REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1384.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: economic impact of artificial intelligence; economy with artificial intelligence; the transformative economic impact of artificial intelligence; business and artificial intelligence; ai; artificial intelligence
Online: 22 November 2023 (08:48:33 CET)
ackground: The swift assimilation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) across multiple industries is altering the worldwide economic terrain. Unprecedented opportunities and difficulties are brought about by this revolutionary technology, which has an impact on innovation, trade, labor markets, and security. Objective: The goal of this study is to thoroughly investigate the economic effects of AI by exploring how it may affect labor markets, innovation, trade internationally, and security. The goal is to offer insights that support strategic decision-making and policy formation by examining current trends, opportunities, and difficulties. Results: The research highlights the dual character of artificial intelligence's influence, highlighting both its potential to spur economic expansion and its drawbacks, including the loss of jobs, a lack of standards, and security issues. The study highlights how crucial cooperation is to overcoming these obstacles and realizing AI's full potential. Conclusion: The balancing opportunities and risks becomes critical as AI continues to change the economic landscape. The report promotes proactive steps including ethical AI design guidelines, ongoing worker retraining, and flexible regulatory strategies. As we shape an AI future that puts inclusion, creativity, and responsible governance first, collaboration emerges as a key theme.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0420.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic multipliers; remote work; local economies; business impact; economic stimulus; catalytic impact
Online: 7 September 2023 (05:04:45 CEST)
The advent of remote work has ushered in a new era of economic transformation, redefining the dynamics of local economies, and unleashing the multiplier effect on a national scale. This abstract explores the profound implications of remote work on local economies, dissecting how the multiplier effect operates within a nation's economic landscape. The multiplier effect is a fundamental economic concept that highlights how changes in spending and investment can create a ripple effect, leading to a magnified impact on an economy. This concept gains new significance in the context of remote work, as it triggers a chain reaction of economic activities that radiate from remote workers to their local communities. The increased flexibility and reduced geographical constraints of remote work have reshaped the allocation of resources. The continued reliance on remote work may lead to a reduction in demand for commercial real estate in urban centers, necessitating adaptive urban planning strategies. In conclusion, the rise of remote work has initiated a transformative era for local economies, driven by the multiplier effect. By amplifying the impacts of spending and investment, remote work fosters job diversification, innovation, and infrastructure development within communities. As remote work continues to reshape the landscape of work and life, understanding and harnessing its multiplier effect remains paramount for policymakers, businesses, and local communities alike. The multiplier effect is a concept in economics that illustrates how changes in spending can lead to larger impacts on a nation's economy through a chain reaction of economic activities. It demonstrates that an initial injection of spending, whether from government expenditure, investment, or consumption, doesn't just have a one-time impact. Instead, it sets off a series of interconnected spending and income-generation processes that result in a larger overall increase in economic activity. t's important to note that the multiplier effect can work in reverse as well. If there's a decrease in spending, it can lead to a decrease in economic activity and income through the same chain reaction process. This concept highlights the interconnected nature of economic activities and emphasizes the significance of changes in spending patterns on a nation's overall economic health. The magnitude of the multiplier effect is influenced by factors such as the marginal propensity to consume (the proportion of additional income that households spend), leakages (savings and taxes that reduce the multiplier effect), and the extent to which additional spending creates additional production capacity within the economy. Understanding the multiplier effect is essential for policymakers, as it helps them gauge the potential impacts of changes in fiscal and monetary policies on the economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0359.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: contract farming; broiler producers; economic sustainability
Online: 24 March 2020 (11:58:03 CET)
This review has been realized within the agribusiness sector and experiments the Transaction Cost Theory a branch of the New Institutional Economy which explain market failure caused by many factors. Transaction costs are associated with carrying a transaction between buyers and sellers. This study has been conducted between 2014 and 2017; and has collected data from 11 broiler producers in Jezzine, Lebanon, about: Production costs, capital investment, revenues, land tenure, access to infrastructure, and information about the contract. The propensity score matching method is used to compare the effect of participating in contract farming and to solve the hypotheses, which say: There is a positive relationship between contract farming and the economic benefits of broiler producers and the development of the broiler sector in Jezzine District. Findings from farmer’s interviews indicated that sustainability, guaranteed price, risk reduction, credit facilities and technical aids are the main reasons for signing a contract. In contrast, Farmers have expressed problems concerning the contractors’ responsibilities such as delay in payment and delivery. Also, when prices are high, it was argued that farmers were selling the products in the open market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: microcredit; social mobility; impact; socio-economic; class position
Online: 23 June 2020 (13:38:58 CEST)
In Bangladesh, microcredit program has been in function for almost half a century. Though popularly termed as a tool for poverty alleviation and women empowerment, criticism about microcredit program’s actual effectiveness isn’t new. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of such programs by measuring borrowers’ social mobility. Using a multidimensional approach, indicators like household income, economic susceptibility, living conditions, consumption pattern, children’s education, healthcare facilities, women’s participation in decision-making were taken into account for measurement. Quantitative method was used. Based on a non-probability sampling, 107 microcredit borrowers were selected for conducting interview schedules who live in a rural, a semi-urban and an urban area. Statistical analysis of data reveals that those who have been taking loans for several number of years have all managed to increase their income level to a variety of extent, but only those have gained some sort of mobility who have been taking loans for more than 4-5 years and have taken 5 times or more. Few of them have actually moved from microcredit to become a microfinance client by taking bigger amount of loans and having savings. Positive responses about the indicators being used in the study were found among the handful of those who have mobilized significantly. In true sense, most of the borrowers are stuck at the bottom end of socio-economic ladder and are struggling to manage a better living standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Green Initiatives; Economic Growth; Social Development; Green Economic Development Plan; Financial Performance
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:25:02 CET)
This study was conducted to propose the Green Economic Development Plan for Manufacturing S.M.E.s based on financial performance and operations thru Green Initiatives. The descriptive survey method used to gather data to determine the green initiative's implementation of small and medium (S.M.E.s) manufacturing enterprises. Green initiatives use as a basis for crafting a green economic development plan. Document analysis was also employed to obtain data from any available printed materials and records provided by the respondents. Such methods of gathering information used to validate data gathered from local and foreign-related literature. The observation also employed to survey the assets owned and validate any green initiatives practiced, including their implementation. The study's findings show that among the green initiatives implemented by SMMEs, which resulted in the reduction of total costs and expenses, were the proper disposal and segregation of waste materials, water management by recycling wastewater and using water-efficient equipment, natural resources, and raw materials management. SMMEs should encourage active participation and support of suppliers and customers in achieving G.E.D.'s objectives by developing incentive schemes.Furthermore, SMMEs should continue to benchmark with G.E.D. Practitioners are operating locally and abroad to adopt best greening strategies and regularly network with concerned government agencies for continuous updating on G.E.D. Initiatives that may benefit the firm. Further research may be conducted on green initiatives implemented by small and medium enterprises in other industry sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0314.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: energy poverty; economic growth; energy governance; multidimensional poverty
Online: 16 August 2021 (09:00:19 CEST)
During the last two decades, energy poverty has captured a growing attention of researchers and policymakers due to its strong association with economic poverty and poor economic performance. This study uses a broad set of macro level indicators and makes the first attempt to measure energy poverty and its impact on economic growth of Pakistan over the period 1990 to 2017. In particular, our energy poverty indicator considers four main dimensions of energy poverty, namely, energy services, clean energy, energy governance and energy affordability. Our main results show that though the overall energy poverty has reduced in Pakistan during the selected sample period, the country shows an increasing dependence on polluted energy supply in order to meet its growing demand of energy. In second stage of the investigation, we test the neoclassical growth theory where we incorporate energy poverty along with human capital as source of economic growth. Our cointegration results reveal a strong relationship between energy poverty and economic growth that is also dynamically stable in short run. These strong negative linkages between energy poverty with economic growth for the sample economy complement the previous literature on the subject.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: NPL Ratio; non-performing loans; economic recovery
Online: 12 August 2020 (10:12:13 CEST)
The goal of this paper is to explore the relationship between the specific non-performing loan ratio (NPL ratio) and the corresponding impact on the bank’s profitability and lending behavior. It also seeks to investigate the macroeconomic impacts of economies with excessively high NPL ratios as well as the efficacy and impact of alleviation measures used by banks and governments around the world to help facilitate a decrease in high NPL ratios. The possible implications and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on NPL ratios is also addressed in this paper. It is found that when excessively high NPL ratios go unaddressed, the economy tends to suffer. On the other hand, this study shows that when measures are taken to reduce or eliminate the high NPL ratios, economic performance improves, and the reduction has a clear positive impact on the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0003.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: trade; conversion factors; price rate; economic growth
Online: 1 March 2020 (02:57:28 CET)
The impact of monetary policies and their implementation by exchange rate covered the economic condition of Ghana. The social inclusion and conversion factors change the implemented policies of nations, where the real price, trade, technology, a price rate and price level of ratio take an important part of growth. The reform of the financial sector favors the free floating of the exchange rate and global trade by under the premise of flexible exchange rates. The tragedy of country growth and exchange rate toward a trajectory of growth with the growth-enhancing effect through social inclusion, conversion factors, price level ratio, exchange rate, merchant rate, export and trade services. The research study is based on secondary study and social inclusion equity indicators with public resources, building human resources and social protection for economic development has determined. The monetary policies are classified by the different evidence and trade indicators. The significant influence of growth and internal policies has affected trade and exchange rates with growth and reserve policies. The results have computed by linear regression and it proved that social inclusion and alternative conversion factors impact on the global trade and create short term binary relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0193.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: artificial intelligence; job market; automation; economic impact
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:37:39 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) stands as an emerging technology poised to reshape various facets of our daily lives, with a particularly noteworthy influence on the labor market. In Morocco, AI adoption has commenced in diverse sectors, including finance, insurance, and telecommunications, opening up fresh avenues for employment. Nevertheless, this technological shift also ushers in challenges for Moroccan workers, necessitating training and upskilling to effectively engage with AI-driven systems. Within this article, we delve into the burgeoning impact of AI on the Moroccan economy and job landscape, delving into both the opportunities and obstacles that accompany its proliferation. Furthermore, we explore strategies that authorities and businesses can employ to harness the benefits of AI while mitigating its potential adverse effects on Morocco's workforce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: economic valuation; potato; yield; profitability; climate change
Online: 9 May 2022 (08:18:11 CEST)
The objective was to estimate the monetary loss of potato producers up to the year 2100 as a result of temperature and precipitation impacts, taking into account the A2 and B2 scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The Pooled Production Panel Model was used, whose database was prepared taking into account climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) and agricultural variables (production, harvested area, farm-gate price) for the period 1996 - 2020, which form the independent variables of the study. The estimations used 60 observations and a total of 38 estimations were run in the econometric software EViews8, of which Equation 05 of the Production Pooled Panel Model was chosen as the best. The model obtained used temperature and precipitation forecasts from Brazil's INPE (National Institute for Space Research), validated for the study area. The results indicate a concave function between potato production (t/ha), temperature and precipitation. Finally, based on the A2 climate scenario, which is the most pessimistic and using the period 2021 - 2100, a loss for potato producers of approximately 8'927,521.48 million soles was estimated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0469.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic impact; uncertainty; COVID-19, productive system, Spain
Online: 18 March 2021 (10:50:16 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Spanish economy hard. The result is an unprecedented economic and social crisis due to uncertainty about the remedy, and due to the socio-economic effects on people’s lives. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the macro-economic impact of COVID-19 in 2020, using the principal indicators of the Spanish economic and productive model. National statistics were examined in the search for impacts or anomalies occurring since the beginning of the pandemic. To estimate the strength of the impact on each of the indicators analysed, we used Bayesian structural time series. Results: In 2020, the cumulative impact on the Gross Domestic Product was of -11.41% [95% credible interval: -13.46; -9.29]. The indicator for Business Turnover fell by -9.37% [-12.71; -6.07]. The reduction in business activity was related to the sharp fall in demand. The Spanish employment market was strongly affected; our estimates showed a cumulative increase of 11.9% [4.27; 19.45] in the rate of unemployment during 2020. The autonomous communities which are economically the most heavily dependent on the services sector were those which recorded the worst indicators. Conclusions: Our estimates portray a dramatic situation in our country, and show all too clearly the fragility of a productive system which has to make the behavioural changes that are necessary to confront the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0273.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: foreign direct investment; economic growth; economies
Online: 29 March 2019 (08:01:17 CET)
This paper aims to research whether there is link between FDI inflows and Economic growth in the Republic of Seychelles Island. The ordinary least square results obtained shows that in the impact of FDI inflows on economic growth is low. Small Island Developing States attracts less FDI inflow because they are limited to few resources that attracts overseas firms which results in retarded development. The research lighted that impact of foreign direct investment on host countries does not only depend on the quality and quantity of the FDI inflows but some other variables such as the internal policies and the management skills, market structures, economic trends among others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2200.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Economic Impacts of Airports; Airport Investments; Input-output analysis; Data Science
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:31:20 CEST)
