nanoparticles and lipid vesicles. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticle-lipid interaction leads to a broad range of structures including supported lipid bilayers (SLB), particles adsorbed at the surface or internalized inside vesicles, and mixed aggregates. Today, there is a need to have simple protocols that can readily assess the nature of structures obtained from particles and vesicles. Here we apply the method of continuous variation for measuring Job scattering plots and provide analytical expressions for the scattering intensity in various scenarios. The result that emerges from the comparison between modeling and experimental measurements is that electrostatics plays a key role in the association, but it is not sufficient to induce the formation of supported lipid bilayers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: thin film nitinol; electrostatic cell seeding; biocompatibility; endovascular devices
Online: 23 September 2016 (03:45:59 CEST)
Electrostatic endothelial cell seeding has evolved as an exceptional technique to improve the efficiency of cell seeding in terms of frequency of attached cells and the amount of cell adhesion for the treatment of vascular diseases. In the recent times, both untreated and superhydrophilic thin film nitinol (TFN) have exhibited strong prospect as substrates for creation of small-diameter endovascular grafts due to their hallmark properties of superelasticity, ultra low-profile character, grown hemocompatible oxide layer with the presence of a uniform endothelial layer on the surface. The purpose of the current study is to understand the effects of endothelial cell seeding parameters (i.e., applied voltage, incubation time, substrate chemistry and cell suspension solution) to investigate the cell seeding phenomenon and to improve the cell adhesion and growth on the TFN surface under electrostatic transplantation. Both parallel plate and cylindrical capacitor models were used along with the Taguchi Design of Experiment (DOE) methods to design in vitro test parameters. A novel in vitro system for cylindrical capacitor model was created using a micro flow pump, micro incubation system, and silicone tubings. The augmented endothelialization on thin film nitinol was developed to determine the effect of cell seeding and deployed in a 6 Fr intravascular catheter setup. Cell viability along with morphology and proliferation of adhered cells were evaluated using fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. Our results demonstrated that the maximum number of cells attached on STFN in the catheter was observed in 5V with the 2 hr exposure of in the cell culture medium (CCM) solution. The condition showed 5V voltage with 0.68×10-6 µC electrostatic charge and 5.11 V·mm-1 electric field. Our findings have first demonstrated that the electrostatic endothelialization on the superhydrophilic thin film nitinol endograft within the catheter prior to the endovascular procedure could enhance the biocompatibility for low-profile endovascular applications.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0183.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Ebolavirus glycoprotein; Electrostatic interaction; Salt bridging network; Two Achilles' heels
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:32:02 CET)
Ebolavirus has a membrane envelope decorated by trimers of a glycoprotein (GP), which is responsible for host cell attachment and membrane fusion. Therefore, GP is a primary target for antiviral drugs development. Here, this article reports the first, to my knowledge, set of structural analysis of all Ebolavirus GP structures as of March 10, 2020, and also a brief update of the structurally identified electrostatic features of the Ebolavirus GP structures in both apo (unliganded) state and also in bound states with a series of small compounds, including a variety of approved drugs. With this comprehensive set of structural analysis, this article puts forward a hypothesis of two Achilles' heels of Ebolavirus GP structure, where the formation of two interfacial salt bridges, instead of destabilizing the prefusion conformation of Ebolavirus GP, constitutes a positive contribution towards the structural rigidification of the prefusion conformation of the Ebolavirus GP structure, thereby acting against GP-mediated Ebolavirus cell entry and/or preventing fusion between the viral and endosome membranes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0293.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: charged polymers; polymer solutions; electrostatic interactions; counterion; water-soluble polymers; theory
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:12:14 CEST)
The thermodynamic phase behavior of charged polymers is a crucial property underlying their role in biology and various industrial applications. A complete understanding of the phase behaviors of such polymer solutions remains challenging due to the multi-component nature of the system and the delicate interplay among various factors, including the translational entropy of each component, excluded volume interactions, chain connectivity, electrostatic interactions, and other specific interactions. In this work, the phase behavior of partially charged, ion-containing polymers in polar solvents is studied by further developing a liquid-state (LS) theory with local short-range interactions. This work is based on the LS theory developed for fully-charged polyelectrolyte solutions. Specific interactions between charged groups of the polymer and counterions, between neutral segments of the polymer, and between charged segments of the polymer are incorporated into the LS theory by an extra Helmholtz free energy from the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The influence of the sequence structure of the partially charged polymer is modeled by the number of connections between bonded segments. The effects of chain length, charge fraction, counterion valency, and specific short-range interactions are explored. A computational App for salt-free polymer solutions is developed and presented, which allows easy computation of the binodal curve and critical point by specifying values for the relevant model parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0457.v1
Subject: Keywords: Thermoelectric Generator; Ratchet Potential; Brownian Ratchet; Electrostatic; Particles Distribution; Energy Harvesting.
