REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0345.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: student academic performance; educational data mining; methods; algorithms; tools; higher education; overview
Online: 16 August 2021 (14:04:57 CEST)
This overview study set out to compare and synthesise the findings of review studies conducted on predicting student academic performance (SAP) in higher education using educational data mining (EDM) methods, EDM algorithms and EDM tools from 2013 to June 2020. It conducted multiple searches for suitable and relevant peer-reviewed articles on two online search engines, on nine online databases, and on two online academic social networks. It, then, selected 26 eligible articles from 2,050 articles. Some of the findings of this overview study are worth mentioning. First, only 2 studies explicitly stated their precise sample sizes with maths and science as the two most mentioned subject areas. Second, 16 review studies had purposes related to either EDM techniques, EDM methods, EDM models, or EDM algorithms employed to predict SAP and student success in the higher education sector. Third, there are six commonly used typologies of input variables reported by 26 review studies, of which student demographics was the most commonly utilised variable for predicting SAP. Fourth and last, seven common EDM algorithms employed for predicting SAP were identified, of which Decision Tree emerged both as the most used algorithm and as the algorithm with the highest prediction accuracy rate for predicting SAP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0426.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: digital technology; inclusive education; b-learning; educational policy; educational organization
Online: 16 November 2020 (14:40:53 CET)
The objective of this research is to measure the perception that teachers had about their own performance when they were forced to carry out an Emergency Remote Teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was provided to teachers of every educational stage in the Basque Country (Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education, Professional Training and Higher Education) obtaining a total of 4,586 responses. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the greatest difficulties reported by educators are shortcomings in their training in digital skills, which has made them perceive more workload during the lockdown and negative emotions. Another finding is the existing digital divide between teachers based on their gender, age and type of school. A further worrying result is the lower technological competence in lower educational levels, which are the most vulnerable in remote teaching. These results invite us to reflect on the measures to be taken to improve equity, social justice and resilience of the educational system, which align with some of the Sustainable Development Goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Educational Model; Tolerance; Local Wisdom
Online: 14 June 2022 (05:49:04 CEST)
Conflicts in Indonesia today indicate intolerance towards other religions and cultures. Several places such as Ambon, Papua, Kalimantan and Posso have experienced the increasing effects of intolerance. Conflicts caused by intolerance between groups in societies seem inevitable in various regions. This study tests the effectiveness of tolerance education model, based on local wisdom in the community of Tomohon City in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Research and Development (R&D), specifically ADDIE design, was used to test the effectiveness of tolerance education. Data was validated and analyzed using the triangulation of sources, techniques and theories and Miles Huberman model respectively. The results showed that tolerance education was portrayed through elements of mutual help, empathy andcooperation. Therefore, the developed education model increases tolerance significantly. This model is appropriate for people living outside Tomohon City due to different cultural and emotional settings. Tolerance education model can be more effective when using local values from the region to optimize potential and local social capital in society. The teaching material contains a combination of tolerance traits and local wisdom. Tolerance content is obtained from local wisdom values in the communities living in Tomohon City, North Sulawesi, si tou timou tumou tou, Mapalus and Torang Samua Basudara. Efforts to instill a tolerant attitude include education and practice to equip the community with understanding that background differences can trigger empathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0506.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Accreditation, educational institution, NCQAA, Libya
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:40:49 CEST)
Background and objectives: Quality assurance and institutional accreditation in education is becoming of paramount importance. This study aims to assess the impacts of the accreditation process of the National Center for Quality Assurance and Accreditation (NCAAA) on the quality of education in one of private university in Libya. Methods: The research adopts a descriptive study design in University of Tripoli Alahlia (UTA) where an official accreditation process was completed by the NCQAA during 2017-2019. Data were collected using the self-study report that produced by the NCQAA accreditation committee during the accreditation process, and were retrieved in specific data collection sheet by one of the authors. Results: The NCQAA accreditation process that lasted about 4 years brought significant changes in the educational progressions and made the staff members more aware of quality issues in education. Our findings also reported significant improvements in the quality of education in the university. Conclusions: The process of NCQAA accreditation conducted in UTA has been positively improved the quality of education. Data from other institutions would also expressively increase the relevance and rationality of the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0127.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: educational attainment; polygenes; polygenic selection; IQ; GWAS
Online: 23 May 2017 (17:08:33 CEST)
Background: The genetic variants identified by three large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of educational attainment were used to test a polygenic selection model. Methods: Average frequencies of alleles with positive effect (polygenic scores or PS) were compared across populations (N=26) using data from 1000 Genomes. A null model was created using frequencies of random SNPs. Results: Polygenic selection signal of educational attainment GWAS hits is high among a handful of SNPs within genomic regions replicated across GWAS publications. A polygenic score comprising 9 SNPs predicts population IQ (r=0.88), outperforming 99% of the polygenic scores obtained from sets of random SNPs (Monte Carlo p= 0.011). Its predictive power remains unaffected after controlling for spatial autocorrelation (Beta= 0.83). The largest polygenic score (161 SNPs) exhibits similar predictive power (Beta=0.8). Random polygenic scores are moderate predictors of population IQ (thanks to spatial autocorrelation), and their predictive power increases logarithmically with the number of SNPs, indicating an exponential reduction in noise. Conclusion: This study provides guidance for using GWAS hits together with random SNPs for testing polygenic selection using Monte Carlo simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: educational attainment; polygenes; polygenic selection; GWAS
Online: 8 November 2016 (10:08:15 CET)
The genetic variants identified by three large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of educational attainment were used to test a polygenic selection model. Average frequencies of alleles with positive effect (polygenic scores or PS) were compared across populations (N=26) using data from 1000 Genomes. The PS of 161 GWAS significant SNPs in a recent meta-analysis was highly correlated to population IQ (r=0.863) and to the polygenic score of four alleles independently associated with general cognitive ability. High correlations with PISA scores for a subsample were observed.SNP p value predicted correlation to population IQ and factors from the two previous GWAS (r= -.25). Factor analysis produced similar estimates of selection pressure for educational attainment across the three datasets. Polygenic and factor scores computed using the top 20 significant SNPs showed very high correlation to population IQ (r=0.88; 0.9). Similar findings were obtained using 52 populations from another database (ALFRED). The results together constitute a replication of preliminary findings and provide strong evidence for recent diversifying polygenic selection on educational attainment and underlying cognitive ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early childhood education; play and learning; educational transitions; educational setting; research with children; visual methodologies; qualitative research
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:03:38 CET)
Based on a reflection on the tensions between play, education, and learning in early childhood, this article aims to identify and analyze the factors that limit or negatively condition the possibilities for play at school during the transition between Early Childhood Education and Primary Education in Chile. The study was conducted in four Chilean schools, with the Transition Levels of Chilean Early Childhood Education (children aged 4 and 5) and the first two levels of Primary Education (children aged 6 and 7). Based on an ethnographic approach, we combined 22 ethnographic observation days spread over two consecutive years and 59 interviews of various types with children, educators, and parents. The results show structural-material limitations on school play that mainly affect children in Primary Education. Beyond, factors associated with routines, indications, and statements governing functioning and participation in this level tend to limit or prevent play, often considered a "non-legitimate" activity. Conclusions highlight the potentialities that children's restricted or resisted play can present in terms of learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0039.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: educational attainment; polygenes; polygenic selection; IQ; GWAS
Online: 8 June 2017 (08:11:07 CEST)
Background: The genetic variants identified by three large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of educational attainment and the largest intelligence GWAS were used to test a polygenic selection model. Methods: Average frequencies of alleles with positive effect (polygenic scores or PS) were compared across populations (N=26) using data from 1000 Genomes. Factor analysis was used to extract a signal of polygenic selection. Results: A polygenic selection factor of educational attainment GWAS hits is high among a handful of SNPs within genomic regions replicated across GWAS publications and it is highly correlated to the genetic intelligence factor (r= 0.96). These factors are both highly predictive of average population IQ (r=0.9), and are robust to tests of spatial autocorrelation. Several Monte Carlo simulations yielded highly significant p values. Furthermore, the polygenic selection model shows high replicability, with the EA and intelligence factor scores being virtually identical to those from an older study (r=0.96-0.99). A larger sample of populations (N=53) produced similar results. Conclusion: This study shows robust results after accounting for spatial autocorrelation and Monte Carlo simulation using random SNPs and shows robust reproducibility of results from a previous study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital transformation; Education; Educational sciences; Internet of things
Online: 2 March 2023 (10:49:37 CET)
First came the digital banks without offices, and then the “fintech” companies that combined technology and finance to achieve greater efficiency and new business models. Later was the turn of transport and logistics, understood as the sector whose economic activities derived from the transport of people and goods, while on the one hand, it has had a new spring thanks to factors such as online sales. Then, perhaps catalyzed by the pandemic scenario, the turn has reached education, where years ago was only a complement of traditional education, now is a central part with multiple modern methodologies. Numerous studies exist about using or implementing these e-learning procedures, but technical analysis is barely found in references. This work aims to analyze the digital transformation of the main sectors of our society, including finances, transport, and education, together with several examples of how technology was helping to fight the pandemic scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: rural environment; sustainability; educational projects; representation; school geography.
