Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Islamic development; economic development; waqf
Online: 7 March 2020 (02:38:25 CET)
Muslim countries witnessed outstanding intellectual and socio-economic prosperity up to the 18th century when they fell into a period of regression following the Ottoman’s global decline. Currently, economically Muslim societies lags behind the modern western world. Scholars hold different views, including the radical notion that Islam is inherently anti-development and thus resists progress. This study discusses the Islamic philosophy and principles of development in the context of institutional economics. The basic principles of Islamic economic development drawn from the Islamic sources and historical experiences will be explored for a better understanding of Muslims’ current condition. This study addresses questions including whether basic religious precepts caused Muslims’ economic underdevelopment, while examining the development process according to Muslim perspectives. The institutions, the organizations, rules, and applications will also be explored in addition to the impact of those institutions on development. The context of development will also be evaluated according to Western value perspective. A model of Islamic economic development will be discussed in addition to the discussions of institutions that contributed to the early development of the Islamic world.
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: COVID-19; Economic; Environment; Development; Social; Tourism
Online: 19 August 2020 (17:22:04 CEST)
The Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic situation has posed significant effect on tourism industry. Tourism destinations have embraced emergency health care measures and restrictions imposed on human movement around the world. Beaches and resorts are empty, peoples’ movements are stopped and travelling between territories is strictly controlled. The COVID-19 lockdown around the world has imposed negative impact on the livelihood of people and world economy as well. The present study attempts to find out the scopes for sustainable tourism development in near future from the consequences of social, economic, and environment in COVID-19 pandemic situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0263.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Regional Economic; Innovation-driven; Development; Spatial Characteristics
Online: 12 July 2021 (13:42:16 CEST)
This paper uses the spatial analysis software GeoDa as a tool, takes GRP (Gross regional product) of Sichuan Province in 2012 and 2018 as the dependent variable, and takes the city (autonomous prefecture) factor-driven, investment-driven and innovation-driven indicators as the dependent variable to explore the impact of innovation activities on regional economic development and the spatial distribution characteristics of regional economy. Through the comparison of the global correlation and local correlation, this paper explores the crux of the regional economic polarization and unbalanced development, and puts forward some measures to solve the existing economic development problems, such as cultivating and improving the regional industrial dependence, accelerating the regional transportation accessibility and convenience, and constructing the regional collaborative innovation system, So as to achieve the strategic goal of the construction of innovative Province in Sichuan Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: economic systems; social structure; ownership; the Fibonacci sequence; surplus value
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:41:23 CET)
This article presents description of social structures such as, for example, states, in the context of their consideration as systems. Moreover, it seeks to develop K. Marx’s model in terms of systematic approach, as well as to justify the application of the Fibonacci sequence to systems in general and, in particular, to social systems. The description covers a wide range of issues, ranging from the assertion of the basic principle of living systems as patterns in resources flows to description of functions of various aspects of states and their economics in terms of objective needs of such structures. In addition, this article justifies synergetic effect based on proposed model, and the way this effect is applied to state systems. Moreover, it includes the description of main changes of socio-economic formations throughout the history as a natural development of social systems, including possible modern stages. The fundamental tool of this description is description of essence of the mechanism of property rights and its formation options. The differences of two extreme directions of such development are also described on the basis of the objective factor of resource provision. Special attention is given to the concept of surplus value as a feature of social production systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0386.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Emerging economies; Economic development; Renewable and sustainable energy
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:43:23 CEST)
The last few years have witnessed an explosion of research on Sustainable development. Most of this research is concentrated on the developed countries related to the issues not compatible with developing countries. This paper fills the gap and reviews the literature related to developing and emerging economies and their environmental and social constraints under Renewable energy and sustainable development (RESD). It also investigates how RESD can be implemented in the presence of serious issues pertaining to population increase, shortage of energy supply, lack of transportation, shortage of clean water, less food production and bad environmental systems and these are coupled with war, and hunger and political instability. The main contribution of this paper is to present extensive discussion in the context of hypotheses of economic growth and its association with energy consumption, and renewable energy options for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0087.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Nigeria; financial development; economic growth; threshold regression; time series
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:39:38 CEST)
The relationship between economic growth, growth volatility and financial sector development continues to attract attention in the theoretical and empirical literature. Over time, some studies hypothesize that finance has a causal linear relationship with growth. Recently several other authors contradict this claim and argue that the relationship that exists between finance and growth is nonlinear. We investigate these claims for Nigeria for the period between 1970 and 2015, using semi-parametric econometric methods, Hansen sample splitting techniques and threshold estimator. We observed no evidence of ‘Too much finance’ as claimed by many researchers in recent times. We show that the relationship between financial development and economic growth is U-shaped. This is equally true for the relationship between financial development and growth volatility. We also discuss policy implications of our findings and recommend financial innovations and decentralization of stock exchanges to boost access to financial services, in addition, improved regulation to enhance financial market efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0823.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable Development; Economic Growth; Innovation; Business Schools; Local Market.
Online: 29 June 2023 (08:00:09 CEST)
The purpose of this research was to examine the act of business schools in the Palestinian universities by their study plans in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) (G1, G4, G8, G9, G12, G16, G17), due to their strong relationship with business sector in the local market, in addition to examining whether the graduates of business schools have the required competencies and required skills for the local market. This research is descriptive in nature and a survey questionnaire was designed to collect data from faculty members and employers. The results indicate that business schools in the Palestinian universities have incorporated sustainable development goals in their study plans to a medium-to-high degree, with a higher emphasis on Quality Education. Graduates from these programs are perceived to possess the required competencies and skills by the employers in the local market, with a medium-to-high level of alignment with the SDGs, especially in the area Quality Education. There was no significant difference between the perceptions of university faculty members and employers in the local market regarding the fit of business school graduates' competencies and skills with the local market needs in relation to the SDGs. However, there were significant differences in the areas of accountability and transparency principles, economic and industrial challenges, partnerships for the goals, international standardization, and capacity building in operational expertise. It is recommended that business schools in Palestinian universities continue to prioritize the integration of sustainable development goals in their study plans and align the competencies and skills of their graduates with the needs of the local market. The areas of significant difference between university faculty members and employers in the local market present opportunities for further collaboration and dialogue to better meet the needs of the local market and achieve sustainable development goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water use efficiency; economic development; comprehensive evaluation; coupling coordination; Jinan City
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:48:09 CET)
In order to realize the sustainable utilization of water resources and the sustainable development of economy, the evaluation index system of water use efficiency system and economic development system was constructed. Entropy weight method and comprehensive evaluation method were adopted to determine the index weights and conduct comprehensive evaluation for the two systems. The coupling coordination model was used to calculate the coupling degree, coordination degree and coupling coordination degree of the two systems. The annual coupling stage and coupling coordination intensity of the two systems were analyzed and determined. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation values of both water use efficiency system and economic development system in Jinan City increased greatly from 2008 to 2017, and showed a changing trend of ups and downs. The two systems were in the antagonistic stage, and were gradually approaching the running-in stage, indicating that they were in the state of common development. The coupling coordination degree of the two systems gradually increased in waves, progressed from the moderately to the highly coordinated coupling. In the future, if the water control path appropriate to Jinan City can be explored actively, the water-saving kinetic energy of economic development can be increased constantly, and the linkage effect between economic development and water resources utilization can be given full play to, the two systems will be in the orbit with the benign interaction and healthy harmonious development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0158.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainability; Sustainable development goals; Environmental Sustainability; Economic Sustainability; Social Sustainability
Online: 9 February 2023 (08:30:18 CET)
“Sustainable development” (SD) is a term that has gained prominence in the international dia-logue around development. Many, however, continue to misunderstand the concept, its principles, its development, and its operationalization. The wide variety of definitions and interpretations of SD lean toward institutional and social prerogatives rather than unifying the essence of the con-cept, which is rooted in conventional ideas and values. By delving deeper into the paradigm, its history, and its potential, this research sought to contribute to ongoing discussions about sus-tainable development. The literature was thoroughly analyzed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020. This historical and conceptual analysis sought to update the body of knowledge on sustainability and sustainable development by examining the metaphorical and epistemological underpinnings of SD’s various definitions, evolutions, and principles. The research concludes and argues that intergenerational justice, based on the environment, economy, and society, is the central tenet of the entire sustainable develop-ment argument. The focus and consideration of interested parties are moving from the protection of the environment to social sustainability. The future of SD is likely to continue to focus much more on the social pillar and integrate digitalization in implementing the SD concept, especially in the fourth industrial revolution. To promote ethical human behavior and activities worldwide, at national and local levels, decision-makers must be continuously cognizant of the interdepend-encies, direct interactions, and balance between the three core constructs of SD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2145.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: economy; tourism; sustainable tourism development; regional destination; sustainable tourism; economic crisis
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:23:55 CEST)
In order to ensure sustainable tourism development, it is currently becoming crucial to look into promotion of popular tourist destinations in Russia. This is due to a number of factors, including the acceptance of the credibility and importance of the concept of sustainable tourism, as well as the awareness of the necessity of taking into account a wide range of short- and long-term effects, external factors, and interdisciplinary aspects of the development of the Russian tourism industry. In the context of a local tourist destination during the economic crisis, the study aims to highlight some of the key economic elements of sustainable tourism. The decision to adopt a regional perspective is necessitated by the fact that many of the most crucial elements for the long-term sustainable development of the tourist complex are established at this level, including decision-making by businesses and authorities that are economically viable. The research focuses on the economic aspects to be considered while designing an overall strategy for the long-term development of regional tourist destinations in Russia. The authors define sustainable tourism from the viewpoint of economics. This understanding extends beyond the relatively limited framework of environmental and socioeconomic consequences of tourism development, affecting some less obvious economic aspects of a regional destination that directly relate to sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0580.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Sugarcane cultivation; development; 2WT; earthing up machine; economic performance
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:01:00 CEST)
Like the most of crops, especially sugarcane needs to be kept upright until it is harvested. Because, lodging of sugarcane has a significant negative effect on cane yield and sugar content of sugarcane. To keep sugarcane upright earthing up is an utmost intercultural operation. In Bangladesh, most of the operations for sugarcane cultivation including earthing up are generally done in traditional method using human labor which increases production costs as well as reduces the income of sugarcane growers. So, a cost effective two-wheeled tractor (2WT) mounted earthing up machine was developed in Bangladesh Sugarcrop Research Institute (BSRI), Pabna to reduce drudgery and cost of sugarcane production. Field tests were conducted in experimental sugarcane field at BSRI and technical and economic performances of the developed earthing up machine were also carried out based on the field test. Average effective field capacity and field efficiency were found 0.16 ha/hr and 77.41 %, respectively for the developed earthing up machine. The earthing up machine was not found economically viable when it is used only for earthing up operation. Besides, when the 2WT was being used as the main driver for other activities including earthing up operation, then the earthing up machine becomes economically beneficial with net cash flow, net present value, internal rate of return, benefit-cost ratio and payback period of BDT 148497/ha, BDT 23184, 3%, 3.81:1 and approximately 1 year, respectively. On the contrary, considering cost of only earthing up tool without 2WT, then it was found economically beneficial with net cash flow, internal rate of return, net present value, benefit-cost ratio and payback period of BDT 16428/ha, BDT 3053, 4.7%, 2.71:1 and approximately 2 years, respectively. Since 2WT is commonly used for versatile farming purposes. Therefore, versatile use of 2WT as prime mover for other machines including earthing up machine can make earthing up machine economically viable and beneficial for sugarcane growers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0124.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable investment, corporate performance, economic development, VAR, and VECM
Online: 19 February 2018 (16:23:14 CET)
This paper explores how the sustainable investment impacts financial returns and economic development in of Asia Pacific and North America, utilizing real data empirically. In academia and industrial field, it is polemical that indeed, the sustainable behavior has economic returns. In order to clarify that, we tested hypotheses with an analysis of seven stock markets, accounting of rates such as ROI, ROIC, and ROA in eleven companies, and GDP/GNI per capita. The results indicate that both financial return and economic development are positively germane to the sustainable investment. Besides, the variance of sustainability to economic development exists, depending on GDP per capita between two regions. We conclude, concerning the sustainability, by corroborating micro perspective for corporate level and macro perspective of economic development in the private and public sector. This research consequence will be interested in both practitioners and researchers in the measurement of sustainability performance
