REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0255.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; biofilm; efflux pump inhibitors; antibiotic potentiation; eskapee pathogens; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:22:56 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance represents a significant threat to the modern healthcare provision. The ESKAPEE pathogens, in particular, have proven to be especially challenging to treat, due to their intrinsic and acquired ability to rapidly develop resistance mechanisms in response to environmental threats. The development of biofilm has been characterised as an essential contributing factor towards antimicrobial-resistance and tolerance. Several studies have implicated the involvement of efflux pumps in antibiotic resistance, both directly, via drug extrusion and indirectly, through the formation of biofilm. As a result, the underlying mechanism of these pumps has attracted considerable interest due to the potential of targeting these protein structures and developing novel adjunct therapies. Subsequent investigations have revealed the ability of efflux pump-inhibitors (EPIs) to block drug-extrusion and disrupt biofilm formation, thereby, potentiating antibiotics and reversing resistance of pathogen towards them. This review will discuss the potential of EPIs as a possible solution to antimicrobial resistance, examining different challenges to the design of these compounds, with an emphasis on Gram-negative ESKAPEE pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0032.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Pseudomonas; Efflux Pumps; Virulence; Evolution; Antibiotic Resistance; Cystic Fibrosis
Online: 2 September 2021 (08:02:02 CEST)
Antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are the primary cause of mortality in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Yet it has only recently become appreciated that resistance mutations can also increase P. aeruginosa virulence, even in the absence of antibiotics. Moreover, the mechanisms by which resistance mutations increase virulence are poorly understood. In this study we tested the hypothesis that mutations affecting efflux pumps can directly increase P. aeruginosa virulence. Using genetics, physiological assays, and model infections, we show that efflux pump mutations can increase virulence. Mutations of the mexEF efflux pump system increased swarming, rhamnolipid production, and lethality in a mouse infection model, while mutations in mexR that increased expression of the mexAB-oprM efflux system increased virulence during an acute murine lung infection without affecting swarming or rhamnolipid gene expression. Finally, we show that an efflux pump inhibitor, which represents a proposed novel treatment approach for P. aeruginosa, increased rhamnolipid gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. This finding is important because rhamnolipids are key virulence factors involved in dissemination through epithelial barriers and cause neutrophil necrosis. Together, these data show how current and proposed future anti-Pseudomonal treatments may unintentionally make infections worse by increasing virulence. Therefore, treatments that target efflux should be pursued with caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0362.v1
Subject: Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, efflux pump inhibitors, Escherichia coli, efflux pumps, multidrug resistance, Staphylococcus aureus
Online: 31 December 2018 (09:55:32 CET)
Bacterial antibiotic resistance has become a major global health concern. One of the main reasons for the development of multi-drug resistance properties in bacteria is due to the bacterial efflux pump systems. They are important transport proteins, mainly involved in the removal of toxic substrates like antibiotics from inner cell environment. These pumps are responsible for the intrinsic ability of bacteria to get resistant to the antibiotic. Various types of efflux pumps are present in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Plant-derived products like Capsaicin, Olympicin A, and Indirubicin were found to be inhibitors of an efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus similarly Ursolic acid derivatives; Daidzein and Lanatoside C were plant-derived inhibitors of an efflux pump in Escherichia coli. In this review detail information have been provided about efflux pump inhibitors that have been found to be effective in the Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of plant-derived compounds as effective efflux pumps inhibitors with reference to mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0192.v1
Online: 7 June 2021 (15:32:43 CEST)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an adaptable bacterial pathogen that infects various organs, including the respiratory tract, vascular system, urinary tract, and central nervous system leading to high morbidity and mortality. Our primary focus of this study was to characterize P. aeruginosa clinical strains on the basis of pigment color production, determine its association to multidrug resistance behavior and ability to form biofilm. We identified yellow (30.1%), green (39.8%) and no pigment (30.1%) producing strains from a total of 143 clinical isolates. Yellow pigment producing strains presented significant resistance to a class of antibiotics including β-lactam (91.5%), aminoglycosides (70.5%), and carbapenems (51.9%) compared to green and non-pigmented