REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0590.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: epigenetic mechanisms; learning process; memory formation; cognitive decline; intergenerational epigenetic inheritance; transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, AD
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:37:15 CEST)
During the last years, epigenetic processes have emerged as important factors for many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). These complex diseases seem to have a heritable component; however, genome-wide association studies failed to identify the genetic loci involved in the eatiology. So, how can these changes be transmitted from one gen-eration to the next? Answering this question would allow us to understand how the environ-ment can affect human populations for multiple generations and explain the high prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD. This review pays particular attention to the relationship among epigenetics, cognition, and neurodegeneration across generations, deepening the under-standing of the relevance of heritability in neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, we highlight some recent examples of EI induced by experiences, focusing on their contribution of processes in learning and memory, to point out new targets for therapeutic interventions. Here, we first describe the prominent role of epigenetic factors in memory processing. Then, we briefly discuss aspects of EI. And ends, we summarize evidence of how epigenetic marks inherited by experi-ence and/or environmental stimuli contribute to cognitive status offspring, since better knowledge of EI can provide clues in the appearance and development of age-related cognitive decline and AD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: diabetes; epigenetic inheritance; functional foods.; transgenerational
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:53:35 CEST)
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a growing global health problem that requires new and effective prevention and management strategies. Recent research has highlighted the role of epigenetic changes in the development and progression of T2D, and the potential of functional foods as complementary therapy for the disease. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the preventive epigenetic mechanisms of functional foods in T2D. We provide background information on T2D and its current treatment approaches, an explanation of the concept of epigenetics, and an overview of the different functional foods with demonstrated preventive epigenetic effects in T2D. We also discuss the epigenetic mechanisms by which these functional foods prevent or manage T2D and the studies that have investigated their preventive epigenetic effects. In addition, we revisit works on the beneficial influence of functional foods against the programming and complications of parentally-triggered offspring diabetes. We also postulate, albeit based on the scarce data, that epigenetic inheritance mechanistically mediates the impacts of functional nutrition against the metabolic risk of diabetes in the offspring. Finally, our review highlights the importance of considering the preventive epigenetic mechanisms of functional foods as a potential avenue for the development of new prevention and management strategies for T2D.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Dual numbers; hyper-dual numbers; dual quaternions; Fibonacci numbers; hyper-dual Horadam quaternions
Online: 17 March 2021 (11:02:31 CET)
This paper deals with developing a new class of quaternions, called hyper-dual Horadam quaternions which are constructed from the quaternions whose components are hyper-dual Horadam numbers. We investigate the algebraic properties of these quaternions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0084.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: philosophy of emotion; science of emotion; meta-semantic pluralism; embodied cognition; mind; mind-body problem; perception; cognition; emotion; cultural evolution; dual-inheritance theory; evolutionary norm psychology
Online: 6 July 2022 (03:55:00 CEST)
In this paper, I give readers an idea of what some scholars are interested in, what I found interesting, and what may be of future interest in the philosophy of emotion. I begin with a brief overview of the general topics of interests in the philosophy of emotion. I then discuss what I believe to be some of the most interesting topics in the contemporary discourse, including questions about how philosophy can inform the science of emotion, conceptions of the mind and the mind-body problem, concerns about perception, cognition, and emotion, along with questions about the place of 4E approaches and meta-semantic pluralist approaches in the embodied cognitive tradition. Finally, I discuss the emerging field of cultural evolution, the import of a dual-inheritance theory in this emerging field, and I propose a possible way to integrate the frameworks of dual-inheritance theory and meta-semantic pluralism to demonstrate at least one way in which the philosophy of emotion can contribute to the emerging field of cultural evolution.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Frames; Orthogonal frames; Canonical dual; Alternate dual
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:57:52 CEST)
Frames are more stable as compared to bases under the action of a bounded linear operator. Sums of different frames under the action of a bounded linear operator are studied with the help of analysis, synthesis and frame operators. A simple construction of frames from the existing ones under the action of such an operator is presented here. It is shown that a frame can be added to its alternate dual frames, yielding a new frame. It is also shown that the sum of a pair of orthogonal frames is a frame. This provides an easy construction of a frame where the frame bounds can be computed easily. Moreover, for a pair of orthogonal frames, the necessary and sufficient condition is presented for their alternate dual frames to be orthogonal. This allows for an easy construction of a large number of new frames.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0546.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: motor activity; orienting exploratory activity; epigenetic inheritance; conception; rats
Online: 30 January 2023 (07:53:43 CET)
The aim of this work was to study the, so far, unexplored possibility that non-genetic inheritance of animal behavioral characteristics could depend on the state of the parents at the time of conception, by studying inheritance of high and low motor and exploratory activity in the first generation of rats. In this study, we measured the levels of motor and exploratory activity in rats at the ages of 2 and 5 months. Male and female rats were mated at the age of 5 months. The following groups were used: male and female rats with high motor activity at ages of 2 and 5 months (ACT+); male and female rats with high activity at the age of 2 months, but low activity at the age of 5 months (ACT–); male and female rats with low activity at the ages of 2 and 5 months (PAS–); male and female rats with low activity at the age of 2 months, but high activity at the age of 5 months (PAS+). Significant differences in the severity of exploratory activity were found between the offspring of ACT+ and ACT– rats. Moreover, these differences were observed only in males, and not in females. Differences between the offspring of PAS+ and PAS– rats were observed in both the male and female rats. The motor activity of animals in the period from 20 minutes after the start of registration did not differ between groups. Thus, it can be considered that individual characteristics of general motor activity are due to genetically inherited factors, while differences in the level of exploratory activity, apparently, are formed due to non-genetic influences from parents during mating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cognitive decline; epigenetics; HFD; aging; SAM0P8; m6A, multigenerational inheritance.
