ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0112.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: options pricing; financial derivatives; efficient market hypothesis; martingale; Feynman-Kac; Black-Scholes
Online: 7 September 2022 (12:18:35 CEST)
This research article provides criticism and arguments why the canonical framework for derivatives pricing is incomplete and why the delta-hedging approach is not appropriate. An argument is put forward, based on the efficient market hypothesis, why a proper risk-adjusted discount rate should enter into the Black-Scholes model instead of the risk-free rate. The resulting pricing equation for derivatives and in particular the formula for European call options is then shown to depend explicitly on the drift of the underlying asset, which is following a geometric Brownian motion. It is conjectured that with the generalized model, the predicted results by the model could be closer to real data. The adjusted pricing model could partly also explain the mystery of volatility smile. The present model also provides answers to many finance professionals and academics who have been intrigued by the risk-neutral features of the original Black-Scholes pricing framework. The model provides generally different fair values for financial derivatives compared to the Black-Scholes model. In particular, the present model predicts that the original Black-Scholes model tends to undervalue for example European call options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0318.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: efficient binary symbiotic; feature selection; classification; optimization
Online: 26 January 2020 (08:30:17 CET)
Feature selection is one of the main data preprocessing steps in machine learning. Its goal is to reduce the number of features by removing extra and noisy features. Feature selection methods must consider the accuracy of classification algorithms while performing feature reduction on a dataset. Meta-heuristic algorithms are the most successful and promising methods for solving this issue. The symbiotic organisms search algorithm is one of the successful meta-heuristic algorithms which is inspired by the interaction of organisms in the nature called Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism. In this paper, three engulfing binary methods based on the symbiotic organisms search algorithm are presented for solving the feature selection problem. In the first and second methods, several S-shaped and V-shaped transfer functions are used for binarizing the symbiotic organisms search algorithm, respectively. These methods are called BSOSS and BSOSV. In the third method, two new operators called BMP and BCP are presented for binarizing the symbiotic organisms search algorithm. This method is called EBSOS. The third approach presents an advanced binary version of the coexistence search algorithm with two new operators, BMP and BCP, to solve the feature selection problem, named EBSOS. The proposed methods are run on 18 standard UCI datasets and compared to base and important meta-heuristic algorithms. The test results show that the EBSOS method has the best performance among the three proposed approaches for binarization of the coexistence search algorithm. Finally, the proposed EBSOS approach was compared to other meta-heuristic methods including the genetic algorithm, binary bat algorithm, binary particle swarm algorithm, binary flower pollination algorithm, binary grey wolf algorithm, binary dragonfly algorithm, and binary chaotic crow search algorithm. The results of different experiments showed that the proposed EBSOS approach has better performance compared to other methods in terms of feature count and accuracy criteria. Furthermore, the proposed EBSOS approach was practically evaluated on spam email detection in particular. The results of this experiment also verified the performance of the proposed EBSOS approach. In addition, the proposed EBSOS approach is particularly combined with the classifiers including SVM, KNN, NB and MLP to evaluate this method performance in the detection of spam emails. The obtained results showed that the proposed EBSOS approach has significantly improved the accuracy and speed of all the classifiers in spam email detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0024.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: wireless sensor networks; heterogeneous; hazardous environment; energy efficient.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:17:02 CET)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) continue to provide essential services for various applications such as surveillance, data gathering, and data transmission from the hazardous environments to safer destinations. This has been enhanced by the energy-efficient routing protocols that are mostly designed for such purposes. Gateway-based Energy-Aware Multi-hop Routing protocol (MGEAR) is one of the homogenous routing schemes that was recently designed to more efficiently reduce the energy consumption of distant nodes. However, it has been found that the protocol has a high energy consumption rate, lower stability period, less data transmission to the Base station (BS). In this paper, an enhanced Heterogeneous Gateway-based Energy-Aware multi-hop routing protocol ( HMGEAR) is proposed. The proposed routing scheme is based on the introduction of heterogeneous nodes in the existing scheme, selection of the head based on the residual energy, introduction of multi-hop communication strategy in all the regions of the network, and implementation of energy hole elimination technique. Results show that the proposed routing scheme outperforms two existing ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0085.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: allosteric ligands; AutoDock; cognate ligands; Tanimoto co-efficient; GPCRs
Online: 3 December 2020 (13:08:24 CET)