Online: 14 October 2022 (13:48:13 CEST)
Rural environment has experienced changes as a result of Covid-19, which encourage the introduction of sustainability in education. However, the representation of rurality in school geography and in the 2030 Agenda are factors that continue to present rurality as a concept opposed to urban spaces. The objective was to investigate the perception that the student has about the rural environment from an instrument and his drawings to understand if the explanation of it allows to introduce elements related to sustainability in educational projects. The quantitative research approach allows analyzing the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the perception of the rural environment of a sample of 300 fifteen-year-old students from Brazil, Colombia and Spain. Those school knowledges that idealize rurality warn of the pedagogical difficulties to promote the teaching of rurality from sustainability criteria and condition the formation of students from a citizenship committed to social problems. This study is important because it diagnoses the elements that intervene in the teaching of rurality from school geography and provides some suggestions to include sustainability in educational projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0241.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: educational method; parent; developmental care and premature infant
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:49:08 CEST)
Babies born prematurely are at risk of experiencing visual disturbances, hearing loss, disabilities, the risk of infection and even death. Care for premature babies requires serious attention for both health workers and parents. The role of parents is very important both during hospitalization and at home. Therefore, in order to improve the abilities of parents, it is necessary to make educational efforts with the right method.ObjectivesThis literature review aims to provide an overview of educational methods that nurses can use to improve the ability of parents to care for or care for the development of premature babies. The method used is to search for literature that fits the established theme using 5 data based, namely Scopus, ProQuest, Science Direct, Elsevier Clinicaly for Nursing and Web of Science. The strategy used in finding literature that fits the theme and is used in this literature review uses the PICOS framework. Then conducted a review with the PRISMA method. The literature selection results obtained 572 publications, after going through the selection obtained 11 literatures that match the theme, with 11 educational methods. These methods can be grouped into ideas, namely increasing parental involvement during treatment, using technology, stress management and continuous monitoring. The ability of parents to care for premature babies is needed in order to minimize complications in infants, reduce morbidity, avoid disabilities, increase growth and development of premature babies optimally and reduce parental stress levels, increase parental confidence and good parents' self-efficacy. Choosing the right educational method can improve the ability of parents to properly care for and provide developmental care for premature babies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: nursing student; patient safety; clinical education; educational institutions
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:46:34 CEST)
Students' knowledge of the concept of patient safety in infection prevention and control and treatment safety is still low. Real-life problem-based learning approaches in the area of clinical education assist in patient safety education. This study was designed to identify, evaluate and summarize available evidence on the effectiveness of clinical education on student achievement of patient safety competencies. The Methode that use in this study is systematic review. Search for articles in research journals obtained from Sciencedirect, Ebscohost, Garuda, Proquest and Scopus. As many as 228 articles were obtained consisting of nursing journals and health journals with the keywords clinical education, competence, and patient safety. After that, the screening process was carried out based on the inclusion criteria and obtained 25 articles that met the criteria. The result of this study are the contribution of educational institutions in the achievement of patient safety competencies for nursing students is still low and the achievement of patient safety competencies for students at the professional level is better than for students who are still learning theory in educational institutions. The conclusion of this study is clinical education carried out by educational institutions is considered ineffective in achieving the competence of patient safety for nursing students. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a patient safety model or curriculum that is attached to clinical education in nursing education institutions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Telecommunications Education; Active Learning; Educational Escape Rooms; Modulation
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:17:35 CET)
Traditional education, particularly at a university level isn’t necessarily very engaging1 or strong at building teamwork skills. Educational escape rooms are a recent game based learning2 approach which combines team based problem solving with a story-line and cryptic clues. In this3 paper we apply the concept of educational escape rooms to the telecommunications engineering4 classroombycreatingaseriesoftwoseparatescenarios,eachcontainingthreepuzzles. Ourevaluation5 is based on beta tester survey results which suggest that this will be an engaging and challenging6 tool for teaching telecommunications engineering. Although educational escape rooms are rapidly7 being deployed in education, these are the ﬁrst educational escape rooms that speciﬁcally addresses8 the ﬁeld of telecommunications engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0344.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: educational escape room; persuasive gaming; professional development; alignment
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:36:22 CEST)
This article analyzes the design of MasterMind, an escape room that served as a means of professional development in the use and implementation of online educational tools in academic teaching. Escape rooms have inspired educators all over the world to adapt the popular entertainment activity for education. The time-constrained and problem-based games require active and collaborative participants, which makes an escape room an interesting setting for educators. As there are differences in the settings and goals of educational and recreational escape rooms, there is a need for description of the design process, taking into account game design and educational aspects. MasterMind was developed by a multidisciplinary team of educators, educational researchers and game researchers. The design analysis of MasterMind focuses on three related challenges that have informed the design process: 1) the participants' transition from the real world to the game world; 2) the alignment of game design aspects and educational aspects in the game world; and 3) the transfer from experiences and knowledge obtained within the game world back into the real world. The description and analysis is guided by frameworks on persuasive games and the alignment of game goals and learning goals. The analysis gives insights in how to balance game and educational aspects in the design, in order for players to reach both persuasive and learning goals. We recommend an integrated approach of the different design challenges. Therefore, we propose a design model combining and aligning the used frameworks, leading to an integrated approach in tackling design challenges in persuasive, serious games.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0212.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: assessment; educational videogames; online games; water; ecology education
Online: 11 August 2018 (19:09:14 CEST)
Videogames have become educational, communicative and social tools among the youngest, favouring the acquisition of skills, abilities and values, encompassing an endless number of themes, and help to experience and to face, in the first person, a great diversity of environmental situations and ecology problems. Thus, the present article aims: a) the evaluation of a sample of 20 educational videogames about water, making use of some empirical criteria of quality; and b) the design, validation and application of an integrate quality indicator of educational videogames on water, based on the aspects of narrative, gameplay and didactics to that sample, which allows us to obtain a ranking. The findings reflect a ranking of games allows to suggest that the nature of the game (simulation, adventures, platforms or questions) does not determine the quality of the game, although generally simulations and adventure games are placed in a range of medium or high quality, as well as those games that pursue objectives related to the design and management of a territory in a sustainable way. The paper provides teachers with quality criteria based on narrative and gameplay that complement and enriches the pedagogical dimension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0340.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cyberlearning; educational innovation; higher education; online learning; student voice
Online: 25 February 2022 (15:20:55 CET)
Many assumptions exist about online learning and its impact on college students. Hitherto, the views of those meant to be the beneficiaries of this technology have been given little consideration despite the fact that students use cyberspace for academic work and beyond. This qualitative case-study report is based on research conducted by college students at a private university in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The aim was to examine the online learning experiences of their peers during the first wave of the coronavirus global pandemic, with a view to understand how prepared their university is for an academic genre located in cyberspace. The findings are based on the perspectives of 2,298 college students responding to a survey administered to the entire student population comprising around 9,000 individuals. They suggest that increasing opportunities for cyberlearning could have positive effects on students. Also provided is cautionary advice about the need to improve teaching pedagogies and combat academic dishonesty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; psychosomatic disorders; educational burnout; coping; students; Poland
