REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1706.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; charging behavior; private electric mobility.
Online: 27 November 2023 (13:21:36 CET)
Electric mobility is one of the ways to contain greenhouse gas and local pollutants emissions in urban areas. Nevertheless, the massive introduction of battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs) brings some concerns related to their energy demand. Modelling vehicle usage and charging behavior is essential for charge demand forecasting and energy consumption estimation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the charging decisions of EV owners are influenced by different factors, ranging from the charging infrastructure characteristics to the users’ profiles. This review intends to investigate the approaches used to investigate on charging behavior and highlight trends and differences between the results, remarking on any gaps worthy of further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Electric Motors; Batteries; Internal Combustion Engine; Motor Speed
Online: 29 June 2023 (03:05:30 CEST)
The transportation sector is seeing an increased adoption rate of electric vehicles (EV), which comprise battery electric vehicles (BEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). This mode of transportation is likely to displace automobiles powered by internal combustion engines (ICE) in the nearest future, as indicated by the current trend. Each of the key EC components is home to a variety of technologies that are either currently in use or will be in the near future. Electric vehicles have the potential to have a significant impact on a variety of fields, including the economy, the energy infrastructure, and the natural environment. As a result of the production of carbon dioxide gas from the combustion of fossil fuels, transportation is the sector that is responsible for the second-highest amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Electric vehicles, often known as EVs, are getting a lot of attention as a potentially game-changing solution to this issue. It is possible for electric vehicles to produce fewer emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) than conventional automobiles due to the fact that an electric motor serves as the vehicle's propeller rather than an internal combustion engine. EVs have the potential to become zero-emission vehicles if they are paired with renewable energy sources. This document presents an overview of the numerous types of EV drive circuits, covering their design as well as the benefits and drawbacks associated with each type. The current state of battery technology, particularly that pertaining to the batteries utilized in electronic vehicles, is discussed in this paper. This article also discusses electric motor efficiency, power density, fault tolerance, dependability, cost, and the best electric motor for EVs. Then, a thorough study of future EV implementation's obstacles and prospects is done. Charging times and battery performance are examples of technological challenges, but government regulation of EVs continues to be a substantial non-technical hurdle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart scheduling; Smart Reservations; Reinforcement Learning; Electric vehicle charging; Electric Vehicle Charging Management platform; DQN Reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:20:13 CET)
Abstract: As the policies and regulations currently in place concentrate on environmental protection and greenhouse gas reduction, we are steadily witnessing a shift in the transportation industry towards electromobility. There are, though, several issues that need to be addressed to encourage the adoption of EVs at a larger scale. To this end, we propose a solution capable of addressing multiple EV charging scheduling issues, such as congestion management, scheduling a charging station in advance, and allowing EV drivers to plan optimized long trips using their EVs. The smart charging scheduling system we propose considers a variety of factors such as battery charge level, trip distance, nearby charging stations, other appointments, and average speed. Given the scarcity of data sets required to train the Reinforcement Learning algorithms, the novelty of the recommended solution lies in the scenario simulator, which generates the labelled datasets needed to train the algorithm. Based on the generated scenarios, we created and trained a neural network that uses a history of previous situations to identify the optimal charging station and time interval for recharging. The results are promising and for future work we are planning to train the DQN model using real-world data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1971.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Energy efficiency; optimization; electric vehicle; M-EAD
Online: 29 August 2023 (10:32:36 CEST)
The predominance of traffic lights in urban settings often induces fluctuations in traffic patterns and energy utilization among vehicles. To counteract the adverse effects of traffic lights on the energy efficiency of electric vehicles (EVs), a Multi-Intersections-Based Eco-Approach and Departure strategy (M-EAD) is proposed. This strategy aims to enhance vehicle energy efficiency, traffic flow, and battery longevity, all while upholding satisfactory driving comfort. The M-EAD strategy unfolds in two distinct stages: the optimization of an eco-friendly green signal window and the refinement of speed trajectories. The initial stage tackles the optimization of traffic light green signal windows, underpinned by the minimization of travel delays via solving the shortest path problem. In the subsequent stage, a receding horizon framework takes center stage, leveraging an iterative dynamic programming algorithm to tackle the speed optimization challenge. The objective here is to curtail energy consumption and reduce battery wear by finding an optimal speed trajectory. Furthermore, the real-world efficacy of this approach is substantiated through on-road vehicle tests, attesting to its viability in actual road scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal runaway; big-data platform; battery systems; electric vehicles; National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles
Online: 16 May 2017 (03:18:57 CEST)
This paper presents a thermal runaway prognosis scheme based on the big-data platform and entropy method for battery systems in electric vehicles. It can simultaneously realize the diagnosis and prognosis of thermal runaway caused by the temperature fault through monitoring battery temperature during vehicular operations. A vast quantity of real-time voltage monitoring data was collected in the National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles (NSMC-EV) in Beijing to verify the effectiveness of the presented method. The results show that the proposed method can accurately forecast both the time and location of the temperature fault within battery packs. Furthermore, a temperature security management strategy for thermal runaway is proposed on the basis of the Z-score approach and the abnormity coefficient is set to make real-time precaution of temperature abnormity.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous; vehicle; electric; survey; smart city; Saudi Arabia; intelligent transport system
Online: 19 October 2023 (04:51:40 CEST)
Autonomous vehicles (AV)s will transform transport, but public opinion will play a key role in the decision how widely and quickly, they will be adopted. The purpose of the study presented here, was to investigate community’s views on the transition. As a method for primary data collection on public awareness, attitudes, and readiness to use autonomous cars, survey was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Following that, we have used statistical tools to analyse responses. Our findings indicate that the participants are mainly open to use new technology and had favourable attitude towards transition. Ordinal logistic regression model showed a wide variation in public opinion regarding the expected benefits that may accompany the transition, despite an average high score on this factor. Our findings reveal that awareness of AVs' benefits is more positively correlated to the age of participants. Perceived cost, on one side, and convenience, and safety, on the other side, have substantial impact on opinions. Investigation, presented here, shows how AVs are seen in Saudi Arabia. This can guide the development of AVs and deployment in that region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; energy harvesting; thermal energy; mechanical energy
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:09:42 CEST)
The evolution of transportation has been inextricably tied to the progress of civilization. Through innovation, the automobile business has been working to improve safety, quality, and compliance with environmental regulations. Electric vehicles have made significant strides in this area, but optimizing their efficiency requires a special focus because they expend energy that can be recovered in a variety of ways. Energy harvesting, a cutting-edge technology that captures wasted energy from vehicles, has recently received a lot of attention as it constitutes a means to improve the efficiency of electric vehicles. Dissipated energy can be converted into electricity using regenerative energy recovery systems and put to various uses. This study tenders a thorough examination into energy recovery technologies which could be applied to the various types of energy dissipated in electric vehicles. Firstly, the paper investigates the possible sources of energy recoverable from an electric vehicle, as well as the various types of energy dissipated. Secondly, the article examines the energy recovery technologies most frequently used in vehicles, categorizing them according to the type of energy and application. Finally, it determines that with further research and development, energy harvesting holds considerable potential for improving the energy efficiency of electric vehicles. New and innovative methods for capturing and utilizing wasted energy in electric vehicles can be established. The potential benefits of applying energy recovery systems in electric vehicles is a vital issue for the automobile industry to focus on due to the potential benefits involved. The ongoing progress currently being made in this field is expected to play a significant role in shaping the future of transportation.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Emissions; Tribology; Lubrication; Battery Electric Vehicles; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Life Cycle Analysis; Thermal Cooling Fluids
Online: 17 June 2021 (10:46:41 CEST)
The motivations for the move to electrified vehicles are discussed with reference to their improved energy efficiency, their potential for lower CO2 emissions (if the electricity system is decarbonized), their lower (or zero) NOx/particulate matter (PM) tailpipe emissions, and the lower overall costs for owners. Some of the assumptions made in life-cycle CO2 emissions calculations are discussed and the effect of these assumptions on the CO2 benefits of electric vehicles are made clear. A number of new tribological challenges have emerged, particularly for hybrid vehicles that have both a conventional internal combustion engine and a battery, such as the need to protect against the much greater number of stop-starts that the engine will have during its lifetime. In addition, new lubricants are required for electric vehicle transmissions systems. Although full battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will not require engine oils (as there is no engine) they will require a system to cool the batteries – alternative cooling systems are discussed, and where these are fluid based, the specific fluid requirements are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Autonomous electric vehicle; Energy storage systems; battery management systems; braking systems
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:51:22 CEST)
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent advancements in autonomous electric vehicle (AEV) within the specified region. It elaborates on the progress and comparative analysis of diverse subsystems, including energy storage, cell balancing for battery systems, vehicle charger layouts, electric vehicle motor mechanisms, and braking systems. Furthermore, this paper showcases several prototype autonomous electric vehicles as conclusive study findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0583.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Electric vehicles; Shortest path; Points of Interest; Path planner
Online: 19 April 2023 (10:22:41 CEST)
A number of decision support tools facilitating the use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been recently developed. Due to the EVs’ limited autonomy, routing and path planning are the main challenges treated in such tools. Specifically, determining at which Charging Stations (CSs) to stop, and how much the EV should charge at them is complex. This complexity is further compounded by the fact that charging times depend on the CS technology, the EV characteristics, and follow a nonlinear function. Considering these factors, we propose a path planning methodology for EVs with user preferences, where charging is performed at public CSs. To achieve this, we introduce the Electric Vehicle Shortest Path Problem with time windows and user preferences (EVSPPWP) and propose an efficient solution algorithm for it. Given an origin and a destination, the algorithm prioritizes CSs close to Points of Interest (POIs) that match user inputted preferences, and user-defined time windows are considered for activities such as lunch and spending the night at hotels. The algorithm produces flexible solutions by considering clusters of charging points (CPs) as separate CSs. Furthermore, the algorithm yields resilient paths by ensuring that recommended paths have a minimum number of CSs in their vicinity. The main contributions of our methodology are: modeling user-defined time windows, including user-defined weights for different POI categories, creating CSs based on clusters of CPs with sufficient proximity, using resilient paths, and proposing an efficient algorithm for solving the EVSPPWP. To facilitate the use of our methodology, the algorithm was integrated into a web interface. We illustrate the use of the web interface, giving usage examples and comparing different settings.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric vehicles; Battery thermal management system; Li-Ion batteries
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:39:49 CET)
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are the need of the hour due to growing climate change problems linked with the transportation sector. Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS), which is accountable for certifying safety and performance of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), is the most vital part of an EV. LiB has auspicious gravimetric energy density but the heat generation due to chemical reactions inside a LiB during charging and discharging causes temperature rise which has a direct effect on LiB performance and safety. This study specifically focuses on aircooled BTMS, defines different types of air-cooled BTMS (active and Passive), discusses limitations associated with air-cooled BTMS, and investigates different optimization techniques and parameters to improve performance of air-cooled BTMS. Maintaining temperature within optimum range and uniform temperature distribution between cells of a battery pack are the major design parameters for improving the performance and efficiency of air-cooled BTMS. Various optimization techniques including cell arrangement with a battery pack, air-flow channel optimization, and air inlet/outlet position variations are discussed and each technique is thoroughly reviewed. Finally, it’s noted that passive air-cooled BTMS is not that effective for long-distance vehicles so most researchers shifted their focus toward active air-cooled BTMS. Active air-cooled BTMS requires a lot of power for effective performance. Lastly, the most recent field of air-cooled BTMS technology which is Air-Hybrid BTMS is discussed and declared a very promising solution for overcoming major limitations associated with air-cooled BTMS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Greenhouse Gas; Climate Change; Transportation; Energy; Renewables; Lifecycle Assessment; Electricity Grid
Online: 17 December 2020 (15:52:28 CET)
An indisputable fact about our planet is that its atmospheric temperature has risen dramatically during the past century. Combustion of fossil fuels and their subsequent greenhouse gas emissions are thought to be the main contributors to recent changes within the Earth’s ecosystem. The transportation sector and electricity generating power plants are each responsible for approximately one-third of these emissions. Shifting towards a cleaner and renewable resources to generate electricity is believed to omit a big portion of polluting substances. Improvements in vehicles’ fuel efficiency and the introduction of alternative fuels besides strategic plans to control travel demand are among the most promising approaches to alleviate emissions from the transportation sector. Recent technology advancements, however, drew much attention to the production and manufacturing of alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles in particular. Since these vehicles use electricity as part of or all their powertrain, assessing the amount of emissions they produce is closely tied to the cleanliness of the electricity source. In order for a valid comparison to be made between internal combustion and electric vehicles, hence, a life cycle assessment procedure needs to be followed from production stages to terminal life of vehicles. Involvement of numerous affecting factors during the lifetime of a vehicle on one hand, and the ambiguity in the exact source of electricity used to charge electric vehicles on the other hand bring about more complexities. The latter case is more commonly known as the marginal grid problem, which deals with how a combination of sources used to generate electricity can influence the life cycle emissions. There are also other concerns regarding the growth in fuel-efficient and electric vehicles. Transportation planners argue that new developments in the vehicle industry may attract more people to owning and driving cars. This phenomenon which is better known as a rebound effect not only will result in increased traffic congestion, but it can also outpace the environmental benefits from utilizing electric vehicles. Moreover, since fuel taxes comprise the majority of Highway Trust Funds, alternative ways to compensate for state and federal revenues should be devised. This paper is an attempt to review the existing literature to better elaborate on the role of the transportation sector in controlling climate change threats. More specifically, issues around the use of electric vehicles and how they can contribute to more environmentally friendly communities are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1775.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Electric vehicles; Power calculation; Harmonics; Non-stationary; Adaptive chirp mode decomposition.
