ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0069.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance; Biosecurity; Egg; Nigeria; Poultry; Salmonella
Online: 5 May 2021 (15:04:41 CEST)
Salmonella remains one of the notable food-borne bacterial pathogens. It is associated with poultry and poultry products including eggs. This study investigated Salmonella distribution in eggshell and content, their antimicrobial resistance pattern, and the possible risk factors driving contamination in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 500 eggs (5 eggs pooled into one sample) were collected and culturally examined for the presence of Salmonella serovars. Isolates were further characterized biochemically using Microbact 20E (Oxoid) and Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. A total of 14 Salmonella isolates spread across 10 serovars were recovered from the 100 pooled egg samples; 10 (10%) from the market and 4 (4%) farms, 13(13%) eggshell, and 1(1%) egg content. All tested serovars were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, and kanamycin. Resistance was mostly observed in sulfamethoxazole 8 (80%), followed by ciprofloxacin 5 (50%) and tetracycline 3 (30%). Sales of eggs in the market appears to be a strong factor encouraging contamination in addition to poor biosecurity and unhygienic handling of eggs on the farm.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Biological control, egg parasitoid; biological characteristics; brown stink bug.
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:28:34 CEST)
Temperature is the abiotic factors that strongly influence the biology and behavior of insects. Thus, we assessed the development of the egg parasitoids, Ooencyrtus submetallicus and Telenomus podisi, parasitizing eggs of the brown stinkbug, Euschistus heros, at different temperatures, in addition to estimating the average number of generations using temperature records for seven representative soybean producing regions in Brazil. The comparative biology study conducted evidenced that O. submetallicus and T. podisi had similar percentages of parasitism and emergence, life cycle duration (egg-adult), and longevity. The sex ratio and the number of adult parasitoid emerged per parasitized egg was superior for O. submetallicus. The study of thermal requirements evaluated temperatures of 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 33 °C. Ooencyrtus submetallicus and T. podisi developed at temperatures between 16 and 31°C. The lower temperature (Tb) threshold for O. submetallicus and T. podisi was 9.3° and 6.7°C, while the thermal constant (K) was 336.9 and 272.7 degree days, respectively. The estimated average number of generations per year for both parasitoids was greater than the pest E. heros. Ooencyrtus submetallicus and T. podisi exhibited the same biological capacity to parasitize and to develop parasitizing E. heros eggs under laboratory studied conditions. The temperature range between 16° and 33 °C was favourable for the development of both parasitoids parasitizing E. heros eggs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0378.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: egg freshness; hyperspectral detection; hyperspectral scattering imaging; ensemble learning
Online: 18 August 2020 (08:02:32 CEST)
Scattering hyperspectral technology is a nondestructive testing method with many advantages. Here, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of egg freshness, research the influence of incident angles of light source on the accuracy and explain its mechanism. A variety of weak classifiers classify eggs based on the spectra after preprocessing and feature wavelength extraction to obtain three classifiers with the highest accuracy. The three classifiers are used as metamodels of stacking ensemble learning to improve the highest accuracy from 96.25% to 100%. Moreover, the highest accuracy of scattering, reflection, transmission and mixed hyperspectral of eggs are 100.00%, 88.75%, 95.00% and 96.25%, respectively, indicating that the scattering hyperspectral for egg freshness detection is better than that of the others. In addition, the accuracy is inversely proportional to the angle of incidence due that the smaller the incident angle, the camera collects a larger proportion of scattering light, which contains more biochemical parameters of an egg than that of reflection and transmission. These results are very important for improving the accuracy of non-destructive testing and selecting the incident angle of the light source, and have potential applications in online non-destructive testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0370.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: hen egg white lysozyme; chemical modification; antibacterial activity; secondary structure
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:40:14 CET)
Egg white lysozyme was modified by chemical methods using organic acids. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid in organic acids were used as modifiers, and 1-Ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxy succinimide were used as dehydration condensation agents during modification. A certain degree of modified lysozyme was obtained through appropriate modification conditions. The antibacterial properties and structure of the obtained two organic acid modified lysozymes were compared with natural enzymes. The results showed that compared with the natural enzyme, the activity of modified lysozyme decreased, but the inhibitory effect on Gram-negative bacteria was enhanced. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of caffeic acid modified enzyme and p-coumaric acid modified enzyme on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 0.5 mg/mL and 0.75 mg/mL, respectively. However, the antibacterial ability of modified lysozyme to Gram-positive bacteria was lower than that of natural enzyme. The minimum inhibitory concentration of caffeic acid modified enzyme and p-coumaric acid modified enzyme to Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis was 1.25 mg/mL. The peak fitting results of the amide-I band (1600 cm-1-1700 cm-1) absorption peak in the infrared spectroscopy showed that the content of the secondary structure of the two modified enzymes obtained after modification was different from that of natural enzymes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: phospholipids; atherosclerosis; inflammation; anti-inflammatory; dairy; marine; meat; egg; nutrition