Online: 9 June 2021 (13:29:20 CEST)
Objective The study aims to investigate the risk factors of bad psychosomatic health among students in quarantine during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method:The survey was conducted on-line, on a sample of 1,978 respondents in Poland. The study was carried out by the end of the summer semester. The questionnaire was designed in a way which allows for the observation of main risk factors which have impact on the students’ mental health. The variance analysis and the hierarchical regression analysis were used to determine the predictors of mental health. Results:The results indicate that average and high levels of psychosomatic disorders were observed among 61% of respondents. The hierarchical regression analysis has revealed that the main factors influencing the level of mental health disorders were educational burnout, satisfaction with life, strategies for coping with stress and gender. As indicated by the respondents, mental health disorders increase in tandem with educational burnout, the application of emotion-focused coping strategies and the lack of satisfaction with one’s life. Moreover, it was observed that female respondents scored higher on the scale of disorders in comparison to males. Conclusions:The results of research indicate that distance education and negative coping strategies are the main risk factors of mental health disorders among students during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0700.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: hybrid educational recommender system; learning objects; matrix factorization; personalization
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:58:50 CEST)
One of the main challenges for autonomous learning in virtual environments is finding the right material that fits students’ needs and supports their learning process. Personalized recommender systems partially solve this problem by suggesting online educational resources to students based on their preferences. However, in educational environments (which need a proper characterization of both users and educational resources), most existing recommendation algorithms either fail to include all the available information or use hybrid processes that do not exploit possible relationships between users and item features. This article presents a personalized recommender system for educational resources aimed at combining user and item information into a single mathematical model based on matrix factorization. As a result, estimated latent factors can provide insight into possible interactions between users and item features, improving the quality of the information retrieval process. We validated the proposed model on a real dataset that contains the ratings assigned by students from Universidad Nacional de Colombia and Universidade Feevale to educational resources in the Colombian Federation of Learning Object Repositories (FROAC in Spanish). User characterization included learning style and educational level, whereas item characterization (obtained from the objects’ metadata), included interactivity level, aggregation level and type, and resource format. These results, compared to those obtained when not all the available information is included, show that our method can improve the recommendation process.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academic leadership; change management; educational leadership; leadership; leadership development
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:05:40 CEST)
Medical education is facing great challenges and uncertainties amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical Education Institutions are required to build a task force team for crisis management. These should be committed to supporting a sudden online education transition, academic support, and psychological well-being of students, staff members, health care professionals, paramedics, and faculty administration. As the situation evolves, the task force has to monitor the challenges and provide appropriate plans, guidance, and solutions. Leaders in medical education have a crucial role in response to the pandemic crisis in securing a successful educational process while ensuring the mental and psychological well-being of the stakeholders. Herein, we provide tips that can provide a guide for medical education leaders to coordinate crisis management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; research; knowledge society; critical thinking; educational policy
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:09:19 CEST)
In an era characterized by a move towards a “knowledge society”, universities are central in fostering “knowledgeability”, that is the reflexive understanding of knowledge in knowledge societies. The objective of “knowledgeability” can be met through creating a stronger link between education and research. Furthermore, overall student performance, for example in critical thinking and problem solving, can be improved if research-related activities are incorporated into the curriculum. The aim of this paper is to use inter-national examples to discuss the research- education nexus from four different perspectives, namely context, policy, im- plementation and quality, with case studies from higher education institutions in Singapore and Sweden. We suggest that different integrative technologies can be used to enhance the links, but it will be essential to consider the inputs of training, service and support in using new technology. Interestingly, the act of evaluating the link between edu- cation and research will increase awareness of this linkage by stakeholders involved in both education and research. In turn the link can be strengthened, contributing to increased quality in both education and research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0019.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Educational Tourism; Tourism Supply and Demand; Experience; Tourism Activities
Online: 6 September 2017 (11:58:11 CEST)
The Smart Park (well-known as Taman Pintar) as a major educational tourism destination in Jogjakarta offers a variety of tourism attractions that are very interesting for tourists. The main purpose of tourists visiting Smart Park is to get an educational tourism experience. A subjective experience raises a specific challenge for Smart Park toward the status of competitive destination. The purpose of this study is to analyze the aspects of educational tourism experience that are affected by tourism demand and supply. Data were collected by survey technique to 150 respondents and analyzed using path analysis. The results of analysis show that tourism demand and supply contributed to the variation of tourism activities by 45.1%, while the remaining was explained by other variables, such as National Budget, Local Budget, ticket sale, and cooperation with some stakeholders. Tourism supply had a higher effect than tourism demand. Tourism demand did not partially affect tourism experience. However, the results of the path analysis indicate that tourism supply had direct and indirect effects on tourism experience through the variation of tourism activities with indirect effect being dominant. In the management of Smart Park, there is still a gap between tourism demand and supply, so that the environment of tourism experience has not been created maximally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Career development; career conceptions; career education; middle school; educational intervention
Online: 3 November 2022 (03:21:35 CET)
Several studies confirmed the importance of career education interventions since childhood. This study aimed at testing a career education intervention designed for middle school students, conducted, after a specific training on Social Cognitive Career Theory, by students’ teachers. The career conceptions were assessed in both experimental and control groups through the Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment protocol before and after career education intervention. Result showed that. starting from the same level and increased their conceptions after the intervention. Experimental group increase, in a statistically significant way, more than the control group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: educational quality; agglomeration; segregation; spatial autocorrelation; Moran’s Index; geo-visualization
Online: 17 June 2022 (04:51:58 CEST)
This study seeks to measure the degree of agglomeration of educational quality in Colombia, based on the non-socialization of the population that exhibits low educational quality, with the population that exhibits high educational quality, and thus determine how such agglomeration affects the phenomenon of academic segregation. To this end, we perform a spatial analysis of the educational quality in Colombia and of variables that may influence to the phenomenon of educational agglomeration. The level of agglomeration in educational quality in Colombia is demonstrated by the calculation of the Moran’s Index, in which a result of 0.62 was obtained. High educational quality is concentrated in the Andean region, while low educational quality is agglomerated in the periphery of the country, in areas such as the Pacific region. A spatial regression model was carried out to measure the dependence of municipalities on their neighbors, and to determine the main socio-economic factors affecting the phenomenon of educational agglomeration in Colombia, finding that living conditions, unsatisfied basic needs and fiscal transparency have all an impact on the educational quality of the municipalities. It is also found that the number of homicides in the municipalities does not seem to have a significant relationship with education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0256.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Learning Analytics, Education, Educational Data Mining, Pattern Recognition, Data Visualization.