Online: 24 November 2021 (13:07:10 CET)
The novel Ionized Gas Thermoelectric Generator (IG-TEG) system that has been studied theoretically showing capabilities to continually extracting energy from the thermal energy of the ambient air, at low temperatures within the standard room temperature and below. This system does not need a temperature gradient in order to work, unlike the other TEGs that use Seebeck effect, and therefore this new system can be utilized for cooling purposes, by extracting energy instead of wasting energy in compressing the gas for cooling. This novel system was designed based on Static Ratchet Potential (SRP), which is known as a spatially asymmetric electric potential produced by an array of positive and negative electrodes. The ratchet potential produces electrical current from random Brownian Motion of charged particles that are driven by thermal energy. Ratchet potential was studied and investigated by several researches in the fields of sensing and energy harvesting. The main ratchet potential system parameter is the particles transportation, this parameter was studied under the condition of flashing ratchet potentials, and was analyzed based on several methods. In this study, a different approach is pursued to estimate particles transportation, by evaluating the charged particles distribution, and applying the other conditions of the SRP.
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: organic semiconductor; electronic polarization; GW approximation; electrostatic interaction; molecular orientation dependence
Online: 27 November 2019 (05:18:10 CET)
I demonstrate that the ionization energy (IE) and the electron affinity (EA) of organic molecular crystals can be predicted from first-principles. Here, I describe the induced electronic polarization and the electrostatic effects upon crystalline IE and EA. I also demonstrate that the electronic polarization mainly originates from the screened coulomb interaction inside the crystalline bulk phase, and that the electrostatic contribution to IE and EA crucially depends on the orientation of the molecule at the surface. The former is well described by the GW approximation, while the latter is reasonably estimated by the difference in frontier orbital energy between the gas phase and the surface at the level of a generalized gradient approximation to the density functional theory. The present methodology enables to demonstrate the impact of the electrostatic effect upon the energy level of the injected charge at a multi-monolayer surface of an organic semiconductor thin film.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0183.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: electrostatic force microscopy; proton exhange membrane; ionic domain; surface charge density; PEMFC
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:42:15 CET)
Understanding the ionic channel network of proton exchange membranes, which dictate fuel cell performance, is crucial when developing proton exchange membrane fuel cells. However, itis difficult to characterize due to complicated nano structure and differing changes to their structure with different amounts of water uptake. Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) can map surface charge distribution as nano special resolution by measuring the electrostatic force between a vibrating conductive tip and a charged surface under an applied voltage, . In this study, the ionic channel network of a proton exchange membrane is analyzed using EFM. A mathematical approximation model of the ionic channel network is first derived, to explain changes in force gradient on the surface using EFM. The phase lag of dry and wet Nafion under stepwise changes to bias voltage is then measured. Based on the model, variations in the ionic channel network of Nafion with different amounts of water uptake are analyzed numerically. The mean surface charge density of both membranes, which is connected with the ionic channel network, is calculated using the model. The results show that the difference between the mean surface charge of the dry and wet membranes is consistent with the variation in their proton conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0426.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: solitons; electrostatic solitary waves; pickup ions; perpendicular shock waves; multi-fluid plasma
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:53:25 CEST)
The need to understand the process by which particles, including solar wind and coronal ions as well as pickup ions, are accelerated to high energies (ultimately to become anomalous cosmic rays) motivate a multi-fluid shock wave model which includes kinetic effects (e.g. ion acceleration) in an electromagnetically self-consistent framework. Particle reflection at the cross-shock potential leads to ion acceleration in the motional electric field and thus anisotropic heating and pressure in the shock layer, with important consequences for the multi-fluid dynamics. This motivates development of a multi-fluid model of solar wind electrons and ions treated as fluid, coupled self-consistently with a small population of kinetically treated ions (e.g. pickup ions.) Consideration of both the time dependent and steady state regimes, indicate that such a multi-fluid approach is necessary for resolving the, Debye scale, particle reflecting cross-shock potential and subsequent dynamics. To study charge separation effects in narrow, supersonic wave layers we consider a reduction of the system to the steady state for cold ions and hot electrons and find two types of solitary waves inherent to the reduced two-fluid system in this limiting case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: PD-1; PD-L1; Cancer-linked genetic mutation; Electrostatic repulsion; Structural evolution