Online: 6 November 2017 (10:30:12 CET)
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section one addresses the relationship between the anti-inflammatory bioactivities of different phospholipids in relation to their structures and compositions. Sections two and three are dedicated to the structures, functions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option due to its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. Recent research trends indicate that dairy phospholipids possess anti-inflammatory properties, which has led to an increased interest into their molecular structures and reputed health benefits. Finally, the structural composition of phospholipids of marine origin is discussed. Extensive research has been published in relation to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammation, however this research has recently come under scrutiny and has proved to be unreliable and controversial in terms of the therapeutic effects of ω-3 PUFA, which are generally in the form of triglycerides and esters. Therefore, this review focuses on recent publications concerning marine phospholipids and their structural composition and related health benefits. Finally, the strong nutritional value of dietary phospholipids are highlighted with respect to marine and animal origin and avenues for future research are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0251.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: heat stress; temperature humidity index; laying performance; egg quality; stress indicators
Online: 6 November 2020 (16:58:30 CET)
The present study investigated the effect of different ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH) but equal temperature-humidity index (THI) on laying performance, egg quality, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio), corticosterone (CORT) concentration in blood, yolk and albumen, and plasma biochemical parameters in laying hens. One hundred and twenty commercial hens (Hy-Line Brown) aged 60 weeks were allocated into 2 environmental chambers. Laying hens were subjected to either one of two thermal treatments, i.e., 26ºC and 70% RH (LH75) and 30ºC and 30% RH (HL75) for 28 days. Both thermal treatments had equal THI being 75. Neither LH75 nor HL75 affected (P > 0.05) laying performance including egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Plasma biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus was not altered (P > 0.05) by thermal treatments. As to the stress indicators, both environment regimes failed (P > 0.05) to affect blood H/L ratio and CORT levels in plasma, yolk and albumen although albumen CORT levels were elevated (P < 0.05) in LH75 vs. HL75 at days 3, 7, and 28. In conclusion, our study suggests that laying hens performed and responded equally when they were exposed to equal THI environment conditioned from either 26ºC and 70% RH or 30ºC and 30% RH. The results of this study will be served as a scientific basis for management decisions and handling under thermally challenging conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0519.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: fly ash; Geopolymer; silicon dioxid; sodium silicate; sand dune; egg Shell
Online: 22 September 2020 (10:25:07 CEST)
In recent years, the dominant cementitious materials have been industrial by products such as fly ash. This present paper describes some of the cementitious products that are attracting attention in the global research community and the properties and characteristics of these materials that affect their performance such durability, mechanically properties and reduction of carbon dioxid (CO2). The present investigation deals with the chemical synthesis of cementitious material using fly ash of eggs shell rich in calcium(Ca) and sand dune(southern of Algeria) rich in silica(SiO2).The composition is the most compressive resistant with a maximum stress of 49.71 MPa, the most flexible (E = 2.63 GPa) and the most ductile (εr = 65.42 %).The characteristic properties of the chemically synthesized cementitious materials were analyzed by the chemical composition analysis XRF, XRD and SEM analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: food allergens; egg allergy; milk allergy; fish allergy; amyloids; IgE-binding
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:31:23 CEST)
Several animal food allergens assembly into amyloids under gastric-like environments. These aggregated structures provide Gad m 1 with an enhanced IgE interaction due to the amyloid assembly of the epitope regions. However, whether these properties are unique of Gad m 1 or common to other food allergens has not yet been addressed. Using Bos d 5, Bos d 12 and Gal d 2 as food allergen models and Gad m 1 as control, aggregation reactions and the sera of milk, egg and fish allergic patients we have analyzed the IgE interaction of the distinct amyloids. We found that amyloids formed by Bos d 12 and Gal d 2 full-length and truncated chains are recognized by the IgEs of milk and egg allergic patient sera. As with Gad m 1, in most cases amyloid recognition is higher than that of the precursor structure. Bos d 5 was not recognized under any fold by the IgE of the sera studied. These results support that formation of IgE-binding amyloids might be a common feature to animal food allergen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0638.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: egg; embryo; extracellular vesicle; exosome; fallopian tube; microvesicle; oocyte; oviductosome; oviduct; sperm
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:09:26 CET)