Online: 4 December 2020 (14:54:58 CET)
Environmental factors as maternal high-fat diet (HFD) intake can increase the risk of age-related cognitive decline in adult offspring. The epigenetic mechanisms are a possible link between diet effect and neurodegeneration across generations. Here, we found a significant decrease in triglyceride levels in a high-fat diet with resveratrol HFD+RV group and the offspring. Firstly, we obtained better cognitive performance in HFD+RV groups and their offspring. Molecularly, a significant increase in 5-mC levels, as well as increased gene expression of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a in HFD+RV F1 group, were found. Furthermore, a significantly increased of m6A levels in HFD+RV F1 were found, and there were changes in gene expression of its enzymes (Mettl3 and Fto). Moreover, we found a decrease in gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory markers such as Il1-β, Il-6, Tnf-α, Cxcl-10, Mcp-1 and Tgf-β1 in HFD+RV and HFD+RV F1 groups. Moreover, there was increased gene expression of neurotrophins such as Ngf and Nt3 and its receptors TrkA and TrkB. Likewise, an increase in protein levels of BDNF and p-Akt in HFD+RV F1 was found. These results suggest that maternal RV supplementation under HFD intake prevents cognitive decline in SAMP8 adult offspring, promoting a reduction in triglycerides and leptin plasma levels, changes in the pro-inflammatory profile, restoring the epigenetic landscape as well as synaptic plasticity.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mindfulness; cognitive control; dual mode mechanisms; dual mode control
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:26:55 CET)
Recent years have seen a massive increase in research on mindfulness as both a therapeutic practice as well as a protective health factor. While many associations have been made between mindfulness and clinical outcomes, understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes is still in its infancy. In this review, associations between mindfulness and other established frameworks in cognitive control are explored—in particular the dual modes of control framework in cognitive control theory. Studies in mindfulness providing evidence towards a dual-mode mindfulness model are reviewed and compared with the proactive and reactive modes of cognitive control to identify common underlying principles. Studies involving cognitive testing, advanced neuroimaging, and neurotransmitter levels and their associations with proactive and reactive control are reviewed in the context of the dual modes of mindfulness. While evidence supporting relationships between proactive and reactive modes of mindfulness and cognitive control are preliminary, existing literature on mindfulness already supports the notion of two components of mindfulness and is in line with the hypothesis that cognitive control and mindfulness are closely related. Since preliminary evidence suggests that proactive forms of mindfulness are more associated with improvement in clinical outcomes, mindfulness programs could be modified to target proactive mindfulness practices to maximize outcomes. The implications of proactive and reactive mindfulness on therapy, limitations of the framework, and necessity of studies providing direct evidence are further discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: B chromosome; karyotype variation; inheritance pattern; crossing experiment; interspecific hybridization; flatworms
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:52:37 CET)
B chromosomes (Bs) or supernumerary chromosomes are extra chromosomes in the species karyotype that can vary in their copy number. Bs are widespread. Usually, the Bs of specimens collected from natural populations are involved in studies. We applied another approach analyzing the Bs in animals of laboratory cultures. In this study, three species of the Macrostomum genus that underwent a recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) were involved. In laboratory lines of M. lignano and M. janickei, the frequency of Bs was less than 1%, while in the laboratory culture of M. mirumnovem, it was nearer 30%. Their number in specimens of the culture varied from 1 to 14. Mosaicism on Bs was discovered in parts of these animals. We analyzed the distribution of Bs among the worms of the laboratory cultures during long-term cultivation, the transmission rates of Bs in the progeny obtained from crosses of worms with different numbers of Bs, and from self-fertilized isolated worms. The DNA content of the Bs in M. mirumnovem was analyzed with the chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization of microdissected DNA probes derived from A chromosomes (As). Bs mainly consisted of repetitive DNA. The cytogenetic analysis also revealed the divergence and high variation in large metacentric chromosomes (LMs) containing numerous regions enriched for repeats. The possible mechanisms of the appearance and evolution of Bs and LMs in species of the Macrostomum genus were also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0689.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Meme; memetic; culture; propagation; equilibrium; inheritance; extinction; resistance; evolution; natural selection; Fermi Paradox
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:24:54 CET)
Background: The term meme includes vertical trait transmission and laterally transmitted ideas that can be lasting or transient. Memes may sometimes follow the logic of population genetics, e.g. learned birdsong, but not when laterally transmitted. Much current work focuses on selection of memes rather than hosts. This paper investigates mathematically the interaction of behaviorally transmitted traits with host selection fitness. Methods: We analyze equilibrium between gene-meme and meme-meme competing propagators and consider whether a meme is linked to reproduction (e.g. vertical culture transmission), or not. We employ a genetic component and combined meme-induced fitness components for hosts, while memes have replication factors to distinguish from what’s good for the host (fitness). We use a Monte Carlo simulation roughly calibrated to the Industrial Revolution to study meme effects on population stability. Results: A basic effective calculus of memetic trait competition and interaction with genes is derived and analyzed. The transient nature of many lateral memes may be a defense against accumulation of deleterious memes. Laterally transmitted (panmictic) memes with high spreading rate will often not equalize with a genetic trait, spreading outside of natural selection of the hosts, presenting a cumulative existential threat. Vertical transmission reduces replication rate and allows group selection against deleterious memes. Competing mutually exclusive memes contribute to inequality and altruism, but compete through adverse fitness since exclusivity assumes low conversion. Conclusions: The advantage of a portfolio of groups or species may not accrue to a single group. This understanding elevates meme-risk to the level of a candidate solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Vehicle; Dual-rate control; Dual-rate EKF; MPC; LPV model
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:28:07 CET)
