ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Diversity; Equality; Dental Education; Career Progression; Higher Education
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:40:53 CET)
IntroductionDiversity is known to be important but diversity of staff working in dental schools in the UK and Ireland is low in comparison with the dental profession and the overall population. AimsTo provide a detailed snapshot of the diversity of dental academic staff in 2021 including staff working in academic and clinical roles.MethodsAn online survey was circulated to dental schools by Dental Schools Council. Questions included dates of graduation and key career milestones, demographics and indicators of esteem. Free text questions were also included.ResultsThere was a high degree of variability in dental academic careers which made direct comparisons difficult. Neither gender nor race appeared to be associated with a faster career progression. Females and those of racialised minority were less represented at the most senior grades. For those who had completed specialty training, racialised minority staff were far less likely to be working at consultant grade than their White equivalents.ConclusionThere are differences in career progression between staff in dental schools. The high amount of individual variability makes these difficult to quantify except at the most senior positions. Qualitative information is needed to contextualise the results and provide additional information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM education; CTE education; UAS drone education; discipline-based education research; AirVuz; Part 107
Online: 8 November 2023 (07:30:48 CET)
As drone technology is rapidly becoming accessible to school children in terms of both low cost and ease-of-use, primary and secondary school teachers are beginning to consider where modern drones can play an important role in schooling. To date, there is very little empirical education research printed in the education research literature guiding innovative curriculum developers in the incipient domain of drone education. As a result, teachers interested in including emerging technologies in their classrooms are often at a loss of where to begin. Through clinical interviews with schoolteachers in the United States, our study identified five readily accessible “departure points” to include drones in contemporary STEM & vocational technology (CTE) school classrooms that help teachers address common curricular goals. Taken together, these interviews reveal that teachers using drones follow one of several distinct pathways as a first step toward achieving a widespread goal of teaching students to use modern technologies to construct, pursue, and communicate findings of fruitful research inquiries—the prevalence of which is not reflected in a comprehensive literature review. The five pathways for starting a successful drone education emerging from the interview data as dominant were: timed-racing trials; precision-flight obstacle courses; computer coding; videography; and domain-specific knowledge of drone operations laws and ethics.
Online: 10 July 2020 (15:59:53 CEST)
On the 30thanniversary of the Karolinska Institutet Summer Research School for High School students an evaluation was carried out of the school’s activities. The evaluation was performed by questionnaire sent to 533 former students and also by searching the KI course registration database for all former students who went on to register in under- or postgraduate education at KI. Approximately half of all former Summer School students performed their undergraduate studies at KI, predominantly in the medical program. Those were far more likely to choose a research-oriented education than their peers. KI Medical students who previously attended the Summer School were also more likely to later register for PhD education than their peers who did not attend the summer school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0592.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: higher education expansion; sustainable employment; perceived organizational support; career adaptability; self-exploration; environment exploration; sustainable career guidance; sustainability competencies
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:12:38 CEST)
The research aims to examine the extent to which the perceived organizational support (POS) predicted career related self and environmental exploration via the mediation effect of career adaptability. Multi-group comparisons based on the gender, majors and places of origin were also performed to evaluate the differences among these variables. An internet survey was conducted to collect empirical data from 611 Chinese undergraduates. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to demonstrate the proposed relations in the model and multiple group analysis. Clearly supported was the direct relations between POS and career related self and environmental exploration and the mediation effect of career adaptability. The results also showed that gender and major are the moderating variables for the proposed model, and no significance difference among the rural and urban subgroups was found. POS could be effectively delivered to students in general, marginalized social groups, such as females and those majored in the humanities and social sciences in particular. Four dimensions of career adaptability (concern, control, curiosity and confidence) could also be targeted at in order to promote students’ sustainable employment. The findings provide a better understanding of the career construction model by incorporating the contextual factor in a collective cultural environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Career development; career conceptions; career education; middle school; educational intervention
Online: 3 November 2022 (03:21:35 CET)
Several studies confirmed the importance of career education interventions since childhood. This study aimed at testing a career education intervention designed for middle school students, conducted, after a specific training on Social Cognitive Career Theory, by students’ teachers. The career conceptions were assessed in both experimental and control groups through the Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment protocol before and after career education intervention. Result showed that. starting from the same level and increased their conceptions after the intervention. Experimental group increase, in a statistically significant way, more than the control group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0404.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: self-directed learning; graduate education; flow; David J. Rowe; open mindedness; mentoring; symmetry; narrative research; STEM
Online: 31 May 2022 (02:55:28 CEST)
The ability to self-direct a research program determines graduate degree completion. Yet, research on incompletion of graduate physics programs assume students’ present level of self-direction adequate and neglects to recognize a lack of self-directed learning as key. One theoretical mathematical physicist focused on changing this challenge of physics graduate education by promoting self-directed learning through the type research flow that has been found to bring the greatest satisfaction to researchers with respect to their insights. This he provided through his space, time, open mindedness and theoretical contributions with his students and in collaboration with his colleagues. A self-directed learner himself, David J. Rowe developed methods of mentoring for encouraging physics graduate students to recognize symmetry as valuable in identifying solutions to problems quickly—helping these students take the lead in finding insightful resolutions to complex, multidimensional, mathematical physics uncertainties. How Rowe set about supporting self-directed learning in his graduate physics education interactions will be examined with the use of narrative research to interpret the texts and conversations with the author he made available. His techniques will be presented and recommendations made regarding how Rowe’s work in this regard can be modeled to improve self-direction in STEM graduate education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0212.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Education; effectiveness; intervention; food and nutrition education; knowledge; schoolchildren
Online: 9 September 2022 (07:43:19 CEST)
School-aged children may benefit from education interventions focused on healthy eating and physical activity to improve their quality of life. This article aims to review scientific evidence on food and nutrition education (FNE) in Spanish-speaking countries for the prevention of overweight and obesity in school-aged children (6-12 y). Articles were searched between April and August 2021. The searches were conducted using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and SciELO. The primary search for articles focused on the experience of FNE interventions in Spanish-speaking countries. Overall, 518 articles were found and 33 studies were eligible for data extraction. Forty-two percent of the studies had a focus on FNE and 64% were focused on describing the eating habits of schoolchildren. Nutritional assessments (anthropometric) were found frequently with 91% and 30% of the studies focused on physical activity. All interventions focused on preventing or reducing overweight and obesity in school-age children. Educational, cognitive, dietary, and physical activity practices were described, whit being educational the most frequent intervention. Interventions reported positive effects of FNE interventions to improve knowledge and practices of healthy lifestyles in school-age children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cyber-Security; Cyber-Physical Systems; Education; Power Systems; Real-Time testbed Smart Grids
Online: 18 July 2023 (14:22:05 CEST)
The increased adoption of information and communication technology for smart grid applications will require innovative cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds to support research and education in the field. The groundbreaking CPS testbeds with realistic and scalable platforms have progressively gained interest in recent years, with electric power flowing in the physical layer and information flowing in the network layer. However, CPSs are critical infrastructures and not designed for testing or direct training, as any misbehaving in an actual system operation could cause a catastrophic impact on its operation. Based on that, it is not easy to efficiently train professionals in CPSs. Aiming to support the advancement and encourage the training of industry professionals, this paper proposes and develops a complete testbed with commercial tools. The testbed can reliably replicate the performance of smart grid systems and the main potential cyber threats that electric grids may face. The complex interdependencies between the cyber and physical domains are discussed in detail, and different case scenarios are presented, providing insightful guidelines for key features and design decisions for future smart grid testbeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0958.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: adult educators; digital education; media education; sustainability in education
Online: 15 November 2023 (16:31:49 CET)
This paper exposes the initial part of a research consisting in a need analysis carried out by the Romanian partner in the Erasmus+ "Media Education for Aware Adults" project, regarding digital competences and media education of adult educators or trainers. After a short introduction on the subject, in the paper are presented the main findings of the desk research, and two focus group sessions, first one for identifying the necessary digital competences of adult educators, and second one for identifying the elements that educators need in order to adequately support adults in their learning process, especially in relation to the digital environment. The results of the initial research will lead to the development of the main intellectual outputs, namely the digital competences framework, handbook, online platform and training material on digital and media education. In their development will be taken into account, on the one hand, the needs identified in the initial research, and, on the other hand, the need for a sustainable approach to all activities, resources and outputs produced, as well as education itself, this goal being assumed through the project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: geography education; tourism education; curriculum; textbook; secondary education
Online: 19 December 2022 (10:09:48 CET)
Since the mid-20th century, tourism has become a strategic activity for the economy of the Balearic Islands, causing profound social, territorial and environmental transformations. This fact challenges local society, which must be aware of its environment in order to better face the future challenges posed by this economic activity. With this goal, the official curriculum has been analyzed, making it possible to ascertain the approach with which this subject is taught by the administration and what objectives are set. Furthermore, a review was carried out of the contents of geography textbooks in the third year of ESO and the second year of Baccalaureate, which correspond to the educational stages in which tourism aspects appear. The results obtained represent a fundamental strategic diagnosis in order to improve the teaching and learning of this key activity for the Balearic Islands, giving it more importance and adapting its approach to the current times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0515.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Positive education; Pygmalion effect; learned helplessness; lifelong education; adult education
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:52:15 CET)
Positive education is seen as a transformative methodological approach capable of improving the act of teaching and learning and, above all, essential for the development of students' personal skills and competences. However, few studies have been carried out on this subject in the field of lifelong and adult education. This study works with a sample of 399 people over 16 years of age and students of the Universidad Popular de Dos Hermanas in order to show the relationship between the Pygmalion effect and learned helplessness in the process of acquiring knowledge in adulthood. In this way, three tools were used: a questionnaire that showed teachers' perceptions of students' qualities and behaviour and two that provided information on self-concept, self-esteem, personal and social skills and other variables directly related to emotional intelligence and positive education. It shows how exposure to negative operational conditioning factors influences the psychosocial and socio-educational development of students in every possible way, while on the other hand, it indicates the importance of positive education to compensate for this phenomenology by improving the development and growth of those who study and participate in non-formal education. Likewise, the factorial interrelation of both positive and negative conditioning factors and their incidence on learning is shown; the importance of neutralising the negative components and strengthening the positive reinforcement and the role played by the community and education professionals as catalysts and behavioural modulators at any stage of learning and age group for the achievement of the objectives of the student and of education itself in a broad sense
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: mathematics education; special education; problem solving; critical mathematics education; disability studies
Online: 13 April 2017 (10:11:23 CEST)
Students with disabilities are often framed as “the problem” and have limited opportunities to engage in standards based mathematics, leading to persistent underachievement. In this paper, we investigate a research divide between mathematics educational research for students with and without disabilities, a divide with significant differences in the theoretical orientations and research methodologies used to understand learners. Based on an analysis of 149 mathematics educational research articles published between 2013 and 2015, we found significant differences between articles focused on learners with and without disabilities. For those with disabilities, mathematical problem solving was understood primarily from behavioral and information processing theoretical perspectives, while for those without disabilities, problem solving was understood primarily through constructivist and sociocultural perspectives. While 86% of research on problem-solving including students with disabilities was quantitative, only 35% of research on students without disabilities was quantitative. Fifty percent of problem-solving research on students without disabilities was qualitative, compared to only 6% of research on students with disabilities. Problem solving, then, is studied in very different ways for learners with and without disabilities. Students without disabilities are studied through close analysis of learning, often individual. Students with disabilities are most often studied quantitatively, in groups, with little analysis of individual thinking. By offering only a limited range of methods and theoretical orientations, this research divide reifies deficit constructions of students with disabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: physical education, emotions, social skills, primary education