Evaluating the economic impact of airports is crucial for understanding the benefits they bring to a region. However, when an area has more than one airport, it becomes essential to analyze each airport's contribution to the local economy to make informed investment and policy decisions. Thus, studying economic models that can distinguish each airport's impact on the region's economy becomes essential. In this context, this paper aims to compare three different approaches to determine the economic contribution of airports in a given region and identify their social and economic benefits. The International Civil Aviation Organization recommends using Input-Output analysis in this context. The study considered three weight factors for the Input-Output basic model: circular buffer, displacement time, and Huff's gravitational model. The analysis was performed using the three largest airports in São Paulo's state, Brazil, due to their proximity and influence on the surrounding area. The models were compared based on their efficiency and accuracy in reflecting the reality of the case study context. The study identified the most suitable model for establishing correlations between investments made in airport infrastructure and the generation of gross domestic product, employment, and added value. This study fills a gap in the existing literature by proposing improvements to the methods for evaluating airports' economic and social benefits. In recent times, airport investors, both in the government and private sectors, have become increasingly demanding in their need for accurate analyses before making investments. Therefore, the results of this paper will provide valuable insights into the benefits of investing in airport infrastructure and help policymakers and investors make informed decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0164.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Environmental quality; institutional quality; ethnic conflicts; socio-economic factors
Online: 18 April 2022 (10:38:40 CEST)
Nowadays, determining the socioeconomic factors' influence on environmental quality is a crucial issue for policymakers. We aim to explore the impact of socioeconomic factors i.e., ethnic conflicts inform ethnic fragmentation, institutions quality effectiveness, and energy consumption on environmental quality by testing the various hypotheses (Pollution Halo Hypothesis, IPAT, and EKC) in 40 selected Asian countries throughout 1993-2019. We also use a set of control variables which are gross domestic product per capita, foreign direct investment inflows, and population growth to determine their impact on environmental quality. We use the Panel Quintile Regression Method of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 to analyze the results. We find ethnic conflict negatively affects the environmental quality at all quantiles. The institution's variables regulatory quality and rule of law negatively influence the environmental quality. Our result supports Porter's hypothesis because the effect of direct foreign investment on the amount of CO2 emissions is negative and significant at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 quantiles which states that foreign direct investment in the host country supports environmental quality. Furthermore, our results support the IPAT hypothesis in selected Asian countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0711.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Quality of economic growth; environmental regulation; technological innovation
Online: 29 June 2021 (14:14:33 CEST)
Abstract：This paper uses the balanced panel data from 29 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China for a total of 17 years from 2000 to 2016 as a research sample, and establishes an empirical model to examine the impact of environmental regulations and technological innovation on the quality of economic growth. Then this paper test technological innovation as a threshold variable, in which play a regulatory role. Taking the provincial balanced panel data as a research sample, a fixed effect model, a system GMM model, and a panel threshold model were established for empirical testing and the robustness test. Based on the empirical results, this article draws the following conclusions: from a national perspective, environmental regulations and technological innovation can significantly promote the quality of economic growth; from a regional perspective, there are regional differences in impact effects. Under the constraints of environmental regulations, the promotion effect of technological innovation on the quality of economic growth will be reduced; the impact of environmental regulation on the quality of economic growth will have a "threshold effect", and environmental regulation can significantly promote the quality of economic growth only after crossing the threshold and the threshold of technological innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1139.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: agricultural sector; agricultural credit; economic growth; Angola; ARDL model; econometric analysis
Online: 26 September 2023 (13:53:32 CEST)
The ultimate goal of this paper was to examine the degree of elasticity between two variables, namely, agricultural credit and agricultural growth, in Angola in the period 2003–2022. Time series data were fitted into the ARDL test using various econometric techniques such as the ADF stationarity test, Granger causality and the ordinary least squares method as well as a vector error correction model (VECM) to analyze the relationship between agricultural credit and agricultural economic growth, showing a causal relationship. Both the impacts through elasticities and the optimal point existing in this relationship were estimated. It was concluded that the impact of agricultural credit on agricultural GDP was 14.41%. Granger causality shows signs of a positive linkage between agricultural credit and agricultural GDP. However, there is a causal relationship between agricultural credit and agricultural GDP, in a unidirectional aspect. This result is consistent with most of the earlier studies reviewed in the literature, confirming that credit-oriented monetary policies can boost economic growth and, consequently, development in Angola. It is important for agricultural credit systems to be designed in a way that ensures equitable access, fair interest rates, and appropriate risk management mechanisms. Additionally, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms should be in place to assess the environmental and social impacts of credit programs on agricultural sustainability. It is worth noting that this is a first-of-a-kind study on the matter of the Angolan credit experience, specifically for the agricultural sector. Angola is still searching for a sustainable credit model that could be used as a catalyzer to boost growth and contribute to economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0530.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic impact; Population mobility data; Prediction; Assess; Covid-19
Online: 21 December 2020 (14:28:50 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 poses a devastating threat to human society in terms of health, economy and lifestyle. Establishing accurate and real-time models to predict and assess the impact of the epidemic on the economy is instructive. We have designed a new model to quantitatively assess the impact of the COVID-19 on the economy of China’s mainland. The nominal GDP in the Q1 of 2020 that we predicted for China’s mainland with the Baidu Mi-gration Data is RMB 20,785.7 billion, which is less by 3.59% than that in 2019. The estimated val-ue is confirmed roughly by the official report released in April 17, 2020 (RMB 20,650 billion, 6.8% year-on-year declined). Strict control measures during the epidemic have greatly reduced Chi-na's economic activity and had a serious impact on the country's economy. Orderly promotion of population mobility plays a decisive role in economic recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0124.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: textile industry; water footprint; economic growth; decoupling; decomposition
Online: 26 January 2017 (17:07:20 CET)
The rapid development of China’s textile industry leads to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020). The premise of sustainable development is to achieve decoupling of economic growth from water consumption and wastewater discharge. In this work, changes in blue water (water consumption), grey water (water pollutants), and water footprints of the textile industry from 2001 to 2014 were calculated. The relationship between water footprint and economic growth was then examined using the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, factors influencing water footprint were determined through logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Results show that the water footprint of China’s textile industry has strongly decoupled for five years (2002, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2013) and weakly decoupled for four years (2002, 2007, 2009, and 2010). A decoupling trend occurred during 2001–2014, but a steady stage of decoupling has not been achieved yet. Based on the decomposition analysis, the total water footprint is mainly increased by production scale and inhibited by the technology. In addition, the effect of industrial structure adjustment is relatively weak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0584.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Economic activity; Computable General Equilibrium (CGE); Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s); COVID-19
Online: 19 April 2023 (10:25:30 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has not only affected public health but has also significantly impacted the economy. Bandung, a bustling city in Indonesia serving as a satellite to the capital, has been hit hard due to its high population density, mobility, and reliance on the tourism, trade, and transportation sectors. Using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed at the inter-regional level of Indonesia, this study investigates the microeconomic indicators of several economic activities in Bandung to assess the impact of the pandemic. Additionally, the study examines the role of private sector actors in contributing to the sustainable recovery efforts toward achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) amidst the pandemic. The findings reveal that Bandung's transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, water supply, and trade sectors experienced a significant decline in economic activity. However, there was a gradual recovery with increased economic activity between 2019 and 2021. Private sector actors and the health sector were the main drivers of economic recovery, with other sectors also contributing to the efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1846.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute infective endocarditis; extracorporeal techniques; hemoadsorption; cytosorb: cardiopulmonary bypass surgery; economic evaluation
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:08:25 CEST)
A considerable number of infective endocarditis (IE) patients require cardiac surgery with an increased risk for postoperative sepsis. Intraoperative hemoadsorption may diminish the risk of postoperative hyperinflammation with potential economic implications for intensive care unit (ICU) occupation. The present study aimed to theoretically investigate the budget impact of a reduced length of ICU stay in IE patients treated with intraoperative hemoadsorption in the German healthcare system. Data on ICU occupation were extrapolated from a retrospective study on IE patients treated with hemoadsorption. An Excel-based budget impact model was developed to simulate the patient course over the ICU-stay. A base-case scenario without therapy reimbursement and a scenario with full therapy reimbursement were explored. The annual eligible German IE patient population was derived from official German Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) volume data. One-way deterministic sensitivity analysis and bootstrap analysis were performed to evaluate the uncertainty over the model results. Use of intraoperative hemoadsorption resulted in 2,298€ saved per patient in the base-case scenario without therapy reimbursement. Savings increased to 3,804€ per patient in case of full device-specific reimbursement. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of savings, with a probability of savings of 99% and 100% in the base-case and full reimbursement scenario, respectively. Intraoperative hemoadsorption in IE patients might have relevant economic benefits related to reduced ICU stay, resulting in improved resource use. Further evaluations in larger prospective cohorts are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0505.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Land subsidence; urban underground space; cause-effect; spatiotemporal; economic impact; spatial planning model; Shanghai
Online: 20 February 2023 (13:02:01 CET)
As a rapidly growing coastal megacity, Shanghai is continuously threatened with land subsidence issues since 1920s. Land subsidence was controlled in 1960s, however in 1990s, unconscious and dangerous urban underground space (UUS) exploration and tunneling development are causing further land subsidence. It is imperative to study previous relations towards future adaptive and resilient scenario modelling and planning. There are multiple cause-effect factors determined in the urban built environment of Shanghai megacity. This paper presents the current evidence based on the relations of the multifactor of the spectrum. Methods consist of understanding the cause-effect relations and spatiotemporal from the crucial period of 1960-2020. Data are collected secondarily from multiple open sourced databases. The results determine Shanghai are highly influenced by the UUS development induced-subsidence, tunneling leakage and weak spatial modelling. Spatiotemporal pattern has shown a mixed positive-negative impact: population, land subsidence is growing in parallel distribution (positive) with tunneling leakage, construction of tunneling, metro system, UUS development, building price, reconstruction area, GDP growth, land price, arable land decrease and further tunnel settlement in Urban City Centre, Pudong New Area, Minhang, Baoshan and Songjiang districts. These results are useful for further adaptive and resilient scenario modelling and spatial planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1036.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Renewable energy, CO2 emission, Economic growth, FMOLS, DOLS, ARDL, Panel data
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:11:35 CEST)
The study presents empirical results investigating the relationships among renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and GDP within the Visegrád Group (V4) countries. Using FMOLS/DOLS and ARDL approaches, along with causality tests based on the Toda-Yamamoto method, the study explores these relationships at a regional level. The findings indicate that renewable energy has a small positive impact on long-term economic growth, with non-renewable energy having a more significant effect. Moreover, CO2 emissions have a negative impact on economic growth, suggesting ongoing reliance on non-renewable energy sources and a burden on economic expansion. On an individual country level, the effects vary. Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary exhibit a negative relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth. Energy sources also differ in impact: in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, non-renewable energy significantly affects economic growth, while in Hungary, renewable energy plays a more substantial role. Causality tests reveal a causal relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the Czech Republic and Poland, suggesting CO2 emissions significantly influence economic expansion. In terms of energy production, renewable energy is causally related to economic growth in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. All countries demonstrate significant causality between non-renewable energy and economic growth. Additionally, a relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions is confirmed in Poland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: dispersed urbanism; residential strategies; residential mobility; economic crisis; Barcelona Metropolitan Region; social crisis; land squandering
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:14:10 CEST)
The development of dispersed urbanism in Spain ran parallel to the real estate boom and consolidated a new model of city sprawl based on the expansion of suburban areas. This process, which started in the mid 1980s, came to a halt with the onset of the economic crisis in 2007. With it, construction stopped, mobility fell and urban growth came to a standstill. The purpose of this article is to carry out an analysis of the recent evolution and chronology of the expansion of dispersed urbanism in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) in order to gain an insight into some of the explanatory factors of such expansion and to deal with the future prospects of middle-term development of dispersed urbanism in the BMR and in Spain. To do this, we examine the trends in the housing market, in residential mobility and we take stock of the impact of business cycles. The conclusion is that dispersed areas retain their appeal in the stages of creation and expansion of households. For this reason, an effective economic recovery and a renewed rise in the price of housing in denser cities may contribute to an upturn in the popularity of the dispersed residential model, which nowadays could be considered to be in a ‘lethargic’ stage, waiting for certain factors to coincide and re-activate its expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1507.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: investments; global output; leontief matrix; economic impact; development levels; trade conflicts; external shocks
Online: 22 September 2023 (04:29:54 CEST)
This research delves into the intricate dynamics underlying the impact of investments on global output, em-ploying the Leontief matrix as a robust analytical framework. Investments wield a profound influence on economies worldwide, with varying effects contingent upon investment types, development levels of coun-tries, and external factors such as trade conflicts and global shocks. The diverse range of investment forms, including physical capital, human capital, R&D, and technological investments, engenders distinct implica-tions for productivity, innovation, and efficiency. Developing and developed economies navigate unique tra-jectories, with investments playing a pivotal role in bridging infrastructure gaps, improving technology, and spurring growth. However, external disruptions, such as trade wars and global shocks, introduce an element of complexity, reshaping investment patterns and altering global output trajectories. This study centers on harnessing the Leontief matrix's prowess to evaluate the interplay of investments and global output, focusing on the Romanian economy. By analyzing input-output tables, encompassing 105 branches aggregated into 10 sectors, the research captures the intricate connections between economic segments. No-tably, the Romanian context reveals the volatility of the matrix coefficients', an outcome of ongoing transi-tional processes, technological advancements, and fluctuating relative prices. In unraveling the intricate threads weaving investments and global output, this study contributes to a nuanced comprehension of these multifaceted interactions. The findings underscore the significance of tailoring investment strategies to specific economic contexts and advocate for robust frameworks, such as the Leontief matrix, to inform pol-icy decisions and drive sustainable growth in an increasingly complex global economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0109.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Cyber risk; Internet of Things cyber risk; Digital Economy Risk Assessment; Economic Impact Assessment.