In this contribution, different lane-keeping control strategies for Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) have been analyzed and compared. The AGV must be oriented and kept within a given reference path using the front wheel steering angle as the control action for a specific longitudinal velocity. While non-linear models can describe the lateral dynamics of the vehicle in an accurate manner, they might lead to difficulties when computing some real-time control laws such as Model Predictive Control (MPC). Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) models can provide a trade-off between computational complexity and model accuracy. Another way to reduce computational complexity is to explore other control strategies, for example, the one based on the Inverse Kinematic Bicycle model (IKIBI). Additionally, AGV sensors typically work at different measurement acquisition frequencies so that Kalman Filters (KF) are usually needed for sensor fusion. If these frequencies are slower than the actuation rate, a multi-rate KF may be needed. The two control strategies (MPC using a LPV model and IKIBI) have been compared in simulations over a circuit path in the presence of process and measurement Gaussian noise. The MPC controller has shown to provide a more accurate lane-keeping behavior than an IKIBI control strategy. Finally, it has been seen that Dual-Rate Extended Kalman Filters (DREKF) constitute an essential tool when only slow and noisy sensor feedback is available in an AGV lane-keeping application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0197.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: radar; dual-polarization; precipitation
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:07:26 CEST)
The modern era of polarimetric radar begins with radiowave propagation research starting in the early 1970s with applications to measurement and modeling of wave attenuation in rain and depolarization due to ice particles along satellite-earth links. While there is a rich history of radar in meteorology after World War II, the impetus provided by radiowave propagation requirements lead to high quality antennas and feeds. Our journey starts by describing the key institutions and personnel responsible for development of weather radar polarimetry. The early period was dominated by circularly polarized radars for propagation research and at S-band for hail detection. By the mid-to late 70s, a paradigm shift occurred which led to the dominance of linear polarizations with applications to slant path attenuation prediction as well as estimation of rain rates and inferences of precipitation physics. The period from early 1980s to 1995 can be considered as the “golden” period of rapid research that brought in meteorologists, cloud physicists and hydrologists. This article describes the evolution of this technology from the vantage point of the authors. Their personal reflections and “behind the scenes” descriptions offer a glimpse into the inner workings at several key institutions which cannot be found elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0262.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: linear programming; dual simplex method; dual direct cosine method; two-phase method
Online: 22 November 2019 (10:06:37 CET)
The goal of this paper is to propose a dual version of the direct cosine simplex algorithm (DDCA) for general linear problems. Unlike the two-phase and the big-M methods, our technique does not involve artificial variables. Our technique solves the dual Klee-Minty problem in two iterations and solves the dual Clausen’s problem in four iterations. The utility of the proposed method is evident from the extensive computational results on test problems adapted from NETLIB. Preliminary results indicate that this dual direct cosine simplex algorithm (DDCA) reduces the number of iterations of two-phase method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0172.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Fibonacci numbers; Lucas numbers; dual hyperbolic numbers; dual hyperbolic Fibonacci numbers; Cassini identity
Online: 16 October 2019 (04:19:15 CEST)
In this paper, we introduce the generalized dual hyperbolic Fibonacci numbers. As special cases, we deal with dual hyperbolic Fibonacci and dual hyperbolic Lucas numbers. We present Binet's formulas, generating functions and the summation formulas for these numbers. Moreover, we give Catalan's, Cassini's, d'Ocagne's, Gelin-Cesàro's, Melham's identities and present matrices related with these sequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cognitive decline, Epigenetics, Epigenetic inheritance, Methylation, Nrf2, NF-kβ, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, resveratrol, SAMP8
Online: 11 February 2019 (08:56:08 CET)
A variety of environmental factors contribute significantly to age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Nutrition can alter epigenetics, improving health outcomes, which transmitted across generations; this process is called epigenetic inheritance. We investigate the beneficial effects of maternal resveratrol supplementation in offspring. We feed females SAMP8 with resveratrol-enriched diet during two months prior to mating. Direct exposed F1 generation and the transgenerational F2 generation were investigated. Object novel recognition and Morris water maze demonstrated improvements in cognition in the 6-month-old F1 and F2 generations from resveratrol fed mothers. A significant increase in global DNA methylation with a decrease in hydroxymethylation in F1 and F2 were found. Accordingly, Dnmt3a/b and Tet2 gene expression changed. Methylation levels of Nrf2 and NF-kβ genes promoters raised in offspring, inducing changes in target genes expression, as well as hydrogen peroxide levels. Offspring resulted from resveratrol fed mother showed increase AMPKα activation, mTOR inhibition and an increase in Pgc-1α gene expression and Beclin-1 protein levels. Endoplasmic reticulum stress sensors were found changed both in F1 and F2 generations. Overall, our results demonstrated that maternal resveratrol supplementation could prevent cognitive impairment in the SAMP8 mice offspring through epigenetic changes and cell signaling pathways.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: metasurface; Pancharatnam-Berry phase; dual-functionality
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:30:30 CEST)
Based on the principle of Pancharatnam-Berry phase, we propose an approach to construct dual-functional dielectric metasurface doublets. This type of doublet, which is composed of a substrate and two metasurface layers, performs two different functionalities at two different operating wavelengths. The simulated results of the examples show that the designed dual-functional doublet works well as expected. The proposed approach can be used to design dielectric meta-structures with more layers of meta-surface and thereby with more functionalities, and would be of interest for miniaturization and integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: high-frequency ultrasound transducer; intravascular ultrasound; tissue harmonic imaging; dual-frequency IVUS transducer; dual-element IVUS transducer
Online: 14 June 2018 (11:46:44 CEST)
The superharmonic imaging of tissue has the potential for high spatial and contrast resolutions, compared to the fundamental and second harmonic imaging. For this technique, the spectral bandwidth of an ultrasound transducer is divided for transmission of ultrasound and reception of its superharmonics (i.e., higher than the second harmonic). Due to the spectral division for the transmission and reception, transmitted ultrasound energy is not sufficient to induce superharmonics in media without using contrast agents, and it is difficult that a transducer has a -6-dB fractional bandwidth of higher than 100%. For the superharmonic imaging of tissue, thus, multi-frequency array transducers are the best choice if available; transmit and receive elements are separate and have different center frequencies. However, the construction of a multi-frequency transducer for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is particularly demanding because of its small size of less than 1 mm. Here, we report a recently developed dual-element focused IVUS transducer for the third harmonic imaging of tissue, which consists of a 35-MHz element for ultrasound transmission and a 105-MHz element for third harmonic reception. For high quality third harmonic imaging, both elements were fabricated to have the same focus at 2.5 mm. The results of tissue mimicking phantom tests demonstrated that the third harmonic images produced by the developed transducer had higher spatial resolution and deeper imaging depth than the fundamental images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extended evolutionary synthesis; inheritance of acquired characters; stress-induced mutagenesis; fitness-dependent sex; horizontal gene transfer