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are large protein families known to be important in many cellular processes. They are well known for their allosteric activation mechanisms. They are drug targets for several FDA-approved drugs. We have investigated the diversity of the ligand binding site for these class of proteins against their cognate ligands using computational docking, even if their structures are known in the ligand-complexed form. The cognate ligand of some of these receptors dock at allosteric binding site, with better score than the binding at the conservative site. Further, ligands obtained from GLASS database, which consists of experimentally verified GPCR ligands, also show allosteric binding to GPCRs. The allosteric binders show strong affinity to the binding site, though the residues at the binding site are not conserved across GPCR subfamilies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0083.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: time irreversibility; permutation entropy; visibility graphs; efficient market hypothesis
Online: 4 August 2018 (11:16:26 CEST)
Time irreversibility, i.e. the lack of invariance of the statistical properties of a system under time reversal, is a fundamental property of all systems operating out of equilibrium. Time reversal symmetry is associated with important statistical and physical properties and is related to the predictability of the system generating the time series. Over the past fifteen years, various methods to quantify time irreversibility in time series have been proposed, but these can be computationally expensive. Here we propose a new method, based on permutation entropy, which is essentially parameter-free, temporally local, yields straightforward statistical tests, and has fast convergence properties. We apply this method to the study of financial time series, showing that stocks and indices present a rich irreversibility dynamics. We illustrate the comparative methodological advantages of our method with respect to a recently proposed method based on visibility graphs, and discuss the implications of our results for financial data analysis and interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC power distribution; efficient buildings; direct-DC; microgrids; renewable energy
Online: 14 December 2021 (10:59:23 CET)
Driven by the proliferation of DC energy sources and DC end-use devices (e.g., photovoltaics, battery storage, solid-state lighting, and consumer electronics), DC power distribution in buildings has recently emerged as a path to improved efficiency, resilience, and cost savings in the transitioning building sector. Despite these important benefits, there are several technological and market barriers impeding the development of DC distribution, which have kept this technology at the demonstration phase. This paper identifies specific end-use cases for which DC distribution in buildings is viable today. We evaluate their technology and market readiness, as well as their efficiency, cost, and resiliency benefits while addressing implementation barriers. The paper starts with a technology review, followed by a comprehensive market assessment, in which we analyze DC distribution field deployments and their end-use characteristics. We also conduct a survey of DC power and building professionals through on-site visits and phone interviews and summarize lessons learned and recommendations. In addition, the paper includes a novel efficiency analysis, in which we quantify energy savings from DC distribution for different end-use categories. Based on our findings, we present specific adoption pathways for DC in buildings that can be implemented today, and for each pathway we identify challenges and offer recommendations for the research and building community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy-efficient building; heating load; neural computing; biogeography-based optimization
Online: 12 January 2021 (14:46:29 CET)
: The significance of heating load (HL) accurate approximation is the primary motivation of this research to distinguish the most efficient predictive model among several neural-metaheuristic models. The proposed models are through synthesizing multi-layer perceptron network (MLP) with ant lion optimization (ALO), biogeography-based optimization (BBO), dragonfly algorithm (DA), evolutionary strategy (ES), invasive weed optimization (IWO), and league champion optimization (LCA) hybrid algorithms. Each ensemble is optimized in terms of the operating population. Accordingly, the ALO-MLP, BBO-MLP, DA-MLP, ES-MLP, IWO-MLP, and LCA-MLP presented their best performance for population sizes of 350, 400, 200, 500, 50, and 300, respectively. The comparison was carried out by implementing a ranking system. Based on the obtained overall scores (OSs), the BBO (OS = 36) featured as the most capable optimization technique, followed by ALO (OS = 27) and ES (OS = 20). Due to the efficient performance of these algorithms, the corresponding MLPs can be promising substitutes for traditional methods used for HL analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0124.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Generalized convexity; Hadamard manifold; Approximate efficient solution; Stackelberg equilibrium point
Online: 7 December 2020 (07:09:52 CET)
This article has two objectives. Firstly, we will use the vector variational-like inequalities problems to achieve local approximate (weakly) efficient solutions of Vector Optimization Problem within the novel field of the Hadamard manifolds. Previously, we will introduce the concepts of generalized approximate geodesic convex functions and illustrate them with examples. We will see the minimum requirements under which critical points, solutions of Stampacchia and Minty weak variational-like inequalities and local approximate weakly efficient solutions can be identified, extending previous results from the literature for linear Euclidean spaces. Secondly, we will show an economical application, using again solutions of the variational problems to identify with Stackelberg equilibrium points on Hadamard manifolds and under geodesic convexity assumptions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0177.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: vector equilibrium problem; generalized convexity; Hadamard manifolds; weakly efficient solutions
