REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0528.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: AMPK; Polyphenols; Dyslipidemia; Nrf2
Online: 29 January 2023 (10:39:25 CET)
Hyperlipidemia is the fat particles excess in the serum. Hyperlipidemia increases the mortality rate that occurs with other metabolic disorders. Hyperlipidemia is classified into familial and acquired subgroups. Moreover, Hyperlipidemia etiology is based on environmental or genetic factors. For instance, abnormal HMG-CoA regulation down-regulates ubiquitin ligase and targets variable oxidative stress-related condition proteins. There has been proven reactive oxygen species (ROS) overshoot happens during hyperlipidemia occurrence. OS, directly and indirectly, regulates molecular cascades within the cell and leads to gene expression alteration. At this molecular juncture, AMPK is affected by ROS. AMPK is a serine-threonine kinase and a critical energy balance. Low energy conditions result in AMPK activation due to the down-regulation of protein and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, ER stress and activated unfolded protein proteasomal response and autophagy are AMPK mediated. Polyphenols are widespread dietary plant-based compounds that regulate gene expression and signal conduction. Through the hyperlipidemic state, FFAs releasing indirectly connect to AMPK/NF-κB pathway then polyphenols target them. AMPK, during this FFA exposure, down-regulates de novo lipid molecules generation. Likewise, if AMPK/mTOR pathway failure is prolonged, the hyperlipidemic state may be explicit, activated by natural herbal mediators, e.g., polyphenols. Polyphenols activate the AMPK signaling pathway and influence lipid metabolism. Polyphenol-mediated AMPK activation results in lipogenesis inhibition and lipophagy. Cholesterol efflux mediated polyphenols lipid-lowering effects, accessing LXR pathway. All these clues persist on direct or indirect AMPK-related polyphenolic anti-hyperlipidemic effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dyslipidemia; gut microbiota; mendelian randomization
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:54:09 CEST)
The determination of a causal relationship between gut microbiota and a range of dyslipidemia remains uncertain. To clarify these associations, we employed a two-sample mendelian randomization (MR) analysis utilizing the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method. This comprehensive analysis investigated the genetic variants that exhibited a significant association (p<1e-5) with 129 distinct gut microbiota genera, and their potential link to diverse forms of dyslipidemia. The results indicated a potential causal relationship between 22 gut microbiota genera and dyslipidemia in humans. Furthermore, these findings suggested that the impact of gut microbiota on dyslipidemia regulation is dependent on the specific phylum, family, and genus. Bacillota phylum demonstrated the greatest diversity, with 15 distinct genera distributed among 8 families. Notably, gut microbiota derived from the Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillaceae families exhibit statistically significant associations with lipid levels that contribute to overall health (p<0.05). The sensitivity analysis indicated that our findings possess robustness (p>0.05). The findings of our investigation provide compelling evidence that supports a causal relationship between the gut microbiota and dyslipidemia in the human body. It is noteworthy to highlight the significant influence of the Bacillota phylum as a pivotal regulator of lipid levels, and the families Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillaceae should be acknowledged as probiotics that make substantial contributions to this metabolic process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Dyslipidemia; atherogenic indexes; genetic associations
Online: 7 April 2023 (05:24:09 CEST)
Atherogenesis and dyslipidemia increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. While blood lipid levels have been studied as disease predictors, their accuracy in predicting cardiovascular risk is limited due to its high interindividual and interpopulation variability. The lipid ratios: atherogenic index of plasma (AIP=log TG/HDL-C) and the Castelli risk index 2 (CI2=LDL-C/HDL-C) have been proposed as better predictors of cardiovascular risk, but the genetic variability associated to these ratios has not been investigated. This study aimed to identify genetic associations with these indexes. The study population (n=426) included males (40%) and females (60%) aged 18-52 years (mean 39 years), the Infinium GSA array was used for genotyping. Regression models were developed using R and PLINK. AIP was associated with variation on APOC3, KCND3, CYBA, CCDC141/TTN, and ARRB1 (p-value < 2.1E-6) the three former previously associated to blood lipids, while CI2 was associated with variants on DIPK2B, LIPC, and 10q21.3 rs11251177 (p-value 1.1E-7) the latter previously linked to coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension. KCND3 rs6703437 was associated with both indexes. This study is the first to characterize the potential link between genetic variation and atherogenic indexes, AIP and CI2, highlighting the relation between genetic variation and dyslipidemia predictors. These results also contribute to consolidating the genetics of blood lipid and lipid indexes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Very low density lipoproteins; biogenesis; dyslipidemia
Online: 20 June 2023 (05:24:45 CEST)