Online: 12 January 2020 (16:58:35 CET)
PD-1/PD-L1 axis is one key therapeutic target against tumor cell immune escape. Structurally essential to the PD-1/PD-L1-linked immune escape is the binding interface of the PD-1/PD-L1 complex structure. Incorporating currently available PD-1/PD-L1-related experimental structures, this article unveils two sets of experimentally observed inter-molecular electrostatic interactions which stabilize the binding interface of the PD-1/PD-L1 complex structure. For the first time, this article proposes an evolutionary structural hypothesis that, as a result of natural selection, PD-1 is able to genetically mutate itself to structurally disrupt the PD-1/PD-L1 axis towards the restoration of T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity.
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Copper smelter dust; electrostatic precipitators of copper; removal of arsenic; sulphidisation; roasting process.
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:55:21 CEST)
This paper, the second in a series of two, describes the experimental results for removing arsenic from the dust collected in the electrostatic precipitators of a fluidized bed roasting oven (RP dust). The RP dust produced is discharged as a toxic waste, although its copper content is close to 20% by weight. This work aims to process the RP dust; until obtained a material with a low concentration of arsenic, which could be recirculated in smelting operations and recover the valuable metals. Based on the successful experience obtained in the first document with FS dust, this work proposes to use the reduction-sulphidation-volatilization processes to carry out the volatilization of arsenic from RP dust. A set of experiments was realized in the roasting different ratios of the mixture of copper concentrate / RP dust, sulfur / RP dust varying temperature and roasting time; to reach an arsenic concentration <0.5% by weight. The RP dust was characterized using different techniques, that confirmed more than 20% by weight of copper and describing its structure as a small particle agglomerate (<5 µm), with a complex sulfoxide morphology. The main results indicated: that for a 75/25 mixture of the copper concentrate / PR dust under 700 ° C, 15 minutes roasting time with air atmosphere, the arsenic volatilization was 96% by weight. Meanwhile, for a 5/95 mixture of sulfur / RP dust, at 650 ° C, the volatilization of arsenic was 67% by weight.
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: copper smelter dust; electrostatic precipitators of copper; removal of arsenic; sulphidation; roasting process
Online: 18 August 2020 (07:39:38 CEST)
This paper (the first of a series of two) seeks to describe the experimental results of removing arsenic from dust collected in electrostatic precipitators of copper into the pyro-metallurgy gas cleaning systems. The first work corresponds to the treatment of dust contained in gas off generated in the copper Flash Smelting Furnace process (FS dust), while the second focuses on the treatment of dust generated from a Fluidized Bed Roasting Furnace (RP dust). The dust is complex sulphur-oxide-metals with concentrations of copper above 10 wt % and relatively high concentrations of silver. Due to the dust has an arsenic’s concentration above 5 wt %, makes it difficult to recover valuable metals through hydro-metallurgical processes or by direct recirculation of the dust into a smelting furnace. Thus, the development of pyrometallurgical processes aimed to reduce the concentration of arsenic in dust is the main purpose of this study, particularly the production of a material suitable for recirculation in smelting operations. The works conducted provide a detailed characterization of the dust, including Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy (QEMSCAN), Scanning electron microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XR-D), elemental chemical analysis using Atomic Adsorption (A. A.) and X-Ray Fluorescence (X-RF). By considering that arsenic volatilization requires a process of reduction-sulphidation-volatilization, the works explore the roasting of mixtures of copper concentrate/dust, sulphur/dust and pyrrhotite/dust. The degree of volatilization was determined by elemental chemical analysis of arsenic in the mixture after and before the roasting process. The results indicated the effect of parameters such as temperature, gas flow, gas composition and the ratio of mixtures (concentrate, sulphur or pyrrhotite)/dust on the volatilization of arsenic. The findings indicate that the concentration of arsenic in the FS dust can be reduced to a relatively low level (<0.5 wt %), allowing to the material to be recirculated into smelting processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microelectromechanical systems (MEMS); electrostatic Discharge (ESD); back-end-of-line (BEOL); Memory Switch
Online: 24 December 2018 (04:59:31 CET)