Online: 15 July 2019 (05:30:05 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to obtain Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions for weakly efficient solutions to vector equilibrium problems with the addition of constraints in the novel context of Hadamard manifolds as opposed to the classical examples of Banach, normed or Hausdorff spaces. More specifically, classical necessary and sufficient conditions for weakly efficient solutions to the constrained vector optimization problem are presented. As well as some examples. The results presented in this paper generalize results obtained by Gong (2008) and Wei and Gong (2010) and Feng and Qiu (2014) from Hausdorff topological vector spaces, real normed spaces and real Banach spaces to Hadamard manifolds, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: energy efficient building; heat flux; thermal transmittance; in situ measurement
Online: 4 August 2016 (08:09:58 CEST)
The building envelope has the most significant contribution in the reduction of the building energy consumption. Application of new, alternative and improved materials and systems has an important impact on the buildings performances. This paper is focused on the thermal transmittance, as an indicator of the thermal conductance of the construction element. It includes comparisons of the U-values, calculated by software, with those measured in situ on three representative façade walls. The walls have been constructed with the new wall system Fragmat NZ-1, a new product in Macedonian buildings. This research provides basic information on the thermal transmittance of the system. The results of the analysis show that the in situ measuring is a useful tool in validation of the precision of analytically calculated values, since it was difficult to obtain precise results from the analytical calculations only, especially when the layers are with non-uniform thickness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0150.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: dual-channel sensor; efficient capture; lung cancer biomarker; lung cancer screening
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:37:13 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cancer killer worldwide. Early diagnosis can effectively increase the patient cure rate but existing diagnostic methods limit early lung cancer diagnosis. Therefore, development of a simple but efficient lung cancer screening method is important to improvement of both the diagnosis rate and the survival rate of lung cancer patients. In this study, ten photosensitive materials with high sensitivity and high specificity were screened accurately to construct a microarray sensor that can rapidly identify six types of lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath. Results from hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and difference maps showed that the classification of the analytes agreed with structure similarity laws. The detection results from parallel experiments and structurally similar analytes, in turn, cluster into a group; the fingerprints of the different analytes have specific response regions. The well-screened sensor chip fabrication workload and cost were both reduced by approximately two thirds, while the microfluidic device sensitivity and stability increased by approximately 1.3 times their corresponding values before optimization. The dual-channel device also offers real-time contrast detection and synchronous parallel detection functions and has potential application prospects for use in extensive screening of high-risk populations for lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0624.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Internet of Things; Load aware; Energy-efficient; Gray System Theory; Multipath protocol
Online: 24 November 2020 (16:23:43 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multipath protocols which send data to its destination using routes with separate links. One of such protocols is RPL routing protocol. In this paper, this method is improved using composite metrics which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. We propose Energy and Load aware RPL (ELaM-IoT) protocol, which is an enhancement of RPL protocol. It uses a composite metric, calculated based on remaining energy, hop count, Link Expiration Time (LET), load and battery depletion index (BDI) for the route selection. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed ELaM-IoT method is compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches with regard to average remaining energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed ELaM-IoT compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: curing conditions; carbonated recycled concrere aggregate; eco-efficiency indexes; eco-efficient index
Online: 26 May 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
The paper presents the influence of different curing conditions – wet, dry and protection against water evaporation on selected properties of concretes with different amount of recycled concrete aggregate previously subjected to atmospheric CO2 sequestration. Additionally, the eco-efficiency bi and ci indexes as well as eco-durability S-CO2 index were calculated. It was found that dry conditions deteriorate the properties of concrete, especially made of blast furnace slag cement, while protection against evaporation allows to achieve results comparable to wet conditions. Moreover, for series with the highest amount of coarse recycled aggregate and after longer period of curing, the difference between the effects of wet curing and protection against water evaporation disappears. The eco-efficiency and eco-durability indexes approach confirms the beneficial effect of blast-furnace slag cement used as a binder but on condition of proper way of curing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: digital hydraulics; switched inertance hydraulic systems; four-port switching valves; efficient fluid power