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:26:13 CEST)
We present an updated design process for adapting and integrating existing cyber risk assessment approaches for impact assessment for the risk from IoT to the digital economy. The new design process includes a set of changes to the original standards (e.g. NIST) that are adapted for the IoT cyber risk in this paper. This paper also presents a new framework for impact assessment of IoT cyber risk, specific for the digital economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0215.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: COVID-19; green finance; green banking; green economic recovery; financial institutions; Bangladesh.
Online: 16 December 2021 (12:36:55 CET)
The main purpose of study is to identify the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the green financing of banks and non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh. Also, this study shows the green banking activities of the banks and NBFIs during the pandemic. To analyze the impact of the pandemic on green financing, secondary data were obtained from the quarterly and annual reports of Bangladesh Bank (BB) on green financing as well as the annual reports and websites of 61 banks and 34 NBFIs in Bangladesh for the period 2021–2019. Subsequently, the study deployed dependent t-test statistics, growth rate (year-on-year), descriptive statistics, relative percentage changes, and varying tables and graphs to analyze the obtained secondary data. The empirical findings revealed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in green finance for all banks and NBFIs compared to before the epidemic, indicating that the pandemic had no negative impact on the total green finance growth of all banks and NBFIs. On the other hand, compared to the pre-pandemic period, bank-wise growth in green financing was higher for state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs), specialized banks (SDBs), and private commercial banks (PCBs) but lower for foreign-owned commercial banks (FCBs) during the COVID-19 epidemic. This suggests that the pandemic does not affect the expansion of green finance by SOCBs, SDBs and PCBs but significantly impacted the growth of green financing by FCBs. Furthermore, the research findings showed that the total outstanding and classified loans within the green finance investment decrease for both banks and NBFIs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicated that the Bangladeshi banks’ level of automation towards green banking were satisfactory during the pandemic. Therefore, major policy implications for the green economic recovery by the government, BB, and managers of the banks and financial institutions in emerging economies like Bangladesh were discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Island nations, Tourism, Small Island Nations, economic development, tropical islands
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:29:52 CET)
In the past few decades, the tourism sector has emerged as a significant economic activity in island nations, particularly in tropical regions. However, most of the tropical islands face similar constraints. National and international tourists visit the SIDS including A & N Islands and contribute to the GDP to significant share. The Covid-19 outbreaks in SIDs including A & N islands shows that number of people infected were less as compared to metros or big cities. However, tourism activities completely stopped due to lockdown resulting in decreasing tourist’s arrival, declined GDP and per capita income of SIDs to greater extent. The information gathered from various sources, mass media and net analysed and interpreted in this chapter. Due to Covid-19 tourist’s arrival declined which has serious consequences on the livelihood of islander. Our analysis revealed A&N Islands deficit in energy available at from different sources by 18.26%. However, they are surplus in protein. The burden of high expenditure coupled with poor infrastructure makes them more vulnerable in the circumstance of pandemic outbreaks. This outbreak has created the question of survival due to loss of jobs, halted economic activates, psychological, health unrest and livelihood threats among the depending people of these Island nations. Therefore, government interventions and subsidized package is very much essential to revive the tourism industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0744.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sustainable economic policy; sustainable economic growth; economic policies; technology.
Online: 31 October 2018 (09:12:00 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which traditional economic policies can be oriented by sound practices. It is becoming widely accepted that sustainable economic growth (and not only economic growth) is the final target of economic policies; but most economic policies are applied just looking to the short-run without taking in account the long-run perspective. Our aim will be to show how a sustainable economic policy-making would be possible, making compatible the stabilization of the economy in the short-run with a sustainable economic growth in the long-run. We confront the design of economic policies with the 17 goals of the 2030 Agenda. We argue that all sustainable development goals can be attained by the design and implementation of sustainable economic policies. Finally, to illustrate this point we will conduct a simulation exercise to show under which combinations of demand policies technological shocks would promote a path of sustainable growth. Our results will provide a reference framework for a sustainable economic policy-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0930.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Multidisciplinary pain clinic; Diabetic foot; Amputation; Foot ulcer; Diabetes Mellitus; Economic evaluation; Cost Benefit Analysis
Online: 27 September 2023 (08:18:15 CEST)
Aims: Multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics have been shown to be an effective therapeutic model for reducing major amputations and mortality rates. The aim of this article is to assess the economic impact of the implementation of a multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic in a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Methods: Observational cost-benefit study of all subjects with diabetes admitted with the diagnosis of a major amputation due to diabetic foot from 2010 to 2020. Direct and indirect costs were compared before and after the introduction of the multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic. Results: The individual cost per patient with diabetic foot was €14,768 before the implementation of the unit. After the implementation of the clinic, the expected cost was reduced to €5,985 due to a 40% reduction in the probability of hospitalization. Overall, the implementation of the clinic resulted in cost savings per patient valued at €8,783, of which, €7,165 are related to hospital benefits. Conclusion: The results of this analysis contributes to the evidence suggesting that multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics are cost-effective, by demonstrating that they have a positive impact on patient health while also reducing the utilization of healthcare resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: modernisation; economic sustainability; economic modernisation
Online: 13 January 2023 (08:24:42 CET)
The present paper investigates the determinants of the country’s modernisation through the lens of its citizens. A combination of the ‘hard’ determinants of country’s modernisation (effectiveness of digitisation, infrastructure, environment and interoperability of natural resources; behaviour in line with environmental trends of the EU) and ‘soft’ (interest in opportunities and benefits of renewable energy) was investigated. It was revealed that even for some developed countries, the ‘hard’ determinants have a greater impact on country’s modernisation compared to the ‘soft’ ones. A representative cross-sectional survey of 1015 respondents and a factor coupled with a network analysis served as the main research instruments. Lithuania served as a geographic setting for the research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: disaster; fire; preparedness; respond; employee; demographic; socio-economic; factors
Online: 9 March 2021 (14:49:26 CET)
This paper presents the results of quantitative research regarding the examination of the levels of efficiency of the fire protection system and the training of employees in Electrical power distribution of Serbia for fire protection, ie the analysis of the manner of implementation of fire protection measures, and determining whether these measures are adequately applied. Following the subject set in this way, the aim of the research was set, and that is the scientific analysis of the manner of application of fire protection measures. The results of this research showed that the employees of Electro distribution Belgrade perceive the preparedness of their company highly positively and certain socio-demographic characteristics also affect certain attitudes, especially those related to the experience with fire, the knowledge of employees to react in case of fire, and the choice of the appropriate response, assessment of the readiness of the company and the employees themselves. It was found that knowledge of how to react in case of fire is influenced by gender and level of education; the choice of one of the methods of action in case of fire is influenced by gender; the assessment of the readiness of the employees themselves is influenced by the marital status; the desire of employees to participate in training to increase their preparedness for fires is influenced by gender. The results of the research can be used to improve the preparedness of employees in various organizations to respond to disasters caused by fires.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0491.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Productive capacities; Economic growth; Economic growth volatility; Structural Economic Vulnerability.
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:30:15 CEST)
Recent years' global shocks (e.g., the 2008 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic) and environmental shocks - such as natural disasters - have heightened the vulnerability of developing countries to future shocks, and can compromise their development prospects. International institutions and researchers have advocated that the strengthening of productive capacities in these countries would help them enhance the resilience of their economies to shocks, and promote sustainable development. The present paper has examined the effect of productive capacities on economic growth and economic growth volatility in developing countries, in particular when they face a high level of structural economic vulnerability. The analysis covers 117 developing countries over the period 2000-2018. It shows that productive capacities do not only promote economic growth, but also reduce economic growth volatility. On the other hand, structural economic vulnerability reduces economic growth, in particular when it exceeds a certain level, and induces greater volatility of economic growth. Interestingly, the findings suggest that productive capacities promote economic growth and reduce economic growth volatility in countries that face a high degree of structural economic vulnerability. These findings support the recommendation by international institutions and researchers that if they were to enhance the resilience of their economies to shocks, and promote sustainable economic growth, developing countries (in particular the poorest ones) should strengthen their productive capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0060.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions; Ecological footprint; Economic growth; EKC hypothesis; Environmental degradation; ARDL; Methane emissions
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:44:17 CET)
Climate change has become a major concern for developing countries given the risk that it posses on energy and food independence, and on general productivity. Despite having an energy system with low carbon intensity when compared to other Latin American countries, Colombia is already facing climate change impacts and requires urgent efforts to mitigate them. As a developing country, the challenge is bigger as policies for economic growth should be in line with the global commitment of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. With the aim of contributing to the design of climate policies, this study assesses the impact of economic development on the environment by examining the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for Colombia. Statistically validated and stable autoregressive distributed lag models are estimated for three different environmental indicators: carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, and ecological footprint. Moreover, the effects of other variables such as urbanization, foreign direct investment, value added of agricultural and industrial sectors, and energy use are analyzed with dynamic simulations. Empirical evidence supports a long-run equilibrium relationship among investigated variables and the existence of an inverted U-shaped EKC relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and methane emissions, and GDP and ecological footprint. Shifting to renewable energy sources and leveraging the use of cleaner technologies in agricultural and industrial sectors are found to be key for economic growth without harming the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0200.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; economic model; economic cascade; economic impact coronavirus; California economy
Online: 11 January 2021 (13:25:15 CET)
Shelter-in-place policies and the closure of non-essential workplaces intended to disrupt transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus are effective approaches to combating COVID-19. They have, however, caused record levels of unemployment in the United States, raising questions of whether mitigation is more societally damaging than the disease. Here we use a coupled epidemiological-economic model to estimate the impact on employment of an unmitigated, business-as-usual approach to the pandemic. We compared unemployment between March-August 2020 in ten Californian socio-economic systems (SESs) to unemployment forecast by a model of industrial sector inter-dependencies subjected to unmitigated outbreaks of COVID-19. We found that economic losses are unavoidable because disease-driven losses propagate economically through SESs, amplifying losses to the disease. While model forecasts are generally lower than actual unemployment, jobs savings would come at the cost of greatly increased worker mortality. The costs would also be disproportionately greater among smaller and inland SESs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0287.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Housing Conditions Index; , the impact of the socio-economic; urban axis