Online: 25 July 2019 (08:24:32 CEST)
Here, I introduce a concept called autonomous selection to refer to a source of selection that is part of the individuals upon which it acts. The concept is motivated by a set of phenomena with the following characteristics: Natural selection shaped a variant (e.g., gene, epigenetic mark, or combination thereof) to act in a manner that reduces the frequency of one or more heritable traits of the individual in which it is located if those traits are detrimental to individual or group fitness. Phenomena with these characteristics are peculiar to traditional evolutionary theory but have been identified rather frequently in recent decades. They are also relevant to adaptive evolution: By reducing the frequency of a trait detrimental to fitness, the variant accelerates the evolution of adaptations, which allows its holders to adapt better to constantly changing environments. The variant is shaped by (natural) selection, but also does (autonomous) selection. Several phenomena with these characteristics have been invoked by proponents of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). The concept of autonomous selection helps resolve some of the controversy surrounding the EES: EES proponents call attention to the incompleteness of contemporary theory, emphasizing individuals’ processes that influence which adaptations those individuals evolve. I argue for the special importance of individuals’ processes that do not just influence those individuals’ adaptations, but also accelerate the adaptive evolution of those individuals. All known phenomena that fit this description are examples of autonomous selection. Other phenomena raised by EES proponents do not meet this threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: JNK; Drosophila; dual specificity phosphatase; gene expression
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:25:45 CEST)
For developmental processes we know most of the gene networks controlling specific cell responses. We still have to determine how these networks cooperate and how signals become integrated. The JNK pathway is one of the key elements modulating cellular responses during development. Yet, we still know little on how the core components of the pathway interact with additional regulators or how this network modulates cellular responses in the whole organism in homeostasis or during tissue morphogenesis. We have performed a promoter analysis searching for potential regulatory sequences of puc and identified different specific enhancers directing gene expression in different tissues and at different developmental times. Remarkably, some of these domains respond to the JNK activity, but not all. Altogether, these analyses show that puc expression regulation is very complex and that JNK activities participate in non-previously known processes during the development of Drosophila.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biosecurity; Dual-use; Plasmids; Sequencing; Science Policy
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:07:24 CET)
Recombinant laboratory plasmids (RLPs) are common in biological research and freely shared among academic research laboratories (ARLs), a practice required by many research funding agencies. However, the generation of accurate, reproducible results in experiments utilizing RLPs can be hampered by a lack of accompanying sequence information and metadata. This culture of RLP sharing without knowledge of sequence or etiology is accepted by publishers, not regulated by governments, and outside the realm of bio-industry. In addition, no centralized infrastructure currently exists to collate such data, which at the moment is fragmented across companies, non-profits, and governments and thus is not easily accessed or enacted toward threat assessment. The ubiquity, free exchange, and dual-use risk of RLPs exemplifies a biosecurity threat and elevates the need to characterize their composition to facilitate improved biorisk management by the academic community. A number of common sense solutions are available to create a culture that addresses the biosecurity gap posed by RLP sharing. Culture shift in RLP management will require new norms, effective data management for collation of RLP sequences and metadata, and an incentive structure that encourages sequencing by stakeholders. The next generation of researchers must initiate and champion this shift with support from funding agencies and endorsement from governments and international organizations. Coordination of efforts and stakeholders will require international public/private collaboration, a structure that will be critical to ensure widespread utility as well as the ability of lower-resourced partners to participate, contribute, and benefit.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: dual anti platelet therapy; acute coronary syndrome; stents
Online: 12 February 2018 (05:13:18 CET)
Percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) with stenting for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome(ACS) is the contemporary standard of care. Such treatment is followed by Dual anti-platelet therapy(DAPT) comprising of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The efficacy of this therapy has been well established but the optimal duration of DAPT remains elusive, and has thus far attracted a prodigious deal of scientific attention. Decision regarding DAPT duration can be challenging clinically in the modern era with the evolution of newer stents, more potent antiplatelet agents and novel anticoagulant drugs in addition to an older patient population with multiple comorbidities. Major societal guidelines have emphasized comprehensive assessment of ischemic and bleeding risk, in turn recommending individualization of DAPT duration, thus encouraging "shared decision making". The following review is aimed at critically evaluating the available evidence to help make these crucial clinical decisions regarding duration of DAPT and triple therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1868.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Plasmonic magnetoliposomes; Dual hyperthermia; Bovine lactoferrin; Cytotoxicity; Biological activity
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:40:34 CEST)
Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a milk-derived protein that exhibits multiple biological activities and has been explored towards different therapeutic applications. Since this molecule is susceptible to degradation and some of its properties depend on its tertiary structure, the encapsulation of bLf in stimuli-responsive therapeutic formulations provides an added value to potentiate its biological activities when administered. Plasmonic magnetoliposomes emerge as promising nanosystems for dual hyperthermia (magneto-photothermia) and local therapy, since the combination of magnetic and gold nanoparticles (NPs) in a single nanosystem (multifunctional liposomes) enables the targeting and controlled release of encapsulated drugs. In this work, plasmonic magnetoliposomes (PMLs) containing manganese ferrite nanoparticles (28 nm size) and gold nanoparticles (~ 5 nm size) functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid or octadecanethiol, were synthesized and loaded with bLf. The structural, magnetic and optical properties of the nanoparticles were measured by TEM, SQUID and UV/vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy. Specific Absorption Rate was determined to assess the capabilities for magnetic and photothermal hyperthermia. Finally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as an eukaryotic cellular model to assess the biological activity and the mechanism of entry of bLf-loaded PMLs, through counting of colony forming units and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The results demonstrate that PMLs are mainly internalized through an energy- and temperature-dependent endocytic process, though the contribution of a diffusion component cannot be discarded. Most notably, only bLf-loaded PMLs exhibit cytotoxicity with an efficiency similar to free bLf, attesting their promising potential for bLf delivery in the context of therapeutic interventions.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0246.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: graphics; dual-quaternion; visualization; fractals; geometry; graphical processing unit