Online: 11 August 2021 (11:23:48 CEST)
With the exponential growth in today’s technology and its expanding areas of application it has become vital to incorporate it in education. One such application is Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) which is a subset of data mining. KDD deals with extracting useful information and meaningful patterns from the database that were not known before. This study is a detailed application of KDD and focuses on analyzing why a particular set of students performed better than others and what factors influenced the results. The study is conducted on a dataset of 480 students and across 16 different features. The authors implemented 4 major classification techniques namely Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest and XGB classifier. Obtaining the key features from the top performing ML algorithms that have a major impact on the performance of the student, the study takes these features as a baseline for further analysis. Further data analysis highlights patterns in the data. The study concludes that there are a lot of non-academic factors that influence the overall performance of a student and should be taken into consideration by universities and other relevant bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0091.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Teaching profile; Educational Innovation; Higher Education; Entrepreneurship; Ecuador; Education 4.0
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:46:27 CET)
Education 4.0 postulates the flexible combining of digital literacy, critical thinking, and problem-solving in training environments linked to real-world scenarios. Therefore, teachers are challenged to find or develop new methods and resources to integrate into their curricula to help students develop these desirable and necessary skills; hence, the question: What are the characteristics of a teacher to consider within the framework of Education 4.0? This article presents a study carried out in a higher education institution in Ecuador. The objective was to identify the teaching profile required in new careers within the framework of Education 4.0. The descriptive, exploratory methodology applied quantitative and qualitative instruments (surveys) to 337 undergraduate students in education careers and 313 graduates. It also included interviews with 20 experts in the educational field and five focus groups with 32 rectors, school principals, university professors and specialists in the educational area. The data was triangulated, and the results were categorized in (a) processes as facilitators (b), soft skills, (c) human sense and (d) use of technologies. This article may be of value to administrators, educational and social entrepreneurs, trainers, and decision-makers interested in implementing innovative training programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0072.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: constructivism theory; social media; educational quality; students’ academic performance; engagement
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:39:28 CET)
This paper aimed to use social media impact on student studies in higher education. Apart from enjoyment and academic purposes, many educational practices and processes have been influenced by social networks. This paper highlighted the use of media tools in higher education as well as indicates out some of the factors. Moreover, through a literature review of related articles, we aim to provide insights into the impacts of a social network on educational quality, actual use of social media, and performance impact in higher education. A questionnaire survey on constructivism was circulated among a total of 206 university students as the key method for collecting data. This research hypothesizes educational quality and actual social media use indicates a positive effect in education, all of which also hypothesizes constructivism for educational quality and actual social media that in turn improve students’ satisfaction, and performance impact. Moreover, all research findings were attained through a quantitative method using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM-AMOS). Findings of this research to indicate a positive effects students on their academic through behavioral intention to utilize social media to actual social media use for teaching and learning on higher education. Moreover, the results mention the use of social media for learning purpose, as well as social media to enables the sharing of knowledge, discussions, and information to enhance students' learning activities, Further studies are recommended which universities educators should take this into consideration when planning their curricula; it comes to the inclusion of technology in the teaching process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0125.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Research competencies; digital literacy; higher education; bibliometric analysis; educational innovation
Online: 7 July 2020 (10:09:01 CEST)
Cultivating research competencies facilitated by the use of technology in the university is crucial to boost acquisition of knowledge, educational innovation, and successful professional development. The objective of this article is to analyze the evolution and characteristics of scientific production that has had the greatest impact on the momentum of investigative competencies and their articulation within technological scenarios. Applying various selection criteria in the Scopus database, we utilized systematic, bibliometric mapping as a methodological strategy in which 250 articles related to the topic were identified, then analyzed with the semantic analysis software VOSViewer. The results indicate that there is an emerging line of research on the subject since 2016 and point to the underdevelopment of lines that associate research skills with digital literacy, information literacy, digital libraries databases, and the development of critical thinking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0564.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: E-learning derived annotations; Pneumothorax; Artificial intelligence; Crowdsourcing; Educational data mining
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:23:12 CEST)
Development of supervised AI algorithms requires a large amount of labeled images. Image labelling is both time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we explored the value of e-learning derived annotations for AI algorithm development in medical imaging. Methods We have developed an e-learning platform that involves image-based single click labelling as part of the educational learning process. Ten radiology residents, as part of their residency training, trained the recognition of pneumothorax on 1161 chest X-rays in posterior-anterior projection. Using this data, multiple AI algorithms for detecting pneumothorax were developed. Classification and localization performance of the models was tested on an independent internal testing dataset and on the public NIH ChestX-ray14 dataset. Results The AI models F1 scores on the internal and the NIH dataset were 0.87 and 0.44, respectively. Sensitivity was 0.85 and 0.80 for classification and specificity 0.96 and 0.48 for classification. F1 scores were 0.72 and 0.66, sensitivity 0.72 and 0.72. False positive rate was 0.36 and 0.32 for localisation. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that e-learning derived annotations are a valuable data source for algorithm development. Further work is needed to include additional parameters such as user performance, consensus of diagnosis, and quality control in the development pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0544.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Teaching Competence (DTC); higher education; continuing teacher education; educational innovation
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:14:56 CEST)
This article analyzes the assessment of the four development levels of the Digital Teaching Competence (DTC) to recognize the needs and formulation of challenges in training and educational innovation required in the pedagogical practices of university professors under the current context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study used an empirical-analytical methodology with a non-experimental, transactional, descriptive design. The sample design was probabilistic, estimated with 95% confidence and 5% error among 252 teachers from various faculties of the University of La Guajira. The selected instrument corresponded to the rubric's application to evaluate the university professor's digital teaching competence in Latin America. Among the study's significant results, we highlight that the rubric presented a high Cronbach's alpha reliability (α: 0.947). In the general assessment of DTC development, it was estimated that 78.2% of teachers are in the first two levels of DTC development assessment (Beginning and Middle). The evaluation rubric allows identifying challenges and opportunities that teacher training must address to advance the professional development of professors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Emerging technologies; Educational Innovation; Artificial Intelligence; Robotics; Higher Education; Teaching Practices
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:03:43 CEST)