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0194.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic growth, Principal Component analysis, Cointegration, Stock market development, financial market development
Online: 12 June 2018 (14:05:09 CEST)
Does the choice of proxy for stock market development matter? This paper suggests that the growth effect of stock market development is sensitive to the choice of proxy and using alternative financial development indicators have practically no influence on the results. We found that using either the stock market capitalization to GDP ratio or the stock market returns; have a positive and significant effect on growth. However, we cannot make same conclusion when one uses either the ratio of total value of trades on the major stock exchanges to GDP or stock market turnover ratio to proxy for stock market development as the coefficient on these variables were found to be statistically insignificant. The indexes extracted from principal component analysis confirm the sensitivity of the effect to the choice of proxy. This finding suggest that stock market development is a conceptual terms, thus, representing it with single indicators make it impossible to identify which stock market development indicators have a significant positive growth effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: high-quality economic development; innovation; entropy method; grey correlation degree model; Fujian Province
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:36:58 CEST)
With the rapid development of the economy and the transformation of social contradictions, the economic development model in China has also changed, and a high-quality economic development model has been proposed. This paper uses the entropy method to measure the level of innovation and high-quality economic development in nine prefecture-level cities in Fujian Province from 2011 to 2020, and finds that the overall level shows an increasing trend year by year, but there are obvious regional differences. By constructing a grey correlation degree model, it is found that the innovation subsystem and the high-quality economic development are strongly correlated, the development level of innovation and the subsystem of high-quality economic development are both strongly correlated, the grey correlation degree from high to low is green, coordinated, shared, and livelihood, indicating that innovation has a significant impact on high-quality economic development. Based on the research results, countermeasures and suggestions are proposed to promote the coordinated development of innovation and high-quality economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0146.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: International Online Shopping; Countries' Level of Economic Development; International Online Consumers; Chinese mobile brands
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:23:07 CEST)
Until now, the literature on Chinese International Online Shopping (CIOS) (B2C export from China) mainly concentrated on the potential income that it constitutes for Chinese international trade. However, regarding International Online Consumers' (IOCs) purchase behaviors, research does not provide insight into the impact of Countries' Level of Economic Development (CLED) on the IOCs' preferences and choices about Chinese brands. Based on 9971 purchases about Chinese mobile phone brands, countries' macroeconomic data, and a multinomial logistics model (MLM), we examined IOCs' preferences and choices about Chinese brands. The result shows that the CLED influences IOCs' preferences and choices. Consequently, accounting of CLED in consumers’ preferences and choices introduces a new dimension in understanding IOCs' behaviors and attitudes towards Chinese mobile phone brands. This work contributes to Chinese brands' globalization research from the perspective of CLED. Such a model can be used to guide e-retailers and brand managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: economic sustainability; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; genome scale metabolic model; metabolic engineering; growth coupled production
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:32:50 CEST)
The sustainable metabolic engineering (SME) concept was defined by Stalidzans and Dace as an approach for the selection of most sustainable metabolic engineering designs taking the economic, environmental and social components of sustainability into account. In the centre of sustainability calculations is a genome scale metabolic model that provides full balance of all incoming and outgoing metabolic fluxes at steady state. Therefore, sustainability indicators are assigned for each exchange reaction enabling calculation of sustainability features of consumption or production of each metabolite. The further development of the SME concept depends on its implementation at the computational level to acquire applicable results – sustainable production strain designs. This study proposes for the first time a workflow and tools of SME implementation using constraint based stoichiometric modelling, genome scale metabolic models and growth coupled product synthesis approach. For SME application demonstration purposes, a relatively simple engineering task has been carried out. The most sustainable designs have been identified using Escherichia coli as chassis organism, glucose as a substrate and gene deletions as metabolic engineering tool. A growth coupled production design tool has been used to reduce the variability of sustainability. The 10 000 most sustainable designs were producing succinate as the main product with the number of deleted genes ranging from two to ten. A big number of similar designs has been identified due to the combinatorial explosion of different alternative combinations of gene deletion sets that result in interruption of the same metabolic pathways with the same impact on the metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0329.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: psychosocial; institutional; economic factors; Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE); Tunisia
Online: 4 October 2023 (09:31:41 CEST)
Abstract: The Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) exhibits distinct characteristics in African countries. This study investigates the motivations driving farmers to participate in SSE organizations. The findings highlight the significance of informal solidarity as a cornerstone of SSE success. Moreover, the study identifies barriers hindering farmer engagement in solidarity-based economic and organizational initiatives. The foremost obstacle is rooted in the negative symbolic perception of cooperatives inherited from Tunisia's institutional history, exacerbated by the traumatic memory of the collectivist experience in the 1960s. Additionally, institutional and political factors contribute to this situation, notably the Tunisian state subsequent weaknesses before and after the revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1687.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: tides; spatial analysis; economic feasibility; competitive analysis; Quantitative Strategy Planning Matrix
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:56:37 CEST)
The potency and challenges of sorghum development in tidal swamplands in Indonesia have yet to be well studied. Our research was the first to evaluate land suitability, economic performance, and strategies for developing sorghum in tidal swamplands in Central Kalimantan. The assessment methods for the potency and utilization of sorghum used the land suitability evaluation method, gross margin and profit analysis, break-even, and competitive analysis. As a tool for decision-making, we used SWOT followed by the quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM) analysis. The results showed that the potency of arable land suitable for sorghum development was 578,511 ha. Economically, sorghum farming can generate an IDR 12,894,000 per ha with a revenue-cost ratio of 1.72; the break-even price was IDR 2,447 per kg, around 42% lower than the current market price. Sorghum was also more competitive than cassava, sweet potato, and soybeans (Q values of 0.76, 0.58, and 0.61, respectively) and less competitive than maize (Q = 1.33). Based on the QSPM, there were five alternative strategies for developing sorghum in tidal swamplands, i.e., (1) Optimization of productivity, (2) Improving the quality of human resources of farmers, (3) Facilitation of partnership cooperation, (4) Application of site-specific technology, and (5) Optimization of waste utilization. Those strategies show the potential expansion of sorghum planting in the tidal swamplands and the economic value enhancement for the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0613.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; cattle markets; sustainable livelihoods; local governments; poverty; local economic development
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:34:45 CET)
In rural Zimbabwe, selling of cattle has for a long time been one of the most dependable sources of income that has sustained livelihoods for decades. Informal cattle marketing which involves door to door or gate sales has been the most predominant system for the last three decades. However, the outbreak of the global COVID-19 pandemic followed by the imposition of lockdowns has exposed the vulnerability of rural communities that are regressing into poverty due to a lack of alternative sources of income. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to delineate how formal cattle markets could be used as a sustainable source of income for rural communities’ livelihoods during and post the COVID-19 pandemic era. This qualitative research study relied on secondary data from published journal articles, online publications, and reports to understand the COVID-19 pandemic and also understand how it has impacted the livelihoods of people in rural Zimbabwe. The findings show that the current informal cattle marketing system is no longer suitable for rural communities as it exposes them to infections due to the challenges in ensuring compliance with the World Health Organisation (WHO) precautionary measures. It is recommended that formal (public) cattle markets be reintroduced in all rural areas as there is the certainty that WHO health guidelines will be enforced since they are organised by local and central government institutions. Since formal cattle markets offer competitive market-related prices this will then guarantee the flow of regular income thereby reducing the vulnerability of rural communities to poverty and inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: local participatory democracy; economic freedom; sustainable development; political culture; education; priority areas in smart cities
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:43:55 CEST)
This paper aims to stress the nexus between sustainable development, economic freedom and local participatory democracy in 21 European smart cities. The development of smart cities is strongly correlated with technological advancements and improved access to pub-lic services for all residents. Furthermore, smart cities are characterized by efficient man-agement of social, economic and environmental resources and a strong partnership be-tween the public and private sectors. The paper aims to map the dynamics of local partic-ipatory democracy in European smart cities and to identify several relevant predictors of local participatory democracy. The sample is represented by 21 European capitals (20 EU countries plus UK), which are included in the Smart City Index (SCI). Using the quantita-tive design based on both statistical regressions and structural equations modelling (SEM), the paper shows positive statistical correlation between economic factors, sustainable de-velopment, political culture, education and the level of local participatory democracy. Be-sides the exogenous variables, the study emphasized the main priority areas, which might be seen as urgent issues for local governments. The conclusion of the paper underlines the fact that economic freedom, sustainable development, upper secondary education, afford-able housing and an increased level of citizens’ engagement could predict further evolu-tions of the local participatory democracy in 21 European capitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0359.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Digital Economy; Industrial Structure Upgrade; High-Quality Economic Development; Mediation Effect Model
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:04:09 CEST)
Based on panel data of 31 provincial-level administrative units (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China from 2015 to 2019, using fixed effect model and mediation effect model, this paper makes an empirical analysis on the interaction among digital economy, industrial structure upgrade and high-quality economic development. The results show that, from the overall effect, the digital economy can significantly promote the high-quality development of the economy, and there are regular regional differences, and the relationship between the promotion intensity and the development level of the digital economy is proportional. From the mediation effect, in the relationship between digital economy and high-quality economic development, the upgrade of industrial structure has played a significant part of the mediation effect, the proportion of mediation effect is 25.17% . In addition, the mediation effect of industrial structure upgrade has obvious regional difference, the western area is the strongest, the eastern area is the second, the central area is the weakest. Based on the above research,the concrete policy suggestions are given to promote the development of digital economy and upgrade the level of industrial structure to promote the high-quality development of economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1700.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Environmental pollution; Numerical fitting; Economic growth; Industrial three wastes; sustainable development
Online: 25 June 2023 (02:51:48 CEST)
Taking Shanxi Province, a typical energy region in China, as the research object, data on economic development quality and environmental pollution intensity from 2001 to 2021 were selected. Linear regression, numerical simulation, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyze the evolution characteristics of economic development quality and environmental pollution intensity in Shanxi Province in the past 20 years, and to explore the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution. The results indicate that since 2001, Shanxi Province has made long-term progress in economic development, with GDP increasing by nearly 10 times and an average annual growth rate of around 7%. In the past 20 years, the main pollutants have shown a trend of increasing first and then decreasing steadily, with a turning point occurring during the "12th Five Year Plan" period. This shows that the environmental policies and investments of the Chinese and Shanxi provincial governments in the past 10 years have been effective in the new era. The numerical simulation curve results show that the per capita GDP exhibits a classic inverted "U" curve relationship with wastewater and SO2 emissions, with a turning point occurring at around 20000 yuan per capita GDP; However, there is a monotonic decreasing trend with Chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen emissions, and a monotonic increasing trend with solid waste generation. There is no turning point yet. The correlation analysis results further support the fitting curve conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0744.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sustainable economic policy; sustainable economic growth; economic policies; technology.
Online: 31 October 2018 (09:12:00 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which traditional economic policies can be oriented by sound practices. It is becoming widely accepted that sustainable economic growth (and not only economic growth) is the final target of economic policies; but most economic policies are applied just looking to the short-run without taking in account the long-run perspective. Our aim will be to show how a sustainable economic policy-making would be possible, making compatible the stabilization of the economy in the short-run with a sustainable economic growth in the long-run. We confront the design of economic policies with the 17 goals of the 2030 Agenda. We argue that all sustainable development goals can be attained by the design and implementation of sustainable economic policies. Finally, to illustrate this point we will conduct a simulation exercise to show under which combinations of demand policies technological shocks would promote a path of sustainable growth. Our results will provide a reference framework for a sustainable economic policy-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: modernisation; economic sustainability; economic modernisation
Online: 13 January 2023 (08:24:42 CET)
The present paper investigates the determinants of the country’s modernisation through the lens of its citizens. A combination of the ‘hard’ determinants of country’s modernisation (effectiveness of digitisation, infrastructure, environment and interoperability of natural resources; behaviour in line with environmental trends of the EU) and ‘soft’ (interest in opportunities and benefits of renewable energy) was investigated. It was revealed that even for some developed countries, the ‘hard’ determinants have a greater impact on country’s modernisation compared to the ‘soft’ ones. A representative cross-sectional survey of 1015 respondents and a factor coupled with a network analysis served as the main research instruments. Lithuania served as a geographic setting for the research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0491.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Productive capacities; Economic growth; Economic growth volatility; Structural Economic Vulnerability.