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:47:37 CEST)
Due to nonlinear components in the charging piles of electric vehicles, harmonics and non-stationary signals in the electric vehicle charging load brings voltage and current distortion, seriously affecting the accuracy of the power-related calculation in non-sinusoidal environments. This paper proposed a new approach to calculate the active power and root mean square values from decomposed components using the adaptive chirp mode decomposition (ACMD) method on voltage and current. The advantage of the ACMD-based method is that it correctly provides the power-related quantities of harmonics or non-stationary components for the electric vehicle charging load. The performance of the proposed method was verified using synthetic signals and simulation tests. The experimental results presented better estimations for each quantity defined in IEEE Standard 1459-2010, compared with the discrete wavelet transform approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart city; energy management; electric vehicle; classification; state of charge; intelligence.
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:18:42 CET)
Smart cities and smart technologies have been incorporated into several axes to increase the comfort of life. The connected building's concept was introduced for this reason. However, it was utilized in power management for better organizing, greater buildings management, and monetary savings. Cars technologies and the number of vehicles are also involved; Nowadays, each house has at least one car. Technological evolution helped to make those cars intelligent and connected. In the latest versions, the majority of those cars were equipped with several sensors, several communication protocols and a principal electrical control unit (ECU), especially for the electric vehicle model. This type of architecture was an essential element in a smart city, thus, it helps to manage power and decide when a vehicle needs to be charged. Based on the smart city concept and using possible network communication between buildings and vehicles, EVs can share their own information related to the powerful experience on a specific path. This information can be gathered in a gigantic database and used for managing the power inside these vehicles. In this field, we propose in this paper a new approach for power management inside an electric vehicle based on bi-communication between vehicles and buildings. The proposed approach is founded on two essential parts; the first is related to vehicles’ classification and buildings’ recommendation according to different car positions. Two algorithms, related to the SVC and neural network was employed in this work for implementing the final process. Different possibilities and situations were discussed for this approach. The proposed method was tested and validated using Simulink/Matlab application. The state of charge of the used battery was compared at the end of this work, for two specified cases, for showing the contribution of this approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; grid energy; quality of service; EV communication; energy management; planning and operation
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:35:14 CEST)
Transportation electrification has been identified as a crucial shift to be made for achieving energy security and emission reduction targets. Electric Vehicles (EVs) play a significant role in achieving these targets; therefore, there is a growing trend to develop new EV technologies and associated infrastructure. Along with these developments, EVs' Quality of Service (QoS) aspects should be enhanced to increase the number of EVs on the road. Various QoS factors are defined to assess the QoS of EVs, and one of the two aims of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of these factors. The other aim is to review recent developments of associated communication technologies which are essential for exchanging information between EVs and charging stations. This paper serves as a comprehensive review and useful reference for researchers working on QoS aspects of EVs and associated communication systems aiming to enhance the QoS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvesting; power management, Connected Vehicles; wind energy harvester; Smart Cities; electric Vehicle; IoT; Tesla; autonomous sensors
Online: 9 July 2021 (10:20:07 CEST)
The recent advancements in the field of communication have led data sharing to become an integral part of today's smart cities with the evolution of concepts such as the internet of vehicles (IoV) paradigm. As a part of IoV, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have recently gained momentum as authorities have started expanding their Low Emission Zones (LEZ) in an effort to build green cities with low carbon footprints. Energy is one of the key requirements of EVs not only to support the smooth and sustainable operation of EV itself but to also ensure connectivity between the vehicles and infrastructure with controlling devices like sensors and actuators installed within an EV. In this context, renewable energy sources (such as wind energy) dramatically play their parts in the automobile sector towards designing the energy harvesting electric vehicles (EH-EV) to pare the energy reliance on the national grid. In this article, a novel approach is presented to achieve electric generation due to vehicle mobility to support the communication primitives in electric vehicles which enables plenty of IoV use cases in the presence of surplus energy at hand. A small-scale wind turbine is designed to harness wind power for converting it into mechanical power. This power is then fed to the onboard DC generator to produce electrical energy. Furthermore, the acquired power is processed through a regulation circuitry to consequently achieve the desired power supply for the end load, i.e. the batteries installed. The suitable orientation for efficient power generation is proposed on ANSYS-based aerodynamics analysis. The voltages induced by DC generator at No-Load condition are 35V while at Full-Load 25V are generated at rated current of 6.9A, along with the generation of power at around 100W (at constant voltage) at the rated speed of 90 mph for nominal battery charging. Moreover, the acquired data can be monitored via an android application interface by using a Bluetooth module.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fast-charging; electric vehicles; infrastructure; electrode materials; Li-ion batteries
Online: 30 September 2019 (03:29:10 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EVs) are being endorsed as the uppermost successor to fuel-powered cars, with timetables for banning the sale of petrol-fueled vehicles announced in many countries. However, the range and charging times of EVs are still considerable concerns. Fast charging could be a solution to consumers' range anxiety and the acceptance of EVs. Nevertheless, it is a complicated and systematized challenge to realize the fast charging of EVs because it includes the coordinated development of battery cells, including electrode materials, EV battery power systems, charging piles, electric grids, etc. This paper aims to serve as an analysis for the development of fast-charging technology, with a discussion of the current situation, constraints and development direction of EV fast-charging technologies from the macroscale and microscale perspectives of fast-charging challenges. It is emphasized that to essentially solve the problem of fast charging, the development of new battery materials, especially anode materials with improved lithium ion diffusion coefficients, is the key. It is highlighted that red phosphorus is the most promising anode that can simultaneously satisfy the double standards of high-energy density and fast-charging performance to a maximum degree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: shared electric vehicle; mobile charging vehicle; fixed charging station; cooperative charging
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:29:08 CEST)
Facing the charging difficulties of free-floating shared electric vehicle and the high cost of mobile charging for single demand, this article proposes a collaborative charging planning method based on the complementary advantages of fixed charging stations and mobile charging vehicles, which can charge shared electric vehicles more efficiently and reduce the charging cost at the same time. A bi-level programming model for fixed and mobile cooperative charging is constructed. The upper level of the model is the minimization model of system charging total cost, seeking the optimal charging scheme and the number of mobile charging vehicles. The lower model is a fixed and mobile cooperative charging path planning model, which calculates the optimal routes for mobile charging vehicles and the shared electric vehicles that need to be transferred to the fixed charging station. The example results show that the cost of the proposed fixed-mobile cooperative charging scheme is reduced by 12.6% compared with the pure fixed charging scheme and 14.9% compared with the pure mobile charging scheme
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle; Topology; Energy management system; Fuzzy logic; Ultracapacitor; Battery
Online: 23 October 2023 (14:42:21 CEST)
The utilization of fuel cells (FC) in automotive technology has experienced significant growth in recent years. Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) are powered by a combination of fuel cells, batteries, or/and ultracapacitors (UCs). By integrating power converters with these power sources, the FCHEV system can overcome the limitations of using them separately. The performance of an FCHEV is influenced by the efficiency of the power electronics converter controller, as well as the technical efficiency of the power sources. FCHEVs need intricate energy management systems (EMSs) to function effectively. Poor EMS can lead to low efficiency and accelerated fuel cell and battery degradation. The literature discussed various types of EMSs, such as equivalent consumption minimization strategy, classical PI controller, fuzzy logic controller, and Mutative Fuzzy Logic Controller (MFLC). However, comparing different EMSs can be challenging due to the varying vehicle and system parameters, which might lead to false claims being made regarding system performance. This research aims to categorize and discuss the various topologies of FCHEVs, highlighting their pros and cons, and comparing several EMSs based on performance metrics such as State of Charge (SOC) and FC deterioration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1466.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; Fuel Cell; Supercapacitor; Hybrid Power System; Energy Efficiency Improvement; Energy Reduction; Power System Management; Optimization
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:14:47 CEST)
This paper presents a new methodology to evaluate the performance of an electric vehicle hybrid power system consisting of a fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The study compares the results with those obtained for a battery-electric vehicle. The methodology extends to three driving modes, ECO, NORMAL, and SPORT, corresponding to conservative, moderate, and aggressive acceleration, and three driving conditions, low, medium, and high energy demand. We develop a simulation process to evaluate the energy consumption and the energy rate of a specific electric vehicle used as a prototype for the study. The methodology applies to a driving route that includes acceleration, deceleration, braking, and constant speed segments reproducing standard driving conditions in urban journeys. The proposed method considers combined driving modes, ECO, NORMAL, and SPORT, in each acceleration process, with variable fractions, 0% to 100%, for each mode. This methodology optimizes the simulation results as it fits the current driving way in urban environments. The simulation results show an average reduction in energy consumption of 37% and 27.1% in vehicle weight, contributing to lower energy use. The study concludes that using a hybrid power system, fuel cell/supercapacitor, instead of a battery in electric vehicles is beneficial, especially in journeys with frequent acceleration processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; optimization; renewable energy charging station
Online: 20 June 2018 (08:58:05 CEST)
In recent years, integration of electric vehicles (EVs) has increased dramatically due to their lower carbon emissions and reduced fossil fuel dependency. However, charging EVs could have significant impacts on the electrical grid. One promising method for mitigating these impacts is the use of renewable energy systems. Renewable energy systems can also be useful for charging EVs where there is no local grid. This paper proposes a new strategy for designing a renewable energy charging station consisting of wind turbines, a photovoltaic system, and an energy storage system to avoid the use of diesel generators in remote communities. The objective function is considered to be the minimization of the total net present cost, including energy production, components setup, and financial viability. The proposed approach, using stochastic modeling, can also guarantee profitable operation of EVs and reasonable effects on renewable energy sizing, narrowing the gap between real-life daily operation patterns and the design stage. The proposed strategy should enhance the efficiency of conventional EV charging stations. The key point of this study is the efficient use of excess electricity. The infrastructure of the charging station is optimized and modeled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Collaborative planning; electric vehicles; grid-connected PV-storage microgrid; HOMER simulation; multiple scenarios
Online: 30 June 2023 (08:50:37 CEST)
Microgrid is one of the important ways to accommodate distributed PV generation. However, the optimal planning scheme of microgrids is closely related to solar resources, load characteristics, and the key components of microgrid systems. This paper uses HOMER software to conduct collaborative planning for grid-connected PV-storage microgrids with electric vehicles in multiple scenarios. Specifically, we construct a multi-scenario capacity optimization model for PV generation, energy storage, and converters, considering both the cleanliness and economic performance of microgrids. The performance is quantified using indices such as net present cost, levelized cost of electricity, and carbon dioxide emission under multiple scenarios. Finally, we conduct extensive case studies on a business park in Wuhan, China, to compare and discuss the planning performance under multiple scenarios, as well as sensitivity analysis with specific cases.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles charging navigation system; charging path; road transportation network; distribution network; real-time electricity price
Online: 30 November 2019 (09:39:27 CET)
Aiming at the current optimization problem of electric vehicle charging path planning, a charging path optimization strategy for electric vehicles under the "Traffic-Price-Distribution" mode is proposed. This strategy builds an electric vehicle charging and navigation system based on road traffic network model, real-time electricity price model and distribution network model. Based on Dijkstra shortest path algorithm and Monte Carlo time-space prediction method, the goal is to minimize the charging cost of electric vehicles. Optimal charging path. The simulation results of MATLAB and MATPOWER show that the electric vehicle charging path optimization strategy can better solve the local traffic congestion problem and improve the safety and stability of the distribution network on the basic of fully considering the convenience of electric vehicle charging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; fuel cell vehicles; sustainable mobility; mobility habits; sustainable urban transportation
Online: 11 April 2018 (05:29:14 CEST)
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles (PAB) popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances. In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such vehicles, the respective utilization stages are accounted for, i.e. without considering the manufacturing process. The analysis has been carried out comparing different vehicles performance along different routes of an Italian middle-size city, Viterbo, which represents a very good pilot case as its Municipality is adopting many solutions suggested by European Union (EU) through the planning tool called Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). The comparison is based on an ad-hoc developed mathematical procedure, which includes environmental (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), health (pollutants toxicity levels) and accessibility time (waiting times) indicators. According to this analysis, electric and fuel cell PAB exhibit interesting advantages over the other vehicles. However, the global economic efficiency of electric or fuel cell apparatus depends substantially on the exploited source of electrical energy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0909.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric vehicle; Smart grid; Vehicle to grid; Smart charging; Renewable energy distributed generation
Online: 13 June 2023 (09:39:41 CEST)
- Power grids of the future will likely incorporate more renewable energy distributed generation (REDG), also known as alternative energy systems. REDG units are increasingly being used in electrical transmission networks because to the overall positive effects they have on power networks. REDG systems are the backbone of smart electric networks and are essential to the operation of the smart grid. These REDG systems can additionally improve system reliability by providing some customers with a backup generator in the event of power interruptions. The report offers a thorough evaluation of the existing body of information on the topic of electric vehicles' (EVs') future interactions with the smart grid. The combination of the EVs' potential deployment and the smart grid's conceptual goal presents challenges in electric grid infra-structure, communication, and control. The proposal for connecting EVs to the grid is based on research into cutting-edge smart metering and communication systems. In the context of the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) phenomenon, the possibilities, benefits, and limitations of various EV smart charging systems are also fully examined. There is a fast growing percentage of distributed energy that is wind and solar photovoltaic. Their variable power output, however, introduces fresh challenges for those responsible for organizing, operating, and controlling the power grid. While fluctuations in the electric grid are problematic, they may be mitigated by the entry of EVs into the energy market. As such, we do a comprehensive literature search to learn more about the exciting research gap that needs to be filled and the most recent possible answer that involves EVs. Additionally, we take a close look at the practicality of the sophisticated V2G technology. The smart grid is a developing concept for the world's energy infrastructure, and this study analyzes in depth how EVs interact with it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0331.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: large-scale RES; curtailments; electric vehicles; EnergyPLAN; integrated energy systems analysis; CO2 emissions