This paper discusses a MEMS switch that can be fabricated using low temperature (<100oC) deposition and patterning techniques suitable for the back-end-of-the-line integration with CMOS. The resulting cross-bar switches can be used for electrostatic discharge protection, FPGA implementation, chip security assessment and lock-down, and circuit block power management. We discuss platinum and iron switch with turn-on voltages of ~ 1.8 V. In the case of the iron switches, we also show that they can be magnetized to have “memory” and stay on when turned on. Platinum switch cycling of up to 1000 times did not show any changes in their turn-on voltage and their contact resistance was unchanged. The 10-100 nm switch airgaps were formed using low temperature sputtered sacrificial polysilicon and XeF2 etching. XeF2 does not attack any of the metals used in CMOS enabling fabrication of cross-bar switches with any of these metals. Once activated, it takes ∿ 6 to mechanically turn on the switch that can be decreased to ~1 ns by optimizing the device structure. Interestingly, the nm-scale gaps can be used as spark gap as a fast plasma switch to discharge first followed by the activation of the MEMS switch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0265.v1
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV; Spike protein; Electrostatic hot spots; Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); Neutralizing antibody
Online: 18 February 2020 (11:03:10 CET)
The spike protein of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) attaches the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is mediated by the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Recently, an analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS was reported to illustrate with atomic-level details receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from Wuhan, i.e., 2019-nCoV. Here, this article reports a comprehensive set of structural electrostatic analysis of all SARS-CoV spike protein RBD-related structures as of February 13, 2020, aiming at identifying the electrostatic hot spots for SARS-CoV spike protein to be complexed with ACE2 and its neutralizing antibodies. First, this article identified a structural action mechanism of the F26G19 antibody (of SARS-CoV spike protein), where its Asp56 residue binds to the Arg426 of the SARS-CoV spike protein RBD against the formation of the interfacial Arg426-Glu329 salt bridges between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV spike protein RBD. Second, a hypothesis is reported that a pair of electrostatic clips exist at the interface between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV spike protein RBD, including both Arg426-Glu329 and His445-Glu23-Lys447 salt bridges. Last, this article reports a structurally identified interfacial Glu35-Arg479 salt bridge which helps stabilize the complex structure of ACE2 and the SARS-CoV spike protein RBD. Overall, the structurally identified electrostatic hot spots reported here may be useful for the design of SARS-CoV-neutralizing antibodies in future.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0011.v1
Subject: Keywords: antigen-antibody complex structure; interfacial electrostatic feature; Machine Learning-Based Antibody Design; Protein Data Bank
Online: 1 March 2020 (12:39:55 CET)
The importance of antibodies in health care and the biotechnology research and development demands not only knowledge of their experimental structures at high resolution, but also practical implementation of this knowledge for both effective and efficient design and production of antibody for its use in both medical and research applications. While the experimental wet-lab approach is usually costly, laborious and time-consuming, computational (dry-lab) approaches, in spite of their intrinsic limitations in comparison with its experimental (wet-lab) counterpart, provide a cheaper and faster alternative option. For the first time, this article reports a comprehensive set of structural electrostatic features extracted from experimentally determined antigen-antibody-related structures, including especially those structural electrostatic features at the interfaces of all experimentally determined antigen-antibody complex structures as of February 29, 2020, to facilitate effective and efficient machine learning-based computational antibody design using currently available experimental structures inside Protein Data Bank.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: circular membrane mems devices; electrostatic actuator; boundary non-linear second-order differential problems; singularities; mean curvature
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:33:32 CET)
In the framework of 2D circular membrane Micro-Electric-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS), a new non-linear second-order differential model with singularity in the steady-state case is presented in this paper. In particular, starting from the fact that the electric field magnitude is locally proportional to the curvature of the membrane, the problem is formalized in terms of the mean curvature. Then, a result of existence of at least one solution is achieved. Finally, two different approaches prove that the uniqueness of the solutions is not ensured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0234.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: 3-D fluid-electrostatic coupling field; electrical sensor performance; concentration measurement; gas/solid two-phase flow
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:03:30 CEST)