Online: 15 November 2022 (10:58:16 CET)
The size of the home is considered the most critical issue affecting the quality of life. This can be measured by the quality of the house and its environment. This paper highlights the housing quality index at the urban axis level in Bistrita-Nasaud county and the impact of socioeconomic activities on the index. The Household Quality of Life Index (HQLI) was calculated based on 11 variables. Household quality of life comprises two distinctive indices: the Housing Conditions Index (HCI) and the Asset Possession Index (API). The study found a variation in the housing condition variables across the urban focus areas. The impact of the socioeconomic environments is disproportionately dependent on the social-economic profile of the urban environments that make up the Urban Axis and the related economic activities that take place in the area of influence in the administrative-territorial units and the variability of the Housing Conditions Index This can be measured by the quality of the house and its environment. This paper highlights the housing quality index at the urban axis level in Bistrita-Nasaud county and the impact of socioeconomic activities on this index. The study area comprises territories in the municipality of Bistrita. The socio-economic context of the area has been the basis for understanding the patterns of evolution identified in the urban landscape, and being a driver in ongoing urban transformations and processes. The impact of the socio-economic is disproportionate to the socioeconomic profile of the urban environments that make up the Urban Axis and the economic activities related to the economic activities taking place in the catchment area in the administrative-territorial units, hence the variability of the Housing Conditions Index which is a system Housing Quality Indicator (HQI) is a tool for measuring and evaluating housing systems based on quality and not just cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0528.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community onset ESBL -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae; Urinary tract infection; Clinical impact; Economic impact
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:08:23 CET)
Objective: To analyze the clinical and economic impact of community-onset urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring hospitalization. Methods: A retrospective cohort study included all adults with UTI caused by K. pneumoniae admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Barcelona, Spain, between 2011 and 2015. Demographic, clinical and economic data were analyzed. Results: One hundred and seventy-three episodes of UTI caused by K. pneumoniae were studied; 112 were non-ESBL-producing and 61 ESBL-producing. Multivariate analysis identified ESBL production, acute confusional state associated with UTI, shock, and time to adequate treatment as risk factors for clinical failure during the first 7 days. Economic analysis showed differences between ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae for the total cost of hospitalization per episode (mean 6,718 € vs 3,688 € respectively). Multivariate analysis of the higher costs of UTI episodes found statistically significant differences for ESBL production and time to adequate treatment. Conclusion: UTI caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae requiring hospitalization, and time to adequate antimicrobial therapy are associated with worse clinical and economic outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; EVD; HPAI; Socio-economic impact; Public health impact; Measurements
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:36:21 CEST)
Concurrent waves of Coronavirus disease, Ebola virus disease, avian influenza A and black fungus are jeopardizing the lives in some parts of Africa and Asia. From this point of view, this review aims to summarize both socio-economic and public health implications of these parallel outbreaks along with their best possible management approaches. Various online databases were used to collect the necessary information regarding these outbreaks. Based on the reports published and analyses done so far, the long-lasting damages caused by these simultaneous outbreaks on global socio-economical and public health status can be conceived from the past experiences of outbreaks, especially the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, prolonged restrictions by the local government may lead to food insecurity, global recession, and an enormous impact on the mental health of people of all ages, specifically in developing countries. Such overwhelming effects already have been reported to be declining national growth of the economy as well as increasing political insecurity and shortage of basic needs. Although various actions have already been taken including vaccination, clinical management, and further research, social distancing, and lockdown, etc. to improve the situation, the emerging variants and associated genetic mutations may make the containment difficult worsening the situation again. Considering the current mutational dynamics of the pathogens and the past experiences, perpetual preparedness along with updated clinical management backed by epidemiological studies and innovating scientific effort are inevitable to combat the simultaneous waves of multiple infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0261.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: thermodynamics-economics dictionary; economic Einstein 4D PDEs; economic Schwarzschild type metric; economic 3D black holes; economic entropy
Online: 28 March 2019 (09:43:56 CET)
The subject of this paper is to analyse the Math Principia of Economic 3D Black Holes in Roegenian economics. This idea is totally new in the related literature, excepting our papers. In details, we study two special problems: (i) math origin of economic 3D black holes, (ii) entropy and internal political stability depending on national income and the total investment, for economic RN 3D black hole. To solve these problems, it was necessary to jump from macroeconomic side to microeconomic side (a substantial approach so different), to complete the thermodynamics-economics dictionary with new entities, to introduce the flow between two macroeconomic systems, to study the Schwarzschild type metric properties on an economic 4D system, together with Rindler coordinates, Einstein 4D PDEs, and economic RN 3D black hole. In addition, we introduce some economic Ricci type flows or waves, for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0585.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Physical activity; Sedentary behavior; Stress; Socio-economic status; Adolescents; Covid-19
Online: 8 August 2023 (09:15:57 CEST)
The current study is to examine the disparities in physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and stress levels in Korean adolescents concerning changes in their perception of family socio-economic status (SES) during COVID-19. Among a total of 6144 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18, the participants were categorized into two groups based on their responses regarding changes in their family SES during COVID-19: Lower SES (n = 3072) and Non-changed SES (n = 3072), with matching in terms of age, gender, and BMI. All variables were assessed using the 16th year (2020) of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 26.0 version, employing independent t-tests to examine anthropometrics’ differences and multinominal logistic regression to predict the impact of perception of family SES on PA, SB, and stress while comparing the two groups. The significance level was set at α = 0.05. Adolescents in the Lower SES group were less likely to engage in vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) and muscular strength activities compared to those in the Non-changed SES group (p < 0.001) and were 2.3 times more likely to experience a very-severe stress level than the Non-changed SES group (p < 0.001). These results shed light on the importance of promoting VPA and muscular strength activities in adolescents for their physical and mental well-being, particularly during potential future pandemics. Understanding the impact of perceived SES changes on health behaviors can inform targeted interventions and support strategies to improve the health outcomes of adolescents during challenging times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0341.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: malaria; indwelling malaria control; insecticide treated net (ITN); pregnancy; socio-economic; logistic regression; odds ratio
Online: 30 July 2019 (14:40:53 CEST)
Malaria is endemic in Nigeria and remains a major public health problem, taking its greatest toll on children under age 5 and pregnant women, although it is preventable, treatable, and curable. This study investigates the Impact of socio-economic factors and indoor mosquito control on malaria prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria using logistic regression. To achieve this, secondary data obtained from 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator survey, executed by the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP) and the National Population Commission (NPopC), with a nationally representative sample of more than 8,000 consisting of 7,745 households. The results from the logistic regression with odds ratio revealed that pregnant women are more like to be affected by malaria fever (though not significant) compared to women that are not pregnant. The income levels of the household does not significant reduce the incidence of malaria fever among pregnant women in Niger. Concerning the malaria presenting measure, only dwelling sprayed by private company significantly reduce the incidence of malaria fever among pregnant women (P-value=0.020<0.05) compared to dwelling sprayed by government and NGOs and also to Insecticide Treated Net. Also pregnant women in the urban centers are less likely to have malaria fever compared to pregnant women in rural communities in Nigeria. Also, pregnant women with atleast a secondary school level of education are less likely to be affected by malaria fever compared to pregnant women with no formal education. The fitted logistic model passed the goodness-of-test fit; the classification test for the logistic model was correctly classified at about 67.02%. Therefore, this study recommends that government and NGOs should intensify their efforts in the area of dwelling spraying, awareness campaign of the danger of malaria fever among pregnant women and infants, engaged in effective distribution of insecticide treated net in order to reduce the incidence of malaria fever among pregnant women living in rural communities in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: waste management; economic instruments; pay-as-you-throw; municipal solid waste; recycling; environmental management
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:28:43 CET)
The “Pay-as-you-throw” scheme, PAYT, is an economic instrument of waste management that implements the “polluter pays” principle by charging inhabitants of municipalities according to the amount of residual, organic and bulky waste they send for third-party waste management. When combined with well-developed infrastructure to collect the different waste fractions (residual waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, bio waste, green cuttings, many recyclables) as well as with a good level of citizen’s awareness, its performance has frequently been linked to high collection rates of recyclables. However, the establishment and operation of PAYT systems can require significant resource inputs from municipalities. In this paper, PAYT is analysed through a case study from the German County of Aschaffenburg, covering nearly 20 years of implementation across 173,000 inhabitants. Key performance indicators applied include temporal trends in the county’s recyclables collection rate, waste treatment fees for residents and municipal waste management costs, benchmarked against German municipalities not implementing PAYT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0168.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: natural capital; human capital; economic growth; small economies; Vector Auto regression; natural resource curse
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:13:21 CEST)
The question of the relevance of human and natural capital, as well as the potential adverse effect of natural capital on economic growth, has gained increased attention in development economics. The aim of this paper is to theoretically and empirically assess the relevance of several forms of capital on economic growth in small economies that are dependent upon tourism or natural resources. The empirical framework is based on Impulse Response Functions obtained from Vector Autoregressive models in which we focus on the model where economic growth is the dependent variable for ten small economies that are dependent upon either tourism or natural resources. We find that there is evidence of the ‘’natural resource curse’’, especially in the economies that have a strong dependence on resources that are easily substitutable and whose prices constantly fluctuate. We further find that in the majority of observed cases the type of capital these small economies are most dependent on for their economic growth causes negative impulses in the majority of the observed periods. The main policy recommendation should be to assure that even these small economies should strive towards further diversification and avoid dependence on only one segment of their economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0602.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic complexity; Poverty headcount; Economic Growth; Economic growth volatility; Income inequality; External shocks.