Emerging technologies have a potential future impact on the developments in higher education and teaching practices at the universities. The paper is based on the project “My future colleague robot” that aims to improve the competence of university teachers in the implementation of Emerging Technologies (ETs) in the teaching practices at the university. In this paper, we identified the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats that are related to the adoption of two ETs, robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI), in higher education. Additionally, we analyzed the perceptions of faculty about these ETs. The empirical data was collected using written essays from 18 university teachers and students. Deductive and inductive approaches with thematic analysis were used for the data analysis. The findings support the idea that previous experience related to ETs can support positive attitudes and the implementations of ET in university teaching. University teachers had optimistic expectations towards ETs accepting them as part of teaching practice development, while discussion about the negative effects of ETs was negligible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: socio-educational resilience; protective factors; risk factors; multilevel logistic model, simce
Online: 4 December 2019 (08:00:35 CET)
Framed in a context with an emerging economy and with a high percentage of school failure, this study aimed to identify the factors that turn students with socioeconomic disadvantages into resilient students. Two questions guided the research: Can resilience be supported in students in adverse socioeconomic situations? What factors influence building resilient students? A cross-sectional study was carried out from 2011 to 2015 in Chile, using a multilevel logistic regression model with three levels, considering the hierarchical data structure. The behavior of 63100 to 76400 sampled students was analyzed. Results show five relevant factors in building resilience: self-efficacy in language, minor aggressions and violence perceived by students, norms and values of the establishment, interest in study, and self-efficacy. Some risk factors identified were an atmosphere of less respect and trust, engagement in physical education activities and good performance in carrying them out. These results could orient educational leaders interested in supporting the educational community in order to improve the academic success of disadvantaged students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: graduate; employer; competencies; employment; labour market; emigration; economic development; educational policies
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:08:33 CEST)
The quality of an educational system is reflected not only in the instructive performances of the educational actors, but also in the degree in which it ensures an adequate professional integration. The undergraduate of today, the graduate of tomorrow needs an as accurate as possible information regarding the labour market, which cannot be achieved only by individual means, but also by resorting to carrier counselling services. The motivation of this research is closely connected to the improvement of the level of communication between the two aspects – on the one hand the academic one, by its finite products, and the economic one, on the other hand – and the opportunities that the cooperation between the two aspects might offer: adjusting the demand-supply ratio on the labor market and above all, stopping massive emigration of young graduates of higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0302.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: independent learning independent campus; educational ecosystem; link and match; industrial revolution 4.0
Online: 24 February 2022 (08:02:46 CET)
Independent Learning Independent Campus (MBKM) is a program to develop an educational ecosystem that is in harmony with learning in higher education and the needs of industry. The limited link and match between universities and the business and industrial world in Indonesia are obstacles in realizing Indonesia as a developed country in the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the Independent Learning Independent Campus (MBKM) program on improving the performance of Ibn Khaldun University Bogor. The method used in this study is descriptive statistics with quantitative analysis. The sample that participated in this study consisted of all active students, lecturers, and administration staff. The research data was obtained through distribution to 6100 students, 233 lecturers, and 150 education staff. The research stages include socializing the understanding of MBKM, filling out the survey, calculating the distribution of respondents' filling, and concluding the assessment category using the weighted mean score (WMS) method. Based on the result, the implementation of MBKM in University of Ibn Khaldun Bogor based on all indicators can conclude that MBKM improve the performance of Ibn Khaldun Bogor University in the good category with an average percentage assessment criteria above 75%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0215.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: educational timetable; school timetabling; constraint satisfaction problem; optimisation; artificial bee colony algorithm
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:34:55 CET)
Although educational timetabling problems have been studied for decades, one type, the STP, has not developed as quickly as the other two types due to its diversity and complexity. Also, most of the STP research has only focused on the educators’ availabilities when studying the educator aspect, and the educators’ preferences and expertise have not been taken into consideration. This paper proposes a conceptual model for the school timetabling problem considering educators’ availabilities, preferences and expertise as a whole, and chooses a common real-world school timetabling scenario to study. A mathematical model is presented. A Virtual search space for dealing with the large search space is introduced, and the artificial bee colony algorithm is adapted and applied to the proposed model. The proposed approach is simulated with a random-generated large dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to solve the STP and handle a large dataset in an ordinary computer hardware environment, which significantly reduces computational costs. Compared to the traditional CP method, the proposed approach is more effective and can provide more satisfactory solutions in considering educators’ availabilities, preferences, and expertise levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0400.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human capital; educational signal; education; labour market; social mobility; social reproduction; China
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:37:08 CEST)
Exisitng studies argue life chances are, in part, vertically reproduced. Such a statement is applicable to the Chinese contexts as, but not limited to, parental hukou status, to some extent, determines the life chances their children receive. In this essay, the author would like to introduce human capital theory (HCT) and educational signalling theory (EST), and assess how the applications of each of these two models can enrich the understanding of vertical reproduction of individuals’ social mobility opportunities. The author would also present the limitations of each of these two models when addressing relevant Chinese contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0432.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: entrepreneurial programs; pedagogical interventions; educational interventions; entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial culture; effectiveness; globalization
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:33:48 CEST)
The number of entrepreneurship education programs (EEP) has increased exponentially over the past two decades. However, a systematic review has not yet been carried out to confirm the effectiveness of EEPs and their presence in the current global world. The main objective of this study was to provide a systematic synthesis of EEP, exploring their characteristics and effectiveness. The search was carried out in the following databases: Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and ERIC. Twenty-nine articles were included, with programs developed mainly in European (n=15), Asian (n=6) and American (n=5) countries. The programs were mainly aimed at higher education students (n=17), addressing the development of business plans and entrepreneurial skills. However, greater attention is paid to the entrepreneurial skills in both basic and secondary education. The development of the programs under analysis varied between one week and two years. The results of the studies showed the effectiveness of most of these programs in promoting entrepreneurial skills at all levels of education. In turn, there was not a verified increase in the intention to start a business, since this intention is determined by predisposition, namely socio-cultural and family aspects. This systematic review of the EEP points to the need for this type of program to be preferentially developed since the early school years, since it is at that time that predispositions are created for the development of entrepreneurial skills and intentions. This condition is corroborated by the global geography of the EEP, which demonstrates that, where there is currently an entrepreneurial culture, countries have made a long educational journey, with strategic options from the perspective of educational policies defending entrepreneurship among the younger generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0388.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Adaptive Educational System; E-Learning; Machine Learning; Semantics; Recommendation System; Ontologies Matching.