Online: 12 April 2023 (06:04:14 CEST)
Fractals offer the ability to generate fascinating geometric shapes with all sorts of unique characteristics (for instance, fractal geometry provides a basis for modelling infinite detail found in nature). While fractals are non-euclidean mathematical objects which possess an assortment of properties (e.g., attractivity and symmetry), they are also able to be scaled down, rotated, skewed and replicated in embedded contexts. Hence, many different types of fractals have come into limelight since their origin discovery. One particularly popular method for generating fractal geometry is using Julia sets. Julia sets provide a straightforward and innovative method for generating fractal geometry using an iterative computational modelling algorithm. In this paper, we present a method that combines Julia sets with dual-quaternion algebra. Dual-quaternions are an alluring principal with a whole range interesting mathematical possibilities. Extending fractal Julia sets to encompass dual-quaternions algebra provides us with a novel visualize solution. We explain the method of fractals using the dual-quaternions in combination with Julia sets. Our prototype implementation demonstrate an efficient methods for rendering fractal geometry using dual-quaternion Julia sets based upon an uncomplicated ray tracing algorithm. We show a number of different experimental isosurface examples to demonstrate the viability of our approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dancing; dual-task; older adults; qualitative study; Zumba; cognition
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:10:45 CEST)
Despite the popularity of Zumba in several countries, research is scarce about its impact on older adults. Meanwhile, the integration of cognitive tasks with physical exercises, known as dual-tasking, is an evolving strategy to facilitate activities for older people. This study investigated the perceptions of older adults regarding Zumba and the potential of implementing it in a dual-task program. We conducted a qualitative-descriptive research involving 44 Filipino older adults from August to November 2020. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. Four themes were identified: moving towards match or mismatch; balancing benefits with burdens; dual-tasking as innovative yet potentially challenging; and overcoming barriers with enablers. While Zumba is an inclusive and beneficial activity, individual and contextual limitations could hinder its suitability for older people. Dual-tasking in Zumba was also recognized as an innovative approach, although challenges should be addressed to promote its utility. Several strategies could support the design of these programs in communities. This is the first study to explore older adults’ perceptions towards Zumba and its potential utilization as a dual-tasking program. Findings could guide the implementation of appropriate Zumba and dual-tasking activities that seek to integrate cognitive and physical training for older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0525.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: HIV-RT; ribonuclease H; dual inhibitors; docking; putative binding
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:51:40 CET)
Current therapeutic protocols for the treatment of HIV infection consist of the combination of diverse anti-retroviral drugs in order to reduce the selection of resistant mutants and to allow for the use of lower doses of each single agent to reduce toxicity. However, avoiding drugs interactions and patient compliance are issues not fully accomplished so far. In this respect the identification of single agents with multitarget potential might represent the ideal solution. Accordingly, a small library of biphenylhydrazo 4-arylthiazoles derivatives has been synthesised and evaluated to investigate the ability of the new derivatives to simultaneously inhibit both associated functions of HIV reverse transcriptase. All compounds were active towards the two functions, although at different concentrations. The substitution pattern on the biphenyl moiety appears relevant to determine the activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0110.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blaschke frame; evolute of the dual spherical curve; singularity
Online: 4 December 2020 (12:49:09 CET)
In this paper, we study singularities of the spherical indicatrix and evolute of spacelike ruled surface with spacelike ruling. Finally, we give an example to illustrate our results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: self-harm; dual harm; violence; childhood adversity; substance misuse
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:47:07 CET)
The etiology of ‘dual harm’ (the co-occurrence of self-harm and externalized violence in the same individual) is under-researched. Risk factors have mostly been investigated for each behavior separately. We aimed to examine adversities experienced between birth and age 15 years among adolescents and young adults with histories of self-harm and violent criminality, with a specific focus on dual harm. Three nested case-control studies were delineated using national interlinked Danish registers; 58,409 cases in total aged 15-35 were identified: 28,956 with a history of violent criminality (but not self-harm), 25,826 with a history of self-harm (but not violent criminality), and 3987 with dual harm history. Each case was matched by date of birth and gender to 20 controls who had not engaged in either behavior. We estimated exposure prevalence for cases vs. controls for each of the three behavior groups, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Experiencing 5 or more childhood adversities was more prevalent among individuals with dual harm history (19.3%; 95% CI 18.0, 20.8%) versus self-harm (10.9%; 10.5, 11.3%) and violence (11.4%; 11.0%, 11.8%) histories. The highest IRRs for dual harm were linked with parental unemployment (5.15; 95% CI 4.71, 5.64), parental hospitalization following self-harm (4.91; 4.40, 5.48) or assault (5.90; 5.07, 6.86), and parental violent criminality (6.11; 5.57, 6.70). Growing up in environments that are characterized by poverty, violence and substance misuse, and experiencing multiple adversities in childhood, appear to be especially strongly linked with elevated dual harm risk. These novel findings indicate potential etiologic pathways to dual harm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: BLDC; Dual Rotor; Magnetic Equivalent circuit; Operation mode; TRV
Online: 12 November 2020 (12:03:57 CET)