Online: 27 April 2017 (03:01:46 CEST)
The switched inertance hydraulic system (SIHS) is a novel high-bandwidth and energy-efficient digital device which can adjust or control flow and pressure by a means that does not rely on throttling the flow and dissipation of power. An SIHS can provide an efficient step-up or step-down of pressure or flow rate by using a digital control signal. In this article, analytical models of an SIHS in a four-port high-speed switching valve configuration are proposed, and the system dynamics and performance are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The flow responses, system characteristics and power consumption can be predicted effectively and accurately by using the proposed models, which were validated by comparing with experiments and with numerical simulation. The four-port configuration is compared with the three-port configuration, and it is concluded that the former one is less efficient for valves of the same size, but provides a bi-direction control capability. As bi-direction control is a common requirement, this constitutes an important contribution to the development of efficient digital hydraulics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0139.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: SARS epidemiology; super spread events; efficient diagnosis to contain magnitude of SARS-2 outbreaks
Online: 9 April 2020 (07:48:47 CEST)
Corona viruses cause extensive SARS epidemics via super spread events (SSE). Due to variation in infection risk and heterogeneity of reproduction numbers specific distinction between SSE’s and typical case events is essential. SARS transmissions unveil a complex scenario in which SSE’s are shaped by multiple factors. Specific screening strategies for infection emergence within potential super spreading groups will help to efficiently control the SARS-2 pandemic and alleviate the partially effective general restriction measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ANCOVA; Blockage; Clogging; Efficient; Green infrastructure; Infiltration bed; Orifice; Perforation; Performance; Philadelphia; Pipe; Stormwater
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:18:14 CEST)
Performance of flow through orifices on a perforated distribution pipe between periods with and without partial clogging (submersion of part of the distribution pipe) was compared. The distribution pipe directly receives runoff and delivers it to an underground infiltration bed. Partial clogging appeared in winter but reduced in summer. Performance was defined as flow rate divided by l_eff (h_(d,mean)^0.5) where h_(d,mean) is the mean pressure head that drives flow and l_eff is the effective pipe length (length of water column with pipe water volume and the pipe cross-sectional area). ANCOVA (ANalysis of COVAriance) was adopted to examine the clogging effects with flow rate plotted against l_eff (h_(d,mean)^0.5) . Partial clogging had a significant effect on pipe performance during periods of low or no rainfall. However, if only data during larger storms was considered, little evidence showed that partial clogging had effects on pipe delivery performance. Partial clogging might be caused by leaves accumulated in the lower section of the pipe in winter, and its effect was insignificant when water level rose in the pipe, utilizing significantly more orifices on the distribution pipe, thus the effect from the clogged portion had negligible impact on system performance. Larger storms might also provide the required flow rate to move the debris block thus exposing the orifices. Partial clogging did not increase the tendency of overflow; therefore, current maintenance schedule was sufficient to keep the distribution pipe at satisfactory performance even though partial clogging can exist.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: self-simulation hypothesis; principle of efficient language; quasicrystals; game of life; emergence; state sum models
Online: 9 September 2021 (11:08:57 CEST)
In light of the self-simulation hypothesis, a simple form implementation of the principle of efficient language is discussed in a self-referential geometric quasicrystalline state sum model in three dimensions. Emergence is discussed in context of geometric state sum models.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Vector variational type inequality problems; vector optimization problems; efficient solutions; approximate η-convexity; Lipschitzian functions
Online: 5 September 2020 (04:17:48 CEST)
In this paper, our goal is to establish the relationship between solutions of local sharp vector variational type inequality and sharp efficient solutions of vector optimization problems, also Minty local sharp vector variational type inequality and sharp efficient solutions of vector optimization problems, under generalized approximate $\eta$-convexity conditions for locally Lipschitzian functions
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); Routing Protocols; Acoustic Communication; Multi-hop communication; Energy-Efficient; Reliable
Online: 10 March 2020 (10:44:22 CET)