Online: 19 April 2018 (16:43:03 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore the intensity of emotions and social skills in a physical education teaching unit (PE). Two instruments of analysis are used: the GES (Games and Emotion Scale) to evaluate emotions and an ad-hoc questionnaire to measure the social skills of 21 students in the sixth year of primary education. The data analysis was carried out using a generalised estimating equation model (GEE), taking into account the correlation between the different scores of the same subject and the asymmetry of the data. The results show positive emotions to be significantly more intense than negative ones and ambiguous emotions are revealed throughout all the PE sessions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: circular economy; eco-design; business education; economics education; competencies; Management Education; ADKAR
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:57:09 CEST)
The Circular Economy is matter of recent discussions and quite popular, however the meaning has not been understood by most Business stakeholders. This Case study proposes to illustrate the Circular Economy importance and its status now. The contribution that UAE education sector can make to the Circular Economy is immense and is the focus of this study. Circular Economy awareness and its inner meaning can be only spread by the education sector and the author emphasizes the role of the education can play in implementing the Circular Economy. The study shows the way for the future Managers and Business stakeholders to participate in this crucial endeavor of Businesses to follow the Circular Economy. The ADKAR change management can be adopted to inspire the CE initiatives of the UAE Education sector.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Zambia; Higher Education and Quality Assurance; Zambia’s Higher Education
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:58:38 CET)
This paper discussed the concept of quality assurance (QA) in higher education and its implications to higher education institutions (HEIs) and the possible challenges. The study evaluated literature concerning QA in Zambia and elsewhere. The findings of the study show that QA is implemented through external and internal mechanisms such as accreditation, registration, institutional auditing, and the use of external examiners, self-evaluation, and peer reviews. The QA implications to HEIs in Zambia are that there is a need for accreditation of academic programmes with the Higher Education Authority (HEA) by HEIs. Further, HEIs should establish QA units to spearhead quality issues, reactive, and introduce the use of external examiners to ensure quality. The challenges identified in the implementation of QA in HEIs include inadequate funding, infrastructure, shortage of qualified academic staff, and lack of standalone QA units in some HEIs. In this regard, it has been recommended among other things, government improve funding in public HEIs, construct infrastructure, HEIs establish QA units, and recruit and retain qualified academic staff to ensure the quality of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: General education; Basic education; School governance; Secondary education.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:45:45 CEST)
In Vietnam, general education includes primary education, lower secondary education (the period of basic education) and upper secondary education (the period of vocational orientation education). In particular, primary education is compulsory for all children from 6 to 14 years old, is implemented in 5 school years, from first grade to fifth grade. The age of students entering first grade is six years old. Primary education aims to help students form the initial foundations for proper and long-term development of morality, intelligence, physicality, aesthetics and basic skills for students to continue high school. Secondary education is conducted in four school years, from grade six to grade nine. Students entering sixth grade must have an elementary school diploma. Secondary education aims to help students consolidate and develop the results of primary education; have basic secondary education and initial knowledge about technology and career to continue high school, vocational high school, vocational training or enter a working life. High school education is conducted in 3 school years, from grade ten to grade twelve. Students entering tenth grade must have a junior high school diploma. High school education is aimed at helping students consolidate and develop the outcomes of lower secondary education, complete high school education and common knowledge about technology and career guidance for further college education, college, professional secondary school, apprenticeship or enter the working life. Thus, the term general education is a term with broad connotation including primary education, lower secondary education (basic education period) and upper secondary education (education period) career orientation. Within the scope of this research, we use the term school governance used to mean a mode of action, which is directed toward the goal of being accomplished effectively, by and through others. Governance activities are indispensable activities that arise when people work together to accomplish goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: serious games; science education; games in education; augmented reality
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:29:49 CET)
Keeping in mind the increasing trend and need for serious games in science education, we have done a systematic literature review. These papers show the trends and patterns of research carried out in this field from the year 2011 to 2020. Specifically, we investigated country-wise concentration and the most common evaluation methods. Literature is reviewed from IEEEexplore, Springer, and Scopus. Moreover, we discussed the role of Augmented Reality(AR) games in teaching physics. Lastly, we have discussed the positive and negative aspects of serious games in science education in particular, and the trend of using serious games in the past decade in education in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: university; sociology of education; economism; social institution; higher education; modernization
Online: 27 February 2019 (05:04:32 CET)
On the termination of nearly twenty years since the beginning of commercialization of the Ukrainian higher education the intensity of discussion of its purposes, results and possible amendments don't decrease neither among experts, nor among the interested public. Supporters and opponents of commercialization note that education is that social branch which participates in the formation of prerequisites of economic growth. The main point of the article is to disclose the essence of the phenomena of economism and commercialization. Economism is seen as part of globalization of education, a global corporatization of education provides training for the global labour market, using human capital economic theories. As noted by George Spring, the human capital, economists argue that investments in education lead to economic growth, reducing income inequality and increasing employment. The article confirms that the state educational policy as a component of social policy is one of instruments of influence of the state on formation of social structure and is directed to the solution of problems of societal level. It does relevant sociological examination of transformational processes in education and, in particular, results of commercialization. Thus, it is possible to claim that the educational system tests the uncommon influence of globalization, forming and building a peculiar system of the relations and interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0591.v1
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:52:40 CEST)
Under the dual background of underemployment and health inequality, this paper empirically analyzes the impact of education level on underemployed workers’ health based on CLDS2016 data. The results show that underemployment is significantly related to the decline of self-rated health, increased depression tendency, and morbidity in a certain period. The results indicate that underemployment can significantly reduce the health level of workers in the low education level group and the high education level group. However, it has no significant impact on workers’ health in the middle education level group; even if we change the measurement method of indicators and consider endogeneity, the research conclusion is still robust. Moreover, this kind of health inequality mainly comes from the difference in economic effect and leisure effect of underemployment to workers with different educational levels. This paper provides empirical support for increasing the labor protection mechanism of underemployed people and reducing the health inequality caused by educational level differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: NEP; new education policy; Indian education system; technology in education; outcome based education
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:39:53 CEST)
Bridging the gap between traditional education and matching the pace of education with the rest of the world, Govt. of India implemented a new education policy this year which was much awaited for a long time. The new education policy is a big step to change India's overall education scenario by changing the examination pattern. However, this new type of decision-making process seeks to ensure that it achieves great benefits covering all uncovered elements while keeping technology as a parameter, so this new policy in the previous education system is also missing some key issues that must be addressed in the next amendments. Making it an example of impact, this paper describes salient issues where new educational policies are silent or those grey areas have been only superficially touched upon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0156.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: COVID-19; Art & Design; hybrid education; online education; technology-enhanced learning
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:12:22 CET)
Digital skills are essential in today’s digital age, which means that students must gain technology-enhanced skills from higher education for their future careers. Studies in Art & Design (A&D) programs in this university surveyed three faculties’ perspectives and nineteen students’ experiences. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this university changed its teaching and learning strategies by offering courses online during autumn 2020 and spring 2021 during mandatory quarantine. However, the A&D program was not entirely based online. As a result, it is important to take a closer look at the A&D programs offered in order to assess the faculties’ perspectives and students’ experiences during the two online semesters. The study included online surveys from instructors’ perspectives and with regard to students’ experiences about the quality of studio learning, traditional studio learning opportunities, and online studio learning opportunities via either live (on-campus) or online studios. Using relationship-based research design, posttest data surveys were collected to ascertain the differences in the mean scores, standard deviations, and percentages of some forms of agreement between the faculties’ perspectives and students’ experiences of the quality of studio learning, traditional studio learning opportunities, and online studio learning opportunities in these Art & Design (A&D) programs. This quantitative research aimed to develop formative assessments and suggestions while establishing whether it would be possible to hold all A&D courses online in a higher education setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sexual education; affective education; health education; school; qualitative research.
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:30:56 CET)
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content analysis. Twelve open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: ‘In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education’ and ‘Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families’. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education, Education 5.0, Education 6.0, Technology in Education , Educational Philosophy, Learning experience , Curriculum, paradigm shift, Future of Education, Learning sciences, teaching, cognitive science, educational psychology, Holistic development.
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:41:29 CEST)
As education continues to evolve in response to technological advancements, the concept of Education 5.0 has gained prominence. However, it is crucial to critically analyze the limitations and challenges of this model. This article presents a comprehensive examination of Education 5.0, identifies its drawbacks, and proposes a vision for Education 6.0. Through insightful case studies and discussions, this article aims to provide a nuanced perspective on the future of education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0954.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Lifelong learning; continuing professional education; nutrition; dietetics; interprofessional education; equity; access
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:12:38 CEST)
Lifelong learning has been integral to advancement of the nutrition and dietetics profession and its practitioners. Both the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) advocate for continuous skill development and professional growth. Responding to evolving environmental trends and diverse practice perspectives, CDR joined the Joint Accreditation for Interprofessional Continuing Education organization in 2020 and CDR is transforming its own continuing professional education (CPE) requirements and prior approval program. This paper, a historical perspective and current state review, chronicles past and recent developments in nutrition and dietetics CPE, including opportunities for reflective learning and interprofessional continuing education (IPCE). Also explored are the establishment and expansion of the Joint Accreditation organization and its standards, as well as applicable case examples. Additionally, the paper outlines CDR’s and the Academy's strategies to advance inclusion, diversity, equity, and access (IDEA) within the profession and identifies how CPE advancements may facilitate accessible and equitable CPE for an increasingly diverse membership of practitioners. Nutrition and dietetics professionals stand to benefit from a more comprehensive understanding of CPE changes and the opportunities they may bring to the future of the profession.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: neurology; neurophobia; education
Online: 24 February 2021 (10:09:54 CET)
Background: Neurological disorders are the leading cause disability in Australia and the world. Combating the perceived difficulty of neurology or “neurophobia” and improving physician education is a key component in addressing this problem. We aim to conduct the first study to identify whether neurophobia exists in medical students and junior doctors in an Australian population and try to identify factors that may contribute to this in this population. Methods: A 24 question online validated survey was distributed via email broadcast to all medical students and junior doctors at a metropolitan tertiary care centre in Australia. Responses were collected over 6 weeks with weekly reminder emails for 4 weeks after the initial invitation email. Results: 114 medical students and junior doctors participated in the study. Participants perceived neurology as the most difficult medical speciality compared to 10 other medical specialties (p=0.001). The top three factors contributing to this perceived difficulty were: a lack of understanding of neuroanatomy, lack of diagnostic certainty and lack of clinical exposure. 65% of the participants stated that they had too little planned teaching in neurology with only 36% of the participants having performed a neurology rotation during medical school. Conclusion: The prevalence of neurophobia in this Australian cohort of medical students and junior doctors is consistent with previous findings from around the world. This concerning finding requires further examination into the contributing factors in order to created trials of targeted interventions in order to resolve this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2073.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: green chemistry education; sustainability; scientific and technological literacy; science, technology and society; interdisciplinary studies; environmental education; chemical education
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:29:52 CEST)
In this paper, a distinction is first made between environmental, sustainable and green chemistry; the last two are then examined in relation to the more general problem of the environmental education. A brief historical digression on the STS (Science, Technology and Society) movement tries to dissect the reasons why chemistry is seen by the general public as a problem, not as a decisive resource for the realization of the ecological transition. Although sustainable and green chemistry can be decisive in overcoming the insularity of chemical disciplines in the high school, it fails to effectively embed itself in educational practices. Specific operational goals, supporting a real scientifical and technological literacy in sustainable and green chemistry, can help chemical educators. They are provided at the end of an examination of the founding axes of sustainable and green chemistry, according to the criteria of scientific and technological literacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0562.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: ICT; digital competence; innovative education; primary education; early childhood education