In this paper, the design process of BLDC adopting the dual rotor method that can reduce the overall size of the motor while generating the same torque as the conventional Permanent Magnet BLDC is analyzed. A simple size is selected by obtaining the torque per rotor volume (TRV), and a method of matching the counter electromotive force by selecting the pole arc of the magnet through a magnetic equivalent circuit is analyzed. Since the efficiency is low because the 120-degree commutation method is selected, the middle stator is optimized through detailed design through the experimental design method. Afterwards, it has the advantage of being able to shift without stopping due to the characteristic of a dual rotor. For this, an analysis of the driving characteristics for each mode is performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0258.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: single nanowires; silicon; dual shells; off-resonance; absorption; photocurrent
Online: 31 August 2020 (08:30:22 CEST)
Single nanowires (NWs) are of great importance for optoelectronic applications, especially solar cells serving as powering nanoscale devices. However, weak off-resonant absorption can limit its light-harvesting capability. Here, we propose a single NW coated with the graded-index dual shells (DSNW). We demonstrate that with appropriate thickness and refractive index of the inner shell, the DSNW exhibits significantly enhanced light trapping compared with the bare NW (BNW), and the NW only coated with the outer shell (OSNW) and the inner shell (ISNW), which can be attributed to the optimal off-resonant absorption mode profiles due to the improved coupling between the reemitted light of the transition modes of the leak mode resonances of the Si core and the nanofocusing light from the dual shells with the graded refractive index. We found that the light absorption can be engineered via tuning the thickness and the refractive index of the inner shell, the photocurrent density is significantly enhanced by 134% (56%, 12%) in comparison with that of the BNW (OSNW, ISNW). This work advances our understanding of how to improve off-resonant absorption by applying graded dual-shell design and provides a new choice for designing high-efficiency single NW photovoltaic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; dual output inverter; rapid control prototype
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:27:36 CEST)
This paper presents a configuration of dual output single phase current source inverter with 6 switches for microgrid applications. The inverter is capable of delivering power to two independent set of loads of equal voltages or different voltages at the load end. The control strategy is based on Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC). The remote monitoring of the inverter is performed with cyber infrastructure. The cyber physical test bench is developed based on Reconfigurable I/O processor (NI MyRIO-1900) for control and monitoring of the inverter. The inverter prototype is tested in cyber physical test bench in laboratory conditions. The performance of the inverter is analyzed and monitored through the remote system. Also, the inverter is analyzed with different voltage conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: wireless sensor network; object tracking; dual sink; data collection
Online: 26 May 2017 (04:58:00 CEST)
Continuous object tracking in WSNs, such as monitoring of mud-rock flows, forest fires etc., is a challenging task due to characteristic nature of continuous objects. They can appear randomly in the network field, move continuously, and can change in size and shape. Monitoring such objects in real-time generally require tremendous amount of messaging between sensor nodes to synergistically estimate object’s movement and track its location. In this paper, we propose a novel twofold-sink mechanism, comprising of a mobile and a static sink node. Both sink nodes gather information about boundary sensor nodes, which is then used to uniformly distribute energy consumption across all network nodes, thus helping in saving residual energy of network nodes. Numerous object tracking schemes, using mobile sink, have been proposed in the literature. However, existing schemes employing mobile sink cannot be applied to track continuous objects, because of momentous variation of network topology. Therefore, we present in this paper a mechanism, transformed from K-means algorithm, to find the best sensing location of the mobile sink node. It helps to reduce transmission load on the intermediate network nodes situated between static sink node and the ordinary network sensing nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can distinctly improve life time of the network, compared to one-sink protocol employed in continuous object tracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; dense breasts; dual-modality imaging; FFDM; ABUS
Online: 14 March 2017 (09:24:58 CET)
Although mammography has been the gold standard for early detection of breast cancer, if a woman has dense breast tissue, a false negative diagnosis may occur. Breast ultrasound, whether hand-held or automated, is a useful adjunct to mammography but adds extra time and cost. The primary aim was to demonstrate that our second-generation Aceso system, which combines full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) in a single platform, is able to produce improved quality images that provide clinically meaningful results. Aceso was first tested using two industry standards: a CDMAM phantom to assess the FFDM images; and the CIRS 054GS phantom to evaluate the ABUS images. In addition, 25 women participated in a clinical trial: 14 were healthy volunteers while 11 were patients referred by the breast clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital. The CDMAM phantom results showed the FFDM results were better than EUREF’s standard of “acceptable” and were approaching “achievable”. The ABUS results showed lateral and axial spatial resolution of 0.5 mm and adequate depth penetration of 80 mm. Our second-generation Aceso system, with its improved quality of clinical FFDM and ABUS images, has demonstrated its potential for early detection of breast cancer in a busy clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Dual-energy computed tomography; gout; tendon; foot; monosodium urate deposits
Online: 2 June 2023 (14:58:10 CEST)
Objective: To evaluate two different DECT postprocessing protocols for detection of MSU deposits in foot tendons of cadavers with verification by polarizing light microscopy as gold standard.Material and Methods: A total of 40 embalmed cadavers (15 male; 25 female; median age, 82 years; mean, 80 years; range, 52 - 99; SD ± 10.9) underwent DECT to assess MSU deposits in foot tendons.Two postprocessing DECT protocols with different Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds 150/500 (=established) versus 120/500 (= modified) HU were applied to dual source acquisition with 80 kV for tube A and 140 kV for tube B.Six fresh cadavers (4 male; 2 female; median age, 78; mean, 78,5; range 61 - 95 ) were examined by DECT. Tendon dissection of 2/6 fresh cadavers with positive DECT 120 and negative DECT 150 studies were used to verify MSU deposits by polarizing light microscopy.Results: The tibialis anterior tendon was found positive in 57.5%/100% (DECT 150/120), peroneus tendon in 35%/100%, achilles tendon in 25%/90%, flexor halluces longus tendon in 10%/100%, and tibialis posterior tendon in 12.5%/97.5%. DECT 120 resulted in increased tendon MSU deposit detection, when DECT 150 was negative, with an overall agreement between DECT 150 and DECT 120 of 80 % (P = 0.013). Polarizing light microscope confirmed MSU deposits detected only by DECT 120 in tibialis anterior, achilles, flexor halluces longus and peroneal tendons.Conclusion: The DECT 120 protocol showed a higher sensitivity when compared to DECT 150.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1225.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: dual-step release; berberine hydrochloride; hybrid; electrospinning; nanofibers; electrospraying; microparticle
