ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: damage detection; multi-cracked beam; eigenfrequency; deflection; superposition
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:13:05 CEST)
Identifying cracks in the incipient state is essential to prevent the failure of engineering structures. Detection methods relying on the analysis of the changes in modal parameters are widely used because of the advantages they present. In our previous research, we have found that eigenfrequencies were capable of indicating the position and depth of damage when sufficient vibration modes were considered. The damage indicator we developed was based on the relative frequency shifts (RFS). To calculate the RFSs for various positions and depths of a crack, we established a mathematical relation that involved the squared modal curvatures in the healthy state and the deflection of the healthy and damaged beam under dead mass, respectively. In this study, we propose to calculate the RFS for beams with several cracks by applying the superposition principle. We demonstrate that this is possible if the cracks are far enough from each other. In fact, if the cracks are close to each other, the superposition method does not work and we distinguish two cases: (i) when the cracks affect the same beam face, the frequency drop is less than the sum of the individual frequency drops, and (ii) on the contrary, cracks on opposite sides cause a decrease in frequency, which is greater than the sum of the frequency drop due to individual damage. When the RFS curves are known, crack assessment becomes an optimization problem, the cost function being the distance between the measured RFSs and all possible RFSs for several vibration modes. Thus, the RFS constitutes a benchmark that characterizes damage using only the eigenfrequencies. We can accurately locate multiple cracks and estimate their severity trough experiments and thus prove the reliability of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0331.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Ramsey theory; complete graph; vibrational spectrum; eigenfrequency; selection rule; cyclic molecule
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:33:14 CEST)
Ramsey theory influences the dynamics of mechanical systems, which may be described as abstract complete graphs. We address a mechanical system which is completely interconnected with the two kinds of ideal Hookean springs. The suggested system mechanically corresponds to the cyclic molecules, in which functional groups are interconnected with two kinds of chemical bonds, represented mechanically with two springs k1 and k2. In this paper, we consider a Cyclic system (molecule) built of six equal masses m and two kinds of springs. We pose the following question: what is the minimal number of masses in the such a system in which three masses are constrained to be connected with spring k1 or three masses to be connected with spring k2? The answer to this question is supplied by the Ramsey theory, and it is formally stated as follows: what is the minimal number R3,3? The result emerging from the Ramsey theory is R3,3=6. Thus, in the aforementioned interconnected mechanical system will be necessarily present the triangles (at least one triangle), built of masses and springs. This prediction constitutes the vibrational spectrum of the system. Thus, the Ramsey Theory supplies the selection rules for the vibrational spectra of the cyclic molecules. Symmetrical system built of six vibrating entities is addressed. The Ramsey approach works for 2D and 3D molecules, which may be described as abstract complete graphs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0583.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: radiofrequency trap; dynamical stability; eigenfrequency; Paul and Penning trap; Hessian matrix; Hamilton function; bifurcation diagram
Online: 23 March 2021 (12:52:31 CET)
We firstly discuss classical stability for a dynamical system of two ions levitated in a 3D Radio-Frequency (RF) trap, assimilated with two coupled oscillators. We obtain the solutions of the coupled system of equations that characterizes the associated dynamics. In addition, we supply the modes of oscillation and demonstrate the weak coupling condition is inappropriate in practice, while for collective modes of motion (and strong coupling) only a peak of the mass can be detected. Phase portraits and power spectra are employed to illustrate how the trajectory executes quasiperiodic motion on the surface of torus, namely a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) torus. In an attempt to better describe dynamical stability of the system, we introduce a model that characterizes dynamical stability and the critical points based on the Hessian matrix approach. The model is then applied to investigate quantum dynamics for many-body systems consisting of identical ions, levitated in 2D and 3D ion traps. Finally, the same model is applied to the case of a combined 3D Quadrupole Ion Trap (QIT) with axial symmetry, for which we obtain the associated Hamilton function. The ion distribution can be described by means of numerical modeling, based on the Hamilton function we assign to the system. The approach we introduce is effective to infer the parameters of distinct types of traps by applying a unitary and coherent method, and especially for identifying equilibrium configurations, of large interest for ion crystals or quantum logic.