strains. Importantly, 16.3% of yellow pigment producing strains was resistant to colistin where only 2.3% of non-pigmented and 1.8% of green pigmented strains were resistant to this agent. Moreover, yellow pigment producing strain were frequent producers of β-lactamase group of enzymes, ESBL (55.6%), MBL (55.6%), and AmpC (50%) and displayed higher frequency of efflux positive group (64.2%) compared to green (7.14%) and non-pigmented one (28.5%). Notably, green pigment producing strains when compared to non-pigmented groups also displayed antibiotic susceptibility behavior similar to yellow pigment producing strains. Although yellow pigment producing strains were strong biofilm producers, no significant association was identified between pigment and biofilm formation. Among pigmented and non-pigmented strains, majority of yellow pigment producing strains have shown MIC levels greater than the green and non-pigmented strains. Our study has demonstrated the impact of pigment coloration on susceptibility to antimicrobial agents where yellow pigment producing strains represent considerably a serious problem as due to lack of alternative agents against such transformed strain may collectively be associated with multidrug resistance development.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0108.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; antimicrobial resistance; circular dichroism spectroscopy; efflux protein; efflux pump; foodborne pathogen; hospital-acquired infection; polyamine
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:19:07 CET)
The aim of this work was to test polyamines as potential natural substrates of the Acinetobacter baumannii chlorhexidine efflux protein AceI using near-UV synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The Gram-negative bacterium A. Baumannii is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and an important foodborne pathogen. A. Baumannii strains are becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, including the synthetic antiseptic chlorhexidine. AceI was the founding member of the recently recognised PACE family of bacterial multidrug efflux proteins. Using the plasmid construct pTTQ18-aceI(His6) containing the A. Baumannii aceI gene directly upstream from a His6-tag coding sequence, expression of AceI(His6) was amplified in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. Near-UV (250-340 nm) SRCD measurements were performed on detergent-solubilised and purified AceI(His6) at 20 °C. Sample and SRCD experimental conditions were identified that detected binding of the triamine spermidine to AceI(His6). In a titration with spermidine (0-10 mM) this binding was saturable and fitting of the curve for the change in signal intensity produced an apparent binding affinity (KD) of 3.97 +/- 0.45 mM. These SRCD results were the first experimental evidence obtained for polyamines as natural substrates of PACE proteins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Cholesterol efflux; flavonoids; HDL; quercetin; reverse cholesterol transport
Online: 11 August 2022 (03:33:47 CEST)
One of the mechanisms used in the management and cure of atherosclerosis is reverse cholesterol transfer (RCT), which plays a vital role in the export of cholesterol from peripheral cells. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages in the subintima of the vessel wall is a critical part of RCT. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) are involved in the transfer of cholesterol from arterial macrophages to extracellular high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). The HDL then transports esterified cholesterol to the liver for elimination. An important factor in the reverse cholesterol transport and excretion of extracellular cholesterol is HDL. Atherogenesis can be prevented by altering the processes of RCT and cholesterol efflux, and this might lead to novel treatment options for cardiovascular disease. Research of novel modifying variables for RCT and cholesterol efflux is necessary. A better understanding of RCT's molecular processes has been gained via research, allowing for the creation of new treatments that make use of RCT's potential for pharmacological improvement. The purpose of this review is to provoke discussion on the potential impact of selected flavonoids on cholesterol efflux on the progression of atherosclerosis (Fig. 1.).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: drug resistance; ABC transporter; efflux pump; cryptococcosis; aging
Online: 18 January 2022 (15:56:02 CET)
Cryptococcus neoformans causes meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, which is treated with Fluconazole (FLC) monotherapy when resources are limited. This can lead to azole resistance, which can be mediated by overexpression of ABC transporters, a class of efflux pumps. ABC pump-mediated efflux of FLC is also augmented in 10-generation old C. neoformans cells. Here, we describe a new ABC transporter Afr3 (CNAG_06909), which is overexpressed in C. neoformans cells of advanced generational age, that accumulate during chronic infection. The delta-afr3 mutant strain showed higher FLC susceptibility by FLC E-Test strip testing and also by a killing test that measured survival after 3 h FLC exposure. Furthermore, delta-afr3 cells exhibited lower Rhodamine 6G efflux compared to the H99 wild type cells. Afr3 was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AD-delta strain, which lacks several drug transporters, thus reducing background transport. The AD-delta + Afr3 strain demonstrated a higher efflux with both Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red, even though the FLC MICs were not changed. Characterization of the delta-afr3 mutant revealed unattenuated growth but a prolongation (22%) of the replicative life span. In addition, delta-afr3 exhibited decreased resistance to macrophage killing and attenuated virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. In summary, our data indicate that a novel ABC pump Afr3p, which is upregulated in C. neoformans cells of advanced age may contribute to their enhanced FLC tolerance, by promoting drug efflux. Lastly, its role in macrophage resistance may also contribute to the selection of older C. neoformans cells during chronic infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0003.