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:30:15 CEST)
Recent years' global shocks (e.g., the 2008 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic) and environmental shocks - such as natural disasters - have heightened the vulnerability of developing countries to future shocks, and can compromise their development prospects. International institutions and researchers have advocated that the strengthening of productive capacities in these countries would help them enhance the resilience of their economies to shocks, and promote sustainable development. The present paper has examined the effect of productive capacities on economic growth and economic growth volatility in developing countries, in particular when they face a high level of structural economic vulnerability. The analysis covers 117 developing countries over the period 2000-2018. It shows that productive capacities do not only promote economic growth, but also reduce economic growth volatility. On the other hand, structural economic vulnerability reduces economic growth, in particular when it exceeds a certain level, and induces greater volatility of economic growth. Interestingly, the findings suggest that productive capacities promote economic growth and reduce economic growth volatility in countries that face a high degree of structural economic vulnerability. These findings support the recommendation by international institutions and researchers that if they were to enhance the resilience of their economies to shocks, and promote sustainable economic growth, developing countries (in particular the poorest ones) should strengthen their productive capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0060.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions; Ecological footprint; Economic growth; EKC hypothesis; Environmental degradation; ARDL; Methane emissions
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:44:17 CET)
Climate change has become a major concern for developing countries given the risk that it posses on energy and food independence, and on general productivity. Despite having an energy system with low carbon intensity when compared to other Latin American countries, Colombia is already facing climate change impacts and requires urgent efforts to mitigate them. As a developing country, the challenge is bigger as policies for economic growth should be in line with the global commitment of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. With the aim of contributing to the design of climate policies, this study assesses the impact of economic development on the environment by examining the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for Colombia. Statistically validated and stable autoregressive distributed lag models are estimated for three different environmental indicators: carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, and ecological footprint. Moreover, the effects of other variables such as urbanization, foreign direct investment, value added of agricultural and industrial sectors, and energy use are analyzed with dynamic simulations. Empirical evidence supports a long-run equilibrium relationship among investigated variables and the existence of an inverted U-shaped EKC relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and methane emissions, and GDP and ecological footprint. Shifting to renewable energy sources and leveraging the use of cleaner technologies in agricultural and industrial sectors are found to be key for economic growth without harming the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: tourism development; eco-environment resilience; spatiotemporal heterogeneity; Yangtze River Economic Belt of China
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:20:47 CEST)
Tourism sustainability is a significant approach to forming a synergistic model of industry and ecology in ecologically vulnerable areas. Scientifically detecting the effect mechanism of tourism development (TDI) on eco-environment resilience (ERI) is important in achieving regional social-ecological system sustainability. Empirical exploration is conducted on the levels of TDI and ERI in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) to study the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of TDI's effect on ERI. The results indicate a significant growth in TDI in the YREB, with the formation of tourist clusters around Shanghai and Chongqing as the core. Although ERI typically exhibits a declining trend, the rate of decline has notably slowed, forming a "high at the sides and low in the middle" spatial pattern. TDI and ERI are spatially dependent in the YREB, with predominantly high-high (HH) and low-high (LH) clusters in Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu. Conversely, upstream regions with strong eco-environmental foundations exhibit low-low (LL) and high-low (HL) clusters. In general, TDI promotes ERI, but there is significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the YREB. Positive impact regions are expanding, while negative impact regions are shrinking. These results could provide scientific evidence for differentiated classification and control policies in the YREB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0200.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; economic model; economic cascade; economic impact coronavirus; California economy
Online: 11 January 2021 (13:25:15 CET)
Shelter-in-place policies and the closure of non-essential workplaces intended to disrupt transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus are effective approaches to combating COVID-19. They have, however, caused record levels of unemployment in the United States, raising questions of whether mitigation is more societally damaging than the disease. Here we use a coupled epidemiological-economic model to estimate the impact on employment of an unmitigated, business-as-usual approach to the pandemic. We compared unemployment between March-August 2020 in ten Californian socio-economic systems (SESs) to unemployment forecast by a model of industrial sector inter-dependencies subjected to unmitigated outbreaks of COVID-19. We found that economic losses are unavoidable because disease-driven losses propagate economically through SESs, amplifying losses to the disease. While model forecasts are generally lower than actual unemployment, jobs savings would come at the cost of greatly increased worker mortality. The costs would also be disproportionately greater among smaller and inland SESs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1169.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: SROI; employment support measures; employment measures for potential working women; economic revitalization of local cities in Japan
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:33:58 CEST)
In Japan, where the working population is declining, there is a growing expectation that the potential working population will play an active role, and in this context, administrative measures such as the promotion of women's activities have been implemented. However, there is no end to the number of women who leave the workforce after life events such as childbirth or child rearing. For example, in Fukuoka Prefecture (population 5.1 million) alone, where we are based, it is estimated that there are 43,300 potential female workers. Many of these women have have been employed in the past, but have left the workforce due to childbirth, family care, or other reasons, and still wish to work. However, although this group has potential employment needs, they have not yet engaged in specific job-hunting activities, and thus are on the periphery of the labor market, without access to the current active labor market. There are many promising potential employees there, and support for their career redevelopment and participation in the labor market is required. On the other hand, few studies have been conducted in Japanese prefectures to systematically estimate social value, i.e., to determine the scope of impact on society and the stakeholders. This is an obstacle to the formulation of policies for women's advancement and the establishment of related social projects. This paper is aware of this problem and, based on the support for women seeking to re-enter society (career redevelopment) that the authors are implementing, selects seven prefectures in Kyushu, which is also a wide economic zone, as a support area and estimates the social value to companies and families in these areas by using SROI. As a result, it was derived that if 3,586 individuals were reemployed, the SROI ratio (1:X) X would be 76.1 in the first year of reintegration assistance activities and X would be 313.3 in the fourth year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0261.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: thermodynamics-economics dictionary; economic Einstein 4D PDEs; economic Schwarzschild type metric; economic 3D black holes; economic entropy
Online: 28 March 2019 (09:43:56 CET)
The subject of this paper is to analyse the Math Principia of Economic 3D Black Holes in Roegenian economics. This idea is totally new in the related literature, excepting our papers. In details, we study two special problems: (i) math origin of economic 3D black holes, (ii) entropy and internal political stability depending on national income and the total investment, for economic RN 3D black hole. To solve these problems, it was necessary to jump from macroeconomic side to microeconomic side (a substantial approach so different), to complete the thermodynamics-economics dictionary with new entities, to introduce the flow between two macroeconomic systems, to study the Schwarzschild type metric properties on an economic 4D system, together with Rindler coordinates, Einstein 4D PDEs, and economic RN 3D black hole. In addition, we introduce some economic Ricci type flows or waves, for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0602.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic complexity; Poverty headcount; Economic Growth; Economic growth volatility; Income inequality; External shocks.
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:06:47 CET)
This paper has examined the effect of economic complexity on poverty in developing countries. The analysis has used a sample of 84 countries over the period 1980-2017. Results indicate that greater economic complexity results in lower poverty headcount rates. This is particularly the case for countries that enjoy higher economic growth rates, lower levels of income inequality and lower degrees of economic growth volatility, including due to lower sizes of export demand and financial flows shocks. These findings have important policy implications for developing countries that are exploring ways and means to recover from the current COVID-19 pandemic crisis, and prepare for future crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1662.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic high-quality development systems; Fiscal expenditure on people's livelihood; Consumption level; Urbanization; Well-being economy
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:11:02 CEST)
Existing research lacks studies that explore the impact of government fiscal support on the high-quality development of regional economy and society from the perspective of livelihood-based infrastructure construction. The investigation in this paper explores the economic and social effects of government fiscal support behavior from the perspective of livelihood infrastructure construction. On the basis of the TOPSIS-Entropy Method, this paper constructs an evaluation indicator that closely conforms to the denotation and requirements of high-quality development and then carries out empirical regressions in combination with government expenditure on people's livelihood to verify the theoretical hypothesis, whose transmission mechanism and moderating effect are further empirically tested. The results reveal that increasing government expenditure on people's livelihoods can effectively improve regional high-quality development, but the marginal improvement degree varies with different periods and locations. The mechanism test proves that the regional consumption level plays a significant part in the mediating effect, accounting for 24.27% of the total effect. Urbanization is also the critical impetus for regional high-quality development and positively moderates the promotion effect of people's livelihood fiscal expenditure. Our study presents a theoretical basis and policy inspiration for improving residents' quality of life and welfare level and improving people's livelihood in the midst of high-quality economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0336.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; economic development; equity; socially-equitable development; resilient and sustainable infrastructure; resilient and sustainable communities; disaster management
Online: 19 April 2020 (07:09:12 CEST)
This paper aims to provoke fundamental thinking and action around the value and importance of socially-equitable development to the economic advancement, resilience, and prosperity of communities, as we contend with the 21st Century grand challenge of the changing climate and disasters. As local communities and the global community have experienced an increased frequency, intensity and duration of natural and man-made disasters over the past several decades, opportunities have also grown to identify and reap the benefits of socially-equitable economic development. Reflecting on the COVID-19 pandemic, we discuss the critical importance of socially-equitable economic development to the resilience and sustainability of communities and the infrastructure that supports them. To this end, we: (1) examine what constitutes socially-equitable economic development at different spatial scales of community; (2) explore whether socially-equitable development can occur at different scales of community; (3) explicate the importance of formally considering the inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes for socially-equitable development; (4) explain why the pursuit of equal distribution of the benefits and burdens of development is a necessary but not sufficient endeavor for socially-equitable economic development; (5) analyze the relationships between socially-equitable development, and resilient and sustainable infrastructure and communities; (6) explain why socially-equitable development should be a key component of infrastructure and community resilience strategies in the 21st Century; and, (7) explain why socially-equitable development can ultimately be viewed as a long-term strategy for prosperity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0212.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Environmental Regulations; Economic Structure; Economic Growth; PVAR Model
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:25:10 CET)
The potential effect of implementing environmental regulations on economic growth is a controversial issue for a long time. As portrayed by Porter hypothesis, environmental regulations may impact on economic growth by reconstructing the economic structure. A number of previous literature proved the connections between the above three parties. With the intention of exploring the nature of this mechanism, it is important to understand the internal inter-relation of the three parties, requiring data from a large economy experiencing the transition in economic structure. By constructing a panel containing data from 30 Chinese provinces over 10 years (2008-2019), this paper investigate the dynamic inter-relation of the three parties by introducing PVAR model with Granger Test. Results reveal that environmental regulations give a “U” shaped impact to economic growth. In return, economic growth promotes the development of economy with a weakening strength. In addition, results also support the hypothesis that economic structure is the intermediate of economic growth and environmental regulations. There is a rooftop for the effect of economic structure to environmental regulations. The rooftop may signify the best optimization of primary structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1350.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: economic sustainability; university city; socio-economic inequality; index assessment
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:32:52 CEST)
The study is devoted to analyzing the economic sustainability of the town of Amherst, MA. The city's top employer and core enterprise is the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with over 32,000 students and almost 2,000 staff members. Based on a literature review, a hypothesis was put forward that a university city should have a high level of economic sustainability. To assess economic sustainability, the USCESI Index was developed. It evaluates sustainability in three groups of parameters: society, economy, and ecology. The first group includes the level of racial diversity, the level of education of the population, and the access to medical services. The second group consists of the Gini coefficient by income level, the median cost of housing, and the unemployment rate. The environmental situation is assessed according to the Air Quality Index developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For comparison, the town of Braintree, MA, was taken. The USCESI was calculated for both locations. The analysis showed that both Amherst and Braintree have a high degree of economic sustainability. However, it was revealed that proximity to a significant economic center has a more powerful positive impact on economic sustainability than the location of a large university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Uzbekistan, health spending, economic impact, Wagner’s Law, economic geography.