The production and secretion of very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL) by hepatocytes has a direct impact on liver fat content as well as the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in the circulation and thus affects liver and cardiovascular health, respectively. Importantly, excess caloric intake and lack of physical activity are associated with overproduction of VLDL, hepatic steatosis, and increased levels of atherogenic lipoproteins. Cholesterol as well as triglycerides in remnant particles after VLDL lipolysis are risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and have garnered increasing attention over the last few decades. To date, however, increased risk of ASCVD is not the only concern when considering today’s cardiometabolic patients, as they often also suffer from hepatic steatosis. This notion highlights the importance of understanding the molecular regulation of VLDL biogenesis. Fortunately, there has been a resurgence of interest in the intracellular assembly, trafficking, degradation, and secretion of VLDL by hepatocytes, that has led to many exciting new molecular insights, the topic of this review. We think that increasing our understanding of the biology of this pathway will help improve the health of the cardiometabolic patient in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: hyperglycemia; dyslipidemia; oxidative stress; Gymnema Sylvestre
Online: 28 December 2022 (03:31:07 CET)
The effect of Gymnema Sylvestre supplementation on beta cell and hepatic activity was explored in an alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Adult rats were made hyperglycemic via a single inj. (i.p) of Alloxan (120mg/kg b.w). Gymnema Sylvestre was supplemented @250mg/kg and 500mg/kg b.w. Blood glucose levels were constantly monitored. After 21 days, rats were euthanized, and blood and tissues (pancreas and liver) were collected for biochemical, expression, and histological analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the means of different treatment groups. Gymnema Sylvestre significantly reduced blood glucose levels with a subsequent increase in plasma insulin levels in a dosage-dependent manner. Total oxidant status (TOS), malondialdehyde, LDL, VLDL, ALT, AST, triglyceride, total cholesterol, total protein, C-reactive protein, and cortisol levels were reduced significantly in alloxan-treated hyperglycemic rats supplemented with Gymnema Sylvestre as compared to control. Significantly raised paraoxonase, arylesterase, albumin, and HDL levels were also observed in Gymnema Sylvestre supplemented hyperglycemic rats. Increased mRNA expression of Ins-1, Ins-2, Gck, Pdx1, Mafa, and Pax6 were observed, while decreased expression of Cat, Sod1, Nrf2, and NF-kB was observed in the pancreas. Whereas increased mRNA expression of Gck, Irs1, SREBP1c, and Foxk1 and decreased expression of Irs2, ChREBP, Foxo1, and FoxA2 were observed in the liver. The current study indicates the potent effect of Gymnema Sylvestre on the transcription modulation of the insulin gene in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Enhanced plasma insulin levels further help to improve hyperglycemia-induced dyslipidemia through transcriptional modulation of hepatocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: obesity; sleeve gastrectomy; atherogenic dyslipidemia; lipid metabolism
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:17:28 CEST)
Introduction Currently, the increase in the percentage of obese people observed along with the development of civilization, reaching the level of a global pandemic, has forced the search for methods of effective and permanent obesity treatment. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, it coexists with many disease entities and requires multidisciplinary treatment. Obesity leads to metabolic changes in the form of metabolic syndrome, which includes, among others, atherogenic dyslipidemia. The proven relationship between dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk enforces the need to effectively improve the lipid profile of obese patients. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a method of surgical treatment of morbid obesity which improves bariatric and metabolic parameters. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in improving lipid profile parameters in 1-year follow-up. Material and Methods Bariatric parameters of 196 patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as well as lipid profile of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), non-NDL, and triglycerides (TG) in 1-year observation were analyzed. Results Improvements in bariatric parameters were observed in patients after LSG. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides and non-HDL levels decrease were observed along with the increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level. Conclusions Sleeve gastrectomy is an effective method of treating obesity and improving the lipid profile in obese patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: hypertriglyceridemia; dyslipidemia; evinacumab; ANGPTL3-inhibitors; lipid-lowering drugs
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:45:58 CEST)