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:06:47 CET)
This paper has examined the effect of economic complexity on poverty in developing countries. The analysis has used a sample of 84 countries over the period 1980-2017. Results indicate that greater economic complexity results in lower poverty headcount rates. This is particularly the case for countries that enjoy higher economic growth rates, lower levels of income inequality and lower degrees of economic growth volatility, including due to lower sizes of export demand and financial flows shocks. These findings have important policy implications for developing countries that are exploring ways and means to recover from the current COVID-19 pandemic crisis, and prepare for future crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0207.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SSP (Shared Socio-economic Pathway) scenarios; air quality; WRF-CAMx; numerical modelling; urban areas; health impact assessment; premature deaths
Online: 14 September 2022 (11:57:03 CEST)
The World Health Organization estimates that every year air pollution kills seven million people worldwide. As it is expected that climate change will affect future air quality patterns, the full understanding of the links between air pollution and climate change, and how they affect human health, are challenges of future research. In this scope, a methodology to assess the air quality impacts on health was developed. The WRF-CAMx modelling framework was applied for the medium-term future climate (considering the SSP24.5 scenario) and for the recent past (considered as baseline). Following the WHO recommendations, mortality health indicators were used to estimate health impacts of long-term exposures. For that, the Aveiro Region, in Portugal, was considered as a case study. Future climate results indicate the occurrence of higher temperatures, and lower total precipitation. Despite that, improvements in the main pollutants’ concentrations, and consequently in the reduction of the related premature deaths are foreseen, mainly due to the reduction of pollutants emissions imposed by the European legislation for the upcoming years. The applied approach constitutes an added value in this research field, being crucial to anticipate the effects of climate change on air quality and evaluate their impacts on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0498.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Cattle farming; COVID-19 pandemic; economic point of view; food safety; HOMER; hybrid system; smallholder; thin-film coating
Online: 21 September 2020 (07:32:51 CEST)
This paper reports on the optimization of thin-film coating assisted self-sustainable off-grid hybrid power generation systems for cattle farming in rural areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a lower middle-income country with declining rates of poverty among its 160 million people due to persistent economic growth in conjunction with balanced agricultural improvements. Most of the rural households adopt a mixed farming system by cultivating crops and simultaneously rearing livestock. Among the animals raised, cattle are considered as the most valuable asset for the small/medium-scale farmers in terms of their meat and milk production. Currently, along with the major health issue, the COVID-19 pandemic is hindering the world’s economic growth and has thrust millions into unemployment; Bangladesh is also in this loop. However, natural disasters such as COVID-19 pandemic and floods, largely constrain rural smallholder cattle farmers from climbing out of their poverty. In particular, small and medium-scale cattle farmers face many issues that obstruct them from taking advantage of market opportunities and imposing a greater burden on their families and incomes. An appropriate measure can give a way to make those cattle farmers’ businesses both profitable and sustainable. Optimization of thin-film coating assisted self-sustainable off-grid hybrid power generation system for cattle farming is a new and forward-looking approach for sustainable development of the livestock sector. In this study, we design and optimize a thin-film coating assisted hybrid (photovoltaic-battery-generator) power system by using the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER, Version 3.14.0) simulation tool. An analysis of the results has suggested that the off-grid hybrid system is more feasible for small and medium-scale cattle farming systems with long-term sustainability to overcome the significant challenges faced by smallholder cattle farmers in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0212.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Environmental Regulations; Economic Structure; Economic Growth; PVAR Model
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:25:10 CET)
The potential effect of implementing environmental regulations on economic growth is a controversial issue for a long time. As portrayed by Porter hypothesis, environmental regulations may impact on economic growth by reconstructing the economic structure. A number of previous literature proved the connections between the above three parties. With the intention of exploring the nature of this mechanism, it is important to understand the internal inter-relation of the three parties, requiring data from a large economy experiencing the transition in economic structure. By constructing a panel containing data from 30 Chinese provinces over 10 years (2008-2019), this paper investigate the dynamic inter-relation of the three parties by introducing PVAR model with Granger Test. Results reveal that environmental regulations give a “U” shaped impact to economic growth. In return, economic growth promotes the development of economy with a weakening strength. In addition, results also support the hypothesis that economic structure is the intermediate of economic growth and environmental regulations. There is a rooftop for the effect of economic structure to environmental regulations. The rooftop may signify the best optimization of primary structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0081.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: technology-product network; maximum entropy; bipartite networks; bipartite configuration model; exponential random graphs; diffusion on networks; innovation system; economic fitness and complexity
Online: 4 August 2018 (10:54:53 CEST)
In this work we identify combinations of technological activities that signal the presence local capabilities in a country to successfully export a product. We use country-level patent and trade data to generate a multi-layer network, and we apply maximization of entropy to generate synthetic data to effectively divide signal from noise. We show that in several sectors the signal far exceed the noise. Our exercise provides robust evidence of the presence of synergies between technologies to explain trade performances in specific markets. This can be highly useful for policy makers, to inform industrial and innovation policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: workplace testing; economic analysis; COVID-19; asymptomatic screening; mass testing; employee population health; return to work practices; SARS-CoV-2; surveillance; workplace mitigation
Online: 6 May 2021 (11:34:57 CEST)
Background: The epidemiological situation generated by COVID-19 has cast into sharp relief the delicate balance between public health priorities and the economy, with businesses obliged to toe a line between employee health and continued production. In an effort to detect as many cases as possible, isolate contacts, cut transmission chains and limit the spread of the virus in the workplace, mass testing strategies have been implemented in both public health and industrial contexts to minimize the risk of disruption in activity. Objective: To evaluate the economic impact of mass workplace testing strategy as carried out by a large automotive company in Catalonia in terms of health and healthcare resource savings. Methodology: Analysis of health costs and impacts based on the estimation of mortality and morbidity avoided because of screening and the resulting savings in healthcare costs. Results: The economic impact of the mass workplace testing strategies (using both PCR and RAT tests) was approximately €10.44 per test performed or €5,575.49 per positive detected. 38% of this figure corresponds to savings derived from better use of health resources (hospital beds, ICU beds and follow-up of infected cases), while the remaining 62% corresponds to improved health rates due to avoided morbidity and mortality. In scenarios with higher positivity rates and a greater impact of the infection on health and the use of health resources, these results could be up to ten times higher (€130.24 per test performed or €69,565.59 per positive detected). Conclusion: In the context of COVID-19, preventive actions carried out by the private sector to safeguard industrial production also have concomitant public benefits in the form of savings in healthcare costs. Thus, governmental bodies need to recognize the value of implementing such strategies in private settings and facilitate them through, for example, subsidies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1350.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: economic sustainability; university city; socio-economic inequality; index assessment
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:32:52 CEST)
The study is devoted to analyzing the economic sustainability of the town of Amherst, MA. The city's top employer and core enterprise is the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with over 32,000 students and almost 2,000 staff members. Based on a literature review, a hypothesis was put forward that a university city should have a high level of economic sustainability. To assess economic sustainability, the USCESI Index was developed. It evaluates sustainability in three groups of parameters: society, economy, and ecology. The first group includes the level of racial diversity, the level of education of the population, and the access to medical services. The second group consists of the Gini coefficient by income level, the median cost of housing, and the unemployment rate. The environmental situation is assessed according to the Air Quality Index developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For comparison, the town of Braintree, MA, was taken. The USCESI was calculated for both locations. The analysis showed that both Amherst and Braintree have a high degree of economic sustainability. However, it was revealed that proximity to a significant economic center has a more powerful positive impact on economic sustainability than the location of a large university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Uzbekistan, health spending, economic impact, Wagner’s Law, economic geography.
Online: 17 July 2023 (16:19:50 CEST)
In this research, we investigate the healthcare expenditure patterns in Uzbekistan, analyze their economic implications, and provide policy recommendations. The study focuses on the time frame from 2000 to 2019, employing quantitative data analysis, theoretical frameworks such as Wagner’s Law, and an economic geography perspective. Our objective is to gain insights into the relationship between economic development and healthcare spending, identify spatial disparities, and forecast future trends. The findings reveal fluctuations in per capita healthcare spending, emphasizing the necessity for sustainable financing mechanisms and preventive measures. Ultimately, our study underscores the significance of aligning healthcare expenditure decisions with economic objectives while prioritizing the well-being of the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: keratoconus; lifetime expenditure; economic burden; Keratoconus Economic Burden Questionnaire
Online: 2 March 2023 (08:48:53 CET)
Aim: This study measures and evaluates the socioeconomic burden of people living with keratoconus in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional design, a Keratoconus Economic Burden Questionnaire, and a convenient sample of 89 keratoconus patients (58.4% male) drawn from multiple regions in Saudi Arabia. It was conducted using online surveys and the data was analysed using appropriate quantitative techniques. Results: The mean age and annual income of participants were 33.24 years and Saudi Riyal (SAR) 33,505.6180 (SD=62,215.29), respectively, with only 37% being employed for wages. Up to 94.4% needed glasses or contact lenses at least once a week and 73.0% received care from optometrists. The condition forced 45.9% of the respondents to change careers or leisure activities, with a further 51.3% having to take time off work. The mean annual out-of-pocket expenses for buying and maintaining glasses or contact lenses as well as traveling and accommodation for keratoconus-related treatment were SAR 8,673.19 (SD=11,307.73), with 48.32 incurring upwards of SAR 12,000 over the period. The treatment costs increased with disease duration, r(89) = .216, p < .05. Regression results show that the existence of comorbid eye disease, changing glasses at least once a year, and wearing either glasses or contact lenses at least once a week individually have statistically significant, negative effects on the total annual keratoconus treatment costs, while disease duration, utilisation of optometrists, and taking time off had a statistically significant increase on the total cost (p<.05). Conclusion: With a prevalence rate of 1 in 375, progressive debilitation, and the lifetime nature of the disease, keratoconus is a critical public health concern in Saudi Arabia. The resulting visual impairment and discomfort as well as both direct and indirect economic burdens have considerable impacts on the patient's quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0095.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: China；economic growth；export market；economic policy； potential drivers
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:18:07 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to apply China’s economy growth prospects and its potential drivers of future. China's fast rise and its growth model have accelerated important existing structural trends in the global economy and made them decisive characteristics of the world economy. China's role in the world economy over the coming decades, an exercise which would not be possible without an investigation of the prospects for China's continued economic rise. On the one hand, China is a large export market for the United States. A lot of U.S. firms use China as the final destination of assembly in their global supply chain networks. China’s huge holdings of U.S. Treasury securities support the federal government finance its budget failures. However, some analysts contend that China consolidates a number of distortive economic policies such as protectionist industrial policies and an undervalued currency that undermine U.S. economic interests. They warn that efforts by the Chinese government to promote indigenous innovation, often through the use of subsidies and other distortive measures, could negatively affect many leading U.S. industries
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: economic evaluation; techno-economic sensibility; biorefinery; shrimp; chitin; chitosan; astaxanthin
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:41:00 CEST)
Huge amounts of wastes are generated during shrimp processing, representing approximately 65% of the initial shrimp weight, which can become an environmental problem when accumulated. Residues such as shrimp shells can be processed to obtain value-added products such as chitin, chitosan, astaxanthin, and a nitrogenous extract under the biorefinery concept. In this work, the economic evaluation and the techno-economic sensibility analysis for a mass integrated biorefinery based on shrimp were developed to determine the economic feasibility of the project and to identify the critical techno-economic variables that affect the profitability of the process. The results showed that a biorefinery for the annual processing of 4,113.09 tons of fresh shrimp in Colombia is profitable, with a return on investment percentage (%ROI) equal to 65.88% and a net present value (NPV) of 10.40 MM USD. The process supports decreases of up to 28% in capacity of production and increases of 12% and 11% in the cost of raw materials and variable operating costs without incurring losses, respectively. However, the decrease over 500 USD/t in the shrimp meat selling price is not supported, thus it is mainly recommended to increase the selling price of this product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Economic Policy Uncertainty; Tobin's Q; Market Price Per Share; Investment in Intangible Assets; Fixed Assets; Financial Leverage; Cash Flow From Operations
Online: 22 May 2023 (05:35:13 CEST)
This study seeks to determine how economic policy uncertainty (EPU) influences investment decisions and the market value of the Pakistan Stock Exchange. The study examines investment and operational data from 249 energy and petroleum companies between 2015 and 2020, in addition to macroeconomic variables such as EPU. This study investigates the moderating effects of EPU on investments in fixed and intangible assets, as well as its effect on Tobin's Q and the market price per share. The outcomes demonstrate that EPU reduces the costs of both tangible and intangible assets for businesses. In addition, companies with a greater Tobin's Q and market price per share are more impacted by uncertain corporate investment policies. However, financial leverage is found to be negatively correlated with share price and positively correlated with earnings per share and earnings per unit. Tobin's Q is positively correlated with financial leverage, indicating that firms that raise capital through debt are more likely to create value for investors. The research indicates that market-dependent enterprises are more susceptible to the unpredictability of monetary policy. Eventually, the findings suggest that consistent and transparent economic policies may increase the efficiency of corporate investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: environmental efficiency; energy; economic; PV installation; modernization; economic analysis; ecological effect,
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:13:39 CET)
The paper addresses an analysis of the efficiency and profitability of the operation of a photovoltaic installation located in the geometric centre of Europe (near Białystok, Poland), where the intensity of solar irradiation is not too high compared to other European countries. It is calculated that in that place average solar irradiation being lower even by approx. 26 kWh than that for the whole Europe, which results in a 26% drop in the economic potential of the utilisation of solar energy for its conversion. A case study and an economic analysis show that without minimum funding amounting to 50% of the investment costs paid for the modernisation of a central heating system assisted by PV cells, the time of return of pecuniary expenditures exceeds 7 years. Apart from the Simple Pay-Back Time SPBT, discount indicators determined in the paper also include the net present value NPV and the internal rate of return IRR. Moreover, a direct ecological effect has been determined for such an investment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0245.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID19; economic paradigm shift; economic failures; post-COVID19 economy; 5G technology
Online: 15 May 2020 (03:35:16 CEST)
This conceptual article is aimed at evaluating the COVID19 impacts on the global economy and to postulating an ‘economic paradigm shift’. We argue that the existing economic, political, and trade principles have been challenged due to the global pandemic issue. We also compare the COVID19 impact on Western countries and Eastern countries with their control mechanisms. The emerging of new economies is due to the travel restrictions and disrupt of the global economies are discussed that pave a gateway to the economic paradigm shift. The article finally assesses the advent of 5G technology and its implications to face any future health threats that will lead to the next economic paradigm shift in the modern world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2056.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Economic progress
Online: 31 July 2023 (12:12:43 CEST)
Sustainability means that the current use of resources does not compromise the well-being of future generations. Ever since Malthus (1798) forecast that population tends to grow faster than the growth of resources to support the population, people have claimed that current resource use is unsustainable, so future generations will be materially worse off than those in the present, yet for more than two centuries this has not been the case. The reason is that markets, and market prices, act to conserve scarce resources, and in market economies, entrepreneurs have an incentive to discover more efficient ways to use resources. The claim that twenty-first century market economies are not sustainable is not supported by the evidence. This paper explains why entrepreneurship in market economies produces sustainable economic progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0190.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic Geography; Free Economic Zone; Foreign Direct Investment; Industrial Location; Spatial Patterns
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:20:33 CEST)
Uzbekistan, as an emerging national economy, aims to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) to foster the development of its free economic zones (FEZs). While recent policy reforms have enhanced the country's appeal to investors and facilitated the inflow of international capital, challenges persist in attracting investment. This study employs an economic geographical approach to analyze and propose solutions to these obstacles. By examining the spatial patterns of FEZs and FDI through a comprehensive geographical lens, this research utilizes document analysis as an alternative to empirical analysis, considering the broader context rather than focusing on a specific FEZ. The findings reveal that the insufficiency of an innovation-driven environment, logistical systems, energy resource-related issues, among others, negatively impact the inflow of FDI into FEZs. Moreover, the study underscores the significance of economic geography in understanding these factors. Finally, relevant insights and recommendations are provided from an economic geographical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0295.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Preexposure prophylaxis; transmission model; PrEP; economic evaluation; HIV; economic evaluation; health economics
Online: 16 November 2021 (14:36:41 CET)
Introduction: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention has been implemented in several countries. Previous literature has shown that its cost-effectiveness (and, under some specifications, cost-saving character) is dependent on the reduction in price due to generics, the time-horizon and its effectiveness. The intervention has never been studied in Catalonia, a territory with extensive implementation. Methods: Economic evaluation of the implementation of HIV pre-exposition prophylaxis using administrative data from Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) who receive the treatment (at the generic price). A deterministic compartmental model and a social perspective with a micro-costing approach over the time horizon 2022-2062 are used. A baseline 86% effectiveness of PrEP is assumed. Results: Daily oral PrEP is found to be cost-saving: discounted savings in costs are attained after 16 years, and after 40 years they reach 81 million euros. In terms of health indicators, 10,322 additional discounted QALYs are generated by the intervention. Results are sensitive to sexual behavioral patterns among MSM, the price of PrEP (reduced if offered on-demand), its effectiveness and the discount rate. Conclusions: The use and promotion of PrEP in Catalonia is predicted to result in substantial health and monetary benefits because of reductions in HIV infections. Short-term investments in the promotion of PrEP will result in important cost-savings in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0095.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: economic growth; globalization; sustainability; ease of doing business; entrepreneurship; economic freedom; Nordic countries.