Online: 17 July 2023 (16:19:50 CEST)
In this research, we investigate the healthcare expenditure patterns in Uzbekistan, analyze their economic implications, and provide policy recommendations. The study focuses on the time frame from 2000 to 2019, employing quantitative data analysis, theoretical frameworks such as Wagner’s Law, and an economic geography perspective. Our objective is to gain insights into the relationship between economic development and healthcare spending, identify spatial disparities, and forecast future trends. The findings reveal fluctuations in per capita healthcare spending, emphasizing the necessity for sustainable financing mechanisms and preventive measures. Ultimately, our study underscores the significance of aligning healthcare expenditure decisions with economic objectives while prioritizing the well-being of the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: keratoconus; lifetime expenditure; economic burden; Keratoconus Economic Burden Questionnaire
Online: 2 March 2023 (08:48:53 CET)
Aim: This study measures and evaluates the socioeconomic burden of people living with keratoconus in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional design, a Keratoconus Economic Burden Questionnaire, and a convenient sample of 89 keratoconus patients (58.4% male) drawn from multiple regions in Saudi Arabia. It was conducted using online surveys and the data was analysed using appropriate quantitative techniques. Results: The mean age and annual income of participants were 33.24 years and Saudi Riyal (SAR) 33,505.6180 (SD=62,215.29), respectively, with only 37% being employed for wages. Up to 94.4% needed glasses or contact lenses at least once a week and 73.0% received care from optometrists. The condition forced 45.9% of the respondents to change careers or leisure activities, with a further 51.3% having to take time off work. The mean annual out-of-pocket expenses for buying and maintaining glasses or contact lenses as well as traveling and accommodation for keratoconus-related treatment were SAR 8,673.19 (SD=11,307.73), with 48.32 incurring upwards of SAR 12,000 over the period. The treatment costs increased with disease duration, r(89) = .216, p < .05. Regression results show that the existence of comorbid eye disease, changing glasses at least once a year, and wearing either glasses or contact lenses at least once a week individually have statistically significant, negative effects on the total annual keratoconus treatment costs, while disease duration, utilisation of optometrists, and taking time off had a statistically significant increase on the total cost (p<.05). Conclusion: With a prevalence rate of 1 in 375, progressive debilitation, and the lifetime nature of the disease, keratoconus is a critical public health concern in Saudi Arabia. The resulting visual impairment and discomfort as well as both direct and indirect economic burdens have considerable impacts on the patient's quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0095.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: China；economic growth；export market；economic policy； potential drivers
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:18:07 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to apply China’s economy growth prospects and its potential drivers of future. China's fast rise and its growth model have accelerated important existing structural trends in the global economy and made them decisive characteristics of the world economy. China's role in the world economy over the coming decades, an exercise which would not be possible without an investigation of the prospects for China's continued economic rise. On the one hand, China is a large export market for the United States. A lot of U.S. firms use China as the final destination of assembly in their global supply chain networks. China’s huge holdings of U.S. Treasury securities support the federal government finance its budget failures. However, some analysts contend that China consolidates a number of distortive economic policies such as protectionist industrial policies and an undervalued currency that undermine U.S. economic interests. They warn that efforts by the Chinese government to promote indigenous innovation, often through the use of subsidies and other distortive measures, could negatively affect many leading U.S. industries
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0505.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Land subsidence; urban underground space; cause-effect; spatiotemporal; economic impact; spatial planning model; Shanghai
Online: 20 February 2023 (13:02:01 CET)
As a rapidly growing coastal megacity, Shanghai is continuously threatened with land subsidence issues since 1920s. Land subsidence was controlled in 1960s, however in 1990s, unconscious and dangerous urban underground space (UUS) exploration and tunneling development are causing further land subsidence. It is imperative to study previous relations towards future adaptive and resilient scenario modelling and planning. There are multiple cause-effect factors determined in the urban built environment of Shanghai megacity. This paper presents the current evidence based on the relations of the multifactor of the spectrum. Methods consist of understanding the cause-effect relations and spatiotemporal from the crucial period of 1960-2020. Data are collected secondarily from multiple open sourced databases. The results determine Shanghai are highly influenced by the UUS development induced-subsidence, tunneling leakage and weak spatial modelling. Spatiotemporal pattern has shown a mixed positive-negative impact: population, land subsidence is growing in parallel distribution (positive) with tunneling leakage, construction of tunneling, metro system, UUS development, building price, reconstruction area, GDP growth, land price, arable land decrease and further tunnel settlement in Urban City Centre, Pudong New Area, Minhang, Baoshan and Songjiang districts. These results are useful for further adaptive and resilient scenario modelling and spatial planning.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: economic evaluation; techno-economic sensibility; biorefinery; shrimp; chitin; chitosan; astaxanthin
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:41:00 CEST)
Huge amounts of wastes are generated during shrimp processing, representing approximately 65% of the initial shrimp weight, which can become an environmental problem when accumulated. Residues such as shrimp shells can be processed to obtain value-added products such as chitin, chitosan, astaxanthin, and a nitrogenous extract under the biorefinery concept. In this work, the economic evaluation and the techno-economic sensibility analysis for a mass integrated biorefinery based on shrimp were developed to determine the economic feasibility of the project and to identify the critical techno-economic variables that affect the profitability of the process. The results showed that a biorefinery for the annual processing of 4,113.09 tons of fresh shrimp in Colombia is profitable, with a return on investment percentage (%ROI) equal to 65.88% and a net present value (NPV) of 10.40 MM USD. The process supports decreases of up to 28% in capacity of production and increases of 12% and 11% in the cost of raw materials and variable operating costs without incurring losses, respectively. However, the decrease over 500 USD/t in the shrimp meat selling price is not supported, thus it is mainly recommended to increase the selling price of this product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: environmental efficiency; energy; economic; PV installation; modernization; economic analysis; ecological effect,
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:13:39 CET)
The paper addresses an analysis of the efficiency and profitability of the operation of a photovoltaic installation located in the geometric centre of Europe (near Białystok, Poland), where the intensity of solar irradiation is not too high compared to other European countries. It is calculated that in that place average solar irradiation being lower even by approx. 26 kWh than that for the whole Europe, which results in a 26% drop in the economic potential of the utilisation of solar energy for its conversion. A case study and an economic analysis show that without minimum funding amounting to 50% of the investment costs paid for the modernisation of a central heating system assisted by PV cells, the time of return of pecuniary expenditures exceeds 7 years. Apart from the Simple Pay-Back Time SPBT, discount indicators determined in the paper also include the net present value NPV and the internal rate of return IRR. Moreover, a direct ecological effect has been determined for such an investment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0245.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID19; economic paradigm shift; economic failures; post-COVID19 economy; 5G technology
Online: 15 May 2020 (03:35:16 CEST)
This conceptual article is aimed at evaluating the COVID19 impacts on the global economy and to postulating an ‘economic paradigm shift’. We argue that the existing economic, political, and trade principles have been challenged due to the global pandemic issue. We also compare the COVID19 impact on Western countries and Eastern countries with their control mechanisms. The emerging of new economies is due to the travel restrictions and disrupt of the global economies are discussed that pave a gateway to the economic paradigm shift. The article finally assesses the advent of 5G technology and its implications to face any future health threats that will lead to the next economic paradigm shift in the modern world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2056.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Economic progress
Online: 31 July 2023 (12:12:43 CEST)
Sustainability means that the current use of resources does not compromise the well-being of future generations. Ever since Malthus (1798) forecast that population tends to grow faster than the growth of resources to support the population, people have claimed that current resource use is unsustainable, so future generations will be materially worse off than those in the present, yet for more than two centuries this has not been the case. The reason is that markets, and market prices, act to conserve scarce resources, and in market economies, entrepreneurs have an incentive to discover more efficient ways to use resources. The claim that twenty-first century market economies are not sustainable is not supported by the evidence. This paper explains why entrepreneurship in market economies produces sustainable economic progress.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0420.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic multipliers; remote work; local economies; business impact; economic stimulus; catalytic impact
Online: 7 September 2023 (05:04:45 CEST)
The advent of remote work has ushered in a new era of economic transformation, redefining the dynamics of local economies, and unleashing the multiplier effect on a national scale. This abstract explores the profound implications of remote work on local economies, dissecting how the multiplier effect operates within a nation's economic landscape. The multiplier effect is a fundamental economic concept that highlights how changes in spending and investment can create a ripple effect, leading to a magnified impact on an economy. This concept gains new significance in the context of remote work, as it triggers a chain reaction of economic activities that radiate from remote workers to their local communities. The increased flexibility and reduced geographical constraints of remote work have reshaped the allocation of resources. The continued reliance on remote work may lead to a reduction in demand for commercial real estate in urban centers, necessitating adaptive urban planning strategies. In conclusion, the rise of remote work has initiated a transformative era for local economies, driven by the multiplier effect. By amplifying the impacts of spending and investment, remote work fosters job diversification, innovation, and infrastructure development within communities. As remote work continues to reshape the landscape of work and life, understanding and harnessing its multiplier effect remains paramount for policymakers, businesses, and local communities alike. The multiplier effect is a concept in economics that illustrates how changes in spending can lead to larger impacts on a nation's economy through a chain reaction of economic activities. It demonstrates that an initial injection of spending, whether from government expenditure, investment, or consumption, doesn't just have a one-time impact. Instead, it sets off a series of interconnected spending and income-generation processes that result in a larger overall increase in economic activity. t's important to note that the multiplier effect can work in reverse as well. If there's a decrease in spending, it can lead to a decrease in economic activity and income through the same chain reaction process. This concept highlights the interconnected nature of economic activities and emphasizes the significance of changes in spending patterns on a nation's overall economic health. The magnitude of the multiplier effect is influenced by factors such as the marginal propensity to consume (the proportion of additional income that households spend), leakages (savings and taxes that reduce the multiplier effect), and the extent to which additional spending creates additional production capacity within the economy. Understanding the multiplier effect is essential for policymakers, as it helps them gauge the potential impacts of changes in fiscal and monetary policies on the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0190.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic Geography; Free Economic Zone; Foreign Direct Investment; Industrial Location; Spatial Patterns
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:20:33 CEST)
Uzbekistan, as an emerging national economy, aims to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) to foster the development of its free economic zones (FEZs). While recent policy reforms have enhanced the country's appeal to investors and facilitated the inflow of international capital, challenges persist in attracting investment. This study employs an economic geographical approach to analyze and propose solutions to these obstacles. By examining the spatial patterns of FEZs and FDI through a comprehensive geographical lens, this research utilizes document analysis as an alternative to empirical analysis, considering the broader context rather than focusing on a specific FEZ. The findings reveal that the insufficiency of an innovation-driven environment, logistical systems, energy resource-related issues, among others, negatively impact the inflow of FDI into FEZs. Moreover, the study underscores the significance of economic geography in understanding these factors. Finally, relevant insights and recommendations are provided from an economic geographical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0295.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Preexposure prophylaxis; transmission model; PrEP; economic evaluation; HIV; economic evaluation; health economics
Online: 16 November 2021 (14:36:41 CET)
Introduction: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention has been implemented in several countries. Previous literature has shown that its cost-effectiveness (and, under some specifications, cost-saving character) is dependent on the reduction in price due to generics, the time-horizon and its effectiveness. The intervention has never been studied in Catalonia, a territory with extensive implementation. Methods: Economic evaluation of the implementation of HIV pre-exposition prophylaxis using administrative data from Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) who receive the treatment (at the generic price). A deterministic compartmental model and a social perspective with a micro-costing approach over the time horizon 2022-2062 are used. A baseline 86% effectiveness of PrEP is assumed. Results: Daily oral PrEP is found to be cost-saving: discounted savings in costs are attained after 16 years, and after 40 years they reach 81 million euros. In terms of health indicators, 10,322 additional discounted QALYs are generated by the intervention. Results are sensitive to sexual behavioral patterns among MSM, the price of PrEP (reduced if offered on-demand), its effectiveness and the discount rate. Conclusions: The use and promotion of PrEP in Catalonia is predicted to result in substantial health and monetary benefits because of reductions in HIV infections. Short-term investments in the promotion of PrEP will result in important cost-savings in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Green Initiatives; Economic Growth; Social Development; Green Economic Development Plan; Financial Performance
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:25:02 CET)
This study was conducted to propose the Green Economic Development Plan for Manufacturing S.M.E.s based on financial performance and operations thru Green Initiatives. The descriptive survey method used to gather data to determine the green initiative's implementation of small and medium (S.M.E.s) manufacturing enterprises. Green initiatives use as a basis for crafting a green economic development plan. Document analysis was also employed to obtain data from any available printed materials and records provided by the respondents. Such methods of gathering information used to validate data gathered from local and foreign-related literature. The observation also employed to survey the assets owned and validate any green initiatives practiced, including their implementation. The study's findings show that among the green initiatives implemented by SMMEs, which resulted in the reduction of total costs and expenses, were the proper disposal and segregation of waste materials, water management by recycling wastewater and using water-efficient equipment, natural resources, and raw materials management. SMMEs should encourage active participation and support of suppliers and customers in achieving G.E.D.'s objectives by developing incentive schemes.Furthermore, SMMEs should continue to benchmark with G.E.D. Practitioners are operating locally and abroad to adopt best greening strategies and regularly network with concerned government agencies for continuous updating on G.E.D. Initiatives that may benefit the firm. Further research may be conducted on green initiatives implemented by small and medium enterprises in other industry sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0095.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: economic growth; globalization; sustainability; ease of doing business; entrepreneurship; economic freedom; Nordic countries.