This paper proposed three-dimensional numerical simulation method by coupling of electrostatic and fluid fields to evaluating the performance of electrical sensor in the concentration measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow. Compared with the static numerical simulation, this real-time dynamic 3-D simulation method can research on a designed capacitance sensor combining the dynamic characteristics of the two-phase flows for concentration measurement. Several fluid-electrostatic models of transmission pipes with different sensor structures are built. Under different test positions and different particle concentrations, the flow characteristics and the corresponding electric signals can be obtained, and the correlation coefficient between the concentration values and the capacitance values are used for performance evaluation of the sensors. The effects of flow regimes on concentration measurement are also been investigated in this paper. To validate the results of simulation, an experimental platform with horizontal straight pipe for phase volume concentration measurement of solid/air two-phase flow is built, and the experimental results agree well with simulation conclusions. The simulation and test results show that the coupling models can give constructive reference opinions for the sensor design and collection of installation position in different transmission pipelines, which are very important for the practical process of pneumatic conveying system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0039.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: antifungal activity; Candida albicans; antibiofilm effect; mode of action; cytotoxicity; hemolytic assay; HOMO-LUMO; molecular electrostatic potential
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:04:01 CEST)
There is a need to search for new antifungals, especially for the treatment of the invasive Candida infections, caused mainly by C. albicans. These infections are steadily increasing at an alarming rate, mostly among immunocompromised patients. The newly synthesized compounds (3a-3k) were characterized by physico-chemical parameters and investigated for antimicrobial activity using the microdilution broth method to estimate minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Additionally, their antibiofilm activity and mode of action together with the effect on the membrane permeability in C. albicans were investigated. Biofilm biomass and its metabolic activity were quantitatively measured using crystal violet (CV) staining and tetrazolium salt (XTT) reduction assay. The cytotoxic effect on normal human lung fibroblasts and hemolytic effect were also evaluated. The results showed differential activity of the compounds against yeasts (MIC = 0.24-500 µg/mL) and bacteria (MIC = 125-1000 µg/mL). Most compounds possessed strong antifungal activity (MIC = 0.24-7.81 µg/mL). The compounds 3b, 3c, and 3e, showed no inhibitory (at 1/2 MIC) and eradication (at 8 x MIC) effect on C. albicans biofilm. Only slight decrease in the biofilm metabolic activity was observed for compound 3b. Moreover, the studied compounds increased the permeability of the membrane/cell wall of C. albicans and their mode of action may be related to action within the fungal cell wall structure and/or within the cell membrane. It is worth noting that the compounds had no cytotoxicity effect on pulmonary fibroblasts and erythrocytes at concentrations showing anticandidal activity. The present studies in vitro confirm that these derivatives appear to be a very promising group of antifungals for further preclinical studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: beef tallow biodiesel; fatty acid esters; atomic charge; molecular dipole moment; HOMO-LUMO energy gap; electrostatic potential
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:37:39 CEST)
This study deals with computational analysis of dominant fatty acid ethyl esters characterized from the biodiesel produced from waste beef tallow by means of KOH catalyzed ethanol based transesterification. Ethyl palmitate, Ethyl Oleate, Ethyl Stearate and Ethyl Myristate were identified as dominant fatty acid esters and were computed for molecular analysis in Gaussian 09 software using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP method) with 6-31G* as basis set. Geometric parameters were in accordance with existing experimental values and population analysis exhibited negative charge for oxygen atoms, both positive & negative charge for carbon atoms in all ester molecules. The molecular dipole moment was higher for unsaturated ester molecule and quadruple moment proposed electronic dislocation in X+Y direction. Also, energy gap decreased slightly with increasing carbon chain but reduced drastically with increase in unsaturation. Electrostatic potential mapping displayed negative electrostatic potential for oxygen atoms in ester linkage of all ester molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0406.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; XPS; self-assembled monolayer; SAM; collective electrostatic; band-structure calculation; density-functional theory; DFT
Online: 19 July 2020 (10:40:47 CEST)
