ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0811.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: magnetorheological; elastomer; magnetorheological elastomer; MRE; weather; accelerated; rubber; composite; rheological
Online: 31 December 2020 (13:28:19 CET)
Silicone RTV-based engineering rubber composite products have been widely used for several applications in various fields as a major component such as structure, automotive, and medical. In its application, the rubber composite product is placed in an open area that is directly exposed to sunlight and rain. It has a significant negative impact on changes in chemical and rheological properties, making the product life of rubber composite products shorter. Therefore, in this study, changes in the chemical and rheological properties of both isotropic and anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) treated with accelerated weathering were studied compared to untreated specimens with specimens that had been treated. MRE specimens with 40% by weight CIP were prepared with no current excitation and another sample were made under 1.5 T of magnetic flux density. Each specimen was treated in an accelerated weathering machine Q-Sun Xe-1 Xenon Test Chamber with a UV light exposure cycle for 102 minutes and 18 minutes of UV light combined with water spray for 24 hours followed by a condensation cycle of 4 hours in a dark period. Material characterization was carried out using FTIR and Rheometer to determine the changes in chemical and rheological properties. The morphological analysis results showed that the surface was rough and more cavities occurred after being given weather treatment. Rheometer test results showed a decrease in storage modulus in each MRE specimen that had been treated compared to untreated MRE specimens. Meanwhile, FTIR testing showed a change in wave peak between untreated and treated MRE specimens.
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polyolefin elastomer; n-hexane; sorption thermodynamics; NRHB; diffusivity
Online: 8 March 2021 (16:09:15 CET)
Optimization of post polymerization processing of polyolefin elastomers (POE) is of considerable industrial interest. To this aim, experimental determination and theoretical interpretation of the thermodynamics and mass transport properties of POE-solvent mixtures is relevant. Sorption behaviour of n-hexane vapour in a commercial propylene-ethylene elastomer (V8880 VistamaxxTM from ExxonMobil) is addressed here, determining experimentally the sorption isotherms at temperatures ranging from 115 to 140 °C and pressure values of n-hexane vapour up to 1 atm. Sorption isotherms have been interpreted with the Non-Random-Hydrogen-Bonding Equation of State model retrieving, from data fitting, the value of the binary interaction parameter for the n-hexane/V8880 system. Both the case of temperature-independent and of temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter have been considered. Sorption kinetics was also investigated at different pressures and has been interpreted using a Fick’s model determining values of the mutual diffusivity as a function of temperature and of n-hexane/V8880 mixture composition. From these values, n-hexane intra-diffusion coefficient has been calculated interpreting its dependence on mixture concentration and temperature by a semi-empiric model based on free volume arguments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0026.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: elastomers; hydrogels; elastomer-hydrogel systems; injectable biomaterials; adhesive surfaces; tissue engineering
Online: 20 April 2022 (11:39:28 CEST)
Novel advanced biomaterials have recently gained great attention, especially in surgical minimally invasive techniques. Applying sophisticated design and engineering methods, various elastomer-hydrogel systems (EHS) with outstanding performance have been developed in last decades. Those systems composed of elastomers and hydrogels are very attractive due to their high biocompatibility, injectability, controlled porosity and often antimicrobial properties. Moreover, elastomeric properties and bioadhesiveness are making them suitable for soft tissue engineering. Herein, we present the advances in current state-of-the-art design principles and strategies for strong interface formation inspired by nature (bio-inspiration), diverse properties and applications of elastomer-hydrogel systems in different medical fields, in particular, in tissue engineering. Functionalities of those systems, including adhesive properties, injectability, antimicrobial properties and degradability applicable to tissue engineering will be discussed in a context of future efforts towards development of advanced biomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0677.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: double metal cyanide; heterogeneous catalysis; caprolactone; ring-opening polymerization; thermoplastic elastomer
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:07:49 CEST)
A series of polycaprolactones (PCLs) with molecular weights of 950–10,100 g mol−1 and Ð of 1.10–1.87 have been synthesized via one-pot, solvent-free ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (CL) using a heterogeneous double metal cyanide (DMC) catalyst. Various initiators such as polypropylene glycol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, glycerol, and sorbitol are employed to tune the number of hydroxyl end groups and properties of the resultant PCLs. Kinetic studies indicate that the DMC-catalyzed ROP of CL proceeds via a coordination mechanism. Branched PCLs copolymers are also synthesized via the DMC-catalyzed copolymerization of CL with glycidol. The α,ω-hydroxyl functionalized PCLs were successfully used as telechelic polymers to produce thermoplastic poly(ester-ester) and poly(ester-urethane) elastomers with well-balanced stress and strain properties.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0445.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: 3D Printing; Lattice; Architected Material; Metamaterial; Elastomer; Insole; Durability; Reliability; Asker Hardness
Online: 22 January 2021 (12:47:09 CET)
We investigated the properties of architected materials made from UV-cured urethane elastomers and the use of such materials for insoles. The durability and reliability of various materials currently used in medical insoles were compared with those of architected materials with microlattice. The results show that architected materials made from UV-cured urethane elastomers have high impact resilience and grip, and the hardness can easily be changed by adjusting the column diameter of the unit cell. Compared with the foam materials used for medical insoles today, these architected materials also demonstrate superior UV resistance, suggesting that, after being washed in water, they can be air-dried outdoors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0201.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: stereolithography; elastomer; biocompatibility; post-processing; UV curing; thermal treatment; optical 3D printing
Online: 18 January 2020 (10:07:19 CET)