Evinacumab, a human monoclonal antibody against angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), has recently been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an add-on therapy for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) in patients of 12 years and older. Its role as a triglyceride-lowering drug is also emerging in the literature. However, it has not been approved for this indication yet, neither in the adult nor in the pediatric population. We describe the case of a 10-year-old boy who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by chronic graft–versus–host disease (GVHD) and presented life-threatening refractory hypertriglyceridemia due to the concomitant use of ruxolitinib and sirolimus. After the failure of the insulin treatment and due to the technical impossibility of performing lipid apheresis, we underwent the child to evinacumab treatment, obtaining a dramatic rapid reduction in triglyceride and cholesterol levels. This is the first report of a pediatric patient younger than 12 years in Europa receiving evinacumab to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia. The therapy with angiopoietin-like proteins inhibitors has been effective, safe, and well-tolerated in our patient, suggesting that evinacumab may be used in the pediatric population when other therapeutic strategies are ineffective or contraindicated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Antioxidant; free radical stress; endothelial dysfunction; dyslipidemia; diet
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:20:52 CET)
There is evidence that behavioral risk factors such as western type diet, and life style can predispose to oxidative stress, deficiency in antioxidant status, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and increase in inflammation in tissues of various organs: beta cells of the pancreas, LDL receptors in the hepatocytes, endothelium, neurons, osteocytes and gut. Further studies indicate that diets rich in antioxidant flavonoids, omega-3 fatty acids and fiber in foods were inversely associated whereas western-type foods were positively associated with risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). One important cause for beneficial effects of diet may be certain foods and nutrients such as vegetables, fruits and whole grains that are rich in fiber and flavonoids, known to produce liters og molecular hydrogen in the gut. It seems that, high-fiber diets, prebiotic and probiotics can produce greater hydrogen, which acts as an antioxidant and may inhibit free radical generation. Recent studies indicate that molecular hydrogen can inhibit hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals and can directly act as antioxidant in the cells and tissues, which can cause marked decline in oxidative stress and inflammation leading to significant decline in CVDs and metabolic diseases. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that hydrogen therapy such as hydrogen rich water can provide benefits in the management of CVDs and metabolic diseases. Larger studies are necessary to verify the role of hydrogen administration in CVDs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0516.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; diabetes; hyperglycemia; dyslipidemia; cholesterol; triglycerides
Online: 30 September 2021 (14:01:44 CEST)
Diabetes is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Diabetes increases the risk of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active pulmonary TB and TB patients with diabetes are at greater risk of more severe disease and adverse TB treatment outcomes compared to TB patients without co-morbidities. Diabetes is a complex disease characterized not only by hyperglycemia but also various forms of dyslipidemia. However, the relative contribution of these underlying metabolic factors to increased susceptibility to TB are poorly understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge on epidemiology and clinical manifestation of TB and diabetes comorbidity. We subsequently dissect the relative contribution of body mass index, hyperglycemia, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides on TB disease severity and treatment outcomes. Lastly, we discuss the impact of selected glucose and cholesterol lowering treatments frequently used in the management of diabetes on TB treatment outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Dyslipidemia; Atrial Fibrillation; Geriatrics; High Blood Pressure; Polymedication; Polypill
Online: 13 February 2023 (07:21:50 CET)
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular prevention is less effective than expected due to the concern about polymedication of professionals and the lack of adherence of patients. Polypills are presented as a possible solution, increasing therapeutic adherence in the medium or long term and improving therapeutic results compared to the administration of drugs separately: they increase effectiveness and Adherence of patients to primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention programs, without increasing the cost of the intervention. OBJECTIVES: Study #Trigeria: to specify the combined prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation, Dyslipidemia and Hypertension and analyze the pharmacological prescription for these pathologies and the possible indications and advantages that would have the prescription of a polypill for these risk factors.METHODS: Observational analytical study on the pathological history in elderly institutionalized in nursing homes and analysis of prescribed oral medication.RESULTS: 169 people analyzed (79.3% women) from 4 nursing homes; 8.9% had a history of Atrial Fibrillation, Dyslipidemia and Arterial Hypertension; these had a higher prevalence of heart disease (42.9%) and Cerebral Vascular Accident (35.7%). Polymedication was present in 88.5%, with an average of 6.94 oral drugs prescribed; among those with the three pathological antecedents, the average number of oral medications was 8.60. Only 26.7% of those with all three factors were prescribed drugs to control them.DISCUSSION: There are high rates of polymedication in the sample and low rates of prescription of antiplatelet agents in people with Atrial Fibrillation (26.5%); the low prescription of statins and antihypertensives of the ACE inhibitor or ARB-II groups may