Online: 23 March 2021 (10:40:16 CET)
Digital Educational Recourses (DER) have undergone a rapid evolution and integration into the educational contexts. Teachers play a fundamental role in incorporating technology into their classrooms, so it is important to identify the value that teachers on DER and reflect on the implications for their practice. Through the qualitative methodology the necessary data is obtained with open-response inter-views with teachers. This dataset was analysed and categorised using AQUAD. The results suggest that teachers acknowledge the importance of integrating digital re-sources into their classrooms, although there was no consensus regarding the appropriate level at which to do so. Further the inter-views revealed that younger teachers tend to use more self-elaborated or selected resources. Teachers noted the benefits of using technology, especially in regard to maintaining student motivation, how-ever they also highlighted a number of extrinsic challenges and limitations. The results indicate there is a relationship between teachers’ perceptions and their practice, although this could be improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0645.v1
Online: 23 April 2021 (17:49:48 CEST)
The balance between theory and practice in architectural education is a permanent element of the discussion on teaching architecture. The article discusses the method of implementation of practical knowledge of the architectural profession at Poland’s largest department of architecture – Cracow University of Technology. Showing the subsequent stages of the education process on the way to obtaining authorization to independent design in Poland. Against this background, the didactic methods used in the initially experimental subject and now regular one taught at the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University of Cracow together with the Chamber of Architects of the Republic of Poland since 2018 are discussed. The results of this collaboration and the didactic effects are discussed. The experience of adapting methods for remote education in connection with the pandemic of Covid-19 is also presented. In conclusion, because of the obtained results in response to the legal changes introduced by the State, the proposed new model of professional practice is discussed which, in the coming years, will cover all architecture universities in Poland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: University; emotional education; social ambit; cognitive domain; physical education degree
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:21:11 CET)
The objective of the present study was to apply an intervention program based on emotional ed-ucation and self-knowledge, in students of the degree in Education to verify changes in wisdom. For this, the 3S-WS questionnaire was administered before and after 8 weeks of intervention, an-alyzing aspects related to affective, cognitive and reflective wisdom. The sample consisted of 100 students (40 men and 60 women, aged between 20 and 29 years). After the intervention program, students improved reflective wisdom without difference between sexes. On the other hand, men had higher values in all variables than women. In conclusion, the program to improve personal development and self-awareness could be useful to improve wisdom (especially reflective wis-dom) in 3rd and 4th year students of the degree in Education, specializing in Physical Education. At the same time, it is intended that these students understand the foundations of the intervention so that in the future it can be replicated in their classrooms and contribute to the sustainable de-velopment of the 2030 Agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Empathy; Emotional Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional competences; pre-primary Education
Online: 16 December 2022 (14:05:19 CET)
Today, concepts such as Emotional Education and Emotional Intelligence are recognized by many authors and researchers, emphasizing the importance of their development in all people, but especially in schools, specifically in teachers or educators and children. However, we still find many shortcomings within the schools that are needed to continue working. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of emotional intelligence and empathy in teachers, through a sample of 42 participants. The research was conducted based on two validated and highly reliable assessment tools, called TMMS-24 and TECA. The results of the TMMS-24 indicate that a large percentage of participants have an adequate score of emotional intelligence. The results of the TECA indicate that most of the participants are in the middle, high or extremely high scores in relation to the level of empathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1288.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Changing Landscape; Challenges in Higher Education; Jobs of 2030; Transforming Education
Online: 20 September 2023 (02:21:43 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about major changes in our world and has accelerated the progress of the job market. This presents both a challenging and exciting prospect for the workforce in the future, particularly in 2030 and beyond. Through thorough literature reviews, this paper navigates the constantly changing landscape of education and employment. It specifically focuses on the importance of preparing students for the jobs of the future by fostering skills such as adaptability, critical thinking, empathy, integrity, optimism, proactivity, and resilience. The pandemic has accelerated the need for online learning and remote work skills, which are now essential for future success. Through observations, the paper also examines the pulse of the situation in Iligan City, Philippines, where aligning educational institutions with the changing job market is crucial. Overall, this paper has significant implications for educational reforms and real-world challenges, creating a guide for institutions to empower students and contribute to the city's economic growth. Significant information suggests that in a constantly evolving world, those who are prepared, adaptable, and equipped with the skills to shape the future will succeed. Iligan City is well-aware that it needs to position itself to play a pivotal role in this journey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1817.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Injury; education; training; equipment
Online: 27 September 2023 (17:14:22 CEST)
Occupational injury is widely acknowledged as a significant public health concern. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding occupational harm within the context of small-scale and woodworking firms in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to examine the knowledge and practices of woodworkers in Cameroon with the purpose of formulating suggestions for enhancement. This study employed a quantitative research design and targeted a sample of 223 workers. The participants were selected a snowball sampling approach was used to select participants from small-scale and informal wood processing enterprises located in the Tiko, Mutengene, Buea, Ekona, and Muyuka districts. Data collection was completed using a structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that most individuals engaged in woodworking were male, of a younger age, and possessed limited experience. These woodworkers primarily acquired their skills through apprenticeship programmes and were known to work extended hours. The respondents exhibited a notable lack of knowledge and adherence to workplace health and safety procedures. The study found a statistically significant association (p<0.05) between woodworkers' age, medium of training, job category and their knowledge of specific occupational health and safety (OHS) components. The study revealed that there is a strong association between the practise of specific occupational health and safety (OHS) components and various factors among woodworkers. These factors include the level of education, the medium through which they obtained training, their work experience, and the type of employment. Importantly, each of these factors individually contributes to the observed association. The study suggests that it is necessary to implement effective strategies to reduce the incidence of work-related injuries. This can be achieved by improving health and safety promotion initiatives, particularly through the provision of pre-employment occupational health and safety (OHS) training for newly hired employees. Additionally, it is important to ensure that workers are equipped with appropriate personal protective equipment, as well as necessary supplies such as suitable fire extinguishers and first aid kits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0243.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: distance education; open and distance education; student retention; survival analysis
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:22:55 CEST)
Student retention is one indicator of accountability in the implementation of educational programs. Achievement of student retention rates indicates the performance of the quality objectives of an institution or college. To get an accurate picture of the factors related to retention, we need to do modeling. The retention variable is the time response variable measured in semester units. One of the statistical analyzes that can be used to analyze response data in time is survival analysis. The selection of an accurate analytical method in modeling will produce valid conclusions and impact making policies that are right and on target. This paper presents alternative modeling of student retention in distance education using survival analysis. The method used is a literature review. This paper also briefly describes distance education, open and distance education, distance education students' characteristics, distance education student retention, and survival models for modeling student retention in distance education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0433.v1
Online: 8 October 2023 (07:59:55 CEST)
This paper applies a theoretical model to analyze the ways that widespread use of generative AIs (GAIs) in education and, more broadly, in contributing to and reflecting the collective intelligence of our species, can and will change us. The model extends Brian Arthur’s insights into the nature of technologies as the orchestration of phenomena to our use by explaining the nature of humans participation in their enactment, whether as part of the orchestration (hard technique, where our roles must be performed correctly) or as orchestrators of phenomena (soft technique performed creatively or idiosyncratically). Education may be seen as a technological process for developing the soft and hard techniques of humans to participate in the technologies and thus the collective intelligence of our cultures. Unlike all earlier technologies, by embodying that collective intelli-gence themselves, GAIs can closely emulate and implement not only the hard technique but also the soft that, until now, was humanity’s sole domain: the very things that technologies enabled us to do can now be done by the technologies themselves. The consequences for what, how, and even whether we learn are profound. The paper explores some of these consequences and concludes with theoretically informed approaches that may help us to avert some dangers while benefiting from the strengths of generative AIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Catholic education; Catholic schools; Religious Education; de-traditionalised culture
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:37:19 CEST)
Philip Phenix’s (1964) book Realms of meaning started the ever growing movement concerned with how school education might help young people in their search for meaning in times of rapid social change. Today, in globalised, digital, secularised, de-traditionalised culture, the importance and urgency of this role have never been greater. Cultural change has accelerated exponentially, and for many – including students in religious/Catholic schools – traditional religious sources of meaning are no longer prominent or plausible reference points. Catholic schools, whether independent or semi-state institutions because of government funding, can make a valuable contribution young people’s spiritual/moral education, no matter what their level of religious affiliation or practice. This article argues that such a contribution requires change to the discourse or narrative of Catholic school Religious Education, with corresponding adjustments to content and pedagogy. Its present trajectory, which is excessively concerned with promoting a Catholic identity in students, needs to be modified. Both the religious and non-religious students, especially in the senior classes, would derive greater spiritual and religious benefit from the inclusion of more life-relevant and issue-related content, together with a critical, research-oriented pedagogy. Such an approach proposes that the Catholic Church’s schools should offer unconditionally a meaningful spiritual/moral education that is relevant to all students, rather than a traditional one which seemed to presume that all students are, or should be practising Catholics. This does not minimise attention to the Catholic tradition, but it allows for a study of how people negotiate the task of constructing meaning and values in a complex culture. The article also looks at the ‘headwinds’ that hinder the implementation of this approach. The article is focused specifically on the Australian context where Catholic schools are semi-state institutions because they are funded by both state and federal governments. The issues are still likely to be pertinent to Catholic education in other countries, while taking into account significant contextual differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0769.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economics education; Sustainability
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:40:02 CEST)
The goals of the Agenda 2030 require a significant effort to educate and train new generations on sustainability issues. This article presents an initiative in favor of the evolution of the contents and the pedagogy of economics at the University level. We present the new “Ecological Money and Finance” textbook developed by SDSN France. We detail the assumptions, contents and learning objectives proposed in this new textbook. Then, we describe how it can be used in the framework of an experiential pedagogy of economics, taking as a case study the fundamental economics course of the Grande Ecole program at KEDGE BS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1717.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: comprehensive sexuality education; curriculum; disability; education
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:56:30 CEST)
Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) is an important framework utilized worldwide to provide students and young people with accurate, affirming, and socially conscious sexuality education. However, there is still a lack of CSE curricula in school contexts that is relevant for students with various disabilities. This article takes the Ontario, Canada context as an example of where and how CSE can improve to be more inclusive for students with disabilities. This article reviews the current context of CSE in Ontario, Canada, including its controversies while providing recommendations for meeting the needs of students with various disabilities, including psychological, intellectual, and physical disabilities. This article aims to provide recommendations that are relevant for scholars, researchers, and policymakers in various international contexts for improving CSE for students with disabilities in schooling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0551.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; preschool education; inclusion; public policies
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:41:10 CEST)
In this study, we analyze the perspectives of Early Childhood Educators, working in various teaching sectors, on Inclusion in Preschool Education, following the publication of Decree-Law No. 54/2018, of July 6th, at a time when Learning and Inclusion Support Measures are being extended to all children, and when the SARS-CoV-19 (COVID-19) pandemic prevails in Portugal and worldwide. Based on a mixed-methodological approach and the application of a questionnaire survey to 250 Early Childhood Educators, we reflect on the implementation of the legal framework, the involvement of the Multidisciplinary Learning and Inclusion Support Team (EMAEI), teacher training, pedagogical/collaborative work, and support mobilized for Preschool Education children. The results obtained indicate quality and effectiveness in the pedagogical plan and collaborative work between teachers and specialist technicians, although higher education in the field of Inclusive Education does not seem to provide professionals with the necessary and in-depth knowledge on the subject. They also indicate that, alongside dissatisfaction with the insufficient support provided to Preschool Education children, the relevant Diploma is not fully applied, with doubts still remaining about its application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education policy; funding allocation; higher education; HESP; neoliberalism; public goods