In the current manuscript we assess to what extent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is a suitable tool for probing the dipoles formed at interfaces between self-assembled monolayers and metal substrates. To that aim, we perform dispersion-corrected, slab-type band-structure calculations on a number of biphenyl-based systems bonded to a Au(111) surface via different docking groups. In addition to changing the docking chemistry (and the associated interface dipoles), also the impacts of polar tail-group substituents and varying dipole densities are investigated. We find that for densely-packed monolayers the shifts of the peak positions of the simulated XP-spectra are a direct measure for the interface dipoles. In the absence of polar tail-group substituents they also directly correlate with adsorption-induced work-function changes. At reduced dipole-densities this correlation deteriorates, as work function measurements probe the difference between the Fermi-level of the substrate and the electrostatic energy far above the interface, while core level shifts are determined by the local electrostatic energy in the region of the atom from which the photoelectron is excited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0198.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: huperzine A-AChE; molecular docking; intermolecular interaction; quantum chemical calculation; charge density distribution; atomic charges; dipole moment; electrostatic potential; toxicity analysis
Online: 23 August 2016 (12:33:27 CEST)
Huperzine A is an herbal reversible inhibitor of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE). A molecular docking analysis on Huperzine A molecule has been carried out to understand its structure, conformational flexibility, intermolecular interaction and the binding affinity in the active site of AChE enzyme. Further, the charge density distribution of huperzine A molecule (lifted from the active site of AChE) was determined from the high level quantum chemical calculations coupled with charge density analysis. The binding affinity of Huperzine A towards AChE was calculated from the molecular docking; the lowest docked energy is -8.46 kcal/mol. In the active site, huperzine A molecule interacts with acyl binding pocket-Phe330 of AChE, that is, the bicyclo ring group of huperzine A forms an intermolecular interaction with the oxygen atom of main chain of the amino acid residue Phe330 at the distances 3.02 and 3.25 Å respectively. On the other hand, a gas phase study on huperzine A molecule also performed using HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods with the basis set 6-311G**. The molecular structure, conformation, and the charge density distribution of huperzine A molecule in the gas phase have determined using quantum chemical calculations and the charge density analysis. The comparative studies between the gas phase and the active site forms of huperzine A molecule, explicitly reveals the degree of conformational modification and the charge density redistribution of huperzine A when present in the active site. The dipole moment of the molecule in the active site is 6.85 D, which is slightly higher than its gas phase value (5.91 D). The electrostatic potential (ESP) surface of active site molecule clearly shows the strong electronegative and positive ESP regions of the molecule, which are the expected strong reactive locations of the molecule.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: divergent current density; new superconductivity; Meissner effect; new type of condensation; energy generation; electrostatic potential; independent current source; voltage-controlled current source; renewable energy
Online: 16 March 2020 (04:18:23 CET)
Societies around the world face serious energy problems related to the consumption of fossil fuels and the emission of dangerous radiation. To solve these problems, a new superconductor exhibiting a critical temperature higher than room temperature has been pursued but not achieved. This paper proposes a new energy generation system based on a circuit approach. Secondary to this process, a new type of superconductivity without refrigeration is demonstrated. In our previous paper , this system was proposed, but it did not describe the underlying theory in detail and did not mention an actual method to generate energy from the system. The present paper describes the theory of the existence of divergent current density and new superconductivity with no refrigeration. Moreover, the present paper proposes a method for extracting energy from the system by employing a voltage-controlled current source (i.e., a voltage–current converting method).The principle of the system is based on a circuit of two loops and independent current sources. First, the two electric loops are prepared, each with 4 diodes, where the diodes are oriented in the same direction within each loop, but their direction is opposite from loop to loop; four independent current sources connect the loops. In this circuit system, current is added iteratively as it flows along the loop according to Kirchhoff’s circuit law. As a result, a large current and electric potential are present along the loop. To confirm that this system works properly, it is necessary to demonstrate the presence of divergent currents in the transient state, and to do this, the present paper employs the Dirac equation and Lorentz conservation. Electric circuit software is employed to demonstrate that the presented method generates energy actually from our system.Our results confirm the presence of divergent current at a connected point of an independent current source in the transient state. Moreover, in the steady state, the theory demonstrates the Meissner effect (i.e., a London equation) and a new type of macroscopic wave function and condensation. For an initial small input current of 0.1 μA, the simulation reveals a large generating current of 7 kA and electric power of 1011 W, which is much larger than unit of power from an average thermal power station; moreover, the system presents with superconducting electrical transport conditions.The present study is significant because it demonstrates theoretically the existence of divergent current density and a new type of superconductivity requiring no refrigeration. Secondly, the simulations show the generation of a large energy density that can be obtained in a small laboratory room with minimal cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0123.