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:46:19 CEST)
The implementation of teaching interventions in learning needs has received considerable attention, as the provision of the same educational conditions to all students, is pedagogically ineffective. In contrast, more effectively considered the pedagogical strategies that adapt to the real individual skills of the students. An important innovation in this direction is the Adaptive Educational Systems (AES) that support automatic modeling study and adjust the teaching content on educational needs and students' skills. Effective utilization of these educational approaches can be enhanced with Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in order to the substantive content of the web acquires structure and the published information is perceived by the search engines. This study proposes a novel Adaptive Educational eLearning System (AEeLS) that has the capacity to gather and analyze data from learning repositories and to adapt these to the educational curriculum according to the student skills and experience. It is a novel hybrid machine learning system that combines a Semi-Supervised Classification method for ontology matching and a Recommendation Mechanism that uses a hybrid method from neighborhood-based collaborative and content-based filtering techniques, in order to provide a personalized educational environment for each student.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0771.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: scientific competence; competence-based education; educational planning; Education for Sustainable Development; evaluation of digital resources
Online: 29 November 2019 (03:17:18 CET)
Educating for Sustainability involves promoting sustainable competences in students. Not in vain, wider societal changes that ensure a balance between economic growth, respect for the environment and social justice must start with individual actions, implying knowledge, capacity and willingness to act. However, and although there is wide consensus that education should promote the development of competences for life, putting this theoretical tenet into may entail more problems. Competence is most often expressed in general terms without a specific definition of the intervening elements (knowledge, skills, values, attitudes), which may collide with the necessity of teachers – as learning planners - concrete entities on which to base their process of design. So that, in this work we propose a series of indicators that serve to characterize the four dimensions of scientific competence – contents of science, contents about science, value of science and utility of science-. Although they are primarily intended to be used to filter multimedia resources in an educational platform, this proposal of indicators can be extrapolated to the management and selection of a variety of resources and activities, and for sharing the objectives and evidences for the acquisition of competencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0350.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: big data; clustering; data mining; educational data mining; e-learning; profile learning
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:58:05 CEST)
Educational data-mining is an evolving discipline that focuses on the improvement of self-learning and adaptive methods. It is used for finding hidden patterns or intrinsic structures of educational data. In the arena of education, the heterogeneous data is involved and continuously growing in the paradigm of big-data. To extract meaningful information adaptively from big educational data, some specific data mining techniques are needed. This paper presents a clustering approach to partition students into different groups or clusters based on their learning behavior. Furthermore, personalized e-learning system architecture is also presented which detects and responds teaching contents according to the students’ learning capabilities. The primary objective includes the discovery of optimal settings, in which learners can improve their learning capabilities. Moreover, the administration can find essential hidden patterns to bring the effective reforms in the existing system. The clustering methods K-Means, K-Medoids, Density-based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise, Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Tree and Clustering by Fast Search and Finding of Density Peaks via Heat Diffusion (CFSFDP-HD) are analyzed using educational data mining. It is observed that more robust results can be achieved by the replacement of existing methods with CFSFDP-HD. The data mining techniques are equally effective to analyze the big data to make education systems vigorous.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: educational impacts; emotional impacts; behavioral impacts; psychological impacts; physical impacts; religious impacts
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:24:27 CEST)
Cartoons in the era of digital media are among the most prevalent medium of entertainment for the children, parents also encourage them to view such contents to engage the children which make an area need to be explained exhaustively by adopting new approaches. There are lot of studies in the past conducted to explain the impacts of the cartoons on the children however, it is remarkable fact that there is lack of the studies in the literature which directly address the observation about the above mentioned impacts in view of the teacher’s. This study deals with the educational, emotional, behavioral and Religious etc. impacts of cartoons on kids in view of teachers of the primary schools as they are considered as the one who can observer these impacts in a profound way. of the of Multan. Different areas of impacts have been analyzed in this study by using survey technique and analysis is conducted and presented in the teacher’s views in this study to examine what they feel that how cartoons are effecting the personalities of the children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: School health policy; educational attainment; early child development; stunting; causal models; critical realism
Online: 10 April 2023 (05:48:21 CEST)
Children’s health, development and education cannot be handled separated; they form one process and are profoundly interrelated. This article considers how to ensure children’s physical and mental fitness for school and maintain it once they are there. Rwanda Is a case study of health and development issues which render children unreceptive to education. This is not news to Rwanda’s government, but until recently the donor community was not interested in supporting implementation. The story of Rwanda illustrates the need to think about changes of policy and practice in their context of structures and culture – how they interact and how they are facilitated or constrained by structures and by cultural understandings. To grasp what is going on and for successful implementation of policy, it is necessary to look at situations as a whole and consider human and governmental agency as real influences rather than just consequences of causal mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0473.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ChatGPT; educational technology; research; programming education; large language model; GPT-3; artificial intelligence
Online: 28 March 2023 (04:14:47 CEST)
In recent years, the rise of advanced artificial intelligence technologies has had a profound impact on many fields, including education and research. One such technology is ChatGPT, a powerful large language model developed by OpenAI. This technology offers exciting opportunities for students and educators, including personalized feedback, increased accessibility, interactive conversations, lesson preparation, evaluation, and new ways to teach complex concepts. However, ChatGPT poses different threats to the traditional education and research system, including the possibility of cheating on online exams, human-like text generation, diminished critical thinking skills, and difficulties in evaluating information generated by ChatGPT. This study explores potential opportunities and threats that ChatGPT poses to overall education from the perspective of students and educators. Furthermore, for programming learning, we explore how ChatGPT helps students improve their programming skills. To demonstrate this, we conducted different coding-related experiments with ChatGPT, including code generation from problem descriptions, pseudocode generation of algorithms from texts, and code correction. We also verified the generated codes with an online judge system to evaluate their accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Management; Sustainability tools; Coaching process; Communication; Educational institution; Social sustainability of human beings.