Online: 2 November 2023 (16:28:42 CET)
Allocations of funding for higher education have typically focused on competition in neoliberal mechanisms. Surprisingly, much less attention has been paid to considering the effect of fund allocations for public goods purposes in neoliberal contexts. This study aims to examine specific funding schemes and determine the influential factors impacting the funding for teaching, research, and public goods intention. Taking Taiwan's Higher Education Sprout Project (HESP) as a unique example, we explored the effect of policy initiatives on public goods transformation. The data was collected from the Ministry of Education and Scopus database. First, the t-test and ANOVA were used to detect the differences between the system and sector; Second, regression analysis was used to determine influential factors for funding allocations; Final, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the causal effects among the selected variables. The study found that only diversity was shown in private technology groups receiving less HESP funding. The findings suggest that the funding allocation may not affect teaching and research based on sectors and systems. In contrast, this study demonstrates that transforming the public good through special funding can play a critical role in policy intention in neoliberal higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0528.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Health; Emotions; Materials; Physical Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional Education; Elderly
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:46:14 CEST)
This research is aimed at the knowledge of the effectiveness of the material resources in the sensa-tions of exploratory procedures in 365 older people who take part in the physical activity that the Sport Municipal Institute (SMI) offers in the different sports centers assigned to it in the city of Se-ville, using a descriptive design and with a questionnaire developed and validated previously by the Delphi method; showing the relationship between the basic emotions that seniors experience when handling sport, and the materials. So it is claimed that exist a relation between older people, which practice exercise with the materials that they use on it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0115.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: gifted and talented students; twice-exceptional students; gifted education; special education
Online: 9 December 2019 (03:59:20 CET)
Gifted students are usually known as students who have exceptional cognitive and learning abilities. This can be made clear through their learning performance or test scores. However, there are other students who have been identified as gifted and talented, yet have some learning and /or physical disabilities, and these are called twice-exceptional students. Identifying this population of gifted students is usually problematic because their disabilities and difficulties may mask their abilities and vice versa. It has been suggested that twice-exceptional students’ skills and abilities cannot be improved simply by working harder. Instead, these students need teachers to understand their strengths and weaknesses, use teaching strategies that fit their disabilities and serve their needs, and include their parents and educators in their learning process. Thus, this conceptual paper provides an extensive overview of the needs, challenges, and teaching strategies related to twice-exceptional students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching and learning ıssues in mathematics; social ıssues in mathematics education; cultural ıssues in mathematics education; political ıssues in mathematics education; technological ıssues in mathematics education
Online: 5 June 2017 (06:13:28 CEST)
In this paper, we discuss major issues of mathematics teaching and learning in Nepal. The issues coming from theories such as social and radical constructivism suggest that teachers are not trained to use such approach in teaching mathematics, and there is a lack of teaching aids and materials and technological tools. The issues related to social aspects are gender issues, language issues, social justice issues, and issues related to the achievement gap. The cultural issues are related to the diversity of language and ethnicity. The issues related to political aspects are equity and access, economic status, pedagogical choice, and professional organizations and unions. The issues related to technology include the technological skills, use of technology, and affordance. Finally, we suggest that all the stakeholders should pay attention to resolving these issues by improving the curriculum, training teachers, resourcing the classroom with locally made and new technological tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: occupational health and safety education; quality of health and safety education; health and safety education best practices
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:14:27 CET)
Research into professionalization in health and safety has recently gained in interest. Graduate training is one of the factors that determines or conditions the role of the safety professional, thus intervene in the professionalization process. This article is the result of a workshop and the discussions of nine academic directors of safety education programs about quality evaluation. This article introduces the issue with a historic overview of safety education, presents a synthesis of nine selected education programs, discusses quality evaluation of health and safety education programs, propose a quality evaluation frame and finally, proposes a process for designing a quality safety education program with an associated model of the learning objectives. The outcomes are interesting for everyone who is interested in health and safety education and quality evaluation and will give insights into how safety professionals are educated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: regenerative higher education; podcasting as qualitative inquiry; ecological university; sustaina-bility transitions; regenerative education practices; regenerative education design
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:57:41 CEST)
Abstract Universities have the potential, and the responsibility, to take on more ecological and relational approaches to facilitating learning-based change in times of interconnected socio-ecological crises. Signs for a transition towards these more regenerative approaches of higher education (RHE) that include more place-based, ecological, and relational, ways of educating can already be found in niches across Europe (see for example the proliferation of education-based living labs, field labs, challenge labs). In this paper, the results of a podcast-based inquiry into the design practices and barriers of enacting such forms of RHE are shown. This study revealed seven educational practices that occurred across the innovation niches. It is important to note these practices are enacted in different ways, or are locally nested in unique expressions, For example, while the ‘practice’ of Cultivating Personal Transformations was represented across the included cases, the way these transformations were cultivated were unique expressions of each context. These RHE-design practices are derived from twenty-six narrative-based podcasts as interviews recorded in the April through June 2021 period. The resulting podcast (The Regenerative Education Podcast) was published on all major streaming platforms from October 2021 and included 21 participants active in Dutch Universities, 1 in Sweden, 1 in Germany, 1 in France, and 3 primarily online. Each episode engages with a leading practitioner, professor, teacher, and/or activist that is trying to connect their educational practice to making the world a more equitable, sustainable, and regenerative place. The episodes ranged from 30 to 70 minutes in total length and included both English (14) and Dutch (12) interviews. These episodes were analyzed through transition mapping a method based on story analysis and transition design. The results include seven design practices such as Cultivating Personal Transformations, Nurturing Ecosystems of Support, and Tackling Relevant and Urgent Transition Challenges, as well as a preliminary design tool that educational teams can use together with students and local agents in (re)designing their own RHE to connect their educational praxis with transition challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; teachers’ knowledge; Early Childhood Education; Primary Education
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:53:18 CET)
IIt is important that Master’s Degree students in psychology, regardless of their future specialisa-tion, know about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim is evaluate and an-alyse the ADHD-related knowledge held by students of Early Childhood Education and Primary Education. The findings that were obtained in this study (on the chronicity of the disorder, changes in manifestations throughout the life cycle, and the importance of early and multidisci-plinary intervention) have clear implications in relation to the specific training in ADHD for fu-ture teachers. It is essential to broaden the specific training in relation to ADHD in studies for the Master’s Degrees in Early Childhood Education and Primary Education and through contin-uous training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: eye-tracking; virtual reality; education and VR; education and eye-tracking
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:11:43 CEST)
The concept of using eye-tracking in virtual reality for education has been researched in various fields over the past years. With this review, we aim to discuss the recent advancements and applications in this area, explain the technological aspects, highlight the advantages of this approach and inspire interest in the field. Eye-tracking has already been used in science for many decades and now has been substantially reinforced by the addition of virtual and augmented reality technologies. The first part of the review is a general overview of eye-tracking concepts and its applications. In the second part, the focus shifted towards application of eye-tracking in virtual reality. The third part is the description of the recently emerged concept of eye-tracking in virtual reality when applied to education and studying, which has not been thoroughly described before. We describe the main findings, technological aspects and advantages of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0018.v1
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:17:18 CEST)
Background: In PE, the methodology used to develop coeducation must consider the tastes and preferences of students. The purpose of this work was to analyze how teachers work with different aspects of PE classes and how their work is perceived by students. Methods: The sample was formed by 176 teachers and 1,136 secondary school students. The research design was descriptive. The Questionnaire of Coeducational Aspects in Physical Education for teachers and the Questionnaire of Perception of Equality and Discrimination in Physical Education for Students. Results: The different statistical analyses showed significant differences in how male and female teachers assigned responsibility to the students and their control of motor activity space. In regards to the students, significant differences were found between boys and girls in their opinions of how their teachers apply the same rules to all the students. Conclusions: No differences exist between male and female teachers in regards to their utilization neither of materials and sexist language or in their evaluation and feedback given to the students. In regards to the students, girls perceive to a greater extent than their male counterparts that the activities in PE classes promote equality in the improvement of their capacities.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Higher Education Act; Higher Education; Zambia; Universities
Online: 13 January 2023 (06:33:31 CET)
The higher education act of 2013 with its amendment act of 2021 was enacted to guide and regulate the provision of higher education in Zambia. This conceptual paper sought to assess the impact of this act in the higher education sector. It was qualitative in design and data was collected using content analysis. In this regard, literature regarding the Zambia higher education act and higher education provisions were scrutinised. The findings show that the higher education act has resulted in the creation of the higher education authority (HEA) which has brought sanity to the higher education sector by compelling all higher education institutions to be registering themselves and programmes with HEA. Further, the HEA has developed a policy for the promotion of academic staff in the higher education sector. However, the higher education act (the amended act of 2021) has negatively impacted the higher education sector. The amended act outlawed the spirit of accountability in the running of universities by removing stakeholders such as unions from sitting on the university council. Further, the act has reduced the number of councillors to sit on the council to run public universities from 16 to 8, thereby limiting the diversity of membership to the council. Furthermore, the higher education act has opened higher education institutions' affiliations to even private universities with little or no capacity, thereby further compromising the quality of higher. The Act has also increased the cost of running universities by introducing additional administrative structures in universities. Based on the above findings, the paper recommends that the Act be amended to remove the retrogressive clauses highlighted in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: health education; secondary school; physical education teacher
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:42:33 CEST)
Preparation of students for adult life also includes the area of health care. Health education is part of the core curriculum of Polish schools. The leading role of the health educator is assumed by the physical education teacher, but many other educational tasks are carried out by all school staff. The present study attempts to answer the question: How is health education implemented at school? The research project was carried out among students of various colleges in the city of Szczecin in Poland. At the same time, similar studies were conducted among students from other university in other cities. The research method was a diagnostic survey, with the main assessment tool being the ‘Questionnaire for Assessment of Implementation of Physical Education at Secondary School’ by Krystyna Górna-Łukasik from the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. On the basis of the study results, an attempt was made to determine the forms and methods of work and the involvement of various types of teachers in health education. The statistical analysis sought correlations between the students' opinions about the ways in which the curriculum content was implemented, university majors, and PE teachers’ sex.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0096.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ESD; transformative education; transmissive education; SDGs; HEIs
Online: 9 September 2019 (09:47:00 CEST)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a global initiative towards transforming education for sustainability. The integration of SD into the education portfolio is considered to be an important approach that ensures strategic alignment of higher education with SDGs. A document review was used to identify and discuss the difference between transmissive and transformative education in relation to SDGs and in the context of Somali education. In this trajectory, it is expected that the concept of ‘‘transformative education is likely to become more common to meet the emerging social, economic and environmental issues, yet practical challenges remain in Somaliland HE sector. The roadmap towards addressing transformative education for sustainability is not included in the Somaliland national portfolios; particularly ESD has not been presented. In this regard, this paper proposed a generic framework that spotlights the integration of HEIs and the national development goals (NDGs) in Somaliland. Meanwhile, developed and developing countries are prioritizing structural transformation in their HEIs that are tailored to national and regional development programs. Consistent with the Rio + 20 outcomes, the authors analyzed the concept of the ‘‘sustainable university’’ and identified the fact that it is practically divided into three interrelated and complementary categories, namely social-, environmental-, and economic-oriented university in pursuit of actualizing SD. The paper recommends major reforms in the education sector including availing investment portfolios for R&D, renovation of education goals and transforming universities for sustainability
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0450.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable education; gender effect; physics education; sustainability
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:58:59 CEST)