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:09:02 CEST)
The Nordic countries are practically always well positioned in the main international economic, social and sustainability indices and recommending the scientific literature that the variables that these indices intend to measure translate into sustainable economic growth, with this unprecedented empirical study we intend to verify through the ARDL methodology for space temporal 2004 -2018 if the maintenance of high scores in these indexes translates into effective economic growth. The ARDL methodology has the advantage of giving us short- and long-term coefficients. Using four of the main international indices, we conclude that for Nordic countries for economic growth, economic freedom is of no significance and business-friendly regulation is the most important variable. A fundamental discovery in our study (in which Granger's Causality complements the ARDL methodology) is that these countries have been able to adapt perfectly to the globalization process and that entrepreneurship has worked as an important contribution to the continued economic and social success of these countries, allowing them to continue to enjoy their “Nordic Welfare States” in these uncertain and troubled times. These variables have contributed to its economic and social sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0361.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Agro-economic crop water productivity; Hydro-economic modeling; CSPSO-MODSIM; Economic benefits; Crop pattern planning; Crop water Irrigation depth; Climate change; Iran.
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:12:25 CET)
For water-stressed regions like Iran improving the effectiveness and productivity of agricultural water-use is of utmost importance due to climate change and unsustainable demands. Therefore, a hydro-economic model has been developed here for the Zarrine River Basin with the central concept of that demands are value-sensitive functions, where quantities of water-uses at different locations and times have a changeable economic benefits. To do this, the potential crop yields and the surface and groundwater resources, especially Boukan Dam inflow are simulated using the hydrologic model, SWAT, based on predicted climatic scenarios i.e. quantile mapping-downscaled projections. Then, to allocate the agricultural water based on the agro- economic crop water productivity (AEWP) of crops, a basin-wide water management tool, MODSIM, is customized. Next, a simulation- optimization model has been developed using a coupled CSPSO-MODSIM, to optimize the total AEWP, considering climatic impact and crop pattern scenarios, for 2020-2038, 2050-2068 and 2080-2098 periods. Finally, the optimum crop pattern and crop water irrigation depths are presented for different RCPs and periods. The results indicated that this approach will improve considerably the AEWPs and decrease the agricultural water-use up to 40%. Thus, this integrated model is able to support water authorities and other stakeholder in a water-scarce basin, as is the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0830.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: economic migrants; capabilities approach; simulation
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:56:31 CEST)
This paper starts with hypothesis (and presents some evidence) that anxiety in migrants is sufficiently important to be modelled. It presents a small (and very incomplete) review of emotion modelling in literature. It asks the question of how to translate these into agent-based modelling, and whether this can be orthogonal to specific modelling of goals and capabilities of agents. This short paper is offered as a motivator for discussion, rather than a discussion of results.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Islamic development; economic development; waqf
Online: 7 March 2020 (02:38:25 CET)
Muslim countries witnessed outstanding intellectual and socio-economic prosperity up to the 18th century when they fell into a period of regression following the Ottoman’s global decline. Currently, economically Muslim societies lags behind the modern western world. Scholars hold different views, including the radical notion that Islam is inherently anti-development and thus resists progress. This study discusses the Islamic philosophy and principles of development in the context of institutional economics. The basic principles of Islamic economic development drawn from the Islamic sources and historical experiences will be explored for a better understanding of Muslims’ current condition. This study addresses questions including whether basic religious precepts caused Muslims’ economic underdevelopment, while examining the development process according to Muslim perspectives. The institutions, the organizations, rules, and applications will also be explored in addition to the impact of those institutions on development. The context of development will also be evaluated according to Western value perspective. A model of Islamic economic development will be discussed in addition to the discussions of institutions that contributed to the early development of the Islamic world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0179.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Diversity; resource curse; economic growth.
Online: 13 April 2018 (14:18:36 CEST)
This paper contributes to the debate on the impact of economic diversity and the resource curse on economic growth. We use dynamic panel data models on data on Canadian and US sub-national jurisdictions. We find evidence for a positive relationship between diversity and growth. Based on the Krugman Specialization Index, our analysis shows that the required threshold for not having the resource curse is 0.209. Above this threshold, the marginal contribution of natural resources to economic growth is lower for a more diversified regional economy than a less diversified one. We highlight the policy implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0065.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Corruption; Economic growth; Panel Data
Online: 26 February 2018 (15:38:23 CET)
This study attempts to assess the impact of corruption on economic growth in the Mediterranean countries, during the period from 1998 to 2007. Econometric analysis using panel regression has been adopted to test this effect. Individual effects models such as random effects model and fixed effects model were applied to the study sample of 160 observations, and to choose the suitable model, we implemented several tests. For our analysis, we used a basic model that includes the dependent variable GDP per capita as a factor of economic growth and the corruption perception index as the independent variable concerned. Then we completed the model with several standardized macroeconomic control variables mentioned above and applied the individual effects models. The outcomes illustrate that corruption has a negative impact on the selected Mediterranean countries’ economic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0222.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: inflation; economic growth; threshold effects
Online: 30 August 2016 (08:54:34 CEST)
Achieving high economic growth rate while maintaining low inflation rate, has become the main objective of monetary authorities all over the world. Indeed, empirical literature reflects that high inflation rates are detrimental to long run growth and entail welfare costs. To achieve this objective, central banks have availed different options from time to time which include inflation targeting. Monetary authorities in Tanzania have been targeting an inflation level of around 5 percent per annum for economic policy purposes. However, when high inflation is to be controlled, tight monetary policy is put in place which might in turn affect the economic activity. Also, the Tobin effect suggests that inflation causes individuals to substitute out of money and into interest earning assets, which leads to greater capital intensity which in turn promotes economic growth. Against these major points, this paper examines a non linear relationship between inflation and economic growth using both a quadratic and threshold endogenous models and attempts to identify the existence of threshold effects between these variables. The paper uses a data set spanning from 1967 to 2015. The most interesting finding of the estimations is that the estimated coefficient of the linear term of inflation is negative while the estimated coefficient of the square term of inflation is positive, suggesting a U-shaped effect as opposed to inverse or inverted U-shaped relationship found in other countries by previous studies. These results suggest that the Tobin effect may be valid for high inflation, in which people strongly realize the importance of substituting money for interest-bearing assets. This leads to an increase in capital investment, and in turn, an increase in economic growth even with high inflation rate. However, this U-shaped relationship between inflation and economic growth suggests that, the economy is better off at extremely low inflation episodes. The optimal inflation rate that ranges between 3.25 percent and 3.75 percent is obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares and/or maximizing adjusted R-squared. These findings have some policy implications for the policymakers and development partners. The paper is consistent with policy suggestions by international agencies. Efforts to minimize inflation to a very low level are likely to have a positive effect on economic growth.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0654.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: PPP Loans, Economic Disparity, Gender Disparity
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:39:16 CEST)
It is well known that the size of initial loans approved by private lending agencies (banks, credit unions etc.) corresponds with the median income of the location of the individual, it also corresponds with gender. We wanted to show if it was the case with the PPP. We use standard machine learning techniques such as Lasso and found statistically significant association between gender of business owner and size of initial loan approvals for the State of Arkansas, and Least Squares Regression and Decision Tree regression to find a somewhat tenuous relationship between median income and initial loan approval amount and finally a strong association with the size of business. This has important applications for the equity of access to credit for marginalized peoples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0115.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: tourism; islands; impact; economic development; sustainability
Online: 8 March 2022 (02:45:35 CET)
Tourism may not sustainably support territories with limited natural resource stock as islands. The volume in visitor arrivals and the industry investments can increase the pressure even beyond sustainable levels. There is an evident and unresolved tension between these two great polarities, sustainability and economic growth driven by tourism. The aim for policymakers is to find an acceptable equilibrium between these two dimensions. This paper investigates the tourism evolution between 2007 and 2019 in 15 Mediterranean islands, comparing the tourism pressures through statistical indicators. The analysis will compare tourism demand and supply trends in these contexts. The performances will be evaluated to identify the Islands positioning between sustainability needs and tourism development opportunities considering post-covid-19 challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0048.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Productive capacities; Economic resilience; Developing countries.