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:23:21 CET)
The impetus for the development of coaching as a professional managerial activity is based on the needs and requirements of a modern sustainable society. The paper aims to explore the awareness of academic students about the coaching approach and to formu-late recommendations for its application in the academic environment. The article focuses on the views of experts in the field of coaching approach as a means of improving com-munication in the academic/educational setting, characterizes communication and coaching approach, coaching models and its benefits and barriers. The survey presents a survey of awareness of the coaching approach among college and university students of in Slovakia and the possibilities/options of its application in the academic environment. The research was carried out by the questionnaire method. The evaluation of the questionnaire and the statistical evaluation of established hypotheses and assumptions concerning the coaching approach. The proposion of students was the introduction of the subject "Basics of coaching" which could be taught for all students at University of Zilina, Slovakia. Acording to the survey, 468 students, representing 68%, have knowledge about coaching. Furthermore, 68% of students had or have doubts about achieving their goals during their studies. According to the results of the survey, only 24% of students had ex-perience with coaching. The cooperation with a coach was regarded as beneficial for 71% of participants of the survey, which had already experience the coaching lectures. The students of managerial fields would benefit in enhancing leadership skills and providing support of their working teams.Finally, suggest organizing an introductory full-day workshops for students of man-agement -future managers, followed by organizing individual thematic workshops for specific areas of coaching.Moreover, the usage of coaching skills is possible yet while they are students with applications in communication in their relationships, student jobs, searching the profes-sional job opportunities and accomplishing the final thesis.To raise awareness of coaching approach in the University of Zilina in a cooperation with The Counseling and Career Center and its activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: field of professional activity; parsing; educational content; professional requirements; ontology; content markup; intelligent analysis
Online: 8 October 2021 (13:24:14 CEST)
The article explores the task of making higher education more profession-oriented. In this context, we consider the technology of structuring and matching professional activities and content of professional education curricula with the help of ontology. This technology employs intelligent analysis of labor market and educational content matching with the aim to organize educational programs and verify professional competences based on their ontological properties. The article also considers development of a professional training cognitive map that can help design the student’s personalized educational trajectory factoring in the given parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; effects; educational systems; change in higher education; international students; push–pull theory
Online: 15 September 2021 (11:45:11 CEST)
In this study, we designed a structural model to determine the relationships among push–pull factors, institutional situations, and satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 17 selected indicators fell under five domains, namely push factors, pull factors, institutional leadership, international strategies, and satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to verify the assumptions of the model. Based on 1005 degree-seeking international students' views, this study found that push and pull factors may coincidentally exist, and their functions can be modified by institutional situations. The findings suggest pull factors will, through institutional leadership, impact students' satisfaction, while push factors will not. Moreover, the detection of institutional mediation can provide useful information for specific institutes to develop their future recruiting or retaining strategies. These findings enriched our knowledge of the field during the pandemic. For future studies, this design may be useful to interpret the phenomena of global student mobility in higher education settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: civic engagement; COVID 19; change in higher education; educational systems; effects; SEM; transferable capabilities
Online: 13 September 2021 (08:31:05 CEST)
Civic engagement refers to the ways in which citizens participate in the life of a community to help shape its future or improve conditions for others. While it might have been shaped by the COVID-19 pandemic recovery, this study explored how college students perceive civic engagement on selected campuses that were partially locked down. We sampled 1036 student volunteers from six universities in Taiwan by using a self-designed module of civic engagement and transferable capabilities. The Student’s t-test, ANOVA, regression, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to interpret the differences and relationships among these variables. This study provides a more detailed example of the current status of civic engagement and its relative to transferable capabilities in a higher education setting. The related programs and institutes should take responsibility for enhancing students’ civic engagement and transferable capabilities during the pandemic. How to ameliorate the situation? The findings suggest that it should consider a student’s academic major, learning experiences in the department, and time spent on related activities during the pandemic recovery. The findings might prove useful to various campuses for enhancing ongoing practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Systems; Educational Systems; State-space Models; Optimal Control; Long-term learning prediction; Learning Analytics
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:37:36 CEST)
Every month teachers face the dilemma of what exercises should their students practice, and what their consequences are on long-term learning. Since teachers prefer to pose their own exercises, this generates a large number of questions, each one attempted by a small number of students. Thus, we couldn’t use models based on big data such as deep learning. Instead, we developed a simple to understand state-space model that predicts end-of-year national test scores. We used 2,386 online fourth-grade mathematic questions designed by teachers and each attempted by some of the 500 students in 24 low socioeconomic schools. We found that the state-space model predictions improved month-by-month and that in most months it outperformed linear regression models. Moreover, the state-space estimator provides for each month a direct mechanism to simulate different practice strategies and compute their impact on the end-of-year standardized national test. We built iso-impact curves based on two critical variables: the number of questions solved correctly in the first attempt and the total number of exercises attempted. This allows the teacher to visualize the trade-off between asking students to do exercises more carefully or doing more exercises. To the best of our knowledge, this model is the first of its kind in education. It is a novel tool that supports teachers drive whole classes to achieve long-term learning targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0573.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: children beaux-arts consumption; parents’ education; cultural capital theory; children educational performance; children reading behavior
Online: 24 July 2020 (06:07:34 CEST)
One of the robust explanation related to sociological educational inequality is Bourdieu’s cultural reproduction theory. Admittedly, prior work investigated that children’s cultural capital (CC) have significant effects on educational success. Although, it remain unclear in the context of developing countries specifically Vietnam. Also, how children’s conversion mechanism of CC works and drive educational success. Meanwhile, Bourdieu theory argue that CC effects educations outcomes largely via teachers biasness by using support of school grades, in contrast some of the scholars argue that absorption of children’s CC may directly transmit into educational abilities and skill development. This study employed partial least square structural equation modelling to analyze 5th grades students’ data collected from educational policy and data center. This study argue that conversion mechanism grounded on CC dimensions. This study provide implications for the policy makers and future researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0037.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: robot navigation; computer vision; camera calibration; mapping; path planning; communication; NAO robot; educational innovation; higher education
Online: 1 June 2021 (14:49:11 CEST)
Maze navigation using one or more robots has become a recurring challenge in scientific literature and real life practice, with fleets having to find faster and better ways to navigate environments such as a travel hub (e.g. airports) or to evacuate a disaster zone. Many methods have been used to solve this issue, including the implementation of a variety of sensors and other signal receiving systems. Most interestingly, camera-based techniques have increasingly become more popular in this kind of applications, given their robustness and scalability. In this paper, we have implemented an end-to-end strategy to address this scenario, allowing a robot to solve a maze in an autonomous way, by using computer vision and path planning. In addition, this robot shares the generated knowledge to another by means of communication protocols, having to adapt its mechanical characteristics to be able to solve the same challenge. The paper presents experimental validation of the four components of this solution, namely camera calibration, maze mapping, path planning and robot communication. Finally, we present the integration and functionality of these methods applied in a pair of NAO robots.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Educational action research; unregistered community design; shared intellectual property; cooperative learning; K-16 students; net-zero emissions
Online: 6 March 2023 (04:35:22 CET)
Education is one of the most important tools available to policymakers and non-governmental bodies to promote a change in the behavior of society and to address the climate crisis, in line with the 4th and 13th Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. Project-based learning (PBL) addresses real and global challenges and allows the academic and professional formation of students. As part of the reflection stage of the educational action research method using the Business Canvas Model (BMC), pedagogic deficiencies were identified in the PBL and a didactic proposal was elaborated to emulate the interaction of students with the ecosystems of society. A prototype for improving the management of organic manures as soil amendments was initially developed, to provide the students with a quick start on the first steps of the proposed project. In the 10 sessions designed for the PBL (Make it happen!), the students elaborate a more sophisticated artifact in response to the demands of potential clients, as per the outcomes of the primary market research (5th session). Active teaching methods and tools, such as a modified template of the BMC with the Rumsfeld’s matrix, aid the metacognition of students and their competences development. In a double session of the PBL, the primary market research is organized with key stakeholders of the agroindustry to enquire about the feasibility of the implementation of the technological solution and the logistics at farm level. Finally, the evaluation relies on the suitability of the upgraded prototype to respond customers’ demands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0222.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: multimedia; geoscience videos; geoscience education; GEGVL; earth systems science education; educational technology; place-based education; active learning