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:09:02 CEST)
The Nordic countries are practically always well positioned in the main international economic, social and sustainability indices and recommending the scientific literature that the variables that these indices intend to measure translate into sustainable economic growth, with this unprecedented empirical study we intend to verify through the ARDL methodology for space temporal 2004 -2018 if the maintenance of high scores in these indexes translates into effective economic growth. The ARDL methodology has the advantage of giving us short- and long-term coefficients. Using four of the main international indices, we conclude that for Nordic countries for economic growth, economic freedom is of no significance and business-friendly regulation is the most important variable. A fundamental discovery in our study (in which Granger's Causality complements the ARDL methodology) is that these countries have been able to adapt perfectly to the globalization process and that entrepreneurship has worked as an important contribution to the continued economic and social success of these countries, allowing them to continue to enjoy their “Nordic Welfare States” in these uncertain and troubled times. These variables have contributed to its economic and social sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0361.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Agro-economic crop water productivity; Hydro-economic modeling; CSPSO-MODSIM; Economic benefits; Crop pattern planning; Crop water Irrigation depth; Climate change; Iran.
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:12:25 CET)
For water-stressed regions like Iran improving the effectiveness and productivity of agricultural water-use is of utmost importance due to climate change and unsustainable demands. Therefore, a hydro-economic model has been developed here for the Zarrine River Basin with the central concept of that demands are value-sensitive functions, where quantities of water-uses at different locations and times have a changeable economic benefits. To do this, the potential crop yields and the surface and groundwater resources, especially Boukan Dam inflow are simulated using the hydrologic model, SWAT, based on predicted climatic scenarios i.e. quantile mapping-downscaled projections. Then, to allocate the agricultural water based on the agro- economic crop water productivity (AEWP) of crops, a basin-wide water management tool, MODSIM, is customized. Next, a simulation- optimization model has been developed using a coupled CSPSO-MODSIM, to optimize the total AEWP, considering climatic impact and crop pattern scenarios, for 2020-2038, 2050-2068 and 2080-2098 periods. Finally, the optimum crop pattern and crop water irrigation depths are presented for different RCPs and periods. The results indicated that this approach will improve considerably the AEWPs and decrease the agricultural water-use up to 40%. Thus, this integrated model is able to support water authorities and other stakeholder in a water-scarce basin, as is the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0830.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: economic migrants; capabilities approach; simulation
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:56:31 CEST)
This paper starts with hypothesis (and presents some evidence) that anxiety in migrants is sufficiently important to be modelled. It presents a small (and very incomplete) review of emotion modelling in literature. It asks the question of how to translate these into agent-based modelling, and whether this can be orthogonal to specific modelling of goals and capabilities of agents. This short paper is offered as a motivator for discussion, rather than a discussion of results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0179.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Diversity; resource curse; economic growth.
Online: 13 April 2018 (14:18:36 CEST)
This paper contributes to the debate on the impact of economic diversity and the resource curse on economic growth. We use dynamic panel data models on data on Canadian and US sub-national jurisdictions. We find evidence for a positive relationship between diversity and growth. Based on the Krugman Specialization Index, our analysis shows that the required threshold for not having the resource curse is 0.209. Above this threshold, the marginal contribution of natural resources to economic growth is lower for a more diversified regional economy than a less diversified one. We highlight the policy implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0065.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Corruption; Economic growth; Panel Data
Online: 26 February 2018 (15:38:23 CET)
This study attempts to assess the impact of corruption on economic growth in the Mediterranean countries, during the period from 1998 to 2007. Econometric analysis using panel regression has been adopted to test this effect. Individual effects models such as random effects model and fixed effects model were applied to the study sample of 160 observations, and to choose the suitable model, we implemented several tests. For our analysis, we used a basic model that includes the dependent variable GDP per capita as a factor of economic growth and the corruption perception index as the independent variable concerned. Then we completed the model with several standardized macroeconomic control variables mentioned above and applied the individual effects models. The outcomes illustrate that corruption has a negative impact on the selected Mediterranean countries’ economic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0222.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: inflation; economic growth; threshold effects
Online: 30 August 2016 (08:54:34 CEST)
Achieving high economic growth rate while maintaining low inflation rate, has become the main objective of monetary authorities all over the world. Indeed, empirical literature reflects that high inflation rates are detrimental to long run growth and entail welfare costs. To achieve this objective, central banks have availed different options from time to time which include inflation targeting. Monetary authorities in Tanzania have been targeting an inflation level of around 5 percent per annum for economic policy purposes. However, when high inflation is to be controlled, tight monetary policy is put in place which might in turn affect the economic activity. Also, the Tobin effect suggests that inflation causes individuals to substitute out of money and into interest earning assets, which leads to greater capital intensity which in turn promotes economic growth. Against these major points, this paper examines a non linear relationship between inflation and economic growth using both a quadratic and threshold endogenous models and attempts to identify the existence of threshold effects between these variables. The paper uses a data set spanning from 1967 to 2015. The most interesting finding of the estimations is that the estimated coefficient of the linear term of inflation is negative while the estimated coefficient of the square term of inflation is positive, suggesting a U-shaped effect as opposed to inverse or inverted U-shaped relationship found in other countries by previous studies. These results suggest that the Tobin effect may be valid for high inflation, in which people strongly realize the importance of substituting money for interest-bearing assets. This leads to an increase in capital investment, and in turn, an increase in economic growth even with high inflation rate. However, this U-shaped relationship between inflation and economic growth suggests that, the economy is better off at extremely low inflation episodes. The optimal inflation rate that ranges between 3.25 percent and 3.75 percent is obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares and/or maximizing adjusted R-squared. These findings have some policy implications for the policymakers and development partners. The paper is consistent with policy suggestions by international agencies. Efforts to minimize inflation to a very low level are likely to have a positive effect on economic growth.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0654.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: PPP Loans, Economic Disparity, Gender Disparity
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:39:16 CEST)
It is well known that the size of initial loans approved by private lending agencies (banks, credit unions etc.) corresponds with the median income of the location of the individual, it also corresponds with gender. We wanted to show if it was the case with the PPP. We use standard machine learning techniques such as Lasso and found statistically significant association between gender of business owner and size of initial loan approvals for the State of Arkansas, and Least Squares Regression and Decision Tree regression to find a somewhat tenuous relationship between median income and initial loan approval amount and finally a strong association with the size of business. This has important applications for the equity of access to credit for marginalized peoples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0115.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: tourism; islands; impact; economic development; sustainability
Online: 8 March 2022 (02:45:35 CET)
Tourism may not sustainably support territories with limited natural resource stock as islands. The volume in visitor arrivals and the industry investments can increase the pressure even beyond sustainable levels. There is an evident and unresolved tension between these two great polarities, sustainability and economic growth driven by tourism. The aim for policymakers is to find an acceptable equilibrium between these two dimensions. This paper investigates the tourism evolution between 2007 and 2019 in 15 Mediterranean islands, comparing the tourism pressures through statistical indicators. The analysis will compare tourism demand and supply trends in these contexts. The performances will be evaluated to identify the Islands positioning between sustainability needs and tourism development opportunities considering post-covid-19 challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0048.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Productive capacities; Economic resilience; Developing countries.
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:29:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 outbreak and its economic, social and financial fallouts have generated a renewed interest in finding adequate policies and means to strengthen economic resilience to future shocks, particularly in developing countries. The latter are usually disproportionately affected by adverse shocks (compared to developed countries) and lack the adequate resources to weather these shocks. Strengthening economic resilience is now at the heart of the policy discussion both at the national and international levels. The present paper aims to contribute to this debate by investigating the effect of productive capacities on economic resilience in a panel dataset of 118 developing countries over the period 2000-2018. It constructs a regression-based economic resilience indicator, and makes use of the indicator of productive capacities recently developed by the UNCTAD. Results are quite interesting, including from a policy perspective. The development of productive capacities is associated with greater economic resilience. This is particularly the case for countries with greater trade openness, greater capital account openness, and those that promote a stable macroeconomic environment. Interestingly, development aid appears to matter for the effect of productive capacities on economic resilience. On the one hand, the magnitude of the positive economic resilience effect of productive capacities increases as countries receive higher Aid for Trade (AfT) flows. On the other hand, NonAfT flows (i.e., other development aid flows that AfT flows) hinder the possible positive contribution of productive capacities to economic resilience. These findings have important policy implications that are discussed in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0554.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: residential complexes; social interactions; economic approach
Online: 20 April 2021 (17:45:42 CEST)
The quality of the environment affects human behavior, the micro-communities of human beings need creative thinking and ideas. Social environments have a significant impact on collective behaviors and social interactions. Nowadays achieving social indicators in housing with a sustainable approach is one of the goals that have been considered. The most important issue in the field of research is recognizing and examining the value of spaces in residential environments to achieve social life, in which it leads human to be social in public residential spaces. Paying attention to social relations with neighbors and people to create Social relationships are proportionate to the presence of individuals in their realm of life. The concept of neighborhood is being responsible for creating social relationships, influencing people living in the complex and community-based life. In this research, by satisfying the human need to communicate and interact with others, creating collective spaces in different scales such as commercial and recreational spaces in residential complexes, the presence of people in these spaces leads to the socialization of collective space and the factor in which the space achieves success. By explaining and identifying the components of socialization in the collective spaces of residential complexes, such spaces can be prepared for the presence of people in the space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0384.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: health expenditure; economic growth; carbon emissions
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:50:55 CEST)
Researchers’ attention has been turned on Health expenditure, Carbon emissions, and economic growth as they play a focal role in the current debate on environmental protection and sustainable development. Our paper endeavors to investigate the impact of economic growth and CO2 emissions on Health expenditure for two main countries in Asia (China and India) using a dynamic panel data model estimated employing the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) for the period 1960–2019. Our empirical results show that there is a significant relationship between health expenditure, CO2 emissions, and economic growth. The empirical evidence indicates a significant positive impact of CO2 emissions on health expenditure whiles economic growth has a negative impact on health expenditure for both countries for the period under study. The population growth rate has transposed effect on India's health spending; on the other hand, its impact on China’s health spending is significantly positive. The strong observable correlation between health expenditure and economic growth is crucial for economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0458.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; socio-economic; impact; Bangladesh
Online: 25 April 2020 (10:31:39 CEST)
The COVID-19 has caused gigantic negative effects on populace wellbeing, society, education, and the economy in Bangladesh. The aim is to deliver a comprehensive overview of the observed and the possible impacts that could appear in the coming days. The study is based on secondary information. During the early period, due to a lack of accurate facts about the case affected and death tension up-and-down among the nations. The total number of confirmed cases is increasing following geometric patterns in Bangladesh. Dairy farmers, vegetable producers, pharmaceuticals, poultry farmers are in deep crisis due to lower prices. Also, the pandemic has seriously affected educational systems, banking, FDI, ready-made garments, remittances, etc Finally, it is not possible to mitigate the effects of pandemic individually but the integrated effort from the state authority as well as concern people of all sectors need to come forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0359.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: contract farming; broiler producers; economic sustainability
Online: 24 March 2020 (11:58:03 CET)
This review has been realized within the agribusiness sector and experiments the Transaction Cost Theory a branch of the New Institutional Economy which explain market failure caused by many factors. Transaction costs are associated with carrying a transaction between buyers and sellers. This study has been conducted between 2014 and 2017; and has collected data from 11 broiler producers in Jezzine, Lebanon, about: Production costs, capital investment, revenues, land tenure, access to infrastructure, and information about the contract. The propensity score matching method is used to compare the effect of participating in contract farming and to solve the hypotheses, which say: There is a positive relationship between contract farming and the economic benefits of broiler producers and the development of the broiler sector in Jezzine District. Findings from farmer’s interviews indicated that sustainability, guaranteed price, risk reduction, credit facilities and technical aids are the main reasons for signing a contract. In contrast, Farmers have expressed problems concerning the contractors’ responsibilities such as delay in payment and delivery. Also, when prices are high, it was argued that farmers were selling the products in the open market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0273.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: foreign direct investment; economic growth; economies
Online: 29 March 2019 (08:01:17 CET)