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:17:55 CEST)
In this nano era, nanomaterials and nanostructures are popular in developing novel functional materials. However, the combinations of nanoproducts with materials at micro and macro scale can open new routes for conceiving novel materials with an improved or even new functional performances. In this study, a brand-new hybrid, containing both nanofibers and particles having a microsize, was fabricated using a sequential electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) process. Firstly, the microparticles loaded with drug (berberine hydrochloride, BH) molecules in the cellulose acetate (CA) were fabricated using a solution electrospraying process. Later, these microparticles were suspended into a co-dissolved solution containned BH and a hydrophilic polymer (polypyrrolidone, PVP), and were co-electrospun into the nanofiber/microparticle hybrids. The EHDA processes were clearly recorded, and the resultant products showed a typical hybrid topography, with microparticles distributed all over the nanofibers, which was demonstrated by SEM assessments. FTIR and XRD demonstrated that the components within the hybrids were presented in an amorphous state and have fine compatibility with each other. In vitro dissolution tests verified that the hybrids were able to provide the designed dula-step drug release profiles, a combination of the fast release step of BH from the hydrophilic PVP nanofibers through an erosion mechanism and the sustained release step of BH from the insoluble CA microparticles via a typical Fickian diffusion mechanism. The present protocols pave a new way for developing trans-scale functional materials.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: dipole antenna; dual-polarized; low-profile; wideband artificial magnetic conductor
Online: 30 April 2023 (02:18:14 CEST)
A low-profile broadband dual-polarized antenna is investigated for base station applications. It consists of two orthogonal dipoles, fork-shaped feeding lines, an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), and parasitic strips. By utilizing the dispersion Brillouin diagram, the AMC is designed as the antenna reflector. It has a wide in-phase reflection bandwidth of 54.7% (1.54-2.70 GHz) and a surface wave bound range of 0-2.65 GHz. This design effectively reduces the antenna profile by over 50% compared to traditional antennas without an AMC. For demonstration, a prototype is fabricated for 2G/3G/LTE base station applications. Good agreement between simulations and measurements is observed. The measured -10-dB impedance bandwidth of our antenna is 55.4% (1.58 –2.79 GHz), with a stable gain of 9.5 dBi and high isolation of more than 30 dB across the impedance passband. As a result, this antenna is an excellent candidate for miniaturized base station antenna applications.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: hiPSC; Differentiation; Neurons; Disease Modeling; dual SMAD inhibition; NGN2 overexpression
Online: 14 April 2023 (05:02:28 CEST)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have two characteristic abilities 1) self-renewal and 2) differentiation into all cell types in the human body. It is this ability of iPSCs to differentiate into any desired cell type that makes them amenable to disease modeling. iPSCs can further be engineered to carry a disease-specific mutation or be derived from patients to phenocopy the disease. To model neurodegenerative/neurodevelopmental disorders iPSCs are differentiated into neurons. This chapter describes protocols for two different approaches to generate neurons from iPSCs, first using dual SMAD inhibition to generate neural progenitor cells which are then differentiated into neurons, and second using single transcription factor (NGN2) over-expression to drive differentiation of iPSCs directly into neurons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: new energy vehicles; “dual carbon” targets; evolutionary games; government subsidies
Online: 5 April 2023 (10:15:18 CEST)
To promote low-carbon and green travel, this study proposes a tripartite evolutionary game model among new energy vehicle manufacturers, consumers, and government agencies. The game strategy combinations of each party and the stability conditions of the equilibrium point in the evolutionary game system are analyzed, and the validity of the conclusions is verified through simulation results. The study shows a strong correlation between the three parties in the evolutionary game system. From the perspective of car manufacturers, the probability of producing new energy vehicles is positively proportional to the subsidy received from new energy policy, the additional revenue gained from the management of the carbon trading scheme, and the fine received for producing conventional fuel vehicles. However, from the consumer perspective, the likelihood that consumers purchase new energy vehicles is positively related to the utility value to consumers and the coverage of public charging points in the city, and inversely related to the sales price of new energy vehicles. From the government perspective, a combination of direct subsidy policies and indirect support strategies should be considered to stimulate the rapid development of the new energy vehicle industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0006.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Financial distress; Dual system banking; Loan Loss Provission; forecasting; econometrics
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:19:41 CET)
Nowadays, many Muslim-majority countries have implemented a dual banking system, namely the sharia and conventional systems. The development of Islamic banks is to fulfill the Muslims' need for the existence of halal transactions in financial institutions. However, in some countries, it turns out that conventional banks still dominate the country's economy. Because of that, it is necessary to see whether there are differences in financial risk and Earnings management between Islamic and conventional banks. The samples are conventional and Islamic banks in Southeast Asia, analyzed by the purposive sampling method from 2010-2019. The analytical tool used is the statistical difference test and economometrics analysis using generalized least square (GLS) regression with panel data (time series and cross-sectional data). These models are intended to forecasting the macroeconomics effects in applying dual banking system in one country or region. The results using non parametrics means difference test showed that the first hypothesis is accepted It means that Earnings management in conventional banks is greater than in Islamic banks. The Random Model Effect (REM) for second and third hypotheses testing on Conventional banks shows the Bankruptcy Risk and NPL do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). While fixed effect model testing on Islamic banks, the second and third hypothesis testing is rejected. Therefor Islamic Banks the value of Bankruptcy Risk (z-score) and the value of Non-Performing Loans (NPL) do not affect Earnings management. It also means that hypothesis 2 and 3 are rejected both in conventional as well as Islamic Banking. Sensitivity analysis for conventional as well as Islamic banking altogether using fixed effect model shows that the second and third hypotheses show that the independent variables (Bankruptcy Risk and NPL) do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). These results can be concluded that Islamic bank are enganged in less earnings management. Therefor in the the long run there are still more research that should conduct in comparing dual banking system in one region.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Ewing sarcoma; Prostate adenocarcinoma; Cauda equina syndrome; Dual primary malignancy.