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:33:27 CEST)
Electric vehicles, being able to reduce pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions and shift the economy away from oil products, can play a major role in the transition towards low-carbon energy systems. However, the related increase in electricity demand inevitably affects the strategic planning of the overall energy system as well as the definition of the optimal power generation mix. With this respect, the impact of electric vehicles may vary significantly depending on the composition of both total primary energy supply and electricity generation. In this study, Italy and Germany are compared to highlight how a similarity in their renewable shares not necessarily leads to a CO2 emissions reduction. Different energy scenarios are simulated with the help of EnergyPLAN software assuming a progressive increase in renewable energy sources capacity and electric vehicles penetration. Results show that, for the German case, the additional electricity required leads to a reduction in CO2 emissions only if renewable capacity increases significantly, whereas the Italian energy system benefits from transport electrification even at low renewable capacity. Smart charging strategies are also found to foster renewable integration; however, power curtailments are still significant at high renewable capacity in the absence of large-scale energy storage systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: vehicle to grid; grid to vehicle; electric vehicles; batteries; harmonic distortion; IEEE bus standards
Online: 21 June 2018 (10:34:06 CEST)
The increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most important world problems. Decreasing of GHG emission is a big challenge in the future. Transportation sector uses a significant part of petroleum production in the world and it leads to an increase in the emission of GHG. The result of this issue is that population of the world befoul environment of transportation system automatically. Electric Vehicles (EV) have a potentiality to solve a big part of the GHG emission and energy efficiency issues such as stability and reality of energy. The energy actors and their research team determine some targets for 2050; hence, they hope to decrease the world temperature to 6 °C in the best and 2 °C in the normal condition. Fulfillment of these scenarios needs suitable grid infrastructure but in most of the countries, the grid does not have a suitable background to apply those scenarios. In this paper, some problems about energy scenarios, energy storage systems, grid infrastructure and communication systems in supply and demand side of the grid and its solutions have been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1375.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric vehicles; Internal combustion engine; Voltage profile improvement; Load Profile; Power Grid
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:31:44 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EVs) will have a greater need for the amount of electricity needed to charge them as their popularity grows. It is anticipated that in order to accomplish this objective, it will be essential to implement a variety of solutions for grid transportation that are designed to complement one another and to make significant changes to the transmission infrastructure. It is possible to reduce the amount of energy that is lost on the power network through strategic planning and control, which may include economic models and methods to engage and reward users. This would eliminate the need for grid upgrades. Charging electric vehicles can also assist alleviate problems with transmission systems that are caused by the allocation of electric vehicles (EVs) using bidirectional charging method. The most significant problems that can occur with a transmission network are power loss and unstable voltage. Adding EV units to the transmission network is typically an effective method for resolving these challenges. As a result, EVs need to have the appropriate arrangement and dimensions. This research establishes where and how many electric vehicles (EVs) should be in a radial transmission network both before and after the adjustment is made. An artificially intelligent (AI) approach, known as a hybrid genetic algorithm particle swarm optimization (HGAIPSO), is used both before and after the radial network modification to find the optimal EV location and size. When electric vehicles are coordinated in an active transmission network, power losses are decreased, voltage profiles are raised, and system stability is increased. These benefits can be attributed to the greater use of electric vehicles. The simulation found that incorporating EVs into the testing system resulted in a considerable decrease in the quantity of power that was wasted. The minimal bus voltage of the system also undergoes similar kinds of enhancements. According to the findings of the comparative study, the proposed method mitigates both the voltage fluctuations and the power losses that occur in the transmission system. For type 1, type 2, and type 3 EV allocations, the IEEE-30 bus test system reduced real power loss by 40.70%, 36.24%, and 42.94%, respectively. IEEE-30 bus voltage reaches 1.01 pu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: e-VTOL vehicles; coaxial rotors; design optimization; operation; experiments; electric propulsion; propeller pitch
Online: 25 May 2022 (03:34:42 CEST)
Coaxial rotors can be found in multirotor vehicles for the added thrust compared to independent rotors while keeping similar area footprints but, performance losses should be considered. This experimental study analyzes the effects of varying motor throttle and propeller pitch values in motor-propeller systems with two to four coaxial rotors. The results show that in a two-rotor coaxial system, to lessen the adverse effects of a front rotor’s backwash and to operate at the maximum performance, only the back motor should be operated initially up to 75% duty cycle before using the front motor up to its 75% duty cycle. Additional thrust requirements should be generated from the back rotor and then from the front rotor up to their maximum duty cycles. In two, three, and four-rotor coaxial setups, total thrust output generated is 1.6, 2.1, and 2.5 times the thrust output at system thrust performance of 86%, 76%, and 66%, respectively of that of an isolated rotor. In a four-rotor coaxial setup, maximum system performance is achieved when the propeller pitch values are gradually increased from the first to the last rotor. The gradual increments in propeller pitch values also result in more uniform thrust sharing among rotors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0442.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; configuration synthesis; motor transmission; in-wheel-hub motor; six-link mechanism
Online: 24 July 2018 (05:59:20 CEST)
Nowadays, there are several electric vehicle (EV) on the market, due to the innovation of technology that promotes the new components such as battery, transmission, electric motors. This paper proposes a design approach for the configuration synthesis and simulation of the in-wheel-hub motor transmissions with the six-link mechanisms. The synthesis process shows 6 mechanisms with six members and eight joints, 15 new clutchless motor transmissions and 16 new clutched motor transmissions. A novel motor transmission in the feasibility of the synthesized configurations is selected as an example to analyze the working principle with operation modes and power flow paths. And, this design is modeled for the simulation process that generates the results of operation mode transition and energy regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Optimal Predictive Control; Energy Management; Electric Vehicles; Sustainable Transportation; Efficient Energy Consumption; Electrification of Transportation
Online: 7 September 2023 (13:27:36 CEST)
In this study, a novel two-layer control scheme aimed at enhancing the dynamic performance of a nonlinear vehicle through the utilization of an optimal control approach grounded in predictive control principles is presented. The first layer of our control system focuses on the computation of an optimized rotational torque that ensures lateral dynamic stability. This torque is subsequently translated into differential forces acting on the wheels, employing the inverse tire model to derive the desired longitudinal slips. These slip values are then transmitted to the second layer of our control system. In the second layer, the electric motors associated with the vehicle's wheels dynamically adjust the input torque to accurately track the desired slip, thereby ensuring the overall stability of the electric vehicle. In view of the paramount importance of energy consumption in electric vehicles, we adopt optimal control strategies to substantially minimize battery utilization. To this end, careful selection of appropriate weighting coefficients in the control laws enables us to maintain the electric motors within their permissible operational range while simultaneously minimizing battery energy consumption for desired slip tracking. Extensive simulation results validate the effectiveness of our proposed control system in proficiently managing nonlinear effects and safeguarding the vehicle's stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; reduction of power loss; voltage profile improvement; optimization algorithms; and power network optimization
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:05:06 CEST)
Concern about the planet's future has motivated governments around the world to adopt policies that promote more responsible energy consumption. Reducing emissions of the principal cause of climate change man-made greenhouse gases requires greater system efficiency and the utilization of renewable energy sources. The generation of electricity is the single largest source of hazardous pollutants, followed by the transportation sector. This is true due to the extreme reliance on petroleum and its derivatives that these industries have. Electric mobility is receiving more attention from businesses, governments, and academic institutions as a means to reduce the negative impacts of current energy consumption. Without measures to address common technical issues, electric vehicles would strain electrical infrastructure. In order to determine the best strategy for switching operations and feeder reconfiguration, this research presents a helpful hybrid genetic algorithm particle swarm optimization (HGAPSO) method. Meet transmission limits while decreasing real power losses and enhancing the system's bus voltage profile. The effects of HGAPSO on power losses and voltage distributions in the network are analyzed. Then, a report is produced contrasting GA and PSO. This cross-breeding of GA and PSO led to HGAPSO. This important problem can be solved more effectively with the use of new or improved algorithms. To find the optimal reconfiguration and properly rearrange transmission network interconnection, it employs a plethora of heuristic optimization algorithms. The objective is to limit bus voltage variations while maintaining the system's radial topology and minimizing power usage. The reliability and performance of the procedure were evaluated using MATLAB's IEEE 33-bus communication network. The outcomes demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, which cuts down on power waste during standalone runs and speeds up the processing time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0700.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind turbines, solar farms; renewable electricity; electrolysis; green hydrogen; compression; storage; hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles; green buildings.
Online: 11 October 2023 (09:27:24 CEST)
This paper defines the two main causes of global warming in the UK and seeks to cut climate change using green hydrogen made from renewable electricity sources. Combustion vehicles powered by fossil gasoline and diesel emit a third of UK climate-warming CO2 while buildings heated by natural gas provide a quarter. First, current UK grid problems are defined: Electricity grid, gas grid and petroleum grid. Then experiments on the private energy community of Keele University allow electrolysis demonstrations producing green hydrogen for buildings and vehicle refueling. Next, the model supply chain is planned and tested. Finally, experiments and calculations are outlined, analyzing the optimum system design criteria proposed. We conclude that economic green hydrogen can displace diesel and gasoline in vehicle transport, while also displacing natural gas for combined heat and power in buildings. In addition, the prospect in 2023 is that profits can now be made all along the green hydrogen supply chain, such that new businesses involved in clean communities can beat the National Grid monopoly and other large dominant fossil grid companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: vehicle routing problem; electric vehicles; internal combustion vehicles; common carriers; branch and cut and pricing; labelling algorithms
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:54:36 CEST)
With the continuous improvement and observable benefits of electric vehicles (EVs), major logistic companies are introducing more EVs into their conventional fleets. This gives rise to a new type of vehicle routing problem with mixed vehicles, where heterogeneous internal combustion vehicles (ICVs) and electric vehicles are considered in route planning. In addition, certain deliveries that are not efficient on any type of vehicles, are outsourced to third-party common carriers. In this paper, we define this problem as a mixed vehicle routing problem with common carriers (MVRPC). The objective of such problems is to minimize the transportation costs by considering routes with ICVs and EVs, the possibility of visiting recharging stations, outsourcing options, and drivers’ layover regulations. This variant of the vehicle routing problems has many practical applications, particularly in the design of long-haul transportation and last-mile delivery services. Effective MVRPC solutions play a key role in promoting the going Green image and optimally allocating resources. The problem has received limited attention in the literature likely because addressing all the needed aspects is especially challenging. To solve the large-scale problem, we develop a branch-and-cut pricing framework that relies on strong cuts and customized labeling algorithms. Numerical experiments highlight the effectiveness of our algorithm. This success can be attributed to tailored critical resources, dynamically bounded bidirectional labeling procedures, strong dominance criteria, and implementation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid energy storage; energy efficiency; frequency domain analysis; hybrid electric vehicles
Online: 1 November 2018 (00:00:00 CET)
In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV. However, the methodology can be extended to other electrified vehicles. The full bandwidth load, up to the operating frequency of the electric motor drive (20 kHz), is empirically measured which includes a frequency range beyond the usually covered frequency range by published standard drive cycles (up to 0.5 Hz). The higher frequency band is shown to be more efficiently covered by a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) which in this paper is defined as combination of a high energy density battery, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC), an electrolytic capacitor, and a film capacitor. In this paper, the harmonic and dc currents and voltages are measured through two precision methods and then the results are used to discuss about overall HEV efficiency and durability. More importantly, the impact of the addition of high-band energy storage devices in reduction of power loss during transient events is disclosed through precision measurement based methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0121.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Green Transport, Carbon Footprint, Kuwaiti National Customer Preference
Online: 3 September 2023 (13:53:04 CEST)
The adoption of a fully battery-based Electric Vehicles (EVs) in Kuwait apparently seems to be less than one percent and hence Kuwait has the lowest indexed-rank among countries around the globe. The absence of fast-charging stations for fully-battery-based EVs and landlords' reluctance to install home fast-charging plugs are the primary reasons for extremely low adoption rates in this country. Because the government of Kuwait is reluctant to give permission for expatriates to own property in Kuwait, fully battery-based EV ownership is restricted to Kuwaiti nationals who reside in their private properties. To accomplish the present objectives, a quantitative de-scriptive method (closed-ended questions) was used to collect data from a sample of 227 Kuwaiti nationals who owned gasoline cars. The finding of the present study indicates that more than half of the participants stated that they preferred to purchase an EVs within the next three years if certain criteria were met, inclusive of government-controlled pricing policies and charging stations availability, fast-driving lanes, and free of charge parking spaces. Furthermore, more than 40 percent of respondents stated that they would contemplate purchasing an electric vehicle if the price of gasoline or diesel increased by 19 to 50 percent. The finding also indicates that more than forty percent of respondents said that believed that EVs are fire- and crash-safe and roughly half of the participants would pay between 6 and 20% more for an EVs because they be-lieve that EVs are environmentally friendly and significantly faster than gasoline vehicles. In addition, participants rewarded EVs with an excellent mark for their environmental, economic, and technological attributes and benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hybrid - electric vehicle; emerging technology; sustainable mobility and transportation; consumer perception; consumer purchase intention