Determination of the parameters of the movement of surrounding objects, and in particular their speed, is one of the basic skills of a human being. The study of development of basic concepts of motion has been done for years with different methods and in different contexts. We have analyzed the effect of the physical/scientific image of the world introduced to children by school education and its long- and short-term cognitive consequences. Our studies showed that children differentiate the concept of speed into two more specific concepts: average speed and instantaneous velocity. In the present work we present how the gender context is superimposed on this general picture. We found that initial, genuine pre-school concept of speed of girls and boys is, on average, different. Our analysis shows also that this gender effect vanishes quickly together with the appearance of physical definitions of kinematical quantities in physics/science curricula. We discuss also methodological aspect of the statistical ‘gender gap’ measure and we calculated the gender effect chance probability, p-value, to be slightly less than 0.001. The importance of observed effect for the sustainable science teaching processes is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1997.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: EdTech; 3D modelling; digital narrative; software class; Blender; 3D design; 3D education; university education; digital education; higher education
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:41:25 CET)
This research discusses the development of a software-centered EdTech (Education Technology) class model through the implementation of a course titled "3D Time Machine" at a 4-year university in Republic of Korea over two semesters. The course focused on teaching 3D modeling software, Blender, within the history department. The primary objective of offering this course was to equip students from the digital generation with the capability to manipulate digital technology effectively. Through studying historical materials and accumulating domain knowledge, students could construct their narratives from their unique perspectives. This aimed to foster their proficiency in digital technology operation, preparing them for an education environment increasingly centered around virtual worlds. As the use of virtual worlds gains prominence in educational settings, there is a growing need to incorporate curricula that prepare students to thrive as well-prepared citizens in future societies. Assessing the digital competencies of contemporary university students and designing instructional models with particular attention to their needs is becoming increasingly important. This research draws insights from interviews, conducted in both face-to-face and written formats, with students who participated in the "3D Time Machine" course. The interviews revealed valuable insights that can be actively incorporated into the development of software-centered EdTech instructional models. They reported that they expanded their perceptions as they learned how to make their ideas tangible. The course helped students overcome their fear of digital technology. In conclusion, the course effectively employs 3D modeling technology, a software-centered EdTech, as a core element in helping students develop their narratives rapidly and diversely, thereby playing a crucial role in their ability to articulate their unique perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0544.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Teaching Competence (DTC); higher education; continuing teacher education; educational innovation
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:14:56 CEST)
This article analyzes the assessment of the four development levels of the Digital Teaching Competence (DTC) to recognize the needs and formulation of challenges in training and educational innovation required in the pedagogical practices of university professors under the current context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study used an empirical-analytical methodology with a non-experimental, transactional, descriptive design. The sample design was probabilistic, estimated with 95% confidence and 5% error among 252 teachers from various faculties of the University of La Guajira. The selected instrument corresponded to the rubric's application to evaluate the university professor's digital teaching competence in Latin America. Among the study's significant results, we highlight that the rubric presented a high Cronbach's alpha reliability (α: 0.947). In the general assessment of DTC development, it was estimated that 78.2% of teachers are in the first two levels of DTC development assessment (Beginning and Middle). The evaluation rubric allows identifying challenges and opportunities that teacher training must address to advance the professional development of professors.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Zambia’s Higher Education Policy; Policies in Higher Education; Education and Policies in Zambia
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:46:40 CET)
Policies are adopted and implemented to achieve specific goals. In this regard, the Government of Zambia in 2019 adopted the higher education policy with many objectives which include, the expansion of access to higher education; reduction of gender and other forms of inequity in accessing higher education; the improvement of quality of higher education by increasing funding to higher education institutions, construction, and repair of infrastructure in higher and improvement in the provision of learning materials in higher education institutions (HEIs).This paper, therefore, sought to evaluate the higher education policy of 2019. The four criteria were used namely; effectiveness, equity, policy sustainability, and consistency. Other principles such as political and social acceptability of a policy were not used because the policy is already adopted and being implemented. Further, the principle of efficiency was not used because it would have been problematic to gauge the expenditure against the outcomes.The findings have revealed that the policy to some extent has been effective; some of the objectives such as increased access to higher education and reduction of inequality have been partially achieved. It has been established that the number of students pursuing higher education has been increased to 114,049 in 2020 from 91,969 in 2017. Further, in 2021, 48.5% of scholarships in public universities were awarded to female students while 51.5% were awarded to female students. Further, more students are encouraged to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and more women are pursuing studies in STEM-related fields. However, the policy has not helped to achieve the quality of higher education as funding in public HEIs has not improved. Further, infrastructure remains very poor and inadequate; and access to update and relevant learning materials also remains a challenge in HEIs. However, the policy seems to be duplicated by the recent re-launched Technical Education Vocation Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET) national policy.Given the above findings, it has been recommended that the government among other things improve funding and build infrastructure in public HEIs. There is also a need to harmonise the TEVET national policy with the higher education policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0791.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Health Education, Nurse, Hypertension
Online: 31 March 2021 (21:53:24 CEST)
Hypertension is a chronic non-communicable disease which is one of the main causes of serious cardiovascular disease death in the community. The level of treatment and health control for hypertensive patients is still not optimal due to lack of information. Aim was to identify various current methods of health education by nurses and their impact on hypertensive patients. Method Literature review research. The literature was obtained from the Scopus, Sage and PubMed databases with the keywords "Intervention" OR "Methods" AND "Nursing" AND "Hypertension". There are seven literatures that are determined to meet the requirements of the inclusion criteria. Results found three types of health education methods performed by nurses: 1) direct health education methods; nurses meet and meet face to face with patients in the form of individual teaching or training, 2) indirect health education methods; nurses are not face-to-face but use telephone or mobile communication aids to convey information and send SMS about health, and use internet-based websites to convey health information, 3) combined health education methods; nurses face to face with patients and follow-up care is carried out by indirect health education methods. The impact of health education methods carried out by nurses on hypertensive patients is that the level of patient adherence increases in treatment, increased knowledge levels, better blood pressure control, healthy lifestyle practices, adherence to diet, improved quality of life, and positive nurse-patient feedback occurs. in fulfilling mutually agreed upon treatment appointments. Conclusion health education methods carried out by nurses have a very positive impact on disease management and prevention of risk factors for complications in hypertensive patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Informal learning; Computers in education; Distance education and online learning; Learning communities; Mobile learning
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
This article discusses the comparison between digital and traditional face-to-face coaching within the scope of shadow education institutions. While analyzing the differences and similarities between the two educational models, both their advantages and disadvantages are thoroughly discussed. In this context, interviews were conducted with students and teachers who receive education in both face-to-face and digital coaching, and the positive and negative aspects of both institutions, suitable and unsuitable courses, the future situation, and the effects on students' academic achievements were revealed. According to the results obtained from the research, it is noteworthy that students who do not receive education in digital coaching have prejudices against digitalization. Additionally, no significant difference was found between the academic achievements of students receiving education in digital coaching and those receiving education in face-to-face coaching.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1665.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Augmented reality; Education; EdTech; Survey
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:29:34 CEST)
The education landscape is an environment prone to change due to the volatile and ever-changing nature of the digital society in which we all live. Although the world moves at a different pace and any generalization is bound to have several exceptions, there is evidence from research conducted in different places and contexts that educational methods are becoming increasingly digitized and driven by technological innovation. Among technological trends fuelled in many cases by the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to stay at home but online, augmented reality solutions received an additional push as a valid and versatile educational technology worth exploring and eventually integrating into several teaching methods already in use. Although the technology still faces problems related to its affordability, accessibility, and the technical skills required of users, some ongoing projects have already provided evidence that using augmented reality solutions as teaching and learning tools can improve teachers’ and students’ learning outcomes by increasing their engagement and interactivity. The same issues arose when personal computers, tablets, and smartphones were first discussed as valuable tools for education and have now found their way into most classrooms. This paper reviews some of the key concepts related to augmented reality, as well as some current trends, benefits, and concerns related to its inclusion in educational contexts in areas such as life sciences, engineering, and health. The work carried out and presented in this paper provides an interesting insight into a technology that has led to global phenomena, such as Pokémon Go, and is constantly improving in terms of portability, usability, and overall user experience. Throughout the paper and in the conclusions section, we discuss the relevance of using the best features of augmented reality and how they can contribute to positive educational outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Religious Education; Catholic schools; Catholic education; ecclesiastical drift
Online: 2 November 2022 (08:39:55 CET)
Just when Catholic school Religious Education (RE) needs to be more outwardly focused on the contemporary search for meaning, its discourse has ‘drifted’ almost so exclusively into ecclesiastical terminology that its value as a spiritual/moral subject is being eroded –creating an ever widening discontinuity with classroom realities and young people’s spirituality. Religious educators’ perceptions of this problem, labelled as ‘ecclesiastical drift’, were investigated. While ecclesiastical terms were respected, issues related to their excessive usage were identified. By contrast, the unanimous, positive endorsement of educational terms raises the question why such language is largely missing from many Catholic accounts of RE.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anatomy; Medical Education; Teaching; Students; Graduate Medical Education
Online: 14 June 2020 (04:20:42 CEST)
Background: During anatomy (topographic) chair, we prepared an anatomic piece of an older female pelvis (unknown causa mortis). Here, we present an anatomic piece prepared by medical students that helped us to better understand hypertrophic bladder pathophysiology. Methods: A traditional corpse dissection guided by an assistant professor. Results: Corpse dissection enhanced our personal experience during the medical course. It also helped us to better visualize how big a hypertrophic urinary bladder can become as the etiologic cause is not taken care. Conclusions: Despite virtual and 3D anatomy lessons, we believe corpse dissection must remain as a teaching strategy that can help to build a new generation of surgeons as well as honor the History of Medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0045.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Reproductive Health; Sexual Health; Women’s Health; Nursing Curriculum; Nursing Education; Undergraduate Education
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:45:22 CEST)
Background: It is very important that nurses receive adequate training in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). In this study, the contents of the SRH subject in the undergraduate nursing curricula of 77 Spanish universities were examined in order to determine what SRH training nursing students are receiving. Methods: The contents of the SRH subject of all the curricula that were available online were reviewed. The distribution of the contents (topics) in the two areas (reproductive health and sexual health) was analyzed, and the prevalence of each topic was established. It was also determined whether there were differences in topics between public (n=52) and private universities (n=25). Results: The training of nursing students focuses mainly on the area of Reproductive Health (15 topics). Most of the topics of this area had a prevalence greater than 50%. Although the area of Sexual Health had 14 topics, most of these topics had a low prevalence (<20%), especially in private universities. Conclusions: It was found that there is considerable variation in the distribution and prevalence of SRH topics between universities. The contents of the area of Reproductive Health are usually prevalent in most of the curricula, however the contents of the area of Sexual Health are very limited in most of the universities. An organizational effort is required to determine and standardize the contents of SRH that nursing students should receive in Spain to avoid inequalities in their training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: ChatGPT; artificial intelligence; chatbot; education technology; machine learning; dental education; natural language processing
Online: 28 February 2023 (08:18:33 CET)
Background and Purpose: Open-source Artificial intelligence (AI) applications are fast transforming access to information and allow students to prepare assignments and offer quite accurate responses to a wide range of exam questions which are routinely used in assessments of students across the board including undergraduate dental students. This study aims to evaluate the performance ChatGPT, an AI-based application, on a wide range of dental assessments and discusses the implications for undergraduate dental education. Methods: This was an exploratory study investigating the accuracy of ChatGPT to attempt a range of recognized assessments in undergraduate dental curricula. ChatGPT was used to attempt ten items based on each of the five commonly used question formats including single-best answer (SBA) multiple-choice questions (MCQs); short answer questions (SAQs); short essay questions (SEQs); True/False questions and fill in the blanks items. In addition, ChatGPT was used to generate reflective reports based on multisource feedback (MSF); research methodology; critical appraisal of the literature. Results: ChatGPT application provided accurate responses to majority of knowledge-based assessments based on MCQs, SAQs, SEQs, Tue/False and fill in the blanks items. However, it was only able to answer text-based questions and did not allow processing of questions based on images. Responses generated to written assignments were also of good quality apart from those for critical appraisal of literature. Word count was the key limitation observed in outputs by ChatGPT as it was only able to produce reports limited to approximately 650 words. Conclusion: Notwithstanding their current limitations, AI-based applications have the potential to revolutionize virtual learning. Instead of treating it as a threat, dental educators need to adapt teaching and assessments in dental education to the benefits of the learners whilst mitigating against dishonest use of AI-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0102.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: bullying, character, education, teenager, family