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Drug resistance; Efflux pump; TetR transcriptional regulator; Mycobacteria; MmpL
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:32:52 CEST)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a leading cause of human mortality worldwide and the emergence of drug-resistantstrains, demands the discovery of new classes of antimycobacterials that can be employed in the therapeutic pipeline. Previously, a secondary metabolite Chrysomycin A, isolated from Streptomyces sp. OA161 was shown to have potent bactericidal activity against drug-resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and different species of mycobacteria. The antibiotic inhibits the mycobacterial topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase leading to bacterial death, but the mechanisms that could cause resistance are currently unknown. To further understand the resistance mechanism, spontaneous resistance mutants were isolated and subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Mutation in a TetR family transcriptional regulator MSMEG_1380 was identified in the resistant isolates and was close to an operon encoding membrane protein MSMEG_1381 and MSMEG_1382. Sequence analysis and modeling studies indicated that they are components of the Mmp family of efflux pumps and over-expression of either the operon or individual genes conferred resistance to chrysomycin A, isoniazid, and ethambutol that are in TB therapy. Our study highlights the role of membrane transporter proteins in conferring multiple drug resistance and the utility of recombinant strains overexpressing membrane transporters in the drug screening pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0456.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ethidium; tetraphenylphosphonium; multidrug resistance; outer membrane permeability; efflux inhibitor; phenylalanyl-arginyl-β-naphtylamide, Polymyxin B
Online: 18 April 2021 (10:14:56 CEST)
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics due to an increased efficiency of the efflux is a serious problem in clinics of infectious diseases. Knowledge of the factors affecting the activity of efflux pumps would help to find the solution. For this, fast and trustful methods for the efflux analysis are needed. Here we analyzed how the assay conditions affect the accumulation of efflux indicators ethidium (Et+) and tetraphenylphosphonium in Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium cells. An inhibitor phenyl-alanyl-arginyl-β-naphtylamide was applied to evaluate the input of RND family pumps into the total efflux. In parallel to spectrofluorimetric analysis, we used an electrochemical assessment of Et+ concentration. Results of our experiments indicated that Et+ fluorescence increases immediately after the penetration of this indicator into the cells. However, when cells bind a high amount of Et+, intensity of the fluorescence reaches the saturation level and stops reacting to the accumulated amount of this indicator. For this reason, electrochemical measurements provide more trustful information about the efficiency of efflux when cells accumulate high amounts of Et+. Measure-ments of Et+ interaction with the purified DNA demonstrated that affinity of this lipophilic cation to DNA depends on the medium composition. The capacity of DNA to bind Et+ considerably de-creases in presence of Mg2+, Polymyxin B or when DNA is incubated in high ionic strength media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: val-phe-val-arg-asn (vfvrn); hypolipidemic effects; transintestinal cholesterol efflux (tice); 3t3-l1 preadipocyte; apoptosis
Online: 27 September 2019 (10:29:29 CEST)
Val-Phe-Val-Arg-Asn (VFVRN) has been identified and screened from lipid-lowering chickpea peptides (ChPs) by using a pharmacokinetic model in our previous experiment. The present study was conducted to investigate its effects and mechanisms on lipid metabolism. A high-fat diet C57BL/6J mice model and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model were used. VFVRN was found to significantly decrease the levels of some blood lipids. The expressions of LDL receptor (LDLR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)α, liver X receptor (LXR)α, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in liver were up-regulated by VFVRN treatment. The expressions of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthetase (ACC), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and SREBP-2 in liver were significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated. Additionally, the expressions of PPARα and PPARγ in adipose tissues were up-regulated by VFVRN significantly (P<0.05). VFVRN might also contribute to transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) by up-regulating the expressions of LXRα and ATP binding cassette G5/8 transporters (ABGC5/8). Moreover, VFVRN promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocyte apoptosis by up-regulating the expressions of BaX, cleaved Caspase-3 and down-regulating Bcl-2. VFVRN had potent effects in reversing metabolic disorders of blood and liver in a high-fat diet mice model, as well as to promote the apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: P-glycoprotein; efflux ratio; in silico; machine learning; hierarchical support vector regression; absorption; distribution; metabolism; excretion; and toxicity