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:30:01 CEST)
Existence of hybrid electric vehicles nowadays is one of the emerging technologies worldwide. Different countries are using this technology on their transportation, and nowadays, a lot of other countries are gradually adapting on using this kind of innovation in their transport system. Philippines is among these countries which aims to have a sustainable mobility by embracing the use of hybrid - electric vehicles but still lots of consumers are lacking awareness on this technology. Lack of information on the social, environmental, and economic potential benefits are among the main issues of Philippines consumers that really affect its uptake. The goal of this study was to evaluate the consumer’s perception and purchase intention on the transition of hybrid - electric vehicles for sustainable mobility and transportation here in the Philippines. It aimed to assess consumer awareness with hybrid - electric vehicles and its potential benefits to human beings in terms of social, environmental, and economic aspects. The study also gauged the impact of this perception on consumer’s purchase intention on hybrid - electric vehicles. These objectives were attained using the Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Analysis. Using these methods, the results revealed that majority of the consumers believed on the positive benefits of transitioning to hybrid - electric vehicles in terms of social, environmental, and economic aspects. This study also showed that these benefits have high impact on the consumer’s intention of buying or having a hybrid – electric vehicle. Electric vehicle is one of the most effective measure of decarbonizing the transport system. Furthermore, government and automotive businesses must strengthen their drive in spreading awareness of hybrid – electric vehicle’s benefits to consumers to further support country’s effort for development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0016.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Chance constraint programming; Source-load systems; Demand response control; Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs); Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:25:48 CEST)
Demand response flexible loads can provide fast regulation and ancillary services as reserve capacity in power systems. This paper proposes a joint optimization dispatch control strategy for source-load system with stochastic renewable power injection and flexible thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Specifically, the optimization model is characterized by a chance constraint look-ahead programming to maximal the social welfare of both units and load agents. By solving the chance constraint optimization with sample average approximation (SAA) method, the optimal power scheduling for units and TCL/PEV agents can be obtained. Secondly, two demand response control algorithms for TCLs and PEVs are proposed respectively based on the aggregate control models of the load agents. The TCLs are controlled by its temperature setpoints and PEVs are controlled by its charging power such that the DR control objective can be fulfilled. The effectiveness of the proposed dispatch and control algorithm has been demonstrated by the simulation studies on a modified IEEE 39 bus system with a wind farm, a photovoltaic power station, two TCL agents and two PEV agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: load flow analysis; load voltage deviation; plug-in electric vehicles load; power-flow analysis; static load models
Online: 17 May 2018 (10:24:09 CEST)
This paper proposes the impact of plug-in electric vehicles integrated into power distribution system based on voltage dependent control. The plug-in electric vehicles was modeled as the static load model in power distribution systems under balanced load condition. The power flow analysis is determined by using the basic parameters of the electrical network. The main point of this study are compare with voltage magnitude profiles, load voltage deviation, and total power losses of the electrical power system. There are investigating the affected from constant power load, constant current load, constant impedance load and plug-in electric vehicles load, respectively. The IEEE 33 bus test system is used to test the proposed method by assigning each load type to a balanced load in steady state and applied the solving methodology based on the bus injection to branch injection matric, branch current to bus voltage matrix, and current injection matrix to solve the power flow problem. The simulation results showed that the plug-in electric vehicles load had the lowest impact compared to other loads. The lowest plug-in values for the electric vehicle loads were 0.062, 119.67 kW and 79.31 kVar for the load voltage deviation, total active power loss and total reactive power loss, respectively. Therefore, this study can be verified that the plug-in electric vehicles load were affected to the lowest of the electrical power system in condition to same sizing and position. So that, in condition to the plug-in electric vehicles load added into the electrical power system with the conventional load type or complex load type could be considered that the affected from the plug-in electric vehicles load in next study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric mobility; electric vehicle; electrification; airport
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:00:53 CEST)
Following electrification of automotive transport, studies on the penetration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) are widespread, especially in defined contexts, e.g. cities. As major transport hubs, airports fall within contexts worth of interest. In this work, a forecast of the demand for electric mobility in an Italian international airport (Rome, Fiumicino) is presented. First, a wide review of proposed sce-narios on the penetration of EVs at international and national level and available data on local automotive transport are presented, as preliminary study for the definition of reference scenarios for the local context. Then the methodology proposed is presented and applied to the specific case study. Finally, a preliminary sizing of the required charging infrastructure is reported. The proposed approach can be considered as reference for similar studies on electrical mobility in other airport areas around the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; internal combustion engine; greenhouse gas; optimization techniques; Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV); Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV); Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV); Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).
Online: 10 May 2017 (17:44:51 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EV) are getting more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system can face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration; but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of smart grid. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before replacing the ICE vehicles totally. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, energy sources, motors, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1841.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Electric Vehicle (EV); Electric Vehicle Charging Stations; California; Rebates; Adoption
Online: 4 December 2023 (11:38:26 CET)
Abstract: This study investigates the effect of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCS) on light-duty Electric Vehicle sales and the Total California rebates. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCS) are infrastructure facilities that allow for the charging of electric vehicles (EVs). I applied the before and after model with California state county using its community-level attributes and used the difference-in-difference design to identify a strategy for estimating the causal effects of these attributes. These attributes include EVCS installations by time, EV sales by time, rebate applications by time, the number of multi-unit housing units, and the median income levels. The empirical ev-idence of this study shows the estimated relationship between public EV charging installation and EV sales overall by community income level, housing density, and other relevant factors, the result shows that EVCSs is highly correlated with light duty Electric Vehicle adoption. For the investors, policymakers, and other stakeholders, this study provides evidence of a threshold of EVCS on Light Duty Electric Vehicle adoption and rebate in California. Keywords: Electric Vehicle (EV); Electric Vehicle Charging Stations; California; Rebates; Adoption
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0454.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Review; Electric Field; Ionic wind; Electric assisted combustion; Soot emission
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:54:38 CEST)
Electric field assisted combustion is an important means to improve fuel combustion efficiency. This paper conducts extensive research on flame characteristics under different forms and different application methods of electric fields, emission of soot particles and simulation status. Different flame parameter measurement methods will lead to different degrees of error, and perfect numerical simulation can make simple predictions on experimental data. Most of the current numerical simulations are in two dimensions, and it is necessary to develop a complete and accurate three-dimensional model to simulate and predict the characteristics of the flame under an electric field. The emission of soot particles is also affected by the electric field, and reasonable electric field parameters can greatly reduce the emission of soot particles. It is recommended to conduct centralized measurement of different fuels under the electric field under high pressure and temperature conditions, so as to be able to develop a wider and more accurate flame dynamics and chemical model under the electric field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0068.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: olfaction, olfactory, odorants, pheromones, smell, electric field, electromagnetic radiation, electric field sensor, insect antennae
Online: 4 September 2018 (14:31:22 CEST)
The olfactory system is capable of distinguishing individual odorants from among a virtually unlimited number. Fish, for example, detect changes in the electric field environment induced by prey and other sources. Floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We have constructed an electric field sensor, which, in the course of focussing on achieving maximum sensitivity and consistency, ultimately resembles features of the insect sensorium. A “fingerprint” 3D plot ( time, frequency range, voltage amplitude), representing the emitted electric field profile, is presented for each of a variety of odorants and other chemicals. The substance-specific electric-field emission and identification is not impeded by containers or barriers or distance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: charging infrastructure; e-mobility; electric vehicle; optimization; private electric car; transport simulation; distribution of charging Infrastructure; battery electric; genetic optimization; high-power charging
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:15:14 CET)
To enable the deployment of battery-electric vehicles (BEV) as passenger cars in the private transport sector, a suitable charging infrastructure is crucial. In this paper a methodology for efficient spatial distribution of charging infrastructure is evaluated by investigating a scenario with a market penetration of BEVs of 100 percent (around 1.3 million vehicles). It aims towards the development of various charging infrastructure scenarios - including public and private charging - which are suitable to cover the charging demand. Therefore, these scenarios are investigated in detail with focus on number of public charging points, their spatial distribution, the available charging power and the necessary capital costs. For the creation of those charging infrastructure scenarios a placement model is developed. It uses the data of a MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation) traffic simulation of the metropolitan area of Berlin to evaluate and optimize different distributions of charging infrastructure. The model uses a genetic algorithm and the principle of multi-objective optimization. The capital cost of the charging points and the mean detour car drivers must cover additionally are used as optimization criteria. Using these criteria should lead to cost efficient infrastructure solutions which provide high usability at the same time. The main advantage of the method selected is that multiple optimal solutions with different characteristics can be found and suitable solutions can be selected by using other criteria subsequently. The optimized charging infrastructure solutions show capital costs between 624 and 2950 million euro. Users must cover an additionally mean detour of 254m to 590m per charging process to reach an available charging point. According to the results a suitable ratio between charging points and vehicles is between 11:1 and 5:1. A share of fast charging infrastructure (>50kW) of less than ten percent seems to be sufficient, if it is situated at main traffic routes and highly frequented places.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; re-synchronization; voltage stability; electric vehicles; electric vehicles chargers; virtual impedance; particle swarm optimization.
Online: 1 December 2023 (13:30:17 CET)
In this research, the concept of the instability of tension in Microgrid still becomes the focus of study and purpose. Scrutinously, First-Swing Instability occurs in the system in noted changes with properties of making the system unstable or restore to a state of stability. The latter calls itself as a phenomenon of re-synchronization. Allied to aspects of system instability, it is evident that by connecting fast electric chargers for battery-electric vehicles to the distribution system from microgrids, they increase the necessary basic electrical charges and reduce the stability of the electrical energy system. Transient electrical currents have the characteristic of severely impacting microgrids not prepared in connected states or island of the main system. The occurrences of the electromagnetic incompatibility of the inrush current, due to their unpredictability and intermittent characteristic, have complex identification studies. With the elevation of electricity demand by battery-electric vehicle chargers, concerns about the effects of the integration of the electricity grid increase proportionally. The research described in this article emphasizes the influence of fast chargers’ initialization on the power variation related to the re-synchronization phenomenon and its mitigation of the stability of electricity microgrid. An optimization algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) implements the development of virtual impedances. The PSO optimization algorithm analyzes all possible operating points and aims to maximize the stability index of microgrid, maintaining reactive energy incompatibilities at the minimum level supported. The fractional objective function facilitates the service to these goals simultaneously. The optimization algorithm is implemented in a case study and the corresponding virtual impedance is incorporated into the microgrid. Voltage levels are verified as a condition in the optimization process, comparing system effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: open-source; photovoltaic; mechanical design; electric vehicle; solar energy; solar carport; electric vehicle charging station
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:41:43 CEST)
Solar powering the increasing fleet of electrical vehicles (EV) demands more surface area than may be available for photovoltaic (PV) powered buildings. Parking lot solar canopies can provide the needed area to charge EVs, but are substantially costlier than roof- or ground-mounted PV systems. To provide a lower-cost PV parking lot canopy to supply EV charging beneath them, this study provides a full mechanical and economic analysis on three novel PV canopy systems: (1) exclusively wood, single parking spot spanning system, (2) wood and aluminum double parking spot spanning system, and (3) wood and aluminum cantilevered system for curbside parking. All systems can be scalable to any amount of EV parking spots. The complete designs and bill of materials (BOM) of the canopies are provided along with basic instructions and are released with an open source license that will enable anyone to fabricate them. The results found single-span systems have cost savings of 82%-85%, double-span systems save 43%-50%, and cantilevered systems save 31%-40%. In the first operation year, the PV canopies can provide 157% of energy needed to charge the least efficient EV currently on the market if it is driven the average driving distance in London ON, Canada.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Review; Electrical Machines; Superconducting Machines; Hybrid-Electric Aircraft; Propulsion Design; All-Electric Aircraft; Specific Power
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:04:15 CEST)
The development of electric aircrafts is becoming an important technology for achieving the goals set by the European Commission for the reduction of gases emissions by 2050 in the aeronautical transportation system. However, there is a gap between the values of specific power in commercial electric machines and the ones required for aeronautical applications. Therefore, the search for alternative materials and non-conventional designs is mandatory. One emergent solution is using superconducting machines and systems to overcome the current limits of conventional electrical machines. This work reviews the new hybrid and all-electric aircraft tendencies, complementing it with recent research on the design and development of high specific power superconducting machines. This includes the main topologies for hybrid and all-electric aircraft, with an overview of the ongoing worldwide projects of these types of aircrafts, systematizing the main characteristics of their propulsion systems. It also includes the research on superconducting machines for the purpose of high specific power, considering the impact on the redesign of aircraft systems in the electrical, cooling, and fuel source sense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; battery; fuel cell; charging
Online: 17 August 2023 (11:54:18 CEST)