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:39:46 CEST)
The research objective was to determine the problem of bullying in teenagers. The method used is a qualitative approach with literature study methods and a quantitative approach with the e-survey method. The results showed that bullying was rife in the school environment with teenagers aged 12-15. Verbal bullying occurs the most because it is the easiest to do. Bullying occurs with a group of people against one person because of peer influence. Family factors, school, the influence of friends, environmental conditions, and television shows influence bullying. Character Education can help overcome bullying in teenagers because it teaches the value of virtue in daily activities if given early and not during teenager. The conclusion found in this activity is that teenagers can become bullies because of family, school, peer influence, social conditions, and television broadcasts. Character Education is more effective if it is implemented since early childhood education and all relevant stakeholders must be actively involved in providing the Character Education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0515.v1
Online: 30 September 2021 (13:57:47 CEST)
This study aims to identify benefits and barriers to distance education, particularly from the perspective of teachers in Saudi Arabia. As the applied data collection tool, a questionnaire was distributed to the general education teachers in three districts. The sample size of the study was 1076 teachers. The results revealed that despite several benefits gained from distance learning, there are also some barriers. Teachers found that the most important advantage in distance learning is the acquisition of technical skills during the online teaching processes, they learn more and use digital education platforms, they have sufficient time to prepare the scientific content, they were able to provide adequate technical solutions for their courses, and they have the opportunity to use multiple media to deliver their courses. With the introduction of distance learning, teachers have explored new ways to deliver course contents to students. It has fostered better ways to provide more interactive real-time and on-demand teaching and learning using modern technology, thus, helping teachers become familiar with the use of electronic resources. It seems that teachers invest in technical methods to enhance students’ performance. Also, teachers reported some obstacles that they face during remote teaching. Most of these problems are connection problems applied with devices and the internet, lack of students’ motivation to learn in distance, problems associated with urban learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mentorship; mentoring culture; minority higher education leadership; leadership; higher education; minority faculty; diversity; inclusivity
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:11:59 CEST)
Recent years have seen organizations increasingly shift towards the development of a mentoring culture, as opposed to the imposition of formalized mentoring programs. This original research paper set out to explore the utility of fostering mentoring cultures within higher education settings with a particular emphasis placed on the ways in which a mentoring culture may support the nurturing of leadership potential and serve underrepresented minority faculty and staff members. Primary data was gathered using an open-ended qualitative survey, which was followed up by semi-structured interviews. One hundred faculty members in diverse academic and administrative leadership roles across the United States were sent online surveys, with 18 individuals expressing interest in participating in a semi-structured interview. Those who responded affirmatively were then contacted via telephone to follow up with further questions. Analysis of their insights, in conjunction with analysis of other literature, suggests that the cultivation of a mentoring culture offers diverse benefits for mentees advancing into leadership positions; for mentors; and for the institution as a whole. Overall, the development of a mentoring culture characterized by informal, spontaneous exchanges, and tailored to the needs of underrepresented minority faculty members, appears to be a useful tool in enhancing leadership potential in higher education contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0); future of Philippines education; Internationalization; K-12 Education
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:48:17 CEST)
This paper explores the dynamic interplay of K-12 education, the Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0), and internationalization in the Philippines. Through qualitative content analysis, key themes emerged, shedding light on the impact of K-12 education on global competitiveness, challenges in embracing IR 4.0 technologies, and opportunities arising from internationalization efforts. The findings underscore the significance of curriculum alignment with international standards, comprehensive digital literacy training, and fostering a global mindset to prepare students for the digitally-driven, interconnected world. Understanding the implications of these themes is crucial for the Philippines' education system, as it navigates towards a transformative and globally competitive future. Further, this research offers evidence-based recommendations and addresses research gaps, contributing to a broader understanding of how the convergence of these forces shapes the future of Philippine education. Future research avenues may explore long-term impacts on workforce preparedness, innovative IR 4.0 integration, and the effectiveness of internationalization efforts on educational outcomes. Eventually, this study inspires an education system that nurtures learners equipped to thrive in an ever-evolving global landscape.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiology; fashion; design; education; biotechnology
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:24:04 CET)
Fashion industry is the second most polluting industry in the world representing a 2 trillion dollars and growing valuation (Pal, 2017). This dual context makes its challenges hard to address. From one side, fashion design education and practice systems have been perpetuating an industrial-focused approach which relies mostly in the economic improvement through fast cycles of product development (Pal, 2017). On the other side, fashion industry has also been closed to either multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary initiatives outside the scope of the artistic disciplines. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed to solve fashion industrial challenges. One of the most promising fields to tackle fashion current environment and technological problems is microbiology (Mazzoto et al., 2021). During the past 50 years, microbiology has played a vital role in solving human grand challenges in health, agriculture, food, and waste management sectors, and it also represents an opportunity for fashion industry as well. Microbiology biotechnological potential for the fashion industry relies mostly on the improvement of toxic waste bioremediation and the development of novel biomaterials and biomolecules. Moreover, the emergent field of synthetic biology is expanding the tools and approaches available, and they can already be seen in the development of engineered living materials that have functional properties (Mazzoto et al., 2021). Despite the urgent need for change, there is still a long way until a more sustainable fashion industry is achieved. Therefore, microbiological research and innovation need maturation to be able to scale-up and reach a global impact for tackling fashion industrial problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1985.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: COVID-19; higher education; online education; student-centered learning
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:26:05 CEST)
Educational institutions worldwide have adopted e-learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. While this shift to online learning (OL) has presented challenges for students and teachers, it has also sparked innovative educational approaches. This study investigates college students' perceptions regarding OL, specifically focusing on gender differences in the experience with OL A quantitative survey gathered information from distinct college students in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations who experienced OL during the pandemic. The survey included questions related to satisfaction with OL and specific aspects such as course content delivery, interaction with instructors, behavioral changes, and challenges with OL. Male and female student OL experience was compared statistically. The results conclude that male students are more satisfied than female students. Students struggled with internet connection, OL adaptation, focus, and workload during OL. Understanding these gender differences in students' satisfaction with OL is crucial for educators and institutions as they strive to optimize the effectiveness of e-learning strategies. By recognizing and addressing male and female students' unique needs and challenges, educational institutions can enhance the overall educational experience during times of crisis and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0988.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Augmented reality; Teacher Education; SLR; Digital technologies for education
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:39:33 CEST)
The Practicum is regarded as a fundamental aspect of the training of prospective teachers. In addition, digital tools are increasingly used to enrich a traditional face-to-face experience. However, the technological exploitation of augmented reality (AR) by undergraduate students studying early childhood and primary education is low. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on the use of augmented reality (AR) in teacher training was conducted. Based on the overarching objectives of the ERASMUS+ project, entitled Digital Practicum 3.0 Exploring Augmented Reality, Remote Classrooms, and Virtual Learning to Enrich and Expand Preservice Teacher Education Preparation (2020-1-ES01-KA226-HE- 096120), the ultimate purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of this resource favors learning and expertise. Two main results are prominent. First, it is noteworthy how the use of this digital technology is limited, given the scarcity of studies. Second, the research studies available focus largely on the benefits of the use of AR in teacher education at a theoretical level. Thus, future research needs to further explore the use of AR in teacher training specially focused on the student teachers’ learning processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainability; Green Engineering; curriculum development; chemical education; engineering education
Online: 17 February 2018 (13:23:39 CET)
The purpose of this study was to develop e-learning activities that integrated sustainability concepts and practices in process engineering education. Two blended courses were developed with two activities evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively to measure student engagement, quality of responses, and incorporation of sustainability in their arguments. Social network analysis and lexical analysis were used to assess students’ participation in discussions and peer reviews. In the online discussion, 97 comments were made averaging 120 words per comment. The participants averaged 3.88 comments, with the majority of comments exhibiting simple and complex argumentation, a deep reflection, and widespread use of terms associated with sustainability such as recycling, pollution, waste, and environment. Furthermore, evaluation of peer reviews revealed that the participants demonstrated they could identify errors and positives in an argument. Therefore, this study demonstrated that e-learning, particularly peer review and online discussion could help chemistry and engineering students understand sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0991.v1
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:31:42 CEST)
The Interdisciplinary Method of Musical Literacy, Education and Artistic Awareness (MILMESA) is developed and applied essentially in higher education (artistic, cultural and teacher training courses), promoting effective endogenous (interarts) and exogenous interconnection (artistic and other non-artistic areas) of an inter and pluridisciplinary matrix, as well as assuming itself as a privileged vehicle of relationship and extension to the community in the frame of the making of artistic-cultural and pedagogical-didactic events in the European, Luso-Brazilian, Luso-African and Hispanic American territories. It was created, tested and evaluated in five consecutive quadrennia (2002–2023), being regularly adapted, adapted and added according to the observed realities, evolving into the deepening of new concepts and models of intervention in these domains (e.g., Expressive and Proximal Didactics). Using the Ethnographic Method and the Case Study, and having the source of data collection as Document Analysis of written and iconographic or visual sources (n = 1386) and Participant Observation, this study aimed to describe and analyse the application and evolution of MILMESA in terms of education and extension to the community. It was concluded that there was a need to promote, with greater regularity and scope, greater technological interaction via digital platforms and social networks, within the framework of the participation of external specialists (e-DEP) and the very experience of MILMESA’s experiences and initiatives, giving it a more meaningful and participatory range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0010.v1
Online: 5 May 2019 (10:20:37 CEST)
In recent years, it has become common for individuals to juggle employment and unpaid care work. This is just as true for the England-based academic workforce, our focus in this article. We discuss how, in the context of English HE, support for carers is enacted and negotiated through policies and practices of care. Our focus on academics with a diverse range of caring responsibilities is unusual insofar as the literature on care in academia is overwhelmingly concerned with parents, usually mothers. The article is informed primarily by critical and post-structuralist feminist perspectives. We draw on a corpus of 47 interviews conducted with academics representing a broad range of caring responsibilities, subjects, and positions. A thematic analysis reveals how carers’ relationship with the provision and policies of care support at institutional level is characterised by ambiguity. On the one hand, participants approve of societal and institutional policy support for carers. On the other hand, they are often reluctant to position themselves as the beneficiary of such policies, expressing instead a general preference for support from outside the workplace or for workplace-based inter-individual and informal care arrangements. This resistance is particularly noticeable in the case of participants with caring responsibilities other than the parenting of healthy, able-bodied children and of those whose gender, class, racial, or sexual identity do not conform with the figure of the ‘ideal academic’, contributing to their othering in the academic realm. These findings have significant implications for policies supporting carers, pointing to the need for greater visibility and recognition of caring responsibilities in academia, especially in terms of their diverse identities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0279.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: global health; planetary health education; climate change; healthcare professionals; curriculum development; sustainable healthcare education; mini review
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:36:28 CEST)
The emerging concept of planetary health needs to be discussed in a more organized and sustainable way within the global public health and healthcare disciplines. Therefore, planetary health should be considered a cardinal component of the global academic framework for healthcare professionals. The availability of related curricula and courses is crucial to equip health professionals in this relatively new discipline of planetary health. In this review article, we aimed to explore published articles and online databases of courses to summarize the available planetary health education opportunities and discussions for health professionals, to identify the gaps in resource allocation and to suggest future recommendations. We observed a visible re-source inequity in global south with the lack of a universal planetary health module for healthcare professionals. Additionally, there is minimal inclusion of allied health disciplines in this learning process. We, therefore, recommend a dedicated network of motivated healthcare professionals and regional hubs with an agenda to ensure a comprehensive, uniform, and inclusive planetary health education curriculum and practice.