This paper aims to research whether there is link between FDI inflows and Economic growth in the Republic of Seychelles Island. The ordinary least square results obtained shows that in the impact of FDI inflows on economic growth is low. Small Island Developing States attracts less FDI inflow because they are limited to few resources that attracts overseas firms which results in retarded development. The research lighted that impact of foreign direct investment on host countries does not only depend on the quality and quantity of the FDI inflows but some other variables such as the internal policies and the management skills, market structures, economic trends among others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0012.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic growth; democracy; MENA; simultaneous equations
Online: 1 August 2018 (09:45:56 CEST)
This paper examines the indirect effect of democracy on economic growth using a dataset of 17 MENA countries from 1990 to 2015. Democracy is assumed to affect growth through a series of channels: education, health, physical capital accumulation per labor, government consumption, and trade openness. A system of six simultaneous equations, 3SLS, is used to estimate the effect of democracy on growth through these channels. For further analysis, the countries are classified into groups according to the democratic status on the one side, and the level of income on the other. The results indicate that democracy enhances growth through its positive effect on health in all classifications of countries within the MENA region. However, the effect of democracy on growth through education and physical capital/labor is non-monotonic. Democracy always hinders growth through government size and trade openness. Once all of these indirect effects are accounted for, the overall effect of democracy on growth is negative in less democratic countries and poor countries, but positive in more democratic countries and rich countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Remittances; Economic Growth; Bangladesh; Remittances Utilisation
Online: 20 July 2016 (10:27:13 CEST)
The paper examines the impact of inward remittances flows on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh during 1976-2012. We find that the growth effect of remittances is negative at first but becomes positive at a later stage, an evidence of a non-linear. Unproductive use of remittances was rampant in the beginning when they were received by migrant families but better social and economic investments led to more productive utilisation of remittances receipts at later periods. This was the possible mechanism behind the U-shaped relationship. Unlike what is suggested in the literature that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in a less financially developed economy, our evidence do not show that the effect of remittances on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh is conditional on the level of financial development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0279.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Three Seas Initiative; entrepreneurial potential; synthetic measure of economic anchor; economic lockdown; economy after COVID-19
Online: 14 January 2021 (16:17:12 CET)
This research is aimed at determining the characteristics of the current level of entrepreneurial potential of the Three Seas Initiative (3SI) countries, the ability to overcome the consequences of extraordinary events, such as COVID-19 and prospects for the return to an accelerated development once the destabiliser of the economic system, the coronavirus pandemic, has ceased. Eurostat, World Bank and the World Economic Forum data for 2015-2019 were used for the purpose of the research. The research was divided into three stages, i.e. assessment of economic development on the basis of a synthetic ratio of economic anchor development, for which a relative benchmark method based on spatial median (so-called L1 median or Weber point) was used, identification of conditions for the development of entrepreneurial capacity and statistical analysis showing the correlation between economic anchor measures and selected factors of the 3SI countries economic development. Our study found that the entrepreneurial capacity of the 3SI countries in 2015-2019 was determined by nine characteristics, belonging to six areas, i.e. local economy, demographic situation, social situation, trade exchange, innovation and tourism economy. The entrepreneurial potential of the 3SI countries was spatially diversified, and its development was determined, among others, by the entrepreneurial activity of residents (entrepreneurship index) and the conditions for running a business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Phenylketonuria; low-phenylalanine diet; tetrahydrobiopterin; economic damage
Online: 6 December 2023 (15:37:24 CET)
Phenylketonuria is an inherited metabolic disorder that leads to neurobehavioral dysfunction. The main treatment is a low-phenylalanine diet and/or the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. Regular outpatient follow-up care and measurement of the phenylalanine level in the blood are required. We aimed to analyze the economic burden of phenylketonuria on families and the state. The pa-tients with phenylketonuria were divided into three groups according to their treatment: a low-phenylalanine diet group (n= 50), a tetrahydrobiopterin group (n= 44) and a group taking tetra-hydrobiopterin together with the diet (n= 25). A comparative cost analysis was carried out. The annual economic burden to the state was calculated to average €18801±15345 and was lowest in the diet group, then in the tetrahydrobiopterin group and highest in the tetrahydrobiopterin+diet group (p < 0.001). Out-of-pocket costs amounted to €1531±1173 per year, and indirect losses aver-aged €2125±1930 per year for all families. The economic loss was significantly lower in the fami-lies taking tetrahydrobiopterin than in the other groups (p=0.001). The combined use of medical nutrition and BH4 treatments has been shown to increase the economic harm to the state. Reim-bursing low-protein products and increasing the rate of patients eligible for financial allowances may reduce the economic harm to families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1799.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Risk Perceptions; Driving; Economic Risks; Road Environment
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:35:45 CEST)
While studies that examined risk perceptions in various environments have been previously conducted, the relationship between risk perceptions measured in such environments had not been examined. Such a relationship, if found, may indicate that when one learns to identify risks in one environment, they may identify risks more easily and quickly in another.This study examined the relationship between measures of risk perception in several separate environments. The findings suggest that when learning to identify and assess risks in a particular environment, one may better identify and assess risks in a similar environment – for example, learning to identify and assess risks while driving makes it easier to identify and assess risks when crossing a road. Conversely, the findings also indicate that learning to identify and assess risks in one environment does not make it possible to better identify and assess risks in a disparate environment – for example, learning to identify and assess risks while driving does not make it easier to identify and assess risks in a workplace environment. This may also suggest that while disparate environments such as the road environment and the workplace environment are perceived as two separate environments, the road environment is experienced as one single environment by both drivers and pedestrians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0193.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: artificial intelligence; job market; automation; economic impact
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:37:39 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) stands as an emerging technology poised to reshape various facets of our daily lives, with a particularly noteworthy influence on the labor market. In Morocco, AI adoption has commenced in diverse sectors, including finance, insurance, and telecommunications, opening up fresh avenues for employment. Nevertheless, this technological shift also ushers in challenges for Moroccan workers, necessitating training and upskilling to effectively engage with AI-driven systems. Within this article, we delve into the burgeoning impact of AI on the Moroccan economy and job landscape, delving into both the opportunities and obstacles that accompany its proliferation. Furthermore, we explore strategies that authorities and businesses can employ to harness the benefits of AI while mitigating its potential adverse effects on Morocco's workforce.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1381.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chronic viral hepatitis; socio-economic status; children
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:07:14 CEST)
In the present research, chronic viral hepatitis in children is approached from a multidisciplinary point of view, considering social status, economic and medical aspects. We conducted a 4-year observational prospective study. A questionnaire regarding the socio-economic status of pediatric patients diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis B or C was applied. In total, 159 patients were included, 52 % from urban areas, 2.5 % coming from centres for abandoned children. Among 119 school-aged children, 66% were attending classes. All patients are registered with a general practitioner. Regarding the monthly income per family, 49% had less than 1000 RON (5 RON = 1$), of which 17% had no income, 28% had an income ranging between 1000 and 2000 RON and in only 23% of cases the income exceeded 2000 RON (5% had more than 4000 RON). There were between 3 and 12 members per family. Concerning parents` educational level, the average years of study for mothers was 7.8, while for fathers, it was 8.2. For 17 % of children, at least one of the parents was illiterate, and for 5.6 %, both parents were illiterate. For a third of patients, both parents were unemployed. Regarding social living conditions, 38.4% did not have water facilities or sewerage, and 32 % used personal objects (scissors, nail clippers) in common. The socio-economic level can have a significant impact on disease epidemiology (infectiousness) and access to treatment, and it is tightly related to educational level and access to information, which are critical factors in disease prevention through general and specific measures and in disease management (treating infected patients and limiting the transmission).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Circular economy; linear economic model; plastics; recycling
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:18:26 CEST)
The Circular Economy of plastics is a promising concept that has the potential to reduce pollution and close the loop on plastic waste. However, further research is needed to develop more efficient and environmentally friendly methods of recycling plastic. This review article discusses the Circular Economy of plastics, its potential benefits and drawbacks, and the challenges that need to be addressed to make it a reality. Some case studies are also examined to explore how the Circular Economy of plastics has been implemented across the globe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: economic valuation; potato; yield; profitability; climate change
Online: 9 May 2022 (08:18:11 CEST)
The objective was to estimate the monetary loss of potato producers up to the year 2100 as a result of temperature and precipitation impacts, taking into account the A2 and B2 scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The Pooled Production Panel Model was used, whose database was prepared taking into account climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) and agricultural variables (production, harvested area, farm-gate price) for the period 1996 - 2020, which form the independent variables of the study. The estimations used 60 observations and a total of 38 estimations were run in the econometric software EViews8, of which Equation 05 of the Production Pooled Panel Model was chosen as the best. The model obtained used temperature and precipitation forecasts from Brazil's INPE (National Institute for Space Research), validated for the study area. The results indicate a concave function between potato production (t/ha), temperature and precipitation. Finally, based on the A2 climate scenario, which is the most pessimistic and using the period 2021 - 2100, a loss for potato producers of approximately 8'927,521.48 million soles was estimated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Newcastle disease; poultry; Pakistan; vaccine; economic affects
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:59:23 CEST)
The poultry industry is affected by many epidemics and Newcastle Disease (ND) is a constant threat, known as a devastating disease for poultry farmers around the world. According to the average death time of chicken embryos, virus strains can be classified as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic. The current research will clarify the vulnerable host range as well as the epidemiology and geographic distribution of ND in Pakistan. The introduction of the virus into poultry can have serious economic consequences, including the loss of production of sick and dying poultry, the cost of control measures (such as population reduction and disinfection measures), and possible trade restrictions in the event of an outbreak. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with sick poultry or carriers. Infected birds can also spread the virus in their feces. It can also be spread through respiratory secretions, contaminated feed, equipment, water, or feces. We will also discuss vaccines that which vaccines are available for NDV in Pakistan and vaccines can fight against this disease or not? In this study, a qualitative risk analysis was carried out to assess Pakistan's vulnerability to the introduction of virulent NDV strains
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0504.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: humanitarian logistics; pandemic; economic reactivation; spatial modelling
Online: 21 July 2021 (18:27:42 CEST)
In this article we propose an application of humanitarian logistics theory to build a supportive framework for economic reactivation and pandemic management based on province vulnerability against COVID-19. The main research question is: which factors are related to COVID-19 mortality between Peruvian provinces? We conduct a spatial regression analysis to explore which factors determines the differences in COVID-19 cumulative mortality rates for 189 Peruvian provinces up to December 2020. The most vulnerable provinces are characterized by having low outcomes of long-run poverty and high population density. Low poverty means a high economic activity that leads to more deaths of COVID-19. There is a lack of supply of a set of relief goods defined as Pandemic Response and Recovery Supportive Goods and Services (PRRSGS). These goods must be delivered in order to mitigate the risk associated to COVID-19. A supportive framework for economic reactivation can be built based on regression results and a delivery strategy can be discussed according to the spatial patterns that we found for mortality rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0759.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Okun's law; unemployment rate; Economic Growth; Liberia
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:11:14 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the connection between economic growth and unemployment in Liberia between 2001 and 2019. The unit root test and the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) Co-integration test were used to examine the relationship between unemployment and GDP. The Auto Regressive Distribution Lag (ARDL) bounds test is used to determine if the variables are linked in the long run. According to the results of the ARDL model, there is no long-run relationship between unemployment and economic growth. This study' results have particularly important policy implications for Liberian economic authorities. In both the long and medium term, the observational results showed no meaningful relationship between unemployment and economic growth. The Liberian government should direct its spending toward activities that directly and indirectly promote the creation of employment and decent jobs, a conducive environment and flexible labor market policies or legislation that are not impediments to job creation, and finally, the government should prioritize labor intensive industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0013.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: anti-globalization; economic globalization; US-dominated globalization
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:28:16 CET)
Since the financial crisis in 2008, the U.S. economy has weakened, and the world economy has slowly developed. As the world's leading country, the United States has used many methods to restore the economy. But it does work efficiently. However, there are many issues in developed countries such as domestic social, economic, immigration in the United States/United Kingdom; those are not optimistic. Developed countries have entered a dilemma. The neoliberalism financial system has been unable to move forward. Populists have pointed out that those problems have been causing by globalization. Under the leadership of the Brexit Referendum, President Trump has caused a wave of anti-globalization. Under a series of systems such as the China-US trade war and the US-Mexico border wall repairs, the anti-globalization trend is getting stronger. This article mainly analyzes the in-depth reasons and mechanism research of globalization and anti-globalization alternately—the data obtained from an international method performance study. The results show that anti-globalization is temporary, along with globalization. There are three main factors affecting globalization: the situation of the dominant country, natural disasters, and wars. After so much literature review, I believe that the United States' globalization is gradually weakening, and globalization may return to regionalization under the United States' opposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0473.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Poverty; Education; Economic Policy; Social Welfare; Investment