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: fusion; tokamak; inertial electrostatic confinement; magnetic reconnection; quantum gravity; general relativity; unified field theory; relative acceleration; geodesic deviation; Riemann Curvature; Faraday; Maxwell; Einstien; Dark Matter; Dark Energy
Online: 15 August 2022 (15:38:47 CEST)
This work presents a novel patent pending method of inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion called the Nuclear Electromagnetic Shaping Accelerator Reactor (NESAR) that addresses all of the major failure problems with currently known methods of IEC fusion. A brief background of previous IEC methods that generate a negative potential well to accelerate ions for fusion will be reviewed and compared to the NESAR method of magnetic confinement. In addition, a direct comparison will be presented between the NESAR and the tokamak method of fusion. The NESAR method of fusion obtains the plasma oscillation and compression capabilities of a tokamak without producing the catastrophic magnetic reconnection disruptions that currently plague tokamaks. Since the NESAR can oscillate charged particles comparable to the tokamak, this work will briefly review the history of the tokamak, how sawtooth magnetic reconnection occurs, and how the NESAR precludes the occurrence of magnetic reconnection. This work will also review the beginnings of a novel theory that has obtained interest from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) which is currently interested in possibly supporting further research into the NESAR to explore this new theoretical concept. This novel theory is a unified field theory based upon the trajectory of charged particle movements within the NESAR. The NESAR is the only concept of magnetic confinement in the world that may have the capability to allow charge particles to collectively interact relatively to a solitary location. Due to this possible capability, there is a probability that the confined particles may experience curved trajectories that could allow them to experience the effects of curvature deviation. If curvature deviation occurs with these magnetically confined charged particles; then the deviated acceleration would allow for the electromagnet field to be propelled to a higher dimension that could influence spacetime. Finally, this work will review another theory that explains how pole reversals are observed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) coiled magnetic field detectors. This theory requires little to no postulations to be framed and it is purely based upon the trajectory of charged particles within the NESAR, Michael Faraday’s law of induction, and experimental observations of rotating plasmas.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0228.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: energetic materials; solid propulsion systems; extreme thrust control; reaction zones; functionalized carbon-based nanostructured metamaterials; nano-sized additives; carbon atomic wires, sp1-hybridized bonds; ion-assisted pulsed-plasma deposition; self-organizing of the nanostructures; universal phenomena of nano-cymatics; electrostatic field; synergistic effect
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:48:42 CET)
A new generation of nano-technologies is expanding solid propulsion capabilities and increasing their relevance for versatile and manoeuvrable micro-satellites with safe high-performance propulsion. We propose the innovative concept, connected with application of new synergistic effect of the energetic materials performance enhancement and reaction zones programming for the next generation small satellite multimode solid propulsion system. The main idea of suggested concept is manipulating by the self-organized wave patterns excitation phenomenon, by the properties of the energetic materials reaction zones and by localization of the energy release areas. This synergistic effect can be provided through application of the functionalized carbon-based nanostructured metamaterials as a nano-additives along with simultaneous manipulating by their properties through the electrostatic field. Mentioned effect will be controlled through predictive programming both by the spatial structure and physics-chemical properties of the functionalized carbon-based nano-additives and through the electromagnetic control of the self-organized wave pattern excitation and micro- and nano- scale oscillatory networks in the energetic material reaction zones. Suggested new concept makes it possible to increase the energetic material regression rate and increase the thrust of the solid propulsion system with minimal additional energy consumption.