be due to good control with non-pharmacological measures or by the use of other groups of drugs . A polypill holding the drugs that control the three factors studied could increase the prescription rate while simplifying the administration schedule and reducing polymedication by 23.25% improving prescription, increasing adherence and control of risk factors without increasing pharmaceutical expenditure.CONCLUSIONS: There is a low rate of prescription of antiplatelet agents among people with atrial fibrillation. Combination methods (polypills) can increase the suitability of prescriptions in people with polypathology, improving prescribing, simplifying administration and increasing adherence to pharmacological treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: dyslipidemia; fetal programing; lipid metabolism; NAFLD; persistent organic pollutants
Online: 3 September 2021 (13:56:53 CEST)
Animal studies have shown that developmental exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) permanently affect blood/liver balance of lipids. No human study has evaluated associations between in utero exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and later life lipid metabolism. In this pilot, maternal plasma levels of PBDEs (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180) were determined at delivery in participants of GESTation and Environment (GESTE) cohort. Total cholesterol (TCh), triglycerides (TG), low and high density lipoproteins (LDL-C and HDL-C), total lipids (TL), and PBDEs were determined in serum of 147 children at ages 6-7. General linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between maternal POPs and child lipid levels with adjustment for potential confounders, and adjustment for childhood POPs. In utero BDE-99 was associated with lower childhood levels of TG (p=0.003), and non-significantly with HDL-C (p=0.06) and TL (p=0.07). Maternal PCB-138 was associated with lower childhood levels of TG (p=0.04), LDL-C (p=0.04), and TL (p=0.02). Our data indicate that in-utero exposures to POPs may be associated with long-lasting decrease in circulating lipids in children, suggesting increased lipid accumulation in the liver, a mechanism involved in NAFLD development, consistent with previously reported animal data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1671.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: antioxidant; dyslipidemia; kidney; liver; ovary; radio imaging; senescence; testis; zebrafish
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:20:02 CET)
Ozonated sunflower oil (OSO) is renowned for its diverse therapeutic benefits. Nonetheless, the consequences of extended dietary intake of OSO have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Herein, the effect of 2-year dietary supplementation of OSO was examined on the zebrafish survivability, obesity, skeletal deformities, swimming behavior, and liver, kidney, ovary, and testis function. Results showed that the zebrafish feed supplemented with 20% (wt/wt) OSO for 2 years emerged with higher survivability and body weight management compared to sunflower oil (SO) and normal diet (ND) supplemented zebrafish. Radio imaging (X-ray) based analysis revealed 2.6o and 15.2o lower spinal curvature in the OSO-supplemented groups than in SO and ND-supplemented groups; consistently, OSO-supplemented zebrafish showed better swimming behavior. The histology analysis of the liver revealed a least fatty liver change and interleukin 6 (IL-6) generation in the OSO-supplemented group. Additionally, a significantly lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptotic, and senescent cells were observed in the liver of the OSO-supplemented zebrafish. Also, no adverse effect on the kidney, testis, and ovary morphology was detected during 2 years of OSO consumption. Moreover, lower senescence with diminished ROS and apoptosis was noticed in the kidney and ovary in response to OSO consumption. The OSO supplementation was found to be effective in countering age-associated dyslipidemia by alleviating total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C) and elevating high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C)/TC levels. Conclusively, prolonged OSO consumption showed no adverse effect on the morphology and functionality of vital organs; in fact, OSO supplementation displayed a protective effect against age-associated detrimental effects on spinal deformities, vital organ functionality, cell senescence, and survivability of zebrafish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1842.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Alsidium corallinum; polysaccharides; biological activities; hepatotoxicity; dyslipidemia; computa-tional analyzes
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:51:28 CEST)
Sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed are highly active natural substances having valuable applications. In the present paper, attempts have been made to discuss the physicochemical and structural features of polysaccharides isolated from red marine alga Alsidium corallinum (ACPs) and its protective effect in hepatic impairments induced by tebuconazole (TBZ) in rats. Structural features were determined using High performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared, and solid state 1H and 13C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. ACPs are found to be hetero-sulfated-anionic polysaccharides that contained carbohydrates, sulfate groups and uronic acids. In vitro biological activities suggested the effective antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities of ACPs. For antioxidant testing in vivo, the biochemical analysis and plasma profiles displayed that