Water covers a greater part of the earth's surface. Even though we know very little about the underwater world as most parts of it remain unexplored. Oceans including other water bodies hold huge natural resources and also the aquatic lives. These are mostly unexplored and very few of those are known due to unsuited and hazardous environments for the human to explore. This vast underwater world can be monitored remotely from a distant location with much ease and less risk. To monitor water-bodies remotely in real-time, sensor networking has been playing a great role. It is needed to deploy a wireless sensor network over the volume which we want to surveil. For vast water bodies like oceans, rivers and large lakes, data is collected from the different heights of the water level which is sent to the surface sink. Unlike terrestrial communication, radio waves and other conventional mediums can't serve the purpose of underwater communication as they pose high attenuation and very reduced transmission range. Rather an acoustic medium can transmit data more efficiently and reliably in comparison to other mediums. To transmit data reliably from the bottom of the sea to the sinks at the surface, multi-hop communication is needed which must involve a certain scheme. For seabed to surface sink communication, leading researchers have proposed different routing protocols. The goal of these routing protocols is to make underwater communication more reliable, energy-efficient and delay efficient thus to improve the performance of the overall communication. This paper surveys the advancement and applications of the routing protocols which eventually helps in finding the most efficient routing protocol for the Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0139.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Forest Fire; Prediction Model; Energy-Efficient; Sensors; WSN; X-MAC; Hybrid; Adaptive; Duty-Cycle; Protocol
Online: 3 September 2018 (10:09:11 CEST)
In this paper, we propose an adaptive duty-cycled hybrid X-MAC (ADX-MAC) protocol for energy-efficient forest fire prediction. The X-MAC protocol acquires the additional environmental status collected by each forest fire monitoring sensor for a certain period. And, based on these values, the length of sleep interval of duty-cycle is changed to efficiently calculate the risk of occurrence of forest fire according to the mountain environment. The performance of the proposed ADX-MAC protocol was verified through experiments the proposed ADX-MAC protocol improves throughput by 19% and was more energy-efficient by 24% compared to X-MAC protocol. As the probability of forest fires increases, the length of the duty cycle is shortened, confirming that the forest fires are detected at a faster cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Industrial green innovation efficiency; Innovation value chain perspective; Super-efficient network SBM model; Spatial Dubin model
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:06:00 CET)
Green innovation has become an important combination of high-quality economic growth and sustainable development of ecological environment. In this paper, the super-efficiency network SBM model is used to measure the two-stage green innovation efficiency of industrial science and technology R&D and achievement transformation in 30 provinces and cities from 2009 to 2019, and exploratory Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial econometric model are used to investigate the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of green innovation efficiency. The results show that: firstly, the overall efficiency of industrial green innovation is low, and the efficiency of scientific research and development and achievement transformation has experienced three stages of "upward-declining-revitalized period". The low efficiency of achievement transformation is an important factor hiding the improvement of the efficiency of industrial green innovation. Secondly, The industrial green innovation efficiency gradually increases from northwest to southeast, forming a centralized "line" and "block" distribution. The high efficiency area is still concentrated in the eastern coastal region, and the balanced development trend is obvious in the central and western regions. Finally, openness has a positive impact on the two-stage green innovation efficiency; Industrial structure and government investment in science and technology have a positive impact on the efficiency of science and technology research and development, but have no significant effect on the efficiency of achievement transformation. Enterprise size has a positive effect on achievement transformation efficiency, but has no significant effect on R&D efficiency. Environmental regulation has a positive impact on R&D efficiency and a negative impact on achievement transformation efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0118.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: interval-valued vector optimization problems; generalized approximate LU-convexity; interval vector variational inequalities; LU-efficient solutions
Online: 7 March 2020 (08:52:27 CET)
Interval-valued functions have been widely used to accommodate data inexactness in optimization and decision theory. In this paper, we study interval-valued vector optimization problems, and derive their relationships to interval variational inequality problems, of both Stampacchia and Minty types. Using the concept of interval approximate convexity, we establish necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for local strong quasi and approximate $LU$-efficient solutions to nonsmooth optimization problems with interval-valued multiobjective functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0132.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: energy-efficient communications, green and cloud computing, Network Function Virtualization, Lightweight PKI, Authentication, DDOS, Artificial Intelligence
Online: 20 February 2018 (16:06:02 CET)