Zero-emission trucks for regional and long haul missions are an option for fossil-free freight. The viability of such powertrains and system solutions was studied conceptually in project ESCALATE for trucks with GVW of 40 tonnes and beyond through various prime mover combinations. The study covers battery and fuel cell power sources with different degrees of battery electric as well as H2 and fuel cell operation. As a design basis, two different missions with a single-charge/H2 refill were analysed. The first mission was the VECTO long haul profile repeated up to 750 km, whereas the second was a real 520 km on-road mission in Finland. Based on the simulated energy consumption on the driving cycle, on-board energy demand was estimated, and the initial single-charge operational scenarios were analysed with five different power source topologies. The traction motors of the tractor were dimensioned so that a secondary mission of GVW up to 76 tons on a shorter route can be operated. Based on the powertrain and vehicle model, various infrastructure options for charging and H2 refuelling strategy as well as various operative scenarios with indicative total cost of ownership (TCO) were analysed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2053.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: electric mobility; market disruptions; competitive advantage
Online: 1 August 2023 (04:03:52 CEST)
The present study reports a critical review of NIO's business model, considering the evolving landscape of the electric vehicle market and servicing. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework that facilitates the identification of key elements characterizing a company's business model and highlights ongoing transformations, crucial for adaptation and survival in a rapidly changing environmental context. Focusing on the case study of NIO, a relatively young Chinese original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specializing in high-tech electric cars, the research delves into the challenging scenario of the Chinese electric vehicle market, which has recently faced a bubble in 2023. The market proliferation, supply chain disruptions, and price wars triggered by Tesla have resulted in a survival struggle for numerous automotive startups, leaving larger companies with increasing market shares. Despite facing adversities, NIO managed to secure a promising segment, catering to premium-range battery electric vehicles (BEVs), establishing a competitive advantage through differentiation. By pursuing ambitious investments, the company aims to create economies of scope and achieve cost leadership, venturing into new market sectors and vertically integrating the production chain. Given NIO's agility in adapting to market conditions, aggressive entry into new segments, and a strategic vision for the future, it serves as an excellent candidate for testing and validating the proposed framework. The research sheds light on NIO's trajectory and offers insights into its potential for sustained growth in the dynamic electric vehicle market.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: charge; current; electric field; magnetic field
Online: 21 June 2019 (08:39:42 CEST)
As we all know, contemporary electromagnetic theory is based on the macroscopic electromagnetic theory established by the 19th century. Because of the lack of microscopic cognition in that era, various electromagnetic phenomena could only be explained and described at the macro level, and their origins could not be explained at the micro level. And because of the microscopic understanding of atomic physics in the 20th century, new progress has been made. Considering that it is now the 21st century, this paper attempts to establish a new theory of microscopic interpretation of classical electromagnetic theory based on the new cognition of atomic physics in the 20th century. Starting from the general assumption, the current will be interpreted as the momentum flow produced by the directed collision between electrons; the charge will be interpreted as a form of expression of electron motion; the voltage is interpreted as the potential difference (energy level difference) of the electron orbit. In the end, this paper successfully developed a new microscopic electromagnetic theory by introducing microscopic atomic physics and rigid body mechanics models to Maxwell's macroscopic electromagnetic theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0411.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: perovskites; neodymium; luminescence; electric transport; magnetization
Online: 19 November 2018 (03:54:34 CET)
Nanocrystalline La1-xNdxFeO3 powders with different concentrations of Nd3+ have been synthesized by modified Pechini method. Their structure was studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Further, La1-xNdxFeO3 nanoceramics were prepared by high pressure sintering technique. The luminescence spectra of the powders were investigated as a function of concentration of active dopant to check the possible energy transfers observed due to Nd3+ concentration changes. The electrical and magnetic properties of the powders and ceramics were investigated to determine the effect of Nd3+ doping on the dielectric permittivity and magnetization in the wide frequency range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: space weather; global electric circuit; fair weather; electric field; current density; solar proton events; coronal mass ejection
Online: 4 October 2023 (05:20:52 CEST)
We report on ground-based measurements of the atmospheric electric field (Ez= -Potential Gradient (PG)) and current density (Jz) that were conducted at two locations in Israel. One is the Emilio Segre cosmic ray station located on Mt. Hermon (34.45 N, 2020 m AMSL) located in northern Israel near the Syrian-Lebanon border and at the other at the Wise astronomical observatory in the Negev desert highland plateau of southern Israel (31.18 N, 870 m AMSL). We searched for possible effects of strong, short-term solar events on the potential gradient and the vertical current density, as disruption to the Global Electric Circuit are often observed following strong solar events. The first case study (St. Patrick Day, 17 March 2015) was classified as the strongest event of 2015. The second case study (8 Sep 2017) was categorized as the strongest event of 2017 and one of the twenty strongest events on record to date. The results show that the electrical parameters measured at ground level at both stations were not affected during the two massive proton events and the ensuing geomagnetic storms. The magnetospheric shielding in lower latitudes is strong enough to shield against flux of energetic particles from solar events, obscuring any impact that may be noticeable above the local daily variations induced by local meteorological conditions (aerosol concentrations, clouds, high humidity, and wind speed) which were investigated as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: agent-based model; electric vehicles; traffic simulation; energy intake; urban environment; fuel costs; public policy; electric mobility
Online: 29 April 2022 (11:05:15 CEST)
By 2020, over 100 countries expanded electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (EV/PHEV) technologies, with global sales surpassing 7 million units. Governments are adopting cleaner vehicle technologies due to proven environmental and health implications of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), evidenced by the recent COP26 meeting. This article proposes an agent-based model of vehicle activity as a tool for quantifying energy consumption by simulating a fleet of EV/PHEVs within an urban street network at various spatio-temporal resolutions. Driver behaviour plays a significant role in fuel consumption, thus, simulating various levels of individual behaviour enhancing heterogeneity should provide more accurate results of potential energy demand in cities. The study found that 1) energy consumption is lowest when speed limit adherence increases (low variance in behaviour) and is highest when acceleration/deceleration patterns vary (high variance in behaviour) and 2) on average, for tested vehicles, EV/PHEVs were £116.33 cheaper to run than ICEVs across all experiment conditions. The difference in the average fuel costs (electricity and petrol) shrinks at the vehicle level as driver behaviour is less varied (more homogeneous). This research should allow policymakers to quantify the demand for energy and subsequent fuel costs in cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0600.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Vehicles models; VSP analyses
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:17:49 CET)
Hybrid electric vehicles are certainly one of the key solutions for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, especially in special vehicle application and with the use of CO2 neutral fuels. Determining the energy management strategy and finding the optimal solution with regard to the aforementioned goals re-mains the one of the main challenges in the design of HEV. This paper presents a new vehicle modeling method, with an emphasis on HEVs, which is based on the frequency analysis of emissions and consumption according to the current specific traction power of the vehicle. The evaluation of the newly introduced model in the RDE, NEDC and WLTP cycle was performed and the results were compared with the standard verified vehicle model that was created in AVL's CruiseM software package. Positive traction energies have positive deviations of between 0.35% and 2.85%. The largest deviation in CO2 emissions was recorded for the HEV model in the RDE cycle and in the non-hybrid model in the WLTP cycle of 3.79% and 4.4% respectively, all other combinations of cycle and vehicles had deviations of up to about 1%. As expected, the largest relative deviations were recorded for NOx emissions from 0.13% to 9.62% for HEV in the WLTP cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0269.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Electric energy; cosmological inflation; emergence of conductivity
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:44:32 CEST)
Conversion of electromagnetic energy into magnetohydrodynamic energy occurs when the electric conductivity changes from negligible to finite values. This process is relevant during the epoch of reheating of the early Universe at the end of inflation and before the emergence of the radiation-dominated era. We find that conversion into kinetic and thermal energies is primarily the result of electric energy dissipation and that the magnetic energy plays only a secondary role in this process. This means that, since electric energy dominates over magnetic energy during inflation and reheating, significant amounts of electric energy can be converted into magnetohydrodynamic energy when conductivity emerges early enough, before the relevant length scales become stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0490.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Thermal Runaway; side collision; electric vehicle battery
Online: 17 July 2023 (02:49:32 CEST)
In current electric vehicles, the traction battery is intended to store energy. When designing this battery different parameters must be taken into account in order to arrange the battery/module/cells in the mechanically and thermally safest configuration. Moreover, the battery layout must have a correct dynamic behavior in possible collisions. In the present study, different battery configurations plus added energy absorbers are analyzed. In order to do that, an internal combustion vehicle modeled with finite elements is applied as the reference model. The structural behavior of the different battery configurations in the event of a side collision is examined. Firstly, the safest arrangement is stablished, both with respect to cabin intrusion and thermal runaway propagation. Secondly, the safest arrangement that guarantees the safety of the occupants in the event of a side collision is analyzed but using the MADYMO. This software includes experimentally validated dummies which allow have an insight in the stresses experienced by occupants. On the one hand, the analysis states that the battery pack inclusion in the vehicle increases the stiffness of the car floor, resulting in fewer intrusions in the passenger compartment. Therefore, a greater safety for the occupants is reached. On the other hand, none of the configurations analyzed has shown enough safety against the phenomenon of Thermal Runaway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0230.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cardiac arrhythmia; mechano-electric feedback; Piezo1 channel
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:30:10 CET)
The rhythmical nature of the cardiovascular system constantly generates dynamic mechanical forces. At the center of this system is the heart which must detect these changes and adjust its performance accordingly. Mechano-electric feedback provides a rapid mechanism for detecting even subtle changes in the mechanical environment and transducing these signals into electrical responses which can adjust a variety of cardiac parameters such as heart rate and contractility. However, pathological conditions can disrupt this intricate mechanosensory system and manifest as potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Mechanosensitive ion channels are thought to be the main proponents of mechano-electric feedback as they provide a rapid response to mechanical stimulation and can directly affect cardiac electrical activity. Here we demonstrate that the mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo1 is expressed in zebrafish cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, chemically prolonging Piezo1 activation in zebrafish results in cardiac arrhythmias indicating that this ion channel plays an important role in mechano-electric feedback. This also raises the possibility that Piezo1 gain of function mutations could be linked to heritable cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0500.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: molecular electric potentials; spatial confinement; intermolecular interactions
Online: 26 August 2021 (07:46:43 CEST)
In this theoretical study we report on molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of titled molecules confined by repulsive potentials of cylindrical symmetry mimicking a topology. Our calculations show that the spatial restriction significantly changes the picture of MEP of molecules in quantitative and qualitative sense. In particular, the drastic changes of MEP as a function of the strength of spatial confinement are observed for the BrCN molecule. This preliminary study is the first step in the investigations of the behavior of MEP of molecular systems under the orbital compression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1594.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; hydrogen fuel cell vehicles; site selection and fixed capacity; voronoi diagram; electric-hydrogen integrated charging station
Online: 25 November 2023 (14:32:31 CET)
In view of the problem of charging and hydrogen filling facilities construction in the transition from fuel vehicles to electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, in order to meet the electric energy demand of electric vehicles and hydrogen energy demand of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles at the same time, this paper puts forward a method of siting and capacity determination of electric-hydrogen refueling integrated station (EHRIS) based on Voronoi diagram and particle swarm algorithm based on calculating the demand of charging and filling of hydrogen in vehicles. Firstly, OD pair(Origin-Destination) is used to represent the starting point and end point of the car to portray the travel demand of the car, and on the basis of the traffic network model, the shortest driving path of the new energy car is determined by Dijkstra algorithm, and Monte Carlo simulation is used to get the electric-hydrogen energy demand of the car; secondly, the Voronoi diagram is introduced to classify the service scope of the electric-hydrogen charging station to determine the equipment capacity of the electric-hydrogen charging station, while taking into account the electric-hydrogen charging and refueling capacity. Secondly, a Voronoi diagram is introduced to divide the service scope of the EHRIS, determine the capacity of the equipment in the EHRIS, and consider the distance constraints between the sites of EHRIS, so as to make the division of the site and service scope more reasonable. Finally, a dynamic optimal current model framework for distribution networks based on second-order cone relaxation is established, and each element of the active distribution network is planned, so that the distribution network can operate safely and stably after being connected to the EHRIS. With the objective of minimizing the total social cost of EHRIS and considering the constraints of the charging equipment and hydrogen production and injection equipment of the EHRIS, a siting and capacity model to meet the electric-hydrogen energy demand of electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is developed, and solved by a particle swarm algorithm. Finally, the simulation planning is carried out with Sioux Falls city and IEEE33 network, which ensures the stable operation of the power grid while meeting the energy demand of automobiles, and the results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0108.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC); Prompt Penetration of Magnetospheric Convection Electric Field; Disturbance Dynamo Electric Field (DDEF); DP2; Ddyn
Online: 3 October 2023 (04:36:00 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of geomagnetic storms that occurred on June 8, 22-23, and 25, 2015, on the ionosphere in the low-latitude and equatorial regions of Brazil. By examining various data sources, such as solar wind parameters from the ACE satellite, GPS vertical total electron content (VTEC), magnetometer data, and the SAMI2 model, we aimed to simulate the effects of storms on the ionosphere in these regions. Two methods were employed to separate DP2 and Disturbance dynamo (Ddyn) from the ionospheric disturbance current (Diono). Our analysis revealed a positive (negative) ionospheric storm in the VTEC during the main phase (recovery) of the June 22-23 and 25 storms. This observation can be attributed to the combined impact of the eastward prompt penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field (westward disturbance dynamo electric field) and changes in the storm-time thermospheric [O]/[N_2] ratio based on the GUVI satellite imagery. Notably, the westward disturbance dynamo exhibited a significant amplitude on June 23 in Belem. The amplitude of the D_dyn at Belem (dip lat: - 0.47˚) was greater than that at Alta Floresta (dip lat: - 3.75˚) due to intensified cowling conductivity in Belem. Furthermore, we found that the SAMI2 model provided more accurate results when we replaced the default ExB drift with the vertical drift calculated from the ground-based magnetometer, enabling us to simulate the effect of the westward DDEF on VTEC during daytime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0281.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM); low-sampling load disaggregation; statistical analysis; machine learning algorithms; electric baseboards; electric water heaters