oral administration of ACPs could mitigate blood lipid indicators, including total cholesterol, triglyceride, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, bilirubin, liver function indexes involving alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, showed that ACPs possessed obvious antioxidant activities. Besides, the intervention of ACPs potentially inhibited lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, key enzymes of lipid metabolism (<0.001) and increased levels and antioxidant status (<0.05). Histomorphological observation confirmed that ACPs intervention could partially repair liver injuries caused by TBZ. The computational results showed that A. corallinum monosaccharides bound 1JIJ, 1HD2 and 1WL4 receptors with acceptable affinities, which together with deep embedding and molecular interactions support the antioxidant, antimicrobial and hypolipidemic outlined effects in the in vitro and in vivo findings. In view of their prominent antioxidant effects, ACPs stand for promising candidates in liver diseases and need be considered in pharmaceutical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: cholesterol; cross-sectional study; dyslipidemia; lipids; Mali; type 2 diabetes
Online: 28 January 2023 (01:29:07 CET)
Dyslipidemia is a disorder where abnormally lipid concentrations circulate in the bloodstream. The disorder is common in type 2 diabetics (T2D) and is linked with T2D comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia in T2D is typically characterized by elevated plasma triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding dyslipidemia in rural parts of Africa, where lipid profiles may not be routinely captured through standard surveillance activities. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and demographic profile of dyslipidemia in T2D patients in the rural community of Ganadougou, Mali. We performed a cross-sectional study of 104 subjects with T2D in Ganadougou between November 2021 and March 2022. Demographic and lipid profiles were collected through cross-sectional surveys and blood tests. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in T2D patients was 87.5% (91/104), which did not differ by sex (p = .368). High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was the most common lipid abnormality (78.9%, [82/104]). Dyslipidemia was associated with age and hypertension status (p = .013 and p = .036, respectively). High total and high LDL-C parameters were significantly associated with hypertension (p = .029 and p = .006, respectively). In low-resource settings such as rural Mali, there is a critical need to improve infrastructure for routine dyslipidemia screening to guide its prevention and intervention approaches. The high rates of dyslipidemia observed in Gandadougou, consistent with concomitant increases in cardiovascular diseases in Africa suggest that lipid profile assessments should be incorporated into routine medical care for T2D patients in African rural settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0716.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: insulin resistance; Alzheimer’s disease; ApoE4; dyslipidemia; ceramides; mitochondrial bioenergetics; cerebral cortex
Online: 12 September 2023 (14:19:04 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease worldwide. A large body of work implicates insulin resistance in the development and progression of AD such that AD may be a form of brain insulin resistance. Moreover, impairment in mitochondrial function, a common symptom of insulin resistance, now represents a fundamental aspect of AD pathobiology. Ceramides are a class of bioactive sphingolipids that have been hypothesized to drive insulin resistance. Here we describe preliminary work that tests the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia pathologically alters cerebral mitochondrial function in AD mice via accrual of the ceramides. Homozygous male and female ApoE4 mice were given chronic injections of PBS (control), insulin, myriocin (an inhibitor of ceramide biosynthesis), or insulin and myriocin over four weeks. Cerebral ceramide content was assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates were measured with high-resolution respirometry, and H2O2 emissions were quantified via biochemical assays on brain tissue from the cerebral cortex. Significant increases in brain ceramides and impairments in brain oxygen consumption were observed in the insulin-treated group. These hyperinsulinemia-induced impairments in mitochondrial function were reversed with the administration of myriocin. Altogether, these data demonstrate a causative role for insulin in promoting brain ceramide accrual and subsequent mitochondrial impairments that may be involved in AD expression and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: diabetes; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; lipoprotein subfraction; dyslipidemia; randomized controlled trial
Online: 27 October 2020 (20:37:15 CET)