In mammals, the oviduct (or the Fallopian tube in humans) can be divided into the infundibulum (responsible for oocyte pick-up), ampulla (site of fertilization), isthmus (where preimplantation embryos develop), and uterotubal junction (where embryos transit to the uterus). The oviductal fluid, as well as extracellular vesicles produced from the oviductal epithelial cells, referred to as oEVs, have been shown to improve the fertilization process, prevent polyspermy, and aid in embryo development. oEVs contain molecular cargos (such as miRNAs, mRNAs, proteins, and lipids) that can be delivered and fuse to recipient cells. oEVs produced from the ampulla appear to be functionally distinct from those produced from the isthmus. In multiple species including mice, cats, dogs, pigs, and cows, oEVs can be incorporated into the oocytes, sperm, and embryos. In this review, we show the positive impact of oEVs on gamete function as well as blastocyst development and how they may improve embryo quality in in vitro conditions in an assisted reproductive technology setting for rodents, domestic animals, farm animals, and humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0630.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: egg; milk; allergens; multiple reaction monitoring; mass spectrometry; reference doses; food; PAL
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:40:49 CEST)
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last decades and consequently the food labeling policies have improved over the time in different countries to regulate allergen presence in foods. In particular, Reg 1169 in EU mandates the labelling of 14 allergens whenever intentionally added to foods, but the inadvertent contamination by allergens still remains uncovered topic. In order to warn consumers on the risk of cross-contamination occurring in certain categories of foods, a precautionary allergen labelling system has been put in place by food industries on voluntary basis. In order to reduce the overuse of PAL, reference doses and action limits have been proposed by the VITAL project representing a guide in this jeopardize scenario. Development of sensitive and reliable mass spectrometry methods are therefore of paramount importance in this regard to check the contamination levels in foods. In this paper we describe the development of a managed time MRM method based on a triple quadrupole platform for milk and egg quantification in processed food. The method was in house validated and allowed to achieve levels of proteins lower than 0.2mg of total milk and egg proteins respectively in cookies, challenging the doses recommended by VITAL. The method was finally applied to cookies labeled as milk and egg-free. This method could represent in perspective a promising tool to be implemented along the food chain to detect even tiny amounts of allergens contaminating food commodities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0433.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Formation of the Yangtze river-lake system, Mid-Miocene, ancestral egg-type reconstruction, endemic cyprinids
Online: 22 January 2021 (08:41:48 CET)
The Yangtze River is cross-linked with numerous lakes within its floodplain and is a worldwide biodiversity hotspot. There is no evidence indicating when this unique river-lake system developed. The endemic East Asian cyprinid clade has evolved diverse spawning adaptations to different flow conditions. Our ancestral egg-type reconstruction showed an ancestral state of adhesive eggs and later demersal eggs origination (both stream adaptations). Semi-buoyant eggs emerged ~18 Mya as a fast-flowing river adaptation, with increased hydration via three yolk protein degradation pathways, ion transport pathways and egg envelope permeability transition pores. Adhesive eggs evolved secondarily ~14 Mya with the egg envelope increasing to four layers and an adhesive layer, along with an increase in adhesiveness via microfilament/adhesive-related protein crosslinking and enhanced glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, improving adherence to submerged lake plants, indicating that the cross-linked river-lake system formed in the mid-Miocene. This study provides a unique biological evidence for large-scale water system evolution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0132.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adults; influenza; cell-cultured vaccine; egg-based vaccine; influenza vaccine; relative vaccine effectiveness; real word evidence; mutation; human / prevention & control*; comparative study
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:00:26 CET)
Avian mutations in vaccine strains obtained from embryonated eggs could impair vaccine effec-tiveness. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adjusted relative vaccine effectiveness (arVE) of seed cell-cultured influenza vaccines (ccIV) compared to egg-based influ-enza vaccines (eIV) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza related outcomes (IRO) or IRO by clinical codes, in subjects 18 and over. We completed the literature search in January 2021; ap-plied exclusion criteria, evaluated risk of bias of the evidence, and performed heterogeneity, pub-lication bias, qualitative, quantitative and sensitivity analyses. All estimates were computed us-ing a random approach. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021228290. We identified 12 publications that reported 26 adjusted arVE results. Five publications reported 13 laboratory confirmed arVE and seven reported 13 code-ascertained arVE. Nine publications with 22 results were at low risk of bias. Heterogeneity was explained by season and risk of bias. We found a significant 11% (8 to 14%) adjusted arVE favoring ccIV in preventing any IRO in the 2017-2018 influenza season. The arVE was 3% (-01 to 7%) in the 2018-2019 influenza season. We found moderate evidence of a significant advantage of the ccIV in preventing IRO, compared to eIV, in a well-matched A(H3N2) predominant season.