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:04:00 CET)
Underpinned by the research works on private returns on education in developing nations that have found a positive correlation between earning and subsequent level of schooling, this paper presents a concept of an investment policy which will help the impoverished children in becoming economically successful through systematic funding of their educational needs with an obligation of interest adjusted returns.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: NPL Ratio; non-performing loans; economic recovery
Online: 12 August 2020 (10:12:13 CEST)
The goal of this paper is to explore the relationship between the specific non-performing loan ratio (NPL ratio) and the corresponding impact on the bank’s profitability and lending behavior. It also seeks to investigate the macroeconomic impacts of economies with excessively high NPL ratios as well as the efficacy and impact of alleviation measures used by banks and governments around the world to help facilitate a decrease in high NPL ratios. The possible implications and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on NPL ratios is also addressed in this paper. It is found that when excessively high NPL ratios go unaddressed, the economy tends to suffer. On the other hand, this study shows that when measures are taken to reduce or eliminate the high NPL ratios, economic performance improves, and the reduction has a clear positive impact on the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0003.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: trade; conversion factors; price rate; economic growth
Online: 1 March 2020 (02:57:28 CET)
The impact of monetary policies and their implementation by exchange rate covered the economic condition of Ghana. The social inclusion and conversion factors change the implemented policies of nations, where the real price, trade, technology, a price rate and price level of ratio take an important part of growth. The reform of the financial sector favors the free floating of the exchange rate and global trade by under the premise of flexible exchange rates. The tragedy of country growth and exchange rate toward a trajectory of growth with the growth-enhancing effect through social inclusion, conversion factors, price level ratio, exchange rate, merchant rate, export and trade services. The research study is based on secondary study and social inclusion equity indicators with public resources, building human resources and social protection for economic development has determined. The monetary policies are classified by the different evidence and trade indicators. The significant influence of growth and internal policies has affected trade and exchange rates with growth and reserve policies. The results have computed by linear regression and it proved that social inclusion and alternative conversion factors impact on the global trade and create short term binary relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0511.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic complexity; non-linear map; Bipartite networks
Online: 18 September 2018 (06:13:25 CEST)
We present a new method of estimating fitness of countries and complexity of products by exploiting a non-linear non-homogeneous map applied to the publicly available information on the goods exported by a country. The non homogeneous terms guarantee both convergence and stability. After a suitable rescaling of the relevant quantities, the non homogeneous terms are eventually set to zero so that this new method is parameter free. This new map reproduces the findings of the method proposed by Tacchella et al. , and allows for an approximate analytic solution in case of actual binarized matrices based on the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) indicator. This solution is connected with a new quantity describing the neighborhood of nodes in bipartite graphs, representing in this work the relations between countries and exported products. Moreover, we define the new indicator of country net-efficiency quantifying how a country efficiently invests in capabilities able to generate innovative complex high quality products. Eventually, we demonstrate analytically the local convergence of the algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0042.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: geospatial economic supply; biomass; risk assessment; vulnerability
Online: 4 April 2018 (04:17:33 CEST)
Assessing the economic supply of biomass in a geospatial context while accounting for risk from natural disasters was studied. Risk levels were estimated from a component of factors which included: population density, road density, federal ownership, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ecoregions, and Presidential Disaster Declarations. The Presidential Disaster Declarations included risks due to: coastal storm, drought, fire, flood, freezing, hurricane, mud land slide, severe ices, severe storms, snow, tornado, and tropical storm. Presidential Disaster Declarations included summaries based on a short-term time period from 2000-2011, and on a long-term time period from 1964-2011. Risk categories were developed as a function of the number of disaster declarations, agricultural-to-forest land ratio, average road density, and average population density. A significant contribution of the research was the allocation of spatially explicit data using GIS technology at the 5-digit zip code tabulation area. The average area for 5-digit ZCTAs in the Eastern U.S. study region was approximately 169 kilometers2. Long-term risk (1964-2011) from disaster declarations had a greater impact on the economic availability of biomass supply relative to short-term declarations (2000-2011). The greatest risk to biomass supply came from population density relative to the other risk factors studies. Of the 25,044 total ZCTAs, 12,256 ZCTAs were in locations that did not include population density ≥ 150/km2, road density ≥ 14 km/km2, federal ownership, and US Environmental Protection Agency Level III ecoregions. Of the remaining 12,256 ZCTAs, 26.8% were considered to be moderate-to-high risk based on short-term declarations (2000-2011) and 29.4% were considered to be moderate-to-high risk based on long-term declarations (1964-2011). Lower risk locations for procuring biomass supply for both short-term and long-term declarations, across all risk factors, were in southern Georgia, South Carolina, and Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0028.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Oil revenue; External debt; Economic growth; ARDL
Online: 4 December 2017 (17:33:46 CET)
Oil revenues and external debt might have stimulated economic growth in the oil exporting countries via investment in capital projects. The paper estimated economic growth on oil revenues and external debt after controlling public investment and population growth over the period 1970-2015. Following the confirmation of the order of integration, our analysis is based on autoregressive distributed lag bound testing to cointegration approach. The key findings are that oil revenues and public investment contributes to Nigeria’s economic growth. However, our findings also indicate that external debt and population growth retards growth. The study suggests that minimizing fiscal deficits and unnecessarily foreign loans by creating tax avenues through the development of the non-oil sectors would reduce the dependency syndrome on a single commodity (oil) in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneur, individual entrepreneur, sole proprietor, economic subject
Online: 17 March 2017 (21:53:12 CET)
An entrepreneur is a business-able physical person who performs activities to gain the profit and who is registered according to law. Starting from the national and theoretical and legal solutions and court practice from comparative law, the authors analyze the concept and the legal position of an individual entrepreneur noticing the problems and inconsistencies in legal regulations. The authors of the work make a few conclusions and suggestions: 1) terminology is not coordinated with legal terminology from comparative law. In our law, the legal term is “entrepreneur”, which is a too wide and unspecified term because in economic profession this term represents the genus term for individual and collective entrepreneurship; 2) analyze all forbidden activities for entrepreneurs, judge the reasons pro et contra and work on eliminating prohibitions and favouring legal entities; 3) set by law the bankruptcy of an individual entrepreneur i.e. the individual bankruptcy of a physical person; 4) work on passing a separate legislation in the field of the individual entrepreneurship, especially on passing and changing the laws which would regulate handicrafts (including old crafts and jobs of home industry), free professions as well as agricultural activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0466.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: farm animal; pig; livestock production; global warming; climate change; economic risk assessment; economic impact; resilience; livestock farming; adaptation
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:23:22 CET)
Economic risks for livestock production are caused by volatile commodities and market conditions, but also by environmental drivers like increasing uncertainties due to weather anomalies and global warming. These risks impact the gross margin of farmers and can stimulated investment decisions. For confined pig and poultry production, farmers can reduce the environmental impact by implementing specific adaptation measures to reduce heat stress. A simulation model driven by meteorological data was used to calculate heat stress impact as a projection for 2030. For a business-as-usual livestock building, the indoor climate for several adaptation measures was calculated. The weather-related value-at risk quantified the economic risks caused by global warming and the stochastic component of the weather. The results show that only energy-saving adaptation measures to reduce the inlet air temperature are appropriate to reduce the economic risk to the level of the year 1980. The efficiency of other adaptation measures to reduce heat stress is distinctly lower. The results in this study can support the decision making of farmers concerning adaptation management and investments. It can inform agricultural policy design as well as technological development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: marine spatial planning; decision support tools; economic analysis
Online: 7 December 2023 (12:02:45 CET)
There has been a rapid increase in the use of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) throughout the world recently, partly due to the continued loss of marine biodiversity and habitat. The sustainability of marine resources is threatened in all regions of the world by major events such as climate change, marine pollution, overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing both on the high seas and in country waters. Here, we present a comprehensive review and analysis of how economic information has been applied and used to inform decisions about MSP in British Columbia (BC), Canada and other similar jurisdictions. This focus for the paper was selected because important gaps remain in the literature in terms of incorporating economic questions into MSP. We first present different definitions of MSP, and then we extract useful lessons from MSP regimes with well–tested decision support tools, and use this to guide MSP implementation in BC. We finally present and discuss case studies from Australia, South Africa and Belgium. Our review suggests that applying economic information to support the design and implementation of MSPs would lead to better decisions. This in turn would foster livelihoods, attract finance, increase buy–in and advance United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14: Life Below Water, thereby achieving Infinity Fish, i.e., ensuring that ocean benefits flow to humanity forever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable development; Energy management; Environmental protection; Economic management
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:11:19 CEST)
This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Tai-wan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs in Taiwan and Scotland, respectively, attracting numerous high-tech and startup enterprises. Various means facilitate the growth of industries and foster innovations in different industrial spheres. Important factors contributing to this growth include policy support, availability of research materials, and provision of infrastructure. This research paper compares the successful case studies of two industrial parks, along with their environmental and economic management strategies. It explores the management principles that ensure the sustainable development and economic growth of industrial parks, aiming to assist decision-makers and relevant stakeholders in evaluating the sustainable development planning of industrial parks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0503.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: economic growth; environment; municipal waste; waste management; Bulgaria
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:47:59 CEST)
This paper examines the relationship between GDP per capita and waste generated in European Union countries, highlighting the importance of this relationship for understanding the environmental consequences of economic growth and formulating waste management policies. The analysis findings demonstrate that, in most cases, higher GDP is associated with higher amounts of waste, although there are exceptions to this trend. A smaller number of countries are also found where no such relationship exists. These are primarily high-income countries in the lower part of the EKC or countries in transition. Cluster analysis reveals regional differences in the relationship between GDP and waste that the economic factors and the level of development in the regions concerned can explain. Bulgaria is among the European countries with the lowest economic growth associated with a large amount of waste. The analysis, therefore, focuses on Bulgaria. The impact of GDP per capita, Human Development Index and Population Density on municipal waste in Bulgaria is studied. The aim is to identify significant relationships and dependencies between these factors and the amount of waste. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis and the findings from municipal waste management data in Bulgaria, specific actions are proposed for municipal waste management in the country. Recommendations are made for developing sustainable waste management policies and sharing best practices between regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: roof; insulation; granary; carbon emission; economic analysis model
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:53:15 CEST)
The optimization design of buildings is very important the energy consumption, carbon emissions ,and sustainable development of buildings. The low-temperature granary has low grain storage temperature and high energy consumption indexes. The design scheme of roof insulation for low-temperature granary should be determined in actual building design processes by considering economy, carbon emissions, and outdoor climate, comprehensively. In this paper, the low-temperature granary roof insulation for different ecological grain storage zones in China are optimized by using a new low-carbon optimization design method. The low-carbon optimization design method can response to the economical issue, emission reduction issue, and outdoor climate issue, simultaneously. The application results of the optimization design method in ecological grain storage zones in China indicate that outdoor climate has significant impacts on the economic performance and carbon reduction effect of roof insulation. The considering of carbon emission cost can apparently increase economic efficiency of roof insulation. The optimal economic thickness of expanded polystyrene (EPS) in Urumqi, Harbin, Zhengzhou, Changsha, Guiyang and Haikou cities is 0.025 m, 0.037 m, 0.085 m, 0.097 m, 0.072 m and 0.148 m, respectively. The different outdoor climates of seven ecological grain storage areas in China have important influences on the comprehensive economic performances of low-temperature granary roof insulation. The design of low-temperature granary roof insulation in Haikou city has the best economic performances among the seven ecological grain storage zones in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: economic evaluation; cost-effectiveness; glucosamine; osteoarthritis; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:25:01 CEST)
The osteoarthritis (OA), the main cause of disability, is a chronic condition that most frequently affects older adults. As the population ages, the cost of treatment is placing pressure on the healthcare budget. As a result, it is imperative to evaluate the medicines' cost-effectiveness and the influence they have on health resource allocation. Hence, our study aims to summarize the cost and outcome of utilizing glucosamine in OA treatment. Authentic databases like Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus were adopted for the identification process up until July 2023. Our primary inclusion criteria centered on the economic evaluation of Glucosamine in OA treatments with provided the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at least. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument was applied to grade the quality of the studies. A total of 7 qualified studies were selected and discussed the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine with or without other formulations. All of them demonstrated that glucosamine was cost-effective. There was an in-creasement of QALY when incorporating Glucosamine into conventional care. Moreover, Crystalline Glucosamine Sulfate (pCGS) was more cost-effective than the Other Formulations of Glucosamine (OFG). In overall, utilizing pCGS was more beneficial than OFG in terms both of cost and quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1748.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurial enterprises; SME; economy; economic growth; job creation