Online: 3 August 2023 (06:29:07 CEST)
For many years, energy monitoring at the most disaggregate level has been mainly sought through the idea of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM). Nevertheless, a practical application of this concept in the residential sector should address the underlying concerns raised by the technical specifications of case studies. From one side, such an operation must handle common matters related to the essence of any NILM system. Although this aspect has been thoroughly investigated by basic research, it is limited to the properties of public datasets. On the other side, it must deal with specific concerns corresponding to uncommon situations. These circumstances impose further restrictions on existent NILM schemes, however, they have been overlooked due to the lack of pertinent databases to scrutinize. Accordingly, this paper presents applied research on a potential solution to NILM for Quebec residences. It carries out a relevant investigation into the multi-faceted nature of this problem in order to reveal barriers to feasible implementations in the context of Quebec. This work commences with a concise discussion about the NILM idea to highlight its essential requirements for a fruitful practice. Afterward, it provides a comparative statistical analysis to represent the specificity and potential challenges of the case study in accordance with NILM necessities. For this purpose, the examination exploits data from real-world measurement systems in the same and European regions. Subsequently, this study focuses on a load identification exercise by proposing a combinatory approach that utilizes the promise of sub-meter smart technologies to integrate the intrusive aspect of load monitoring with the non-intrusive one. The former is aimed at extracting overall heating demand from the aggregate one by a supervised procedure based on Deep Learning (DL) models while the latter is designed for disaggregating the residual load through an unsupervised process on the basis of clustering techniques. The results demonstrate that geographically-dependent cases create electricity consumption scenarios under which existing NILM methods can be questioned. From a realistic standpoint, this research elaborates on critical remarks to realize viable NILM systems, particularly, in Quebec houses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: steel slag; EOS (Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag); ERS (Electric Arc Furnace Reduction Slag); cement mortar; Length change rate
Online: 24 January 2018 (08:04:44 CET)
Recently many researches of EOS (Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag) on application to construction industry have been carried out with increasing its production and limited reclamation site. EOS can be used as a fine aggregate for construction material, however, its engineering properties vary with the manufacturing process and producing district, causing a quality differences in material performance. In the work, EOS is obtained from steel manufacturing plants in South Korea and the engineering properties are evaluated for EOS and the cement mortar with EOS, respectively. From the tests, EOS is mainly made up of CaO, SiO2, and FeO with 18.2% of larnite which has a crystal structure of β-C2S with similar cement mineral. EOS mortar shows an increasing compressive strength with more EOS content, which is affected by a considerable amount of larnite (β-C2S) in EOS. The EOS based mortar with ERS (Electric Arc Furnace Reduction Slag) shows unsatisfactory results over the criteria for rate of change, which implies that more consideration must be taken for the usage of the mixed ERS and EOS for cement mortar due to swelling effect of ERS on dimensional stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; efficiency; EV (electric vehicle); simulation; optimization
Online: 4 December 2023 (10:11:59 CET)
In this study, we focused on the eco-driving of electric vehicles (EVs). The target vehicle is an electric bus developed by our research team. Using the parameters of the bus and speed pattern optimization algorithm, we derived the EV eco-driving speed pattern. Compared to eco-driving of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs), we found several different characteristics. We verified these characteristics with actual vehicle driving test data of the target bus, and the results confirmed its rationality. The EV eco-driving method can improve electricity consumption by about 10% - 20% under the same average speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Jet-mill; Spinach; Lutein; Pasteurization; Pulsed electric fields
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:33:05 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the effects of jet-milling on lutein extraction contents of spinach powder (SP) and pulsed electric fields as a non-thermal pasteurization technology on spinach juice (SJ) to preserve lutein contents. SP particles were divided into SP-coarse (Dv50 = 315.2 μm), SP-fine (Dv50 = 125.20 μm), and SP-superfine (Dv50 = 5.59 μm) fractions and SP-superfine was added to SJ due to the highest contents of lutein extract. The PEF and thermal treatment were applied to evaluate the effects of preserving the lutein content of PEF during storage (25 days). The juice after being designated to untreated (no pasteurization), PEF1,2 (SJ treated with PEF 20 kV/cm 110 kJ/L, 150 kJ/L), Thermal1,2 (SJ treated with 90 ℃, 10 min and 121 ℃, 15 min). The sizes and surface shapes of superfine SP particles were more homogeneous and smoother than the other samples. SJ made with SP-superfine and treated by PEF had the highest lutein content and antioxidant activities among the group. Complex of jet-milling and PEF pasteurization could be great potential technologies to improve the lutein contents of lutein-enriched juice in the food industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1716.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric vehicle; microgrid; renewable generator; V2G; management strategy
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:03:53 CEST)
The energy stored in an electric vehicle's battery would be drawn and distributed to the electrical grid to better drive energy consumption within a microgrid that includes a renewable generator(s) managed by a specific energy management strategy. This concept, known as vehicle-to-grid technology: V2G, makes the energy stored in the electric vehicle's battery more beneficial by discharging it to the public grid during periods of high demand. In this study, we will consider a vehicle system connected to a microgrid, which includes a photovoltaic generator reported from the <<PROPRE.MA>> project in the city of Tangier. We will elaborate the study of a strategy of the car connected to this V2G network. This allows electricity to be stored when rates are low (off-peak hours) and then used when prices rise (peak hours). Otherwise, the solar energy will cover the owner's needs, and the surplus will be injected into the distribution network. This strategy will manage the solar power, the load power, the state of charge of the EV battery, the time of day and the driving scenario. Using two driving profiles, we will show the performance of the proposed energy management strategy and the percentage contribution of the photovoltaic array of the <<PROPRE.MA>> project in the city of Tangier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1652.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Drones; Photovoltaics; Electric Mobility; Solar Energy; Spatial analysis
Online: 23 May 2023 (11:11:08 CEST)
Electric energy is one of the driving forces in every country. The supply of electrical energy continues to present various challenges, such as high costs associated with procuring raw materials for generation, sparsely populated areas that are not connected to the main grid, and the need for infrastructure to support generation and network delivery. These challenges have contributed to the growing adoption of renewable energy sources, particularly solar photovoltaics (PV).In this study, we have developed a practical method to assess the spatial PV potential in a selected urban area. The methodology combines data collected from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry, Geographic Information System (GIS), and the energy output from three remote photovoltaic systems installed at different locations. The results obtained from this approach not only provide the energy generated per square meter, per year (kWh m-2 yr-1), but also provides a base to calculate the potential distance that electric cars could travel based on the energy generated. To illustrate the application of this method, two practical cases were selected: Senglea, Malta, and Munxar, Gozo. These examples highlight the versatility and effectiveness of our approach for evaluating and harnessing solar energy through photovoltaic panels in different contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0142.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Aeroacoustics; Electric ducted fan; Microperforated plate absorbers; eVTOL
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:58:56 CET)
New innovative green concepts in electrified vertical take-off and landing vehicles currently emerge as a revolution to urban mobility going into the third dimension (vertically). The high population density of cities makes the market share highly attractive while posing an extraordinary challenge for community acceptance due to the increasing and possibly noisier commuter traffic. In addition to passenger transport, package deliveries to customers by drones may enter the market. The new challenges associated with this increasing transportation need in urban, rural and populated areas pose challenges for established companies and startups to deliver low-noise emission products. The article's objective is to revisit the benefits and drawbacks of an affordable acoustic measurement campaign focused on early prototyping. In the very early phase of product development, often considerably limited resources are available. With this in mind, the article discusses the sound power results using the enveloping surface method in a typically available low-reflection room with a reflecting floor according to DIN EN ISO 3744:2011-02. The method is applied to a subsonic electric ducted fan (EDF) unit of a 1:2 scaled electrified vertical take-off and landing vehicle. The results show that considerable information at low costs can be gained for the early prototyping stage, despite this easy-to-use, easy-to-realize, and not fine-tuned measurement setup. Furthermore, the limitations and improvements to a possible experimental setup are presented to discuss a potentially more ideal measurement environment. Measurements at discrete operating points and transient measurements across the total operating range were conducted to provide complete information on the EDF's acoustic behavior. The rotor-self noise and the rotor-stator interaction were identified as primary tonal sound sources, along with the highest broadband noise sources located on the rotor. Based on engineering experience, a first acoustic improvement treatment is also quantified with a sound power level reduction of 4dB(A). In conclusion, the presented method is a beneficial first measurement campaign to quantify the acoustic properties of an electric ducted fan unit at minimal resources in a reasonable time of several weeks when starting from scratch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0068.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: electric charge; electricity; electron; elementary particle; gravity; matter; unification
Online: 10 January 2023 (09:56:45 CET)
Dirac’s equation depicts electron mass as either positive or negative. Taken as correct description of nature, the equation identifies electron mass as ‘electrically active’ and therefore fundamentally different from the ordinary, ‘electrically passive’ mass. Following this cue, I demonstrate that electron mass (me) is the natural elementary mass: positive (me+) and negative (me–) elementary masses neutralise to an elementary unit of the electrically passive mass (2me0). Further, I show that electron mass (me± ) and the electrostatic field (ef±) surrounding it compose an elementary charge (e±), thereby relating charge to mass. Two plain principles underlie these findings. 1) Electric charge and gravitational mass have a common root: positive (e+) and negative (e–) charges coexist as neutral charge (2e0), which is the quantum of gravitational mass. 2) Charge is a static (nonrelativistic) ‘atom of electricity’ and obeys the laws of electrostatics; electron is the same ‘atom of electricity’ at ultrahigh (relativistic) speed and obeys the laws of electrodynamics. That is, charges are electricity at rest; electrons are electricity in motion – ‘same physical entities two behavioural identities.’ A decisive proof that this paradigm shift correctly portrays is that it verifiably unifies Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s law of electrostatics to: 8G/mpme = K/e2; where G and K are the respective constants, mp the proton mass, me the electron mass, and e the elementary charge. Ultimately, the insights simplify matter to pure ‘atoms’ of positive and negative electricity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: China; Electric vehicle; Development bottleneck; French Standardization; Enlightenment
Online: 8 November 2022 (09:18:21 CET)
The problems of operating range and costs are the two most critical bottlenecks restricting the extensive application of electric vehicles at home and abroad. There are also some prominent problems in China's electric vehicles, such as slow improvement of electric vehicle's operating range, difficulty in charging, slow charging, low utilization efficiency of charging resources, and high battery cost for electric vehicles, which lead to poor competitiveness of electric vehicles compared with traditional internal combustion engine (I.C.E.) vehicles. This paper analyzes the key factors restricting the development and popularization of electric vehicles in China from the aspects of strategic policy, sales situation and self problems. Through summarizing the experience and lessons of French standardization development strategy and electric vehicle development mode, this paper puts forward the hypothesis leading the development of electric vehicles through standardization to enhance their competitiveness, gives the specific suggestions, and briefly analyzes the feasibility from the aspects of product situation. The research content of this paper provides a certain basis and ideas for the future research work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cannabidiol; electric cell-substrate impedance sensing; oral cancer
Online: 7 October 2022 (14:32:52 CEST)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is an active diterpenoid compound that is extracted from the leaves and stem of Cannabis sativa. Previous studies show that CBD is a non-psychotropic compound with significant anti-cancer effects. This study determines its cytotoxic effect on oral cancer cells and OECM1 cells and compares the outcomes with a chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin. This study determines the effect of CBD on the viability, apoptosis, morphology and migration of OECM1 cells. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is used to measure the change in cell impedance for cells that are treated with a series concentration of CBD for 24 hours. AlamarBlue and annexin V/7-AAD staining assays show that CBD has a cytotoxic effect on cell viability and induces cell apoptosis. ECIS analysis shows that CBD decreases the overall resistance and morphological parameters at 4 kHz in a concentration-dependent manner. There is a significant reduction in the wound-healing recovery rate for cells that are treated with 30 μM CBD. This study demonstrates that ECIS can be used for in vitro screening of anticancer drugs and is more sensitive, functional and comprehensive than traditional biochemical assays. CBD also increases cytotoxicity on cell survival and the migration of oral cancer cells, so it may be a therapeutic drug for oral cancer
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0144.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Plasmonic nanoantenna; Electric field norm; Tilted light incidence
Online: 8 October 2021 (13:43:07 CEST)
We study the effect of oblique illumination on the functioning of a plasmonic nanoantenna for chiral light. The antenna is designed to receive a structured beam of light and produce a nanosized near-field distribution that possesses non-zero orbital angular momentum. The design consists of metal (gold) micro-rods laid on a dielectric surface and is compatible with well-developed nanofabrication techniques. Experimental arrangements often require such an antenna to operate in a tilted geometry, where input light is incident on the antenna at an oblique angle. We analyze the limitations that the angled illumination imposes and discuss approaches to mitigate these limitations. Through our numerical simulations, we find that tilt angles larger than 30 degrees require modifications to the antenna design. Our analysis guides current and future experimental configurations to pushing the limits of resolution and sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0275.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: anomalous electric dipole moment; isospin; gravitational Dirac particle
Online: 26 July 2021 (12:07:54 CEST)
An analysis is presented of the possible existence of a second anomalous dipole moment of Dirac’s particle next to the one associated with the angular momentum. It includes a discussion why, in spite of his own derivation, Dirac has doubted about its relevancy. It is shown why since then it has been overlooked and why it has vanished from leading textbooks. A critical survey is given on the reasons of its reject, including the failure of attempts to measure and the perceived violations of time reversal symmetry and charge-parity symmetry. It is emphasized that the anomalous electric dipole moment of the pointlike electron (AEDM) is fundamentally different from the quantum field type electric dipole moment of an electron (eEDM) as defined in the standard model of particle physics. The analysis has resulted into the identification of a third type Dirac particle, next to the electron type and the Majorana particle. It is shown that, unlike as in the case of the electron type, its second anomalous dipole moment is real valued and is therefore subject to polarization in a vector field. Examples are given that it may have a possible impact in the nuclear domain and in the gravitational domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0694.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Electric energy; Occupant behavior; energy efficiency; lecture halls