Recently, cloud technology has become popular for smart societies. The Cloud technology has made dynamical network changes by enabling the construction of a logical network without building a physical network. Despite recent research on the cloud, it is necessary to study security functions for the identification of fake VNFs and the encryption of communication between entities. In this paper, we proposed an LW_PKI mechanism that detects a fake VNF and guarantees data security through mutual authentication between VNFs. To evaluate the LW_PKI, we built a MANO environment to test the performance of authentication and key generation for data security. In addition, we applied the artificial intelligence algorithm to detect abnormal behavior by using real attack data in the MANO environment. The LW_PKI guaranteed the reliability of a smart service by enhancing the security of the cloud environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: energy-efficient buildings; deep renovation; Plug-and-Play (PnP); building information modelling (BIM); building energy modelling (BEM)
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:59:42 CEST)
Ninety percent of the existing building stock in Europe was built before 1990. These buildings are in urgent need for a significant improvement of energy-efficiency through renovation. Regrettably, so far only five percent of renovation projects have been able to yield energy-saving at deep renovation level. State-of-the-art renovation solutions are available, but costly and lengthy renovation processes and incomprehensible technical complexities hinder the achievement of a wide impact at a European scale. This paper presents research on Plug-and-Play (PnP) technologies supported by Building Information Modelling (BIM) to provide affordable, interchangeable and quick-installation solutions to overcome the main barriers of building deep renovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: (Efficient) E-STATCOM, Doubly Fed Induction Generator; Rotor Side Converter; Diode Rectifier and140- bus power grid test power system.
Online: 6 August 2018 (13:19:14 CEST)
The arrival of new developments in the field of power electronics circuit’s applications in power systems builds new control strategy to improve voltage quality for power grid by overcome interruptions. Wind energy resources are unconventional resources and get advanced problems to power grid when it is connected. Uncertainty of load sharing, peak energy management, climatic conditions, wind velocity and wind energy injected into power grid leads many of power quality problems on power grid based on the existing guidelines specified in IEC-61400 standard. This system plans efficient operation of DFIG to eliminate the voltage collapse and mismatch frequency to power grid. The DFIG connected diode rectifier and rotor side converter wind generator works as an Efficient Static Synchronous Compensator (E-SATCOM) for supplying the demand of reactive power for power grid to mitigate PQ problems. The benefit of using a combined controller was verified by simulink/Matlab and its simulated results used Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), wind Turbine. This simulation results gives good quality transient and stable state response to manage and support reactive power for both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults in connection of grid codes to provide continuous quality of power supply, multiple wind generators are required for 140 bus power grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Maroon gas; synthetic natural gas; Pink Hydrogen; hydrogen source-water, hydrogen source-hydrocarbon; energy efficient hydro-gen; Thermodynamic simulations; FACTSAGE; DWSIM
Online: 1 July 2022 (07:55:58 CEST)
This paper describes a novel concept of producing energy efficient ”Maroon enriched natural gas “ and then Pink hydrogen” from any hydrocarbon base. The key idea is the extraction of hydrogen from water in addition to that from the hydrocarbon in an optimal fashion. This has the benefit of higher water vapor to CO2 exhaust ratio than conventional carbonaceous fuels when generating energy via combustion, a prudent step in achieving Netzero goals in a shorter time, and creating energy independence in most places.. The process of production makes concentrated CO2 available for use and or sequestration. The process also maximizes use of renewable electricity in hydrogen generation, and maximizes use of existing infrastructure, with a minimum capital cost by energy recycle in the process. The process design applies sound thermodynamic principles which evolved during the nineteenth century, and mimics the geochemical processes going on in some of the natural 'colorless hydrogen'.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0174.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Efficient sorting; Reconfigurable computing; Hardware optimization; Sorting through hardware re-configuration; new computer architecture for sorting; quantum inspired computer architecture; parallelism for Grover’s algorithm
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:56:57 CEST)
The efficiency of data sorting algorithms is the key aspect which determines the speed of data processing and searching. The best known efficiency of sorting algorithm has been Log (N) if there are N terms. All of the well-known sorting algorithms use various techniques to sort data. The basis for most of these are comparing the data terms with each other. In this manuscript, we are introducing a new approach for sorting data. This method is postulated to have the highest efficiency ever achieved by any of the sorting algorithms. We achieve this by sorting data without comparing the data terms. Or achieving results of data comparison without comparing the terms explicitly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0515.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: efficient ultrasonic transceivers, broadband piezoelectric transducers, industrial NDE, medical imaging, pulsed high-power spikes, HV capacitive-discharge pulsers, high-current driving, high dynamic range.