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:29:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 outbreak and its economic, social and financial fallouts have generated a renewed interest in finding adequate policies and means to strengthen economic resilience to future shocks, particularly in developing countries. The latter are usually disproportionately affected by adverse shocks (compared to developed countries) and lack the adequate resources to weather these shocks. Strengthening economic resilience is now at the heart of the policy discussion both at the national and international levels. The present paper aims to contribute to this debate by investigating the effect of productive capacities on economic resilience in a panel dataset of 118 developing countries over the period 2000-2018. It constructs a regression-based economic resilience indicator, and makes use of the indicator of productive capacities recently developed by the UNCTAD. Results are quite interesting, including from a policy perspective. The development of productive capacities is associated with greater economic resilience. This is particularly the case for countries with greater trade openness, greater capital account openness, and those that promote a stable macroeconomic environment. Interestingly, development aid appears to matter for the effect of productive capacities on economic resilience. On the one hand, the magnitude of the positive economic resilience effect of productive capacities increases as countries receive higher Aid for Trade (AfT) flows. On the other hand, NonAfT flows (i.e., other development aid flows that AfT flows) hinder the possible positive contribution of productive capacities to economic resilience. These findings have important policy implications that are discussed in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0554.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: residential complexes; social interactions; economic approach
Online: 20 April 2021 (17:45:42 CEST)
The quality of the environment affects human behavior, the micro-communities of human beings need creative thinking and ideas. Social environments have a significant impact on collective behaviors and social interactions. Nowadays achieving social indicators in housing with a sustainable approach is one of the goals that have been considered. The most important issue in the field of research is recognizing and examining the value of spaces in residential environments to achieve social life, in which it leads human to be social in public residential spaces. Paying attention to social relations with neighbors and people to create Social relationships are proportionate to the presence of individuals in their realm of life. The concept of neighborhood is being responsible for creating social relationships, influencing people living in the complex and community-based life. In this research, by satisfying the human need to communicate and interact with others, creating collective spaces in different scales such as commercial and recreational spaces in residential complexes, the presence of people in these spaces leads to the socialization of collective space and the factor in which the space achieves success. By explaining and identifying the components of socialization in the collective spaces of residential complexes, such spaces can be prepared for the presence of people in the space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0384.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: health expenditure; economic growth; carbon emissions
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:50:55 CEST)
Researchers’ attention has been turned on Health expenditure, Carbon emissions, and economic growth as they play a focal role in the current debate on environmental protection and sustainable development. Our paper endeavors to investigate the impact of economic growth and CO2 emissions on Health expenditure for two main countries in Asia (China and India) using a dynamic panel data model estimated employing the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) for the period 1960–2019. Our empirical results show that there is a significant relationship between health expenditure, CO2 emissions, and economic growth. The empirical evidence indicates a significant positive impact of CO2 emissions on health expenditure whiles economic growth has a negative impact on health expenditure for both countries for the period under study. The population growth rate has transposed effect on India's health spending; on the other hand, its impact on China’s health spending is significantly positive. The strong observable correlation between health expenditure and economic growth is crucial for economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0458.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; socio-economic; impact; Bangladesh
Online: 25 April 2020 (10:31:39 CEST)
The COVID-19 has caused gigantic negative effects on populace wellbeing, society, education, and the economy in Bangladesh. The aim is to deliver a comprehensive overview of the observed and the possible impacts that could appear in the coming days. The study is based on secondary information. During the early period, due to a lack of accurate facts about the case affected and death tension up-and-down among the nations. The total number of confirmed cases is increasing following geometric patterns in Bangladesh. Dairy farmers, vegetable producers, pharmaceuticals, poultry farmers are in deep crisis due to lower prices. Also, the pandemic has seriously affected educational systems, banking, FDI, ready-made garments, remittances, etc Finally, it is not possible to mitigate the effects of pandemic individually but the integrated effort from the state authority as well as concern people of all sectors need to come forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0012.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic growth; democracy; MENA; simultaneous equations
Online: 1 August 2018 (09:45:56 CEST)
This paper examines the indirect effect of democracy on economic growth using a dataset of 17 MENA countries from 1990 to 2015. Democracy is assumed to affect growth through a series of channels: education, health, physical capital accumulation per labor, government consumption, and trade openness. A system of six simultaneous equations, 3SLS, is used to estimate the effect of democracy on growth through these channels. For further analysis, the countries are classified into groups according to the democratic status on the one side, and the level of income on the other. The results indicate that democracy enhances growth through its positive effect on health in all classifications of countries within the MENA region. However, the effect of democracy on growth through education and physical capital/labor is non-monotonic. Democracy always hinders growth through government size and trade openness. Once all of these indirect effects are accounted for, the overall effect of democracy on growth is negative in less democratic countries and poor countries, but positive in more democratic countries and rich countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Remittances; Economic Growth; Bangladesh; Remittances Utilisation
Online: 20 July 2016 (10:27:13 CEST)
The paper examines the impact of inward remittances flows on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh during 1976-2012. We find that the growth effect of remittances is negative at first but becomes positive at a later stage, an evidence of a non-linear. Unproductive use of remittances was rampant in the beginning when they were received by migrant families but better social and economic investments led to more productive utilisation of remittances receipts at later periods. This was the possible mechanism behind the U-shaped relationship. Unlike what is suggested in the literature that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in a less financially developed economy, our evidence do not show that the effect of remittances on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh is conditional on the level of financial development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0279.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Three Seas Initiative; entrepreneurial potential; synthetic measure of economic anchor; economic lockdown; economy after COVID-19
Online: 14 January 2021 (16:17:12 CET)
This research is aimed at determining the characteristics of the current level of entrepreneurial potential of the Three Seas Initiative (3SI) countries, the ability to overcome the consequences of extraordinary events, such as COVID-19 and prospects for the return to an accelerated development once the destabiliser of the economic system, the coronavirus pandemic, has ceased. Eurostat, World Bank and the World Economic Forum data for 2015-2019 were used for the purpose of the research. The research was divided into three stages, i.e. assessment of economic development on the basis of a synthetic ratio of economic anchor development, for which a relative benchmark method based on spatial median (so-called L1 median or Weber point) was used, identification of conditions for the development of entrepreneurial capacity and statistical analysis showing the correlation between economic anchor measures and selected factors of the 3SI countries economic development. Our study found that the entrepreneurial capacity of the 3SI countries in 2015-2019 was determined by nine characteristics, belonging to six areas, i.e. local economy, demographic situation, social situation, trade exchange, innovation and tourism economy. The entrepreneurial potential of the 3SI countries was spatially diversified, and its development was determined, among others, by the entrepreneurial activity of residents (entrepreneurship index) and the conditions for running a business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1799.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Risk Perceptions; Driving; Economic Risks; Road Environment
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:35:45 CEST)
While studies that examined risk perceptions in various environments have been previously conducted, the relationship between risk perceptions measured in such environments had not been examined. Such a relationship, if found, may indicate that when one learns to identify risks in one environment, they may identify risks more easily and quickly in another.This study examined the relationship between measures of risk perception in several separate environments. The findings suggest that when learning to identify and assess risks in a particular environment, one may better identify and assess risks in a similar environment – for example, learning to identify and assess risks while driving makes it easier to identify and assess risks when crossing a road. Conversely, the findings also indicate that learning to identify and assess risks in one environment does not make it possible to better identify and assess risks in a disparate environment – for example, learning to identify and assess risks while driving does not make it easier to identify and assess risks in a workplace environment. This may also suggest that while disparate environments such as the road environment and the workplace environment are perceived as two separate environments, the road environment is experienced as one single environment by both drivers and pedestrians.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1381.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chronic viral hepatitis; socio-economic status; children
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:07:14 CEST)
In the present research, chronic viral hepatitis in children is approached from a multidisciplinary point of view, considering social status, economic and medical aspects. We conducted a 4-year observational prospective study. A questionnaire regarding the socio-economic status of pediatric patients diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis B or C was applied. In total, 159 patients were included, 52 % from urban areas, 2.5 % coming from centres for abandoned children. Among 119 school-aged children, 66% were attending classes. All patients are registered with a general practitioner. Regarding the monthly income per family, 49% had less than 1000 RON (5 RON = 1$), of which 17% had no income, 28% had an income ranging between 1000 and 2000 RON and in only 23% of cases the income exceeded 2000 RON (5% had more than 4000 RON). There were between 3 and 12 members per family. Concerning parents` educational level, the average years of study for mothers was 7.8, while for fathers, it was 8.2. For 17 % of children, at least one of the parents was illiterate, and for 5.6 %, both parents were illiterate. For a third of patients, both parents were unemployed. Regarding social living conditions, 38.4% did not have water facilities or sewerage, and 32 % used personal objects (scissors, nail clippers) in common. The socio-economic level can have a significant impact on disease epidemiology (infectiousness) and access to treatment, and it is tightly related to educational level and access to information, which are critical factors in disease prevention through general and specific measures and in disease management (treating infected patients and limiting the transmission).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Circular economy; linear economic model; plastics; recycling
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:18:26 CEST)
The Circular Economy of plastics is a promising concept that has the potential to reduce pollution and close the loop on plastic waste. However, further research is needed to develop more efficient and environmentally friendly methods of recycling plastic. This review article discusses the Circular Economy of plastics, its potential benefits and drawbacks, and the challenges that need to be addressed to make it a reality. Some case studies are also examined to explore how the Circular Economy of plastics has been implemented across the globe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Newcastle disease; poultry; Pakistan; vaccine; economic affects
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:59:23 CEST)
The poultry industry is affected by many epidemics and Newcastle Disease (ND) is a constant threat, known as a devastating disease for poultry farmers around the world. According to the average death time of chicken embryos, virus strains can be classified as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic. The current research will clarify the vulnerable host range as well as the epidemiology and geographic distribution of ND in Pakistan. The introduction of the virus into poultry can have serious economic consequences, including the loss of production of sick and dying poultry, the cost of control measures (such as population reduction and disinfection measures), and possible trade restrictions in the event of an outbreak. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with sick poultry or carriers. Infected birds can also spread the virus in their feces. It can also be spread through respiratory secretions, contaminated feed, equipment, water, or feces. We will also discuss vaccines that which vaccines are available for NDV in Pakistan and vaccines can fight against this disease or not? In this study, a qualitative risk analysis was carried out to assess Pakistan's vulnerability to the introduction of virulent NDV strains
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0504.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: humanitarian logistics; pandemic; economic reactivation; spatial modelling
Online: 21 July 2021 (18:27:42 CEST)
In this article we propose an application of humanitarian logistics theory to build a supportive framework for economic reactivation and pandemic management based on province vulnerability against COVID-19. The main research question is: which factors are related to COVID-19 mortality between Peruvian provinces? We conduct a spatial regression analysis to explore which factors determines the differences in COVID-19 cumulative mortality rates for 189 Peruvian provinces up to December 2020. The most vulnerable provinces are characterized by having low outcomes of long-run poverty and high population density. Low poverty means a high economic activity that leads to more deaths of COVID-19. There is a lack of supply of a set of relief goods defined as Pandemic Response and Recovery Supportive Goods and Services (PRRSGS). These goods must be delivered in order to mitigate the risk associated to COVID-19. A supportive framework for economic reactivation can be built based on regression results and a delivery strategy can be discussed according to the spatial patterns that we found for mortality rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0263.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Regional Economic; Innovation-driven; Development; Spatial Characteristics
Online: 12 July 2021 (13:42:16 CEST)
This paper uses the spatial analysis software GeoDa as a tool, takes GRP (Gross regional product) of Sichuan Province in 2012 and 2018 as the dependent variable, and takes the city (autonomous prefecture) factor-driven, investment-driven and innovation-driven indicators as the dependent variable to explore the impact of innovation activities on regional economic development and the spatial distribution characteristics of regional economy. Through the comparison of the global correlation and local correlation, this paper explores the crux of the regional economic polarization and unbalanced development, and puts forward some measures to solve the existing economic development problems, such as cultivating and improving the regional industrial dependence, accelerating the regional transportation accessibility and convenience, and constructing the regional collaborative innovation system, So as to achieve the strategic goal of the construction of innovative Province in Sichuan Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0759.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Okun's law; unemployment rate; Economic Growth; Liberia
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:11:14 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the connection between economic growth and unemployment in Liberia between 2001 and 2019. The unit root test and the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) Co-integration test were used to examine the relationship between unemployment and GDP. The Auto Regressive Distribution Lag (ARDL) bounds test is used to determine if the variables are linked in the long run. According to the results of the ARDL model, there is no long-run relationship between unemployment and economic growth. This study' results have particularly important policy implications for Liberian economic authorities. In both the long and medium term, the observational results showed no meaningful relationship between unemployment and economic growth. The Liberian government should direct its spending toward activities that directly and indirectly promote the creation of employment and decent jobs, a conducive environment and flexible labor market policies or legislation that are not impediments to job creation, and finally, the government should prioritize labor intensive industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0013.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: anti-globalization; economic globalization; US-dominated globalization
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:28:16 CET)
Since the financial crisis in 2008, the U.S. economy has weakened, and the world economy has slowly developed. As the world's leading country, the United States has used many methods to restore the economy. But it does work efficiently. However, there are many issues in developed countries such as domestic social, economic, immigration in the United States/United Kingdom; those are not optimistic. Developed countries have entered a dilemma. The neoliberalism financial system has been unable to move forward. Populists have pointed out that those problems have been causing by globalization. Under the leadership of the Brexit Referendum, President Trump has caused a wave of anti-globalization. Under a series of systems such as the China-US trade war and the US-Mexico border wall repairs, the anti-globalization trend is getting stronger. This article mainly analyzes the in-depth reasons and mechanism research of globalization and anti-globalization alternately—the data obtained from an international method performance study. The results show that anti-globalization is temporary, along with globalization. There are three main factors affecting globalization: the situation of the dominant country, natural disasters, and wars. After so much literature review, I believe that the United States' globalization is gradually weakening, and globalization may return to regionalization under the United States' opposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0473.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Poverty; Education; Economic Policy; Social Welfare; Investment
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:04:00 CET)
Underpinned by the research works on private returns on education in developing nations that have found a positive correlation between earning and subsequent level of schooling, this paper presents a concept of an investment policy which will help the impoverished children in becoming economically successful through systematic funding of their educational needs with an obligation of interest adjusted returns.