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:10:40 CEST)
This article explores the Role and Contributions of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a globalized and innovative economy, looking specifically at the challenges and opportunities. The establishment and expansion of new firms provides a sizable amount of net new jobs. While high-expectation entrepreneurial enterprises and gazelles are usually found among innovative and technology-based new organizations, it is also essential that there be a sizable supply for them to play a significant part in economic growth. In other words, encouraging all forms of en-trepreneurship is likely to increase the number of innovative, fast-growing enterprises as well as entrepreneurship. In many European countries, entrepreneurship needs to be encouraged. Findings show the crucial role the SME sector plays in the South African economy in tackling sustainable development. About 90% of all official firms in South Africa are thought to be small, medium, or micro-enterprises. The study concluded that one of the major contributions to the South African economy is the SME sector. The SME is not just viewed as a source of new jobs, but also as a sector that absorbs laid-off workers from both the private and public sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0988.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine hesitancy; Implication; Consequences; Economic recovery
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:37:36 CEST)
The phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy is a growing threat to public health with far-reaching implications. The widening gap between the vaccinated and the proportion needed for herd immunity raises two critical research questions that are of interest to practitioners, researchers, and policymakers: (1) What determines one’s decision to be vaccinated? and (2) What is the implication of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on economic recovery? In this study, we use empirical data in the context of South Africa to investigate factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and their implications for economic recovery. Findings reveal key socio-demographic and institutional drivers of COVD-9 vaccine hesitancy, which include age (the youth are more hesitant), inadequate information on the vaccine (those who perceive they have adequate information are vaccinated), trust issues in government institutions, conspiracy beliefs, vaccine-related factors, and perceived side effects associated with the vaccine. Additionally, an individual’s decision to remain hesitant about COVID-19 vaccination has implications for businesses and the economy by limiting movement and trade, increasing unemployment, and causing a resurgence of new variants. Based on the findings, action plans such as information dissemination, convenience vaccination centers, consistency communications, and targeted campaign strategies are recommended for improving vaccine intakes and a positive economic recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public transportation; Automated vehicles; economic viability; business model
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:23 CEST)
During the past few years many projects and initiatives were undertaken deploying and testing automated vehicles for public transportation and logistics. However in spite of their ambition, all of these deployments stayed on the level of elaborated experimentation deploying no more than 4 maximum 5 AVs in rather small sites (few Kms of roads) and never really reached the level of large scale “commercial” deployment of transport services. The reasons for this are many, but the most important being the lack of economically viability and commercially realistic models, the lack of scalability of the business and operating models, and the lack of inclusive citizen/user centric services required for the large end-user acceptation and adoption of the solutions. In this paper, based on the experience gained in the H2020 AVENUE project, we present the missing pieces of the puzzle, ad which will be addressed in the Horizon Europe project ULTIMO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0061.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic well-being; Poverty alleviation; Quantitative data analysis
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:17:17 CET)
The goal is to reduce poverty, the method used is a literature study to see the effect of using Financial Technology (Fintech) on financial inclusion, method to see the effect of financial inclusion on poverty. From the results of the tests, the use of Fintech can increase financial inclusion, thereby encouraging poverty alleviation. It can be seen that the Financial Inclusion variable has a significant and negative effect on the poverty variable. This shows that countries that have high levels of financial inclusion are generally estimated to have low poverty rates. Increasing a country's financial inclusion can reduce poverty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0029.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sawn wood; Socio-economic; Timber marketing; Forest enterprise
Online: 1 September 2021 (16:16:19 CEST)
Forest enterprise has been identified as a means of generating income among people; plays a vital role in enhancing the quality of life of forest-dependent people. Despite the opportunities timber marketing offers the people, the disparities in the income generation of the marketers in the Bodija sawn wood Market and the effect of socio-economic factors on income generation of the marketers is not well understood. This study was conducted to assess the socio-economic determinants of contributions of timber marketing to the income of timber merchants in Bodija sawn-wood Market. One hundred structured questionnaires were administered randomly in five zones of the sawn wood Market to obtain information on the socio-economic background of the sawn wood marketers and the contribution of timber trade to their incomes. The result indicated that 99.0% of the respondents were male while females constituted 1.00%. Seventy-five percent of the marketers had post-primary education and 25% had primary education. Two percent of the marketers had below 10 years of marketing experience, twenty-six percent had between 11 and 20 years, 57.00% had between 21 and 30 years, and 15.00% had more than 30years experience. Fifty-eight percent of the respondents earned between ₦10000-₦60000 (1US$ = 360.00) from timber marketing, thirty-one percent earned between ₦60001 and ₦110000, 7% earned between ₦110001 and ₦160000, while 4% earned above ₦160000 per month. Chi-square analysis of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and income generation at α level of 0.05 indicated that ethnicity (0.001) and years of experience (0.009) significantly influenced income while the level of education (0.101), age (0.122), and religion (0.745) had no significant influence on the incomes of marketers. Experience is an important factor in sawn wood marketing and a major determinant of the contribution of timber marketing to the income of timber marketers in Bodija sawn wood Market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0314.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: energy poverty; economic growth; energy governance; multidimensional poverty
Online: 16 August 2021 (09:00:19 CEST)
During the last two decades, energy poverty has captured a growing attention of researchers and policymakers due to its strong association with economic poverty and poor economic performance. This study uses a broad set of macro level indicators and makes the first attempt to measure energy poverty and its impact on economic growth of Pakistan over the period 1990 to 2017. In particular, our energy poverty indicator considers four main dimensions of energy poverty, namely, energy services, clean energy, energy governance and energy affordability. Our main results show that though the overall energy poverty has reduced in Pakistan during the selected sample period, the country shows an increasing dependence on polluted energy supply in order to meet its growing demand of energy. In second stage of the investigation, we test the neoclassical growth theory where we incorporate energy poverty along with human capital as source of economic growth. Our cointegration results reveal a strong relationship between energy poverty and economic growth that is also dynamically stable in short run. These strong negative linkages between energy poverty with economic growth for the sample economy complement the previous literature on the subject.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Pyrolysis; Life cycle assessment; Techno-economic assessment; sludge
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
The increasing amount of municipal sludge in China requires safe and effective management to protect human health and ensure environmental sustainability. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process that that decompose organic matter at elevated temperature and under anaerobic conditions, and it has attracted an increasing attention in sludge treatment in the recent years. However, comprehensive environmental and economic assessment of sludge pyrolysis in China's context is rare, due to the small quantities of full-scale sludge pyrolysis plant. In this paper, we applied our design and operation parameters of full-scale sludge pyrolysis plants to generate the material and energy consumptions of the pyrolysis system under various of conditions, including sludge organic content and moisture content, system size, system energy distribution, and whether or not heat substitution is applied. Life cycle assessment and techno-economic assessment were then applied to investigate the environmental and economic performance of the system Our results demonstrate the significant environmental and economic impacts associated with sludge properties and system size. Generally, sludge with higher organic content and lower moisture content requires less natural gas consumption, which leads to a simultaneous improvement of the system environmental and economic performance. The system economic performance is more sensitive to the system size, and centralized sludge handling using a larger pyrolysis is more economic favorable. In the most ideal case, the average global warming potential and minimum sludge handling price of sludge pyrolysis could be as low as -32.5 kg CO2-Eq/t DS and 188.8 $/t DS, respectively. Based on these results, we discussed the pathways that could be taken to further optimize the environmental and economic performances of the pyrolysis system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0711.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Quality of economic growth; environmental regulation; technological innovation
Online: 29 June 2021 (14:14:33 CEST)
Abstract：This paper uses the balanced panel data from 29 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China for a total of 17 years from 2000 to 2016 as a research sample, and establishes an empirical model to examine the impact of environmental regulations and technological innovation on the quality of economic growth. Then this paper test technological innovation as a threshold variable, in which play a regulatory role. Taking the provincial balanced panel data as a research sample, a fixed effect model, a system GMM model, and a panel threshold model were established for empirical testing and the robustness test. Based on the empirical results, this article draws the following conclusions: from a national perspective, environmental regulations and technological innovation can significantly promote the quality of economic growth; from a regional perspective, there are regional differences in impact effects. Under the constraints of environmental regulations, the promotion effect of technological innovation on the quality of economic growth will be reduced; the impact of environmental regulation on the quality of economic growth will have a "threshold effect", and environmental regulation can significantly promote the quality of economic growth only after crossing the threshold and the threshold of technological innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0469.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Entrepreneurship; Poverty alleviation; Green Entrepreneurship; Economic growth
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:55:06 CEST)
World Economy today depends on business investments that are propelled by Green technology, innovations and entrepreneurial activities. In recent years, developing economies in Asia, Africa and Latin America have embarked on easy capital access to Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to facilitate their economic growth. Kenya is among the Middle Level Income Countries that have gained global recognition through entrepreneurial innovations. In this study we assess the role of entrepreneurship towards poverty alleviation in Kenya. The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the role of entrepreneurship in poverty alleviation in Kenya; to identify entrepreneurship innovations and their economic contribution in Kenya and to determine the significance of entrepreneurship to Kenyan economy. Methodology of study took a parametric approach through pure desktop studies on entrepreneurship cases in Kenya. Success case studies of entrepreneurial innovations like M-pesa, M-soko and Uwezo Fund initiatives were assessed. The paper notes that activities undertaken in each of these case studies have made great contributions to poverty alleviation and economic development in both urban and rural areas of Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0469.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic impact; uncertainty; COVID-19, productive system, Spain
Online: 18 March 2021 (10:50:16 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit the Spanish economy hard. The result is an unprecedented economic and social crisis due to uncertainty about the remedy, and due to the socio-economic effects on people’s lives. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the macro-economic impact of COVID-19 in 2020, using the principal indicators of the Spanish economic and productive model. National statistics were examined in the search for impacts or anomalies occurring since the beginning of the pandemic. To estimate the strength of the impact on each of the indicators analysed, we used Bayesian structural time series. Results: In 2020, the cumulative impact on the Gross Domestic Product was of -11.41% [95% credible interval: -13.46; -9.29]. The indicator for Business Turnover fell by -9.37% [-12.71; -6.07]. The reduction in business activity was related to the sharp fall in demand. The Spanish employment market was strongly affected; our estimates showed a cumulative increase of 11.9% [4.27; 19.45] in the rate of unemployment during 2020. The autonomous communities which are economically the most heavily dependent on the services sector were those which recorded the worst indicators. Conclusions: Our estimates portray a dramatic situation in our country, and show all too clearly the fragility of a productive system which has to make the behavioural changes that are necessary to confront the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0258.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation; Sociality; Economic Impact; Labor Dynamics; Urban Density
Online: 13 January 2021 (16:21:31 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 changed the way we interact and engage in commerce at a fundamental level. Social distancing and stay-at-home orders leave businesses and cities wondering what economic activity will look like in the future. Given a likely reduction in face-to-face interactions, it is important to better understand how social interactivity influences economic outcomes. Here we measure the effect of social interactions in the workforce on patent production and economic efficiency. We decompose U.S. occupations into individual work activities, determine which of those activities are associated with face-to-face interactions, and reaggregate the labor force of each U.S. metropolitan statistical area (MSA) into a metric of social interactiveness. We then calculate each MSA’s density of social work activities and find that this measure is more highly correlated with an MSA’s per capita patent production than simple population density. This suggests that density of face-to-face interactions is the important driver of a city’s rate of invention. We close by exploring analogies between the development of cities and the development of stars, suggesting ways these analogies may help frame future research on cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: avgricultural value chain; agricultural marketing; economic development; productivity
Online: 5 January 2021 (12:08:16 CET)
Over time, the agricultural sector's contribution to the nation's Gross Domestic Product and revenue is declining exponentially; the decline may be attributed to varying problems affecting the agricultural value chain resulting in low productivity. The agricultural value chain comprises a series of activities and value addition processes required to transform raw materials into useable products to maximize the final consumers' utility.1 The agricultural value chain's marketing activities have been skewed with challenges, thus affecting agricultural productivity and agricultural sector contribution to the economy. The paper critically examines and discuss the impact of agricultural marketing to economic development, a historical review of agricultural marketing in Nigeria, challenges undermining the impact of agricultural marketing, measures to reposition agricultural marketing potential to build back better, policy recommendations to reposition the future of Nigeria's agricultural productivity. The paper aims to promote concerted efforts through knowledge dissemination to build back better through market research and facilitation and boost economic prosperity.