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:16:39 CET)
Ultrasonic imaging & NDE applications can greatly improve their signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) by driving each transducer (composing piezoelectric arrays) with a spike giving pulsed power of k-Watts, repetitively at a PRF = 5000 spikes/s, by using a HV capacitive-discharge generator. However very-high levels, of pulsed intensities (3-10 A) and voltages (300-700 V) must be considered for a rigorous spike modeling. Even though the consumed "average" power will be small, the intensity through each transducer achieves several amperes, so the pulsed powers delivered by each HV generator can attain levels higher than in CW high-power ultrasonic applications: e.g., up to 5 kW / spike. This is concluded here from a transient modeling of the loaded generator. Then, unforeseen phenomena rise: intense brief pulses of driving power & emitted force in transducers, and non-linearities in driver semiconductors, because their characteristic curves only include linear ranges. But fortunately, piezoelectric devices working in this intense regime do not show serious heating problems, because the average power remains being moderate. Intensity, power and voltage, driving a broadband transducer from a HV capacitive pulser, are calculated to drastically improve (in ≅ 40 dB) the ultrasonic net dynamic range available, with emitted forces ≅ 250 Newtons pp and E/R received pulses of 70 V pp.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: effective communication; community pharmacy; pharmacist’s role; modern society; modern services; on-line pharmacy; pharmacy educational methodologies; communication skills improvement; pharmacist’s professionalism; efficient consultancy service
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:33:33 CET)
Ever since pharmacy has become a profession, pharmacist's role has been continuously subjected to changes due to specific influences from historical, socio-economic, political, and scientific context. Nowadays the classic perception of pharmaceutical profession in Community Pharmacy is facing worldwide extinction due to many factors. Modern services, such as online, mail-order, and telephone-order pharmacies are increasingly gaining ground thanks to their ability to facilitate customer demand. However, at the same time, they are endangering “face-to-face” contact, affecting the building of customer loyalty based on direct “human” interaction, and consequently reducing pharmacists to mere commercial figures. Communication is in fact emphasized as the essential element to build a solid and appropriate interpersonal relationship with the client, to make the consultancy process effective, and to strengthen pharmacist's professionalism in community pharmacy. The aim of this work is to analyze pharmacist’s role in modern society by pinpointing the factors affecting pharmacy profession practice. Specific purpose will be improving both the academic training of future professionals and their capacity to approach public relations through a deepened study and practice of behavioral, communication, educational, and sociological methodologies and techniques that would allow the development of more effective communication skills useful for providing an efficient consultancy service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0077.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: special relativity; efficient coding hypothesis; temporal order judgement; circular vection; vestibulo-ocular reflex; time perception; Lorentz transformation; accelerated reference frame; equivalence principle; optimization of perception
Online: 6 February 2020 (03:08:56 CET)
An event occurring within a stationary environment, in the direction toward which an observer self-rotates, is perceived to precede a simultaneous event, in the direction away from which she moves. When self-rotation results from angular acceleration in the dark, perception of space is also distorted, such that the subjective straight-ahead shifts in the opposite direction to motion and temporal event promotion. A reference frameshift theory, based on the special theory of relativity, is proposed to explain these findings. Here, a hyperbolic tangent transformation of objective angular velocity constrains subjective self-rotation velocity within finite bounds, consistent with it being a limited perceptual resource. Identifying this subjective variable with vestibular nystagmus slow-phase angular velocity, the asymptotic perceived self-rotation velocity is estimated at ~200 °⁄s. When included in the Lorentz transformations of the new