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: COVID-19; Economic; Environment; Development; Social; Tourism
Online: 19 August 2020 (17:22:04 CEST)
The Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic situation has posed significant effect on tourism industry. Tourism destinations have embraced emergency health care measures and restrictions imposed on human movement around the world. Beaches and resorts are empty, peoples’ movements are stopped and travelling between territories is strictly controlled. The COVID-19 lockdown around the world has imposed negative impact on the livelihood of people and world economy as well. The present study attempts to find out the scopes for sustainable tourism development in near future from the consequences of social, economic, and environment in COVID-19 pandemic situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0511.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic complexity; non-linear map; Bipartite networks
Online: 18 September 2018 (06:13:25 CEST)
We present a new method of estimating fitness of countries and complexity of products by exploiting a non-linear non-homogeneous map applied to the publicly available information on the goods exported by a country. The non homogeneous terms guarantee both convergence and stability. After a suitable rescaling of the relevant quantities, the non homogeneous terms are eventually set to zero so that this new method is parameter free. This new map reproduces the findings of the method proposed by Tacchella et al. , and allows for an approximate analytic solution in case of actual binarized matrices based on the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) indicator. This solution is connected with a new quantity describing the neighborhood of nodes in bipartite graphs, representing in this work the relations between countries and exported products. Moreover, we define the new indicator of country net-efficiency quantifying how a country efficiently invests in capabilities able to generate innovative complex high quality products. Eventually, we demonstrate analytically the local convergence of the algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0042.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: geospatial economic supply; biomass; risk assessment; vulnerability
Online: 4 April 2018 (04:17:33 CEST)
Assessing the economic supply of biomass in a geospatial context while accounting for risk from natural disasters was studied. Risk levels were estimated from a component of factors which included: population density, road density, federal ownership, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ecoregions, and Presidential Disaster Declarations. The Presidential Disaster Declarations included risks due to: coastal storm, drought, fire, flood, freezing, hurricane, mud land slide, severe ices, severe storms, snow, tornado, and tropical storm. Presidential Disaster Declarations included summaries based on a short-term time period from 2000-2011, and on a long-term time period from 1964-2011. Risk categories were developed as a function of the number of disaster declarations, agricultural-to-forest land ratio, average road density, and average population density. A significant contribution of the research was the allocation of spatially explicit data using GIS technology at the 5-digit zip code tabulation area. The average area for 5-digit ZCTAs in the Eastern U.S. study region was approximately 169 kilometers2. Long-term risk (1964-2011) from disaster declarations had a greater impact on the economic availability of biomass supply relative to short-term declarations (2000-2011). The greatest risk to biomass supply came from population density relative to the other risk factors studies. Of the 25,044 total ZCTAs, 12,256 ZCTAs were in locations that did not include population density ≥ 150/km2, road density ≥ 14 km/km2, federal ownership, and US Environmental Protection Agency Level III ecoregions. Of the remaining 12,256 ZCTAs, 26.8% were considered to be moderate-to-high risk based on short-term declarations (2000-2011) and 29.4% were considered to be moderate-to-high risk based on long-term declarations (1964-2011). Lower risk locations for procuring biomass supply for both short-term and long-term declarations, across all risk factors, were in southern Georgia, South Carolina, and Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0028.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Oil revenue; External debt; Economic growth; ARDL
Online: 4 December 2017 (17:33:46 CET)
Oil revenues and external debt might have stimulated economic growth in the oil exporting countries via investment in capital projects. The paper estimated economic growth on oil revenues and external debt after controlling public investment and population growth over the period 1970-2015. Following the confirmation of the order of integration, our analysis is based on autoregressive distributed lag bound testing to cointegration approach. The key findings are that oil revenues and public investment contributes to Nigeria’s economic growth. However, our findings also indicate that external debt and population growth retards growth. The study suggests that minimizing fiscal deficits and unnecessarily foreign loans by creating tax avenues through the development of the non-oil sectors would reduce the dependency syndrome on a single commodity (oil) in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneur, individual entrepreneur, sole proprietor, economic subject
Online: 17 March 2017 (21:53:12 CET)
An entrepreneur is a business-able physical person who performs activities to gain the profit and who is registered according to law. Starting from the national and theoretical and legal solutions and court practice from comparative law, the authors analyze the concept and the legal position of an individual entrepreneur noticing the problems and inconsistencies in legal regulations. The authors of the work make a few conclusions and suggestions: 1) terminology is not coordinated with legal terminology from comparative law. In our law, the legal term is “entrepreneur”, which is a too wide and unspecified term because in economic profession this term represents the genus term for individual and collective entrepreneurship; 2) analyze all forbidden activities for entrepreneurs, judge the reasons pro et contra and work on eliminating prohibitions and favouring legal entities; 3) set by law the bankruptcy of an individual entrepreneur i.e. the individual bankruptcy of a physical person; 4) work on passing a separate legislation in the field of the individual entrepreneurship, especially on passing and changing the laws which would regulate handicrafts (including old crafts and jobs of home industry), free professions as well as agricultural activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0466.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: farm animal; pig; livestock production; global warming; climate change; economic risk assessment; economic impact; resilience; livestock farming; adaptation
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:23:22 CET)
Economic risks for livestock production are caused by volatile commodities and market conditions, but also by environmental drivers like increasing uncertainties due to weather anomalies and global warming. These risks impact the gross margin of farmers and can stimulated investment decisions. For confined pig and poultry production, farmers can reduce the environmental impact by implementing specific adaptation measures to reduce heat stress. A simulation model driven by meteorological data was used to calculate heat stress impact as a projection for 2030. For a business-as-usual livestock building, the indoor climate for several adaptation measures was calculated. The weather-related value-at risk quantified the economic risks caused by global warming and the stochastic component of the weather. The results show that only energy-saving adaptation measures to reduce the inlet air temperature are appropriate to reduce the economic risk to the level of the year 1980. The efficiency of other adaptation measures to reduce heat stress is distinctly lower. The results in this study can support the decision making of farmers concerning adaptation management and investments. It can inform agricultural policy design as well as technological development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable development; Energy management; Environmental protection; Economic management
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:11:19 CEST)
This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Tai-wan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs in Taiwan and Scotland, respectively, attracting numerous high-tech and startup enterprises. Various means facilitate the growth of industries and foster innovations in different industrial spheres. Important factors contributing to this growth include policy support, availability of research materials, and provision of infrastructure. This research paper compares the successful case studies of two industrial parks, along with their environmental and economic management strategies. It explores the management principles that ensure the sustainable development and economic growth of industrial parks, aiming to assist decision-makers and relevant stakeholders in evaluating the sustainable development planning of industrial parks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0503.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: economic growth; environment; municipal waste; waste management; Bulgaria
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:47:59 CEST)
This paper examines the relationship between GDP per capita and waste generated in European Union countries, highlighting the importance of this relationship for understanding the environmental consequences of economic growth and formulating waste management policies. The analysis findings demonstrate that, in most cases, higher GDP is associated with higher amounts of waste, although there are exceptions to this trend. A smaller number of countries are also found where no such relationship exists. These are primarily high-income countries in the lower part of the EKC or countries in transition. Cluster analysis reveals regional differences in the relationship between GDP and waste that the economic factors and the level of development in the regions concerned can explain. Bulgaria is among the European countries with the lowest economic growth associated with a large amount of waste. The analysis, therefore, focuses on Bulgaria. The impact of GDP per capita, Human Development Index and Population Density on municipal waste in Bulgaria is studied. The aim is to identify significant relationships and dependencies between these factors and the amount of waste. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis and the findings from municipal waste management data in Bulgaria, specific actions are proposed for municipal waste management in the country. Recommendations are made for developing sustainable waste management policies and sharing best practices between regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: roof; insulation; granary; carbon emission; economic analysis model
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:53:15 CEST)
The optimization design of buildings is very important the energy consumption, carbon emissions ,and sustainable development of buildings. The low-temperature granary has low grain storage temperature and high energy consumption indexes. The design scheme of roof insulation for low-temperature granary should be determined in actual building design processes by considering economy, carbon emissions, and outdoor climate, comprehensively. In this paper, the low-temperature granary roof insulation for different ecological grain storage zones in China are optimized by using a new low-carbon optimization design method. The low-carbon optimization design method can response to the economical issue, emission reduction issue, and outdoor climate issue, simultaneously. The application results of the optimization design method in ecological grain storage zones in China indicate that outdoor climate has significant impacts on the economic performance and carbon reduction effect of roof insulation. The considering of carbon emission cost can apparently increase economic efficiency of roof insulation. The optimal economic thickness of expanded polystyrene (EPS) in Urumqi, Harbin, Zhengzhou, Changsha, Guiyang and Haikou cities is 0.025 m, 0.037 m, 0.085 m, 0.097 m, 0.072 m and 0.148 m, respectively. The different outdoor climates of seven ecological grain storage areas in China have important influences on the comprehensive economic performances of low-temperature granary roof insulation. The design of low-temperature granary roof insulation in Haikou city has the best economic performances among the seven ecological grain storage zones in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: economic evaluation; cost-effectiveness; glucosamine; osteoarthritis; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:25:01 CEST)
The osteoarthritis (OA), the main cause of disability, is a chronic condition that most frequently affects older adults. As the population ages, the cost of treatment is placing pressure on the healthcare budget. As a result, it is imperative to evaluate the medicines' cost-effectiveness and the influence they have on health resource allocation. Hence, our study aims to summarize the cost and outcome of utilizing glucosamine in OA treatment. Authentic databases like Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus were adopted for the identification process up until July 2023. Our primary inclusion criteria centered on the economic evaluation of Glucosamine in OA treatments with provided the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at least. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument was applied to grade the quality of the studies. A total of 7 qualified studies were selected and discussed the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine with or without other formulations. All of them demonstrated that glucosamine was cost-effective. There was an in-creasement of QALY when incorporating Glucosamine into conventional care. Moreover, Crystalline Glucosamine Sulfate (pCGS) was more cost-effective than the Other Formulations of Glucosamine (OFG). In overall, utilizing pCGS was more beneficial than OFG in terms both of cost and quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1748.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurial enterprises; SME; economy; economic growth; job creation
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:10:40 CEST)
This article explores the Role and Contributions of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a globalized and innovative economy, looking specifically at the challenges and opportunities. The establishment and expansion of new firms provides a sizable amount of net new jobs. While high-expectation entrepreneurial enterprises and gazelles are usually found among innovative and technology-based new organizations, it is also essential that there be a sizable supply for them to play a significant part in economic growth. In other words, encouraging all forms of en-trepreneurship is likely to increase the number of innovative, fast-growing enterprises as well as entrepreneurship. In many European countries, entrepreneurship needs to be encouraged. Findings show the crucial role the SME sector plays in the South African economy in tackling sustainable development. About 90% of all official firms in South Africa are thought to be small, medium, or micro-enterprises. The study concluded that one of the major contributions to the South African economy is the SME sector. The SME is not just viewed as a source of new jobs, but also as a sector that absorbs laid-off workers from both the private and public sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0988.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine hesitancy; Implication; Consequences; Economic recovery
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:37:36 CEST)
The phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy is a growing threat to public health with far-reaching implications. The widening gap between the vaccinated and the proportion needed for herd immunity raises two critical research questions that are of interest to practitioners, researchers, and policymakers: (1) What determines one’s decision to be vaccinated? and (2) What is the implication of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on economic recovery? In this study, we use empirical data in the context of South Africa to investigate factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and their implications for economic recovery. Findings reveal key socio-demographic and institutional drivers of COVD-9 vaccine hesitancy, which include age (the youth are more hesitant), inadequate information on the vaccine (those who perceive they have adequate information are vaccinated), trust issues in government institutions, conspiracy beliefs, vaccine-related factors, and perceived side effects associated with the vaccine. Additionally, an individual’s decision to remain hesitant about COVID-19 vaccination has implications for businesses and the economy by limiting movement and trade, increasing unemployment, and causing a resurgence of new variants. Based on the findings, action plans such as information dissemination, convenience vaccination centers, consistency communications, and targeted campaign strategies are recommended for improving vaccine intakes and a positive economic recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public transportation; Automated vehicles; economic viability; business model
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:23 CEST)
During the past few years many projects and initiatives were undertaken deploying and testing automated vehicles for public transportation and logistics. However in spite of their ambition, all of these deployments stayed on the level of elaborated experimentation deploying no more than 4 maximum 5 AVs in rather small sites (few Kms of roads) and never really reached the level of large scale “commercial” deployment of transport services. The reasons for this are many, but the most important being the lack of economically viability and commercially realistic models, the lack of scalability of the business and operating models, and the lack of inclusive citizen/user centric services required for the large end-user acceptation and adoption of the solutions. In this paper, based on the experience gained in the H2020 AVENUE project, we present the missing pieces of the puzzle, ad which will be addressed in the Horizon Europe project ULTIMO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0386.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Emerging economies; Economic development; Renewable and sustainable energy
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:43:23 CEST)
The last few years have witnessed an explosion of research on Sustainable development. Most of this research is concentrated on the developed countries related to the issues not compatible with developing countries. This paper fills the gap and reviews the literature related to developing and emerging economies and their environmental and social constraints under Renewable energy and sustainable development (RESD). It also investigates how RESD can be implemented in the presence of serious issues pertaining to population increase, shortage of energy supply, lack of transportation, shortage of clean water, less food production and bad environmental systems and these are coupled with war, and hunger and political instability. The main contribution of this paper is to present extensive discussion in the context of hypotheses of economic growth and its association with energy consumption, and renewable energy options for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0061.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic well-being; Poverty alleviation; Quantitative data analysis
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:17:17 CET)
The goal is to reduce poverty, the method used is a literature study to see the effect of using Financial Technology (Fintech) on financial inclusion, method to see the effect of financial inclusion on poverty. From the results of the tests, the use of Fintech can increase financial inclusion, thereby encouraging poverty alleviation. It can be seen that the Financial Inclusion variable has a significant and negative effect on the poverty variable. This shows that countries that have high levels of financial inclusion are generally estimated to have low poverty rates. Increasing a country's financial inclusion can reduce poverty.