Online: 5 July 2018 (10:37:09 CEST)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane-bound transporter, can eliminate xenobiotics by transporting them out of the cells or blood-brain barrier (BBB) at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Thus, P-gp mediated efflux plays a pivotal role in altering the absorption and disposition of a wide range of substrates. Nevertheless, the mechanism of P-gp substrate efflux is rather complex since it can take place through active transport and passive permeability in addition to multiple P-gp substrate binding sites. A nonlinear quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed in this study using the novel machine learning-based hierarchical support vector regression (HSVR) scheme to explore the perplexing relationships between descriptors and efflux ratio. The predictions by HSVR were found to be in good agreement with the observed values for the molecules in the training set (n = 50, r2 = 0.96, q2CV = 0.94, RMSE = 0.10, s = 0.10) and test set (n = 13, q2 = 0.80–0.87, RMSE = 0.21, s = 0.22). When subjected to a variety of statistical validations, the developed HSVR model consistently met the most stringent criteria. A mock test also asserted the predictivity of HSVR. Consequently, this HSVR model can be adopted to facilitate drug discovery and development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ATP-binding cassette G5/G8; brush border membrane; cholesterol absorption; Niemann-Pick C1-like 1; phytosterols; trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux; fecal neutral sterol excretion
Online: 18 September 2018 (10:46:34 CEST)
Hypercholesterolemia accelerates atherosclerosis, and extensive research has been undertaken to ameliorate this abnormality. Plant sterols have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption and lower plasma cholesterol level since the 1950s. This ingredient has recently been reappraised as a food additive that can be taken daily in a preclinical period to prevent hypercholesterolemia, considering that cardiovascular-related diseases are the top cause of death globally even with clinical interventions. Intestinal cholesterol handling is still elusive, making it difficult to clarify the mechanism for plant sterol-mediated inhibition. Notably, although the small intestine absorbs cholesterol, it is also the organ that excretes it abundantly, via trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). In this review, we show a model where the brush border membrane (BBM) of intestinal epithelial cells stands as the dividing ridge for cholesterol fluxes, making cholesterol absorption and TICE inversely correlated. With this model, we tried to explain the plant sterol-mediated inhibitory mechanism. As well as cholesterol, plant sterols diffuse into the BBM but are effluxed back to the lumen rapidly. We propose that repeated plant sterol shuttling between the BBM and lumen promotes cholesterol efflux, and plant sterol in the BBM may disturb the trafficking machineries that transport cholesterol to the cell interior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: cisplatin; carboplatin; oxaliplatin; cellular uptake; DNA damage; transcription regulation; non-nuclear targets; chemoresistance; mechanisms of action; clinical usages; influx and efflux pumps; ribosome biogenesis; ER stress response; immunogenic cell death; interstrand and intrastrand DNA cross-links.
Online: 15 November 2022 (03:38:06 CET)
Cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin (CP), and oxaliplatin (OXP) are three platinating agents clinically approved worldwide for use against a variety of cancers. They are canonically known as DNA damage inducers; however, that is only one of their mechanisms of cytotoxicity. CDDP mediates its effects through DNA damage-induced transcription inhibition and apoptotic signalling. In addition, CDDP targets the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce ER-stress, the mitochondria via mitochondrial DNA damage leading to ROS production, and the plasma membrane and cytoskeletal components. CP acts in a similar fashion to CDDP by inducing DNA damage, mitochondrial damage, and ER stress. Additionally, CP is also able to upregulate micro-RNA activity, enhancing intrinsic apoptosis. OXP, on the other hand, at first induces damage to all the same targets as CDDP and CP, yet it is also capable of inducing immunogenic cell death via ER stress and can decrease ribosome biogenesis through its nucleolar effects. In this comprehensive review, we provide detailed mechanisms of action for the three platinating agents, going beyond their nuclear effects to include their cytoplasmic impact within cancer cells. In addition, we cover their current clinical use and limitations, including side effects and mechanisms of resistance.