Online: 23 November 2022 (07:47:52 CET)
Introduction: A dual malignancy with both Ewing Sarcoma and Prostate Adenocarcinoma has not been reported in the English literature. We report a case of simultaneous diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma and prostate adenocarcinoma with profound clinical manifestation. Case presentation: A 53-year-old male with advanced metastatic prostate cancer (Gleason-9) admitted with classical presentation of cauda equina syndrome including incontinence, back pain, and paresis following bilateral nephrostomy insertion for the treatment of bilateral renal hy-dronephrosis. The patient was diagnosed with an epidural abscess at the level of L5-S1 and an emergency surgical spine decompression was performed. No abscess was found, and pathology results showed a concomitant primary Ewing sarcoma in the spine. Conclusions: Very rare occurrences of a dual primary malignancy, in this case, Ewing sarcoma and prostate adenocarcinoma, should be kept in mind in patients suffering from complex clinical course of malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0084.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: in silico repositioning; dual inhibitor; Covid-19; 3CLpro; PLpro; remdesivir
Online: 7 April 2020 (10:44:11 CEST)
Aims: In late December 2019, early reports predicted the onset of a potential Coronavirus outbreak in china, given the estimate of a reproduction number for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). Because of high ability of transmission and widespread prevalence, the mortality of COVID-19 infection is growing fast worldwide. Absent of an anti-COVID-19 has put scientists on the urge to repurpose already approved therapeutics or to find new active compounds against coronavirus. Here in this study, a set of computational approaches were performed in order to repurpose antivirals for dual inhibition of the frontier proteases involved in virus replication, papain-like protease (PLpro; corresponding to nsp3) and a main protease (Mpro), 3C‑like protease (3CLpro; corresponding to nsp5). Materials and Methods: In this regard, a rational virtual screening procedure including exhaustive docking techniques was performed for a database of 160 antiviral agents over 3CLpro and PLpro active sites of SARS-CoV-2. The compounds binding energies and interaction modes over 3CLpro and PLpro active sites were analyzed and ranked with the aid of free Gibbs binding energy. The most potent compounds, based on our filtering process, are then proposed as dual inhibitors of SARSC-CoV-2 proteases. Key findings: Accordingly, seven antiviral agents including two FDA approved (Nelfinavir, Valaganciclovir) and five investigational compounds (Merimepodib, Inarigivir, Remdesivir, Taribavirine and TAS106-106) are proposed as potential dual inhibitors of the enzymes necessary for RNA replication in which Remdesivir as well as Inagrivir have the highest binding affinity for both of the active sites. Significance: The mentioned drug proposed to inhibit both PLpro and 3CLpro enzymes with the aim of finding dual inhibitors of SARSC-CoV-2 proteases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0129.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: UAV image; dual-channel; dynamic programming; seam-line; optical flow
Online: 15 January 2018 (18:04:46 CET)
Dislocation is one of the major challenges in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) image stitching. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic programming for seamlessly stitching UAV images using optical flow. Our solution consists of two steps: Firstly, an image-matching algorithm is used to correct the images so that they are in the same coordinate system. Secondly, a new dynamic programming algorithm is develop based on the concept of a stereo dual-channel energy accumulation using optical flow. A new energy aggregation and traversal strategy is adopted in our solution, which can find a more optimal seam line for adjacent image stitching. Our algorithm overcomes the theoretical limitation of the classical Duplaquet algorithm. Experiments show that the algorithm can effectively solve the dislocation problem in UAV image stitching. Beyond that, our solution is also direction-independent, which has more adaptability and robustness for UAV images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0010.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: millimeter-wavelength cloud radar; attenuation correction; dual-radar; data fusion
Online: 1 November 2016 (10:05:18 CET)
In order to correct attenuated millimeter-wavelength (Ka-band) radar data and address the problem of instability, an attenuation correction methodology (attenuation correction with variation trend constraint; VTC) was developed. Using synchronous observation conditions and multi-band radars, the VTC method adopts the variation trends of reflectivity in X-band radar data captured with wavelet transform as a constraint to adjust reflectivity factors of millimeter-wavelength radar. The correction was evaluated by comparing reflectivities obtained by millimeter-wavelength cloud radar and X-band weather radar. Experiments showed that attenuation was a major contributory factor in the different reflectivities of the two radars when relatively intense echoes exist, and the attenuation correction developed in this study significantly improved data quality for millimeter-wavelength