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aims of the study to analyze the influence of knowledge, attitude, education and gender of the head of the family for household preparedness against flood from Bengawan Solo River in Kedungdowo Village, Balen District of Bojonegoro Regency. The method used in this study is survey method. This study is explanatory observational research. Population studied is 85 head of families from Kedungdowo Village, Balen District, Bojonegoro Regency. The sampling method for collecting the data from the families is stratified random sampling. Data analysis methods used in this study are descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis with a 95% confidence level to identify the level of preparedness and the relationship between factors that affect preparedness. The findings shows that knowledge, attitude, education and gender significantly influence household preparedness against Bengawan Solo flood. Attitude is the most dominant variable that influenced household preparedness
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0672.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education of the person; Science of education; Educational research; Methodology of educa-tional labor; Pedagogical concepts
Online: 8 August 2023 (13:03:28 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to describe and explain the characteristics of pedagogy as a science of education, as an object, concepts and research method. The methodology assumed was the review of the history of pedagogy, especially the classics of pedagogy, those who built it with their experiences in laboratory schools. Here are listed the main concepts of pedagogy, its laws and principles; she establishes the opposition that exists between teaching-learning and education as formation of the personality; she also delimits the fields of the pedagogical method, of didactics or teaching-learning, and the methodology of educational labor that organizes the process and the educational context, the regime and the lifestyle, such as those experienced in the "colonies" or "communes" of children and adolescents, organized and directed by Neill and Makarenko. Since the present article does not derive from a primary source or from field work, as an empirical or experimental research, the results constitute the content of the article, as conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0082.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Active learning; professional skills; civic education; higher education; e-learning; serious games; critical thinking; sustainability
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
This study assesses the development of professional skills in university students using serious games (SG), from a sustainability perspective. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set by the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Universities are strategic agents in the transformation process towards sustainability. This way, they should be committed to promoting such sustainable values in the students through curricular sustainability, implementing active methodologies and SG for that purpose. Transversal skills are essential for the development of future graduates. The objective of this study was to assess which professional skills should be developed through the SG called The Island, to improve the degree of student satisfaction with the incorporation of a sustainable curriculum. The data were obtained using a questionnaire, and then analysed using linear regression models, with their inference estimated through the goodness of fit and ANOVA. The first results indicated that the implementation of the SG promoted a strengthening of the students' sustainable curriculum through the development of those skills. It was concluded that the key to success in education for sustainable development is improving the development of strategic thinking, collaborative thinking, and self-awareness, in addition to encouraging systemic, critical, and problem-solving thinking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1561.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Education
Online: 25 October 2023 (07:32:50 CEST)
The importance of shifting to a sustainable economy, based on new capabilities that enable to cope with the current turbulent changes is paramount. Entrepreneurs with sustainable concerns are considered to play a key role in the process by creating innovative, proactive and risk assumption solutions, both with environmental and economic value. To date, there is no consensus on what capabilities education should provide to create sustainable entrepreneurs to cope with sustainability challenges. The aim of this piece of literature is to identify relevant factors for sustainable entrepreneurship education. Bibliographic databases were searched for documents published between 2012 and June 2023 to categorize central issues discussed in the literature on sustainable entrepreneurship education. The review process specifies 59 empirical and non-empirical papers at sustainable entrepreneurship education (SEE). Data analysis revealed diverse models for sustainable entrepreneurship education (SEE) developed for use in both higher education institutions and secondary schools. Future research directions are underscored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1205.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Education
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:22:29 CEST)
The importance of transforming to a sustainable economy to protect against global crises such as climate change is widely recognized. Sustainable entrepreneurs are seen as playing a key role in this transformation process by creating innovative market solutions with environmental, social, and economic value. To date, there is no consensus on the skills education should deliver to create sustainable entrepreneurs to solve sustainability challenges. The goal of this article is to identify sustainable entrepreneurship education factors that enable effective education of future sustainable entrepreneurs. An academic search engine and bibliographic database were searched for documents written in English and published between 2012 and April 2023 to identify existing educational models discussed in the current literature in sustainable entrepreneurship education (SEE). The review process resulted in a set of 59 empirical and non-empirical papers on SEE. The data analysis revealed different educational frameworks for sustainable entrepreneurship (SE), both developed for use in higher education institutions and secondary schools.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0526.v1
Online: 27 September 2018 (03:46:07 CEST)
There are no widely established models for postgraduate interprofessional (IPE) events. Due to low number of healthcare professionals (HCPS) on the island of Guernsey, pharmacist continuing professional development (CPD) events incorporate an IPE element making it a unique CPD model. This study evaluates an event that took place in April 2015, to support identification of positive attributes of the event as an IPE case study. From 33 attendees 29 [88%] evaluation forms were returned covering an audience including pharmacists, doctors and nurses. Although the event increased knowledge and understanding of the topic, there was a statistical difference when comparing anticipated change in practice [p<.05], with over half [n=15, 51.7%] saying the learning would not change their practice. No significant differences in responses were seen between different professional groups. Attendees were positive about learning with other HCPs. The focus group comprising 6 professionals identified a key theme of ‘factors affecting attendance at an IPE event’ with four subthemes; IPE and networking, topic, convenience and CPD. All professions were open to and saw the benefit of IPE. Face-to-face events were preferred, facilitated by an expert speaker, with a topic that has relevance to multi-professions. Post qualification IPE events allow a synchronised view of a topic and should be encouraged in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1679.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Basic education; Computer programming; Higher education; Scientific information; Online systems
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:23:23 CET)
Pedagogic Conversational Agents (PCAs) are interactive systems that engage the student in a dialogue to teach some domain. They can have the role of teacher, student, or companion, and adopt several shapes. In our previous work, a significant increase of students’ performance when learning programming was found when using PCAs in the teacher role. However, it is not common to find PCAs used in the classrooms. In this paper, it is explored whether teachers would accept PCAs to teach programming better if co-designed with them. An experiment with 35 pre-service Primary Education teachers was carried out during the 2021/2022 academic year to co-design a robotic PCA to teach programming. The experience validates the idea that involving the teachers in the design of the PCA facilitates that they integrate this technology in their classrooms. 97% of the pre-service teachers answered in a survey that they believed that the robot PCA could help children to learn programming and 80% answered that they would like to use them in their classrooms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2150.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain asymmetry; cortical thickness; education; semantic memory; pedagogy; Montessori education
Online: 31 July 2023 (15:57:01 CEST)
Brain hemispheres develop rather symmetrically except in the case of pathology or intense training. As school experience is a form of training, the current study tested the influence of pedagogy on morphological development through the cortical thickness (CTh) asymmetry index (AI). First, we compared CTh AI of 111 students aged 4 to 18 with 77 adults aged > 20. Second, we investigated CTh AI in the students, as a function of schooling background (Montessori or traditional). At the whole-brain level, CTh AI was not different between the adult and student groups, even when controlling for age. However, the pedagogical experience was found to impact CTh AI in the temporal lobe, within the parahippocampal (PHC) region. The PHC has a functional lateralization, with the right PHC having a stronger involvement in spatiotemporal context encoding, while the left PHC is involved in semantic encoding. We observed CTh asymmetry toward the left PHC for participants enrolled in Montessori schools and toward the right for participants enrolled in traditional schools. As these participants were matched on age, intelligence, home life, and socioeconomic conditions, we interpret this effect found in memory-related brain regions to reflect differences in learning strategies. Pedagogy modulates how new concepts are encoded, with possible long-term effects on knowledge transfer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teacher training; moral education; values system; higher education; SARS-CoV2
Online: 1 April 2022 (11:29:54 CEST)
To determine the ethical-attitudinal profile of university students in the education career during the pandemic with a tendency towards a new normality. University students of the education career were surveyed online, in an ethical key (axiological attitude, moral attitude and attitude towards new normality). The research was descriptive of univariate hypothesis, with non-probabilistic snowball sampling, reaching a sample of 480 participants. The Ethical-Attitudinal Profile Scale (EPEA) was designed, whose reliability was 0.93 in Lawshe's formula and 0.89 in Cronbach's Alpha. In the axiological attitude, values were obtained more frequently: respect with 79%, sincerity with 73%, prudence with 72%. In the moral attitude, a polar result is contrasted between laxity (67%) and kindness (45%); while, in the attitude towards new normality, there was no spike in frequencies, being distributed more homogeneously between indicators, with a low resilience index. There is an adequate evaluative profile of the university students of the education career despite the context of the pandemic and the trend towards a new normality; having a moral attitude of laxity inferred by the circumstances of uncertainty that are experienced in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Assessment; Institutional Support; Online Education; Tertiary Education; Covid-19; Bangladesh
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:03:02 CEST)
Institutional support and quality education are linked in a significant way. During Covid-19, institutional support is critical to closing the huge academic gap that has emerged as physical academic practices have been moved to a virtual education system using technology. This research aims to assess institutional support for online education in Bangladesh during the Covid-19 pandemic. This analysis is focused on the three main elements of the Adapted Model of Institutional Support (AMIS) of Bond et al, 2007, and the Institutional Support Model (ISM) of Valverde and Rodriguez, 2002, namely Financial Support (FS), Technical Support (TS), and Mentoring Support (MS). According to the findings, a few universities in Bangladesh have provided average support for continuing online education, while others have just started taking online classes. Several problems have been discovered, such as the lack of dedicated software for conducting online academic activities, lack of training and grooming, lack of mentoring, poor internet access, lack of smartphones, high internet package rates, and so on. This study concludes with some policy recommendations for a smooth online education system in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0091.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Teaching profile; Educational Innovation; Higher Education; Entrepreneurship; Ecuador; Education 4.0
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:46:27 CET)
Education 4.0 postulates the flexible combining of digital literacy, critical thinking, and problem-solving in training environments linked to real-world scenarios. Therefore, teachers are challenged to find or develop new methods and resources to integrate into their curricula to help students develop these desirable and necessary skills; hence, the question: What are the characteristics of a teacher to consider within the framework of Education 4.0? This article presents a study carried out in a higher education institution in Ecuador. The objective was to identify the teaching profile required in new careers within the framework of Education 4.0. The descriptive, exploratory methodology applied quantitative and qualitative instruments (surveys) to 337 undergraduate students in education careers and 313 graduates. It also included interviews with 20 experts in the educational field and five focus groups with 32 rectors, school principals, university professors and specialists in the educational area. The data was triangulated, and the results were categorized in (a) processes as facilitators (b), soft skills, (c) human sense and (d) use of technologies. This article may be of value to administrators, educational and social entrepreneurs, trainers, and decision-makers interested in implementing innovative training programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification; science education; flipped classroom; active learning methods; higher education
Online: 31 October 2019 (07:56:59 CET)
Innovative teaching strategies are designing a new and promising landscape in education. They fill up the lessons with creativity and imagination either for the students and teachers. This article addresses an attempt to make easier the approach to science in a non-scientific environment: primary education at university level. Gamification methodologies were combined with flipped classroom in order to free up in-class time and engage the students with the taught courses. A qualitative study was merged with quantitative measures of emotional and motivational parameters. These results were improved with four semi-structured interviews. The results clearly showed a raise in the students' motivational level, an acknowledgment of good teaching practice and an evident enhancement of felt positive emotions toward science teaching and scientific issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: physical education; goals orientations; stage of change.
Online: 7 June 2018 (11:14:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between levels of leisure-time sports and physical activity and the stages of change in high school students with goal orientations. Methods: The sample consisted of 2168 students randomly selected to participate in a longitudinal study in Costa Rica (423), Mexico (408) and Spain (1337), with 1052 being boys, 1037 girls and 79 who did not specify sex, aged between 11 and 16 years old (M = 12.49, SD = .81). We used a questionnaire to ask students about their leisure-time sports and physical activity, about stages of change and to measure achievement goals. Results: The results show that students are more active in Costa Rica, most of them being in the stage of active change. Conclusions: We found significant differences in achievement goals in all three countries, which shows that students in active stages have higher values than those in the inactive stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: headache; migraine; diagnosis; treatment; telehealth education
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:27:30 CEST)
Algologists and neurologists play a significant role in management of headache. The study aimed to compare the headache management approaches of algologist and neurologists and evaluate the impact of telehealth education on their practices. A questionnaire was developed and sent to algologists and neurologists through social media and email. Demographic information, diagnostic and treatment approaches to a headache case, and the impact of telehealth education were evaluated 82 algologists and 97 neurologists completed the survey. There was no significant difference between diagnosis. However, the examination methods differed, with the neurologists relying on history and the algologists suggesting further investigations. Both groups agreed on the application of prophylaxis treatment, with botulinum toxin administration and classical prophylactic agents being accepted in both groups. The newest preventive treatment method was used more frequently in the Neurologists. Participants reported that online meetings had a positive impact on their daily practices, with 48% stating that they were reflected in their practice. Those who attended online meetings marked more up- to-date treatment options such as CGRP antagonists and Botulinum toxin. The study showed that algologists and neurologists had similar approaches to headache management, with differences in examination methods and the use of newer preventive treatment methods. Telehealth education had a positive impact on the participants, improving their knowledge of up-to-date treatment options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; sustainability; enrollment; graduation; unemployment
Online: 7 June 2022 (04:06:44 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in undergraduate enrollment, graduation, and employment in Ethiopia. It looked at data from the past 20 years of enrollment and graduation, as well as the 15 years of unemployment trends. For enrollment, we used the ARIMA(0,1,0) model, for graduation, the Holt-Winter model, and unemployment, the Simple model. Results showed that enrollment rates increased dramatically, but graduation rates remained constant. Besides, enrollment is expected to continue rising, while graduation rates are expected to fall. On the other hand, between 1999 and 2018, the overall unemployment trend declined. Yet, between 2009 and 2018 the unemployment trends stayed stable. According to the findings, for the next ten years, higher education enrollment and graduation will continue. Nevertheless, it is shown the diminishing demand for jobs in the labor market. As part of improving the existing realities of higher education, the study suggests reconsidering job-driven policy formulation, strengthening higher education-labor market alignment, controlling higher education expansion, and sustaining the development qualification systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Patient education; health literacy; scientometric analysis