formalism, this value predicts experimental simultaneity distortion. Hypothetically, the hyperbolic tangent objective-to-subjective transfer function would maximize the differential entropy of the percept, and thereby also the stimulus/percept mutual information, if angular velocities of body rotation encountered in naturalistic environmental interaction have a logistic probability density distribution of scale 100 °⁄s, a proposed experimental test of the scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: SAR system; efficient focusing of SAR data; Inverse problem; radar theory; remote sensing; SAR data focusing; phase shifts; satellite trajectory; spatial resolution; synthetic aperture radar; Geometry; Satellites; Ancillary Data; Singular Value Decomposition; Blind deconvolution; Signal Processing; Parameter estimation; Algorithm; Imaging; Phase estimation; Phase compensation; Computational modeling; Image resolution; Synthetic Aperture
Online: 6 July 2018 (15:29:21 CEST)
Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) is a radar imaging technique in which the relative motion of the sensor is used to synthesize a very long antenna and obtain high spatial resolution. Standard SAR raw data processing techniques assume uniform motion of the satellite (or aerial vehicle) and a fixed antenna beam pointing sideway orthogonally to the motion path, assumed rectilinear. Despite SAR data processing is a well established imaging technology that has become fundamental in several fields and applications, in this paper a novel approach has been used to exploit coherent illumination, demonstrating the possibility of extracting a large part of the ancillary data information from the raw data itself, to be used in the focusing procedure. In this work an effort has been carried out to try to focus the raw SAR complex data matrix without the knowledge of anyof the parameters needed in standard focusing procedures as Range Doppler (RD) algorithm, ω - K algorithm and Chirp Scaling (CS) algorithm. All the literature references regarding the algorithms needed to obtain a precise image from raw data use such parameters that refer both to the SAR system acquisition geometry and its radiometric specific parameters. In , authors introduced a preliminary work dealing with this problem and able to obtain, in the presence of a strong point scatterer in the observed scene, good quality images, if compared to the standard processing techniques. In this work the proposed technique is described and performances parameters are extracted to compare the proposed approach to RD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0163.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: optical metamaterials; fundamental concepts in photonics; light-matter interactions at the subwavelength and nanoscale; fundamental understanding of linear and nonlinear optical processes in novel metamaterials underpinning photonic devices and components; advancing the frontier of nanophotonics with the associated nanoscience and nanotechnology; nanostructures that can serve as building blocks for nano-optical systems; use of nanotechnology in photonics; nonlinear nanophotonics, plasmonics and excitonics; subwavelength components and negative index materials; slowing, store, and processing light pulses; materials with such capabilities that could be used for optical sensing, tunable optical delay lines, optical buffers, high extinction optical switches, novel image processing hardware, and highly-efficient wavelength converters
Online: 26 February 2018 (11:24:39 CET)
Backward electromagnetic waves are extraordinary waves with contra-directed phase velocity and energy flux. Unusual properties of the coherent nonlinear optical coupling of the phase-matched ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves with contra-directed energy fluxes are described which enable greatly-enhanced frequency and propagation direction conversion, parametrical amplification, as well as control of shape of the light pulses. Extraordinary transient processes that emerge in such metamaterials in pulsed regimes are described. The results of the numerical simulation of particular plasmonic metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion are presented, which prove the possibility to match phases of such coupled guided ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves. Particular properties of the outlined processes in the proposed metamaterial are demonstrated through numerical simulations. Potential applications include ultra-miniature amplifiers, frequency changing reflectors, modulators, pulse shapers, and remotely actuated sensors.