Online: 17 May 2022 (04:37:00 CEST)
Place-based education (PBE) and active learning are effective strategies for geoscience education. However, traditional PBE via field trips requires significant resources, time, physical abilities, and expertise of teachers. We provide an alternative PBE experience by showing how different kinds of geoscience videos can be spatially organized into one digital interactive virtual environment. Here, we present the Google Earth Geoscience Video Library (GEGVL) which uses Google Earth and location specific videos about Earth events to create a virtual PBE experience. Using Google Earth, GEGVL organizes place-based videos by locations and links pertinent non-place-based videos and allows users to roam the globe in search of geoscientific videos that are pertinent to them or their students. Currently GEGVL contains 150 videos organized into ten different geoscience disciplines: Plate Tectonics, Minerals, Structural Geology, Metamorphism, Magmatism, Hydrology, Environmental Science, Sedimentology, Paleontology, and Paleomagnetism. Despite stability challenges with Google Earth integration, results of user surveys among lower division undergraduates show that the design logic of GEGVL is promising virtual PBE organizer for interesting students in and helping them learn about Earth sciences.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: UK higher education; student; COVID-19; pandemic; academic performance; student evaluations; online learning; loss of income; educational disruptions
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:36:40 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the worst catastrophes that we have faced globally in recent years. It has not only taken its toll on the economic sector but also on the education sector. The social distancing norms that are in place as a direct response to the pandemic have turned conventional classroom teaching into a problematic minefield; as such, students all over the world have been forced into unprecedented situations that have served only to worsen the situation. The current pandemic has given rise to one of the worst crises the 21st Century has ever seen, resulting in a surge of unemployment. Many companies have taken the route of firing employees or making redundancies, as they cannot afford the monthly reimbursement for staff. While this issue primarily concerns full-time workers, it also carries significant consequences for students – a considerable number of students are required to earn their daily living costs, and, without a job, they cannot pay their educational fees, accommodation costs, or living expenses. This comprehensive study briefly discusses the multitude of problems faced by students in the UK regarding higher education, as a direct result of the coronavirus pandemic. It contains six individual sections: a detailed introduction; the methodological procedures employed; educational disruptions, covering issues from hindrances in field research to examinations and student evaluations; personal problems experienced by students, such as accommodation and loss of income; concerns arising from the global pandemic; and finally, a conclusion and summary of the study’s findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0128.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Cyber security threats; Cyber security threats to educational institutes; growing concern for the new era of cybersecurity; New Era of cybersecurity
Online: 7 November 2022 (14:37:03 CET)
Background: The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has significantly affected the operations of higher education institutions. Due to the limited use of video conferencing and cloud computing in these facilities, distance learning became the only option available to them. Objective: The study focused on identifying the most common types of attacks that can affect e-learning assets. Results: There was a lack of clear cybersecurity policies for educational institutes and universities in 2020, according to a report by Microsoft Security Intelligence. The report showed that the education industry was the most targeted sector for malware attacks in the last 30 days. Conclusion: The recommendations for improving the security of e-learning systems. Some of these include implementing policies that restrict access to the resources and applications, updating security patches, and using cryptographic protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0229.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI); CLOs; educational tools; hybrid learning; integrated management system; learning management system; PLOs; technology-embedded teaching; web-based teaching
Online: 26 January 2022 (11:54:27 CET)
With the rapid surge in technological advancements, an equal amount of investment in technology-embedded teaching has become vital to pace up with the ongoing educational needs. Distance education has evolved from the era of postal services to the use of ICT tools in current times. With the aid of globally updated content across the board, technology usage ensures all students receive equal attention without any discrimination. Importantly, web-based teaching allows all kind of students to learn at their own pace, without the fear of being judged, including professionals who can learn remotely without disturbing their job schedules. Having web-based content allows low-cost and robust implementation of the content upgradation. An improved, yet effective, version of the education using such tools is Hybrid Learning (HL). This learning mode aims to provide luxurious reinforcement to its legitimate candidates while maintaining the quality standards of various elements. Incorporated with both traditional and distance learning methods, along with exploiting social media tools for increased comfort level and peer-to-peer collaboration, HL ultimately facilitates the end user and educational setup. The structure of such a hybrid model is realized by delivering the study material via a learning management system (LMS) designed in compliance with quality standards, which is one of the fundamental tackling techniques for controlling quality constraints. In this paper, we present the recently piloted project by COMSATS University Islamabad (previously known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) which is driven by technology-embedded teaching model. This model is an amalgam of the traditional class room model with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. The students are enrolled as full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course. This globally adapted model helps the students to benefit from both face-to-face learning as well as gaining hands-on experience on technology-enriched education model providing flexibility of timings, learning pace, and boundaries. Our HL model is equipped with two major synchronous and asynchronous blocks. The synchronous block delivers real-time live interaction scenarios using discussion boards, thereby providing a face-to-face environment. Interactions via social network has witnessed equally surging improvement in the output performance. The asynchronous block refers to the lecture videos, slides and handouts, prepared by imminent professors, available 24/7 for students. To ensure quality output, our HL model follows the course learning outcomes (CLOs), and program learning outcomes (PLOs) as per international standards. As a proof of concept, we have deployed a mechanism at the end of each semester to verify the effectiveness of our model. This mechanism fundamentally surveys the satisfaction levels of all the students enrolled in the HL courses. With the surveys already conducted, a significant level of satisfaction has been noted. Extensive results from these surveys are presented in the paper to further validate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed HL model.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: effective communication; community pharmacy; pharmacist’s role; modern society; modern services; on-line pharmacy; pharmacy educational methodologies; communication skills improvement; pharmacist’s professionalism; efficient consultancy service
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:33:33 CET)
Ever since pharmacy has become a profession, pharmacist's role has been continuously subjected to changes due to specific influences from historical, socio-economic, political, and scientific context. Nowadays the classic perception of pharmaceutical profession in Community Pharmacy is facing worldwide extinction due to many factors. Modern services, such as online, mail-order, and telephone-order pharmacies are increasingly gaining ground thanks to their ability to facilitate customer demand. However, at the same time, they are endangering “face-to-face” contact, affecting the building of customer loyalty based on direct “human” interaction, and consequently reducing pharmacists to mere commercial figures. Communication is in fact emphasized as the essential element to build a solid and appropriate interpersonal relationship with the client, to make the consultancy process effective, and to strengthen pharmacist's professionalism in community pharmacy. The aim of this work is to analyze pharmacist’s role in modern society by pinpointing the factors affecting pharmacy profession practice. Specific purpose will be improving both the academic training of future professionals and their capacity to approach public relations through a deepened study and practice of behavioral, communication, educational, and sociological methodologies and techniques that would allow the development of more effective communication skills useful for providing an efficient consultancy service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0803.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: educational concept; green business school; new green deal; interdisciplinary capacity and movement building; green failure; young generation collaboration network; prevent big ideas from failure, theory U, science and action-based research, design thinking
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:44:11 CET)
This article addresses the question why initiatives in the field of green business and sustainable development often fail. Therefore, it dismantles some typical patterns of failure and shows – as a case study – how these patterns can be challenged through an innovative educational concept: the green business and sustainable development school. The applied methodology is a real-life project that is designed through blended, interdisciplinary elements from business model canvas, Theory U, participation and design thinking. The results of the school initiative are discussed and evaluated by four distinctive stakeholder groups and outline the school’s supporting potential to overcome typical patterns of failure by the younger generation in the future. This article concludes with ideas to enhance the school concept reaching out to even more stakeholder-groups to increase its reliability and viability.