Objectives To determine the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) from animal and plant sources on glucolipid metabolism and lipoprotein subfractions in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. Methods Participants were recruited from the diabetes clinic at the Guanlin Hospital, Yixing City in Jiangsu province, China, from March 2017 through June 2017. Ninety participants were randomly assigned to take 3g/day fish oil (FO, containing EPA and DHA), 3g/day perilla oil (PO, containing ALA), or 3g/day blend oil containing fish oil and linseed oil (BO, containing EPA, DHA and ALA) for 3 months. The levels of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-peptide, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), non-HDL, apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp(a)), and free fatty acids were determined at baseline and after the 3 months. In addition, four fatty acids in serum and red blood cells membranes (RBCm) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Lipoprint System was used to determine the lipoprotein subfractions. Results All 90 participants completed the final 3-month follow-up at the end of the study. After three months of intervention, blood glucose and HbA1c levels in the PO group were significantly lower than those at the baseline (p < 0.05). On the other hand, in the BO group, the HbA1c, non-HDL, Apo A1 and Lp(a) levels were significantly lower, while the C-peptide levels were significantly higher after intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In the FO group, the HbA1c and TG levels were significantly lower after the intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In addition, at the end of the study, there was significant increase in the levels of DPA and DHA in serum and RBCm of the FO group (p < 0.05), while in the BO group, there was significant increase in the levels of EPA, DPA and DHA in RBCm (p < 0.05). Finally, the FO group had the highest levels of large HDL subfractions compared to the BO and PO groups, but had the lowest levels of small HDL subfractions among the three groups. Conclusion For patients with diabetes, plant-derived ω-3 PUFAs are more effective at controlling blood glucose than animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs. However, animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs play a critical role in controlling blood lipids. Particularly, fish oil can effectively increase the beneficial large HDL subfractions and reduce the nonbeneficial small HDL subfractions. Both the animal- and plant-derived ω - 3 PUFAs have practical value in improving glucose and lipids metabolism in T2DM patients with dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1163.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: cardiovascular risk; diabetes; dyslipidemia; hypertension; insulin resistance; obesity; pain; paraplegia; physical activity; quadriplegia.
Online: 16 June 2023 (03:39:21 CEST)
Background: The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a challenge in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). We aimed at identifying clinical risk factors or early markers of MetS in SCI that would facilitate a timely diagnosis and implementation of preventive/therapeutic strategies. Methods: 168 patients with chronic (>1 year) SCI underwent clinical and biochemical evaluations. MetS was diagnosed according to modified criteria of the International Diabetes Federation validated in people with SCI. Results: MetS was diagnosed in 56 of 132 men (42.4%) and 17 of 36 women (47.2%). At univariate regression analyses, putative predictors of MetS were an older age, a higher number of comorbidities, a lower insulin-sensitivity, the presence and intensity of pain, a shorter injury duration, a poorer leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and an incomplete motor injury. At the multiple regression analysis, a significant independent association with MetS only persisted for a poorer LTPA in minutes/week (OR: 0.998, 95%CI: 0.996, 0.999) and more severe pain symptoms as assessed by numeral rating scale (OR: 1.353, 95%CI: 1.085, 1.793). Conclusions: In patients with SCI, intense pain symptoms and poor LTPA may suggest a high likelihood of MetS, regardless of age, SCI duration, motor disability degree, insu-lin-sensitivity and comorbidities.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1496.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: pemafibrate; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); Alanine Aminotransferase; M2-BPGi; dyslipidemia; liver fibrosis
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:02:35 CEST)
AIM Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), has been reported to ameliorate liver function among patients with dyslipidemia. However, there are not many reports of the clinical effects of the pemafibrate. This study aims to summarize the experience of using pemafibrate and analyze the effects on liver function in patients with dyslipidemia. METHODS One hundred twelve cases of hyperlipidemia receiving pemafibrate 0.2 mg/day were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Age, gender, BMI, complications, concomitant medications, serum parameters (TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, AST, ALT, γGTP, ALP, platelets, M2BPGi, Cre, eGFR, HbA1c, blood glucose level at any time) were investigated and evaluated. RESULTS Pemafibrate administration significantly improved serum TG and HDL-C, but not in LDL-C. Serum AST, ALT, γGTP, and ALP were also significantly improved. The fib-4 index, a liver fibrosis score, did not change significantly, but M2-BPGi, an index of fibrosis, decreased significantly. No correlation was observed between each lipid parameter and ALT, and ALT decreased independently of the lipid parameters. Conclusions As we expected, pemafibrate demonstrated a lipid-improving effect without adversely affecting hepatic and renal functions. An unexpected finding was the decrease in ALT that was independent of lipid parameters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1747.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: kidney transplantation; immunosuppression; adverse drug event; nephrotoxicity; NODAT; anemia; leukopenia; viral reactivation; hypertension; dyslipidemia
Online: 24 August 2023 (13:34:38 CEST)