In this experimental report the biocompatibility of elastomeric scaffold structures made via stereolithography employing table-top 3D printer (Ember, Autodesk) and commercial resin FormLabs Flexible (FormLabs) was studied. The samples were manufactured using standard printing and development protocol, which is known to inherit cytotoxicity due to remaining non-polymerized remaining monomers, despite the polymerized material being fully biocompatible. Additional steps were taken to remedy this problem: the fabricated structures were soaked in isopropanol and methanol for different conditions (temperature, duration) in order to leach out the non-polymerized monomers. Also printed structures were UV exposed to assure maximum polymerization degree of the material. Post-processed structures were seeded with myogenic stem cells and the number of live cells was evaluated as an indicator for the material biocompatibility. The straightforward post-processing protocol enhances the biocompatibility by 7 times after 7 days soaking in isopropanol and methanol and is comparable to control (glass and polystyrene) samples. This proposes the approach as a novel and simple method to be widely applicable for dramatic cytotoxicity reduction of optically 3D printed micro-/nano-scaffolds for biomedical applications.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hydraulic pump; micro-dosing; peristaltic; hyper-elasticity; viscoelasticity; holistic design methodology; elastomer compound
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:12:28 CEST)
Low pressure fluid transport (1) applications often require low and precise volumetric flow rates (2) including low leakage to reduce additional costly and complex sensors. A peristaltic pump de-sign (3) was realized, with the fluid’s flexible transport channel formed by a solid cavity and the wobbling plate comprising a rigid and a soft layer (4). In operation, the wobbling plate is driven externally by an electric motor, hence, the soft layer is contracted and unloaded (5) during pump-cycles transporting fluid from low to high pressure sides. A thorough characterization of the pump system is required to design and dimension the components of the peristaltic pump. To capture all these parameters and their dependencies on various operation-states, often complex and long-lasting dynamic 3D FE-simulations are required. We present, here, a holistic design methodology (6) including analytical as well as numerical calculations, and experimental valida-tions for a peristaltic pump with certain specifications of flow-rate range, maximum pressures, and temperatures. An experimental material selection process is established and material data of candidate materials (7) (liquid silicone rubber, acrylonitrile rubber, thermoplastic-elastomer) are directly applied to predict the required drive torque. For the prediction, a semi-physical, analyti-cal model was derived and validated by characterizing the pump prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0313.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mechanical properties of advanced materials; magneto-rheological (MR); elastomer; stress relaxation; mathematical model
Online: 15 October 2020 (08:31:22 CEST)
Materials characterised by magnetorheological properties are non-classic engineering materials. A significant increase in the interest of scientific community in materials from this group can be observed over the recent several years. The results of research presented in this article are oriented on the examination of said materials’ mechanical properties. In order to do so, stress relaxation tests were conducted on cylindrical samples of magnetorheological elastomers loaded with compressive stress for various values of magnetic induction (B1 = 0 mT, B2 = 32 mT, B3 = 48 mT, and B4 = 64 mT) and temperature (T1 = 25° C, T2 = 30° C, and T3 = 40° C). The results of these tests indicate that the stiffness of examined samples increases along with the increase of magnetic field induction and decreases along with the increase of temperature. On this basis, it has been determined that: the biggest stress amplitude change caused by the influence of magnetic field was σ0ΔB = 12.7% and the biggest stress amplitude change caused by the influence of temperature was σ0ΔT = 11.3%. As a result of applying a mathematical model, it has been indicated that the stress relaxation in the examined magnetorheological elastomer for the adopted time range (t = 3600 s) has a hyperbolic decline nature. The collected test results point to examined materials being characterised by extensive rheological properties, which leads to a conclusion that it is necessary to conduct further tests in this scope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0160.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: solar thermal systems; phase change materials; thermoplastic elastomer; mechanical property; photo-thermal performance
Online: 11 July 2019 (11:54:58 CEST)
Traditional phase change composites usually suffer poor mechanical property and easy collapsing in the phase changing process. Herein, a highly flexible phase change composite is fabricated using thermoplastic elastomer as the basic gel and the expanded graphite/paraffin as the filler. This new phase change composite shows a tensile strength of 2.1 MPa and a breaking elongation of 220%. It has a melting enthalpy of 145.4 J•g-1 and a thermal conductivity of 2.2 W•m-1•K-1 with 70% of expanded graphite/paraffin. The thermoplastic elastomer based phase change composite exhibits great reversible property after 200 heating/cooling cycles. This flexible phase change composite demonstrates good photo-thermal energy charging/discharging property and shows great potential to be applied in the solar thermal energy systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0669.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: dielectric elastomer; generation; carbon dioxide free; rare earths free; high efficiency; CNT; high power; artificial muscle; actuator; large deformation
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:09:45 CEST)
Abstract: Power generation using dielectric elastomer (DE) artificial muscle is attracting attention because of its light weight, low cost, and high efficiency. Since this method is a system that produces electricity without emitting carbon dioxide nor using rare earths, it would contribute to the goal of environmental sustainability. In this paper, the background of DEs, the associated high-efficient wave energy generation (WEG) systems that we developed using DEs, as well as the latest development of its material are summarized. By covering the challenges we face and the achievements that we’ve reached, we can discuss the opportunities to build the foundation of a recycled energy society through the usage of these WEGs. On the other hand, to make these possibilities commercially successful, the advantages of DEs need to be integrated with traditional technologies. To achieve this, we also consider the method of using DEs alone and a system used in combination with an oscillating water column. Finally, the current status and future of DEGs are discussed.