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:44:05 CEST)
All over the world energy is used for different purposes and hence its continuous high demand which has brought about an increase in crisis and prices of energy. Ghana has faced a lot of supply and high electricity consumption challenges over a period of time. The Energy Commission of Ghana has developed regulations and guidelines to help reduce high consumption challenges among users, these included the replacement of incandescent bulbs with fluorescent bulbs, ban of importation of low energy efficient appliances. In spite of the effort to reduce electricity wastage, there is still a high increase in electricity consumption. The research investigated what contributed to electricity consumption in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology with the lecture halls as the main focus, the research also analyzed the current occupant behavior characterized by the electrical energy consumption practices. And investigated how the contemporary theories for reducing energy consumption was used in the lecture halls. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate occupants on their energy use practices in lecture halls that causes wastages, observation was made to establish relevant data on the use of contemporary theories for energy reduction in lecture halls. In a total of 110 occupants that responded to the questionnaire, 79 occupants almost always turn off electrical fitting and fixtures when not in use. From the responses, a majority of the occupants claimed to comply to best practices of energy use. The research concluded that some contemporary theories to reduce energy consumptions was not used and considered in the lecture halls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0475.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: axon, neuron, electric circuit, capacitance , biophysics, HH model
Online: 18 June 2021 (11:08:11 CEST)
The most common and taught membrane theory assumes that the membrane behaves as a kind of electrical capacitance that is exposed to an electrical current generated by an ionic flow. If this statement is verifiable, it can be confirmed by the laws of physics, mathematics and in particular electricity. We will demonstrate that this hypothesis is not verified and that it is necessary to modify biophysics according to already established and experimentally verified principles of physics.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC microgrid; electric vehicles; optimal sizing; station commitment
Online: 22 March 2019 (10:23:14 CET)
The diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) can be sustained by the presence of integrated solutions offering parking and clean power supply. The recourse to DC systems allows to better integrate EV bidirectional energy exchange, photovoltaic panels and energy storage. In this paper, a methodology for optimal techno-economic sizing of a DC-microgrid for covering EV mobility needs is carried out. It is based on the definition of different scenarios of operation, according to typical EV usage outlooks and environmental conditions. In each scenario, optimal operation is carried out by means of a specific approach for EV commitment on different stations. The sizing procedure is able to handle the modular structure of microgrid devices. The proposed approach is applied to a case study of envisaged EV service fleet for Bari port authority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart scheduling; smart reservations; reinforcement learning; electric vehicle charging; electric vehicle charging management platform; neural network; DQN reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:54:48 CET)
The widespread adoption of electromobility constitutes one of the measures designed to reduce air pollution caused by traditional fossil fuels. However, several factors are currently impending this process, ranging from insufficient charging infrastructure, battery capacity, long queueing and charging time, to psychological factors. On top of range anxiety, the frustration of the EV drivers is further fueled by the lack the uncertainty of finding an available charging point on their route. To address this issue, we propose a solution that comes to bypass the limitations of the Reserve now function of the OCPP standard, enabling drivers to make charging reservations for the upcoming days, especially when planning a longer trip. We created an algorithm that generates reservation intervals based on the charging station's reservation and transaction history. Subsequently, we ran a series of test cases that yielded promising results, with no overlapping reservations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1977.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: alternative fuels; biofuels; electric vehicles; natural gas; road transportation
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:29:42 CEST)
Human beings naturally move from one location to another in search of basic necessities. Road transportation is a low-cost, versatile, and widely accessible mode of transportation worldwide. However, using fossil-based (FB) fuels in transportation vehicles is inefficient, generates hazardous gases, and worsens environmental degradation. The current work assesses the application of clean fuels such as biofuels, natural gas, electricity, propane, and other emerging fuels to replace FB fuels in transport vehicles. Unlike FB fuels, the use of biohydrogen, biomethane, biodiesel, and bioethanol in transport vehicles resulted in emission reduction by 70 %, 63 %, 41 %, and 54 %, respectively, while electric vehicles lower maintenance costs, ensuring better engine performance, and better engine efficiency. The adoption of natural gas and propane as alternative fuels for transport vehicles is cost-effective, and promotes environmental sustainability. There is a need for targeted financial, infrastructural, and technical investments to further promote the application of these clean fuels for road transport application. The outcome of the study provides updated information and sensitizes automobile engineers, environmentalists, transport fleet operators, governments, and other stakeholders on the benefits derivable in the adoption of clean fuels as alternatives to FB fuels as transport vehicles fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1731.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric-thermal model; Polarization; Heat Generation; Lithium-ion Battery
Online: 26 September 2023 (09:03:07 CEST)
This paper investigates the polarization and heat generation characteristics of batteries under different ambient temperatures and discharge rates by means of using a coupled electric-thermal model. The study found that the largest percentage of polarization is ohmic polarization, followed by concentration polarization and electrochemical polarization. The values of the three types of polarization are generally small and stable under normal-temperature environments and low-discharge rates. However, they increase significantly in low-temperature environments and high-discharge rates and continue to rise during the discharge process. Additionally, ohmic heat generation and polarization generation also increase significantly under these conditions. Reversible entropy heat is less sensitive to ambient temperature but increases significantly with the increase of the discharge rate. Ohmic heat generation and polarization heat generation contribute to the total heat generation of the battery at any ambient temperature, while reversible entropy heat only contributes to the total heat generation of the battery at the end of discharge.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: EBCMOS; Monte Carlo; electric field distribution; charge collection efficiency
Online: 11 July 2023 (13:03:43 CEST)
In order to improve the charge collection efficiency, we simulated and experimentally tested the doping structure of the electron multiplication layer in EBCMOS. In this paper, we simulate the charge collection efficiency of EBCMOS under different doping methods by modeling the collisional scattering of electrons with solid atoms in semiconductor materials and combining the transport trajectories of electrons in the electron multiplication layer, the simulation results indicate that using a layered doping structure to reduce the thickness of the index heavily doped layer can effectively optimize the electric field distribution in the electron multiplier layer and reduce the recombination rate of electrons. The optimized doping structure has a significant effect on improving charge collection efficiency. Based on the simulation results, doped samples were prepared and tested. The test results showed that the charge collection efficiency obtained under the condition of a P-type silicon substrate thickness of 7μm and an index heavily doped layer thickness of 1μm was 72.65%, reducing the thickness of the index heavily doped layer to 0.1μm, the charge collection efficiency obtained can reach 86.27%, which proves that reducing the thickness of the index heavily doped layer can effectively improve the charge collection efficiency of EBCMOS devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: head and neck neoplasms; electric stimulation; chemoradiotherapy; swallowing; dysphagia
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:37:29 CEST)
Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancer; however, CRT may cause post-treatment dysphagia. Transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), developed in recent years for swallowing rehabilitation, has been used at many medical facilities. Although TESS has been used for dysphagia in several fields, its safety and efficacy in patients with head and neck cancer remain to be clarified. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety of TESS in ten patients with head and neck cancers undergoing CRT. Swallowing rehabilitation intervention and TESS implementation were performed for all patients during CRT. Non-blood toxicity adverse events (AEs), such as dermatitis and mucositis, occurred during CRT; however, the severity was less than Grade 3. No patient experienced pain due to TESS. As survival time analysis using the Kaplan–Meier method for interferential current device implementation rates revealed a feasibility of 100% for up to 60 Gy and a feasibility of 78% for up to 70 Gy, it concludes that TESS was feasible until 70 Gy. This study confirmed the feasibility and safety of TESS in the head and neck region, even during CRT. Although the precise mechanism of TESS on dysphagia is not yet clear, its continued use has great potential for improving sensory disturbance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Automotive; Electric Vehicle; Market Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Marketing Strategy
Online: 1 May 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
With the increased liberation of trade and fierce competition in the automotive industry, Proton needs to embark on a strategic reform to survive and remain relevant in the challenging market. This case study aims to explain the effectiveness of the Post Geely acquisition's ten years master plan to enhance Proton's self-reliance and global competitiveness. This case suggests that while the company's ten-year Master Plan is holistic and shows positive results in the early years, there is a need for a new business strategy, given the challenges imposed by climate change's impact on the automotive industry moving forward. The potentials of the Electric Vehicles (EVs) market and the Internet of Things (IoT) to develop the necessary long-term competitive advantage. A market strategy integrating the 4Ps and 4Cs framework suggests a two-dimensional convergence of the market mix, incorporating the organization's market strategy with a more consumer expectations-centric and user experience. Strategic integration of Geely's technological assets in developing Proton's technical know-how can address Proton's challenges and opportunities ahead.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0247.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cost estimation; all-electric aircraft; European air traffic network
Online: 17 March 2022 (09:04:29 CET)
Aircraft emissions represent a relevant amount of human induced CO2. Globally, up to 2.5 per cent of such emissions stem from the aviation industry. In order to investigate the effects within the atmosphere, realistic flight profiles are necessary to provide quantitatively tangible values of emissions. The flight profiles and the according fuel consumption can be calculated by using waypoints from flight plans and Base of Aircraft Data (BADA). This paper presents an approach to refine the fuel consumption by integrating the passenger load into the calculation. Since effects of emissions have to be assessed on a greater scale, such as on the European air traffic network, the presented approach provides cost functions for CO2 emissions for different aircraft types and load factors. The cost functions were derived by means of regression analyses of BADA based calculated flight profiles with a step size of one second. The calculations are based on real historic traffic scenarios of several days. The derived aircraft specific fuel burn coefficients enable a simple and efficient integration of CO2 estimations depending on the flight distance, load factor and aircraft type. This can be applied to large traffic scenarios to also study different set-ups such as travel restrictions, other disruptions or an alteration in the traffic system as a whole. In order to enable the assessment of further aspects of such changes to the European air traffic system at large and to foster reproducibility and comparability of related studies, we provide further general-purpose cost estimation functions for several important key characteristics. Besides fuel consumption, we develop cost estimations for air navigation fees and maintenance for conventional aircraft. Those functions are also provided for the design concept of a short-range all-electric aircraft. This propeller aircraft features game-changing technologies such as active laminar flow control, active load alleviation and advanced materials and structure concepts. The approaches discussed in this paper will focus on the generic aspects of aircraft related costs, which can be derived from general available data. For the sake of reproducibility, the results will be made publicly available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: efficiency; electric vehicle; finite element analysis; inductive charger; optimization
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:57:55 CEST)
Energy efficiency and leakage magnetic field (LMF) are two important issues in electric vehicle inductive chargers. In this work, the maximum achievable coil efficiency and the corresponding LMF strength are formulated as functions of hardware parameters, and figure of merits (FOM) are proposed for assessing the efficiency and LMF performance of the coil assembly pair. The impacts of the coil assemblies’ geometric parameters on both FOMs are examined with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA), and measures to improve the FOMs are extracted from FEA results. A coil assembly pair is manually optimized within given dimensional limits. Compared with the initial design, the optimized one achieves higher efficiency and lower LMF strength while consuming less copper. The performance improvement is verified by FEA results and experimental data measured on an 85 kHz electric vehicle inductive charger prototype. The key measures for coil assembly optimization are summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0607.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Gravitational-electric-magnetic interaction; Controlling permittivity and permeability; Superconductivity
Online: 13 September 2021 (12:31:14 CEST)
Appling the controlling relative permittivity and permeability in the equations for the gravitational-magnetic-electric field interaction, a very large variation of the gravitational acceleration of the Earth by electric/magnetic field could be arrived at. This conclusion may be supported by some of the experiments for the gravitational effect of superconductivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Leptin, Animal Communication, Electric Fish, Singing Mice, Metabolism, Energetics
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:11:15 CEST)
Animal communication signals are regulated by multiple hormonal axes that ensure appropriate signal targeting, timing, and information content. The regulatory roles of steroid hormones and many peptide hormones are well understood and documented across a wide range of vertebrate taxa. Two recent studies have reported a novel function for leptin, a peptide hormone central to energy balance regulation: regulating communication signals of weakly electric fish and singing mice. With only limited evidence available at this time, a key question is just how widespread leptinergic regulation of communication signals is within and across taxa. A second important question is what features of communication signals are subject to leptinergic regulation. Here we consider the functional significance of leptinergic regulation of animal communication signals in the context of both direct and indirect signal metabolic costs. Direct costs arise from metabolic investment in signal production, while indirect costs arise from the predation and social conflict consequences of the signal’s information content. We propose a preliminary conceptual framework for predicting which species will exhibit leptinergic regulation of their communication signals and which signal features leptin will regulate. This framework suggests a number of directly testable predictions within and across taxa. Accounting for additional factors such as life history and reproductive strategies will likely require modification or elaboration of this model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0029.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: electric mobility; paratransit; informality; Sustainability transitions; East-Africa; transport
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:23:46 CET)