Area covered: These drugs, particularly calcineurin inhibitors, have very narrow therapeutic windows, i.e., they have numerous drug-related side effects. Herein, we focus on the most frequent immunosuppressive drug-related side effects that we encounter in kidney-transplant recipients: namely nephrotoxicity, post-transplant diabetes mellitus, leukopenia, anemia, dyslipidemia, mouth ulcers, hypertension, and viral reactivations (cytomegalovirus and BK virus). However, other therapies that are used after kidney transplantation, e.g., valcancyclovir, may also contribute to adverse events such as leukopenia. For each side-effect, we suggest how it can be prevented and how to treat it when present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: ozonated sunflower oil, OSO; antioxidant; dyslipidemia; high-cholesterol diet, HCD; zebrafish; zebrafish embryo; carboxymethyllysine, CML
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:42:45 CEST)
Ozonated sunflower oil (OSO) is well known functional oil with its antioxidant, antimi-crobial, anti-allergic, and skin-moisturizing properties. However, studies on the effects of OSO on high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced metabolic disorders have been scarce. In the current study, we aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of OSO on lipid me-tabolism in adult hypercholesterolemic zebrafish and its embryo. Microinjection of OSO (final 2%, 10 nL) into zebrafish embryos under presence of carboxymethyllysine (CML, 500 ng) protected acute embryo death upto 61% survival, while sunflower oil (final 2%) showed much less protection around 42% survival. The microinjection of OSO was more effective than SO to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis in the CML induced embryo toxicity. Intraperitoneal injection of OSO under presence of CML protected acute death from CML-induced neurotoxicity with improved hepatic inflamma-tion, less detection of ROS and interleukin (IL)-6, and lowering blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG), while SO-injected group did not protect the CML-toxicity. Long-term supplementation of OSO (final 20%, wt/wt) with HCD for 6 months resulted higher sur-vivability than HCD alone group or HCD+SO group (final 20%, wt/wt) with significant lowering of plasma TC and TG levels. The HCD+OSO group showed the least hepatic in-flammation, fatty liver change, ROS, and IL-6 production. In conclusion, short-term treat-ment of OSO by injection exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against acute neuro-toxicity of CML in zebrafish and its embryo. Long-term supplementation of OSO in diet also revealed the highest survivability and blood lipid-lowering effect through potent an-ti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0947.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: alternative mRNA splicing; amino acids; inflammation; dyslipidemia; macrophages; NAFLD; NASH; regulatory T cells; vascular endothelial cells
Online: 17 October 2023 (03:30:33 CEST)
Calpain is delineated as a superfamily of cysteine proteases containing a CysPC motif within their genes. Among the fifteen species of mammalian homologs, calpain-1 and -2, which are categorized as conventional isozymes, execute limited proteolysis in a calcium-dependent fashion. Accordingly, the calpain system participates in physiological and pathological phenomena, encompassing cell migration, apoptosis, skeletal muscle integrity, and synaptic plasticity. The dysregulation of the calpain system has been inextricably linked to a multitude of diseases, such as ischemic and degenerative diseases, rendering it a subject of profound interest in the fields of basic research and pharmaceutical development aimed at therapeutic interventions. Recent investigations have unveiled the contributions of both conventional and unconventional calpains to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hepatic diseases. Consequently, the present review accentuates the pivotal role of calpains in the complications of cardiometabolic diseases and embarks upon a discourse regarding calpains as molecular targets.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cordyceps militaris; crude polysaccharides; selenium-rich crude polysaccharides; high-fat diet (HFD); obesity; dyslipidemia; hypertriglyceridemia; gut microbiota
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:26:45 CET)
Administration of crude polysaccharides extract from natural product is a promising gut microbiota-targeted approach to preventing obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Dietary restrictions can change the type and number of gut bacteria, which is an important factor in delaying the onset and burden of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high-yield crude polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris (CMP) on high-fat diet (HFD) mice model and the gut microbiota community assembly, and to identify whether selenium (Se) addition would improve CMP action mode during cultivation. We found that the CMP treatment ameliorated adipose and liver pathologic morphology and fat accumulation in obese mice, while, SeCMP intervention was not superior than CMP in body mass gain, but notably decreasing serum triglyceride level increased by HFD. The upregulated expression of gene Cyp7a1 in liver and protein UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) preliminary indicated that the effect might relate to bile acids (BAs) metabolism pathway and thermogenesis. In addition, CMP showed a drastic decrease in the gut microbes which positively correlated with dyslipidemia parameters. Our result reveals the potential of CMP to be used as functional food in the prevention of diet-induced adipose and liver steatosis, so does SeCMP has outstanding capacity of improving dyslipidemia.