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:06:12 CET)
Therapeutic patient education (TPE) aims to empower the patients and their caregivers to effectively care for and manage their conditions. Such educational programs have been shown to improve health behaviors, disease outcomes and quality of life among different patient populations. The field of TPE has evolved extensively over decades, owing to interdisciplinary research. No study so far has been done to map this field, to identify the stakeholders and gaps requiring future research. By leveraging the theory of co-citation, Citespace was used to visualize the bibliographic data pertaining to TPE research. A total of 54,533 articles published in English language were analyzed to identify influential funders, regions and institutes contributing to this field. Besides these, important theoretical and empirical work that has shaped this field has also been mapped. Our analysis revealed several important insights. Most of the important theories which helped shape TPE were inspired from the social sciences. Five important themes of research were identified including disorders, study designs utilized in TPE research, scope of the TPE literature, and outcomes, and populations. The research focused on improving perceptions, behaviors, and attitudes for health promotion, reducing stigma as well as self-management and medication adherence. Most of the research was developed in the context of high income countries. The future research should more involve patients and use digital technology. Meta-analytical studies need to be done to identify the specificities of TPE interventions across different disorders. More research should involve low and middle income countries (LMIC) to ensure knowledge and technology transfer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0222.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: multimedia; geoscience videos; geoscience education; GEGVL; earth systems science education; educational technology; place-based education; active learning
Online: 17 May 2022 (04:37:00 CEST)
Place-based education (PBE) and active learning are effective strategies for geoscience education. However, traditional PBE via field trips requires significant resources, time, physical abilities, and expertise of teachers. We provide an alternative PBE experience by showing how different kinds of geoscience videos can be spatially organized into one digital interactive virtual environment. Here, we present the Google Earth Geoscience Video Library (GEGVL) which uses Google Earth and location specific videos about Earth events to create a virtual PBE experience. Using Google Earth, GEGVL organizes place-based videos by locations and links pertinent non-place-based videos and allows users to roam the globe in search of geoscientific videos that are pertinent to them or their students. Currently GEGVL contains 150 videos organized into ten different geoscience disciplines: Plate Tectonics, Minerals, Structural Geology, Metamorphism, Magmatism, Hydrology, Environmental Science, Sedimentology, Paleontology, and Paleomagnetism. Despite stability challenges with Google Earth integration, results of user surveys among lower division undergraduates show that the design logic of GEGVL is promising virtual PBE organizer for interesting students in and helping them learn about Earth sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development; sociology of education; sustainability literacy; higher education; sustainable development goals
Online: 25 October 2018 (16:31:16 CEST)
Sustainability, sustainable development and education for sustainable development are increasingly central concepts, both in social practice and in the field of scientific knowledge. Sociology, and in particular Sociology of Education as a specialised Sociology, can provide relevant contributions in its promotion. This article aims to explore the importance of Sociology of Education in promoting sustainability literacy in higher education, using the Sustainable Development Goals and key competencies (United Nations and UNESCO) as the central reference in this field, and intends, thus, to become an added contribution for this discussion. The article seeks to demonstrate that the learning of sustainability literacy would benefit from the use of a sociological stance throughout this whole process that considers dimensions that are often not directly emphasised and articulated between each other, such as: interconnection of scale levels, sociological imagination, multi-paradigmatic nature, heuristic interdisciplinarity, reflexivity and use of Sociology for action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0245.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Pan-Africanism; history; colonialism; globalization; education
Online: 14 August 2018 (05:57:51 CEST)
Our paper examines the place of Pan-Africanism as an educational, political, and cultural movement which had a lasting impact on the on the relationship between liberation and people of African descent, in the continent of Africa and the Diaspora. We also show its evolution, beginning with formerly enslaved Africans in the Americas, to the colonial borders of the 1884 Berlin Conference, and conclude with the independence movements in Africa. For formerly enslaved Africans, Pan-Africanism was an idea that helped them see their commonalities as victims of racism. That is, they realized that they were enslaved because they came from the same continent and shared the same racial heritage. They associated the continent of Africa with freedom. The partitioning of Africa at the Berlin Conference (colonialism) created pseudo-nation states out of what was initially seen as an undivided continent. Pan-Africanism provided an ideology for rallying Africans at home and abroad against colonialism, and the creation of colonial nation-states did not erase the idea of a united Africa. As different African nations gained political independence, they took it upon themselves to support those countries fighting for their independence. The belief, then, was that as long as one African nation was not free, the continent could not be viewed as free. The existence of nation-states did not imply the negation of Pan-Africanism. The political ideas we examine include those of Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. Du Bois, Kwame Nkrumah, and Thabo Mbeki.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0311.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: biodiversity education; knowledge; perspective; biodiversity conservation; biodiversity protection
Online: 18 November 2021 (17:20:15 CET)
Rich biodiversity is one of the Philippines’ greatest assets. Unfortunately, there is a continuous decline in the diversity of flora and fauna across the world. This calls for the need to educate people, especially younger generations, to value and protect biodiversity and natural resources. The study aimed to assess the students’ extent of knowledge and identify their perspectives towards biodiversity and its protection and conservation. A total of 268 randomly selected students at Aurora State College of Technology Zabali Campus were involved in the study. Survey questionnaires were used to obtain data and information which were subjected to statistical tests. The students had a moderate knowledge level on biodiversity with a mean score of 6.65 out of 10 items (SD = 1.50). Their perspective on biodiversity was leaning toward its protection and conservation, with a mean score of 7.2 out of 10 items (SD = 1.29). Factors affecting the students’ knowledge were gender (p = .003) and academic department (p = 0.003). Females and those associated with the Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences and Department of Industrial technology were found to have more knowledge than the others. Males, on the other hand, were found to have a more positive perspective towards biodiversity. Knowledge and perspective had a weak correlation with r = 0.39. Students were not well-aware, but were in support of the Philippines’ biodiversity-related laws, which could help shape their mindset and actions towards biodiversity conservation and protection. As an implication, the college administration must revisit the curricula of all degree programs and ensure that students from each degree program are environmentally educated, emphasizing biodiversity conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: creativity; demography; ecology; north and south; education
Online: 17 July 2019 (06:22:34 CEST)
The creative potential of homo sapiens is the biological basis of his spirituality. To take into account factor of spirituality in analysis of global problems of demography and ecology used analogies of chemical kinetics. Stable in the historical time, population of people was modeled by open thermodynamic system, equilibrium state of which depends on climate and geophysics. The demography of creative potential was divided into two geographical zones - north and south. Process of society sapientation was formalized by introducing into logistic equation of Verhulst, in addition to a couple of parents, at least one more teacher from among educated people. Stationary solution of the modified kinetic equations determines optimal demography for sustainable development of population in accordance with its education index. The solution of the demographic, energy and environmental problems of mankind is determined by the level of world creative potential, the growth of which is currently limited by the consumption paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Mozambique; Quality; Development; Millennium Development Goals.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:39:48 CEST)
In order to meet the Millennium Development Goals set forth by the United Nations’ Millennium Summit that took place in 2000, in New York, particularly in the area of education, the Mozambican Government decided that, from 2003 onwards, during their primary school formation, students should be passed automatically even if they do not have enough intellectual capacities that justify their progress. In fact, this decision was made during a period when there were many pupils being failed, due to various reasons. After more than 15 years of its implementation, this paper aims to analyzing the results acquired from this decision, from the point of view of the quality of education. This will be done taking into account the prevailing situation of education in Mozambique. Having considered these aspects, the paper will move on to presenting some of the challenges and opportunities that the country should consider in the area of education, as a way to bring about better outcomes and promote development, in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Undergraduate; Medical; Online; Distance Education; Perception
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:53:43 CEST)
In 2020, students of Pakistan had to adapt to the online environment for the very first time. This study aims to analyze the perceptions of medical, dental, and allied health students about online education in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done to assess the level of acceptance of undergraduate students. A pre-validated questionnaire regarding demographics, past-experience of e-learning, advantages disadvantages of e-learning, and general perception of students towards e-learning was distributed. Descriptive statistics were computed for demographics, Mann-Witney-U test was used to compare the differences of perceptions between pre-clinical year and clinical years students. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare the results of three specialties of students. Chi-square was used to compare overall category-wise positive and negative responses of students. 1200 students participated in the study. The major advantage identified by all students was the ‘comfortable environment’ in which they studied online. The major disadvantage selected by preclinical year students was ‘anxiety due to social isolation’ and that chosen by clinical year students was ‘lack of patient interaction’. Overall, 72% of students had a negative perception of e-learning. Student-teacher training, student counselling sessions, and innovative techniques need to be introduced to enhance student engagement and reduce pandemic stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Phenylketonuria; PKU; Breastfeeding; complementary feeding; education
Online: 28 June 2023 (16:08:36 CEST)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disorder of protein metabolism. It is generally treated using dietary management with limited intake of phenylalanine (Phe). Partial breastfeeding (BF) is encouraged among mothers of infants with PKU, together with a Phe-free mixture of synthetic amino acids. We aimed to describe our current BF rates and complementary feeding practices, as well as examining parental experiences of infant feeding. The aim was to better understand the challenges faced by families so improvements can be made to clinical care. A chart review was carried out on 39 PKU patients, examining the BF rate and duration, use of second stage synthetic protein (SP) and average complementary feeding age. A parental questionnaire on complementary feeding and BF experience was designed. 26% of babies were partially breastfed at three months. 70% of mums would like to have breastfed for longer and cited PKU as a reason for stop-ping. 52% parents reported challenges during the complementary feeding process including food refusal, protein calculation and anxiety around maintaining good Phe levels. Suggestions to improve BF continuation and duration include active promotion of the benefits and suitability, access to lactation consultant and peer support. The delay in introducing a second stage SP may contribute to long-term bottle use for SP. Improved patient education, written resources and sup-port is necessary to improve food choices and long term acceptance of SP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Library and Information Sciences; comparative study; education; profession
Online: 18 February 2020 (03:34:33 CET)
In a context of global mobility of skilled professionals, this is a comparative study of library science education and librarianship in the USA and Iran. The study attempts to determine how education and professional skills may transfer from one country to another. Historically, the USA and Iran are two different major centers of development of knowledge, science and technology and culture. Each one of these two countries developed its own system of general education and library science education and professional practice. This study investigates the definition of the librarian profession, historical perspectives, types of librarians and librarian-related positions, the initial academic training of librarian (schools, duration, curriculum, and accreditation), daily activities of librarians, continuing education, and opportunities and challenges of the profession in each country. The qualitative research methods was selected to conduct this study. This investigation leads to a comparative analysis pointing out similarities and differences. The first part of the paper present historical perspectives and library science education and librarianship. The second part of the paper presents contemporary library science education and librarianship in each country. The last part of the paper is a comparative critical discussion of both systems. This study concludes that, even though both systems are different, with the globalization of knowledge, education, and communications, under certain circumstances, one could consider a librarian “qualified” to practice across the border. Contributions: The comparative investigation of LIS profession and education have been conducted for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: questionnaire development; osteoporosis; osteoporosis education; attitude; behaviors
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:37:04 CET)
This research develops the Osteoporosis Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Questionnaire (OKABQ) with the intent to evaluate levels of osteoporosis knowledge, attitude and behavior change. The aims of the study were to develop and validate the OKABQ; and to establish a mediation model of the research. A quantitative, descriptive, and instrumental study was conducted in two phases: Phase I—development of the scale through Delphi Method by osteoporosis experts; Phase II—evaluation of the validity and reliability of the scale and construction of a mediation model using SmartPLS. In Phase I, the content validity index (CVI) of the questionnaire was higher than 0.96 and the inter-rater reliability (IRR) kappa was 1.00. In Phase II, exploratory factor analysis showed that two predominating factors of attitude as a mediation were addressed by the 26-item OKABQ. The indirect effect results from the estimated model indicates that attitude mediates the relationship between knowledge and behaviors (β = 0.114, t = 2.627, p < 0.001), which is positive and statistically significant. We concluded that the OKABQ is a valid measure of osteoporosis knowledge, attitude and behaviors for women with osteoporosis. These assessment results could assist healthcare providers in mitigating insufficiency on health education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; education; environmental tobacco smoke; smoker
Online: 20 March 2017 (09:09:44 CET)
Background: Smoking, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, also is a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of education and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES). Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1,325 (11.4%) had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios (p<0.05) compared to college graduates; smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS had significantly greater OR (p<0.05) than nonsmokers unexposed to ETS. Subgroup analysis of diabetics according to smoking status revealed significant associations (p<0.05) for diabetic nonsmokers exposed to ETS with female sex, single status, elementary level education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI), hypertension, no alcohol intake, and no moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations (p<0.05) with elementary education, urban residence, lack of moderate physical activity, no alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, including ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes especially in populations with less education. Thus, we should direct efforts for controlling diabetes toward individuals with lower levels of education, and those who are smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: beginning teachers; teaching induction; teacher education
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:53:20 CEST)
The objective of this research-action, teaching and extension project was to support the beginning teacher, who graduated from the Pedagogy courses at UFF-INFES and UFRRJ/IE, raising the difficulties and solutions of this teacher's pedagogical practice, as well as implementing and analyzing strategies of professional induction of the newly graduated professor by the proposed pilot course with a focus on promoting dialogue between university and school. This project was aimed at graduates of Pedagogy courses who started as teachers in the early years of elementary school and early childhood education (with less than 5 years as a teacher). These teachers participated in two pilot courses (one in 2021 and the other in 2022) to help recent graduates in their professional induction through innovative actions that help them to take a leading role in their practices. For this, we seek to investigate: the impact of this program on their professional induction through narrative interviews, accompany them in this process and analyze the difficulties and solutions they found in their pedagogical practice as a result of the help that the project offered them; the role of mentors (teachers running the school) and the University at the beginning of their professional activities. Finally, we concluded that this course worked as a support for beginning teachers, allowing for greater reflection and better professional performance, as well as a way to reduce the shock of reality, demotivation and teacher abandonment.