Electric mobility begins to enter East-African markets. This paper aims to investigate what policy level solutions and stakeholder constellations are established in the context of e-mobility in Dar es Salaam, Kigali, Kisumu and Nairobi and in which ways they attempt to tackle implementation of electric mobility solutions. The study employs two key methods including content analysis of policy and programmatic documents as well as interviews based on purposive sampling ap-proach with stakeholders involved in mobility transitions. The study findings point out that transport operators and their representative associations are less recognized as major players in the transition, far behind new e-mobility players (start-ups) and public authorities. The study further indicates that a set of financial and technical barriers persist such as high upfront invest-ment costs in vehicles and infrastructure, or anxieties regarding competitiveness with fossil fuel vehicles, that constrain the uptake of such private e-mobility initiatives. This study concludes by identifying current gaps that need to be tackled by policy makers and stakeholders in order to implement inclusive electric mobility in East-African cities, considering modalities that include transport providers and address their financial constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0323.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: nematic interaction; Coulomb fluids; nematic wetting; electric double layer
Online: 14 December 2020 (10:52:32 CET)
A field theoretic representation of the classical partition function is derived for a system composed of a mixture of anisotropic and isotropic mobile charges that interact via long range Coulomb and short range nematic interactions. The field theory is then solved on a saddle-point approximation level, leading to a coupled system of Poisson-Boltzmann and Maier-Saupe equations. Explicit solutions are finally obtained for a calamitic counterion-only system in proximity of a charged planar wall. The nematic order parameter profile, the counterion density profile and the electrostatic potential profile are interpreted within the framework of a nematic-isotropic wetting phase with a Donnan potential difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: IPMSM; compressor; V-shaped PM; electric vehicle; Air conditioner
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:05:17 CET)
Air conditioning system of electric vehicles has new change as the internal combustion engine is being replaced with electrified AC motor. With large amount of batteries installed at the bottom of frame, the conventional compressor which is belt-driven can be removed and another AC motor can play the role for air conditioning in electric vehicles. From this change, the system efficiency would be improved since it is possible to control the electrified compressor independently from traction system in contrast with the belt-driven compressor. As a result, by applying the electrified compressor for air conditioning system, the whole system can achieve better efficiency and longer driving distance, which is most important in electric vehicles. In this paper, 3-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) was designed using lumped-parameter model and finite element method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Russia; solar power; hydrogen energy; electric vehicle; lithium battery
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:47:34 CET)
With a relatively small population, Russia accesses huge oil, natural gas, coal and uranium resources, and hosts advanced nuclear energy, oil and natural gas industries. However, the combined effect of today’s low cost electricity generation via photovoltaic modules, water and wind turbines and similarly low cost storage in Li-ion battery and solar hydrogen obtained via water electrolysis will have a profound impact on Russia’s energy and automotive industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheelchair; hybrid manual-electric drives; drives supporting the movement
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:00:13 CET)
Overcoming terrain obstacles presents a major problem for people with disabilities or with limited mobility who are dependent on wheelchairs. An engineering solution designed to facilitate the use of wheelchairs are assisted propulsion systems. The objective of the research described in this article is to analyse the impact of the hybrid manual-electric wheelchair propulsion system on the kinematics of the anthropotechnical system when climbing hills. The tests were carried out on a wheelchair ramp with an incline degree of 4°, using a prototype wheelchair with a hybrid manual-electric propulsion system in accordance with the patent application P.427855. The test subjects were three people whose task was to propel the wheelchair in two assistance modes supporting manual propulsion. The first mode is hill climbing assistance, while the second one is assistance with propulsion torque in the propulsive phase. During the tests, a number of kinematic parameters of the wheelchair were monitored. An in-depth analysis was performed for the amplitude of speed during a hill climb and the number of propulsive cycles performed on a hill. The tests performed showed that when propelling the wheelchair only using the hand rims, the subject needed an average of 13 pushes on the uphill slope, and their speed amplitude was 1.8 km/h with an average speed of 1.73 km/h. The climbing assistance mode reduced the speed amplitude to 0.76 km/h, while the torque assisted mode in the propulsive phase reduced the number of cycles required to climb the hill from 13 to 6. The tests were carried out at various values of assistance and assistance amplification coefficient, and the most optimally selected parameters of this coefficient were presented in the results. The tests proved that electric propulsion assistance has a beneficial and significant impact on the kinematics of manual wheelchair propulsion when compared to a classic manual propulsion system when overcoming hills. In addition, assistance and assistance amplification coefficient were proved to be correlated to operating conditions and the user's individual characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: electric field screen; pest management; photo-selective nets; whiteflies
Online: 21 May 2019 (09:08:24 CEST)
Applied electrostatic engineering can be used to construct greenhouses that prevent entry of insect pests. Two types of electric field screen were used to exclude pests from the greenhouse: single- and double-charged dipolar electric field screens (S- and D-screen, respectively). The S-screen consisted of iron insulated conductor wires (ICWs) arrayed in parallel (ICW-layer), a grounded metal net on either side of the ICW-layer, and a direct current voltage generator. S-screens were attached to the side windows of the greenhouse to repel whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) that approached the nets. The D-screen was installed in a small anteroom at the greenhouse entrance to capture whiteflies entering through it. The ICW-layers of the D-screen were oppositely charged with equal voltages and arrayed alternately, and an insulator board or grounded metal net was placed on one side of the ICW-layer. The ICW-layers captured whiteflies entering the electric field of the double-charged dipolar electric field. Three screens equipped with yellow or gray boards or a grounded metal net were installed in the anteroom based on the airflow inside the room, as most whiteflies were brought in by air when the door was opened. Two D-screens with boards were useful for directing the airflow toward the wall with the netted D-screen. This screen eliminated the insects and the pest-free air was circulated inside the greenhouse. The D-screen with the yellow board attracted the whiteflies and was effective for trapping them when there was no wind. Our method kept the greenhouse pest-free throughout the entire period of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Robotic Hands, Grasping, Electric Power Quality, Voltage Dips effects
Online: 19 February 2019 (10:48:50 CET)
This paper addresses the effects of electric power quality on robotics operation. A general overview is reported to highlight the main characteristics of electric power quality and their effects on a powered system by considering an end-users viewpoint. Then, authors outline the influence of voltage dip effects by focusing at robotic grasping applications. A specific case of study is reported as referring to LARM Hand IV, a three-fingers robotic hand, which has been designed and built at LARM in Cassino. A dedicated test rig has been settled up for generating predefined voltage dips. Experimental tests are carried out for evaluating the effects of different types of voltage dips on the grasping of objects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0383.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Quantum Field Theory, Electric-Magnetic Duality, Spin-Mass Duality
Online: 25 June 2018 (11:14:54 CEST)
Abstract: I present a generalization of quantum electrodynamics which includes Diracmagnetic monop oles and the Salam magnetic photon. This quantum electromagnetodynamics has many attractive features. (1) It explains the quantization of electric charge. (2) It describes symmetrized Maxwell equations. (3) It is manifestly covariant. (4) It describes local four-potentials. (5) It avoids the unphysical Dirac string. (6) It predicts a second kind of electromagnetic radiation which can be veried by a tabletop experiment. An eect of this radiation may have been observed by August Kundt in 1885. Furthermore I discuss a generalization of General Relativity which includes Cartan's torsion. I discuss the mathematical denition, concrete description, and physical meaning of Cartan's torsion. I argue that the electric-magnetic duality of quantum electromagnetodynamics is analogous to the spin-mass duality of Einstein-Cartan theory. A quantum version of this theory requires that the torsion tensor corresponds to a spin-3 boson called tordion which is shown to have a rest mass close to the Planck mass. Moreover I present an empirically satised fundamental equation of unied eld theory which includes the fundamental constants of electromagnetism and gravity. I conclude with the remark that the concepts presented here require neither Grand Unication nor supersymmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: partial discharge; Weibull distribution; XLPE cable; electric tree; diagnosis
Online: 25 September 2017 (16:47:35 CEST)
The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate electrical treeing degradation for cable insulation. To effectively deal with the currently facing issues, I endeavor to find the most optimal methods by means of applying signal process. First, we made three type models of electrical tree for PD generation to show the distribution characteristics and applied voltage to acquire data by using a PD detecting system. These acquired data presented distribution and four 2D distributions. Hn(q), Hn(), Hqn(), and Hqmax() were derived from the distribution of partial discharge. From the analysis of these distributions, each PD model is proved to hold its unique characteristics and the results were then applied as basic specific qualities for insulation conditions. In order to recognize the progresses of an electrical tree, we proposed methods using scale parameter by means of Weibull distribution. We measured the time of tree propagation for 16 specimens of each model from initiation stage, middle stage, and breakdown respectively, using these breakdown data, we estimated the shape parameter, scale parameter and MTTF(Mean Time To Failure). The results of this study recognize the sources of PD by applying acquired data from PD signals to pre-acquired data. If the cause of PD is degradation, in other words, electrical tree, we can determine the replacement time of devices at the initiation stage of tree growth progress or no later than the middle stage and use it as a basic methods analysis diagnosis system. That is, pattern recognition and Weibull distribution can be employed to get the reliability of diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0226.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; electric drive; electric motor control; frequency converter; Industrial Internet of Things; edge computing; Big Data; Key Performance Indicators; KPI; dashboard
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:15:18 CEST)
The article presents a method of generating Key Performance Indicators related to electric motor energy efficiency on the basis of Big Data gathered and processed in frequency converter. The authors proved that using the proposed solution it is possible to specify the relation between the control mode of an electric drive and the control quality-energy consumption ratio in the start-up phase as well as in the steady operation with various mechanical loads. The tests were carried out on a stand equipped with two electric motors (one driving, the other used to apply the load by adjusting the parameters of the built-in brake). The measurements were made in two load cases, for motor control modes available in industrially applied frequency converters (scalar V/f, vector Voltage Flux Control without encoder, vector Voltage Flux Control with encoder, vector Current Flux Control and Vector Current Flux Control with torque control). During the experiments values of current intensities (active and output), the actual frequency value, IxT utilization factor, relative torque and the current rotational speed were measured and processed. Based on the data the level of the energy efficiency was determined for various control modes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1507.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: brake wear; particulate matter; plug in hybrid electric vehicle; electric vehicle; regenerative and hydraulic brake control system; WLTP-Brake cycle; non-exhaust emissions
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:03:32 CET)
The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods based on the Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicles Test Procedure Brake Cycle to measure brake wear particle emissions for currently used electrified vehicles. Our results indicated that reducing brake friction work reduced brake wear particle emissions. Commercially available, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles reduced emissions by 85% for PM10, 78% for PM2.5, and 87% for particle numbers (PNs) compared to vehicles with internal combustion engines. Brake friction work showed a linear relationship with PM10 and PM2.5. Nanoparticle PM emissions tended to increase slightly with regenerative braking, but did not contribute significantly to the overall PM percentage. the emission events of high number concentrations of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm in diameter) in electric vehicle brake assemblies designed for regenerative braking use under high-temperature, high-load braking conditions with full-friction brakes. The nuclei mode particles amplified the PN emissions and led to a high variability. In strict regulatory certification tests, where measurement reproducibility and stability are required, it is appropriate to measure PNs under brake conditions appropriate for the actual use of electric vehicles rather than under full-friction brake conditions or to remove particle measurements smaller than 20 nm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0926.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), SAR micro-motion (m-m), High-voltage power transmission monitoring, electric cables, electric towers, vibrations, high-power voltage monitoring.
Online: 11 August 2023 (12:05:59 CEST)
Today electricity is distributed to the individual users via physical Copper connections. From the power stations, the energy is transported through transmission lines where the electricity, sinusoidally modulated at a fixed frequency of about 50 Hz, is raised up to a voltage in a range approximately variating between 30, and 110 kV. When electrons, aligned at this voltage, pass through the transmission lines, they cause coherent vibrations, sometimes even audible in the acoustic frequencies. In the spectrum of movements to which electric cables are subjected, there are also unexpected and sporadic movements caused by winds and rain. The problem of carrying out persistent, precise and spatially distributed monitoring of transmission line health is to use a large number of sensors physically distributed everywhere and somehow transmit the results to a control station. The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data could be a viable solution of persistent and wide-area high-voltage vibration monitoring. In this paper we produce a comprehensive survey on how to monitor both movements in terms of vibrational displacement, due to weathering, and those due to electricity transmission, normally fixed at about 50 Hz. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of an operational use of SAR for these purposes in the very short term. This would allow the possibility of monitoring malfunctions such as black-outs or other frequency anomalies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0082.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: current source; diode; divergent current density; new superconductivity type; zero voltage; symmetric electric circuit; Meissner effect; electric potential; vector potential; Lorentz conservation law
Online: 4 July 2019 (17:26:56 CEST)
This paper proposes a method of extracting energy from zero-point energy and evaluates the amount of energy gained. In addition, this electric circuit-based approach exhibits the Meissner effect, suggesting a new type of superconductivity that does not require refrigeration. The proposed method can provide extremely large amounts of energy, which is more than a conventional power station, without consuming fossil fuels or emitting radiation. Thus, it has the potential to solve the global energy problem. It involves preparing two electric loops containing diodes and connecting the loops together with current sources. The diodes are oriented in the same direction within each loop but in opposite directions in different loops. With this setup, the currents from the current sources build iteratively within the loops, resulting in large output currents. Our numerical analysis indicates that extremely large electric potentials are produced, which in turn yield large output currents. In addition, we confirm numerically that the voltage is zero around a loop and show analytically that the Meissner effect is present, proving the existence of a new type of superconductivity. Furthermore, when we introduce induction coils to not break the loop’s symmetry, they store extremely large amounts of energy and we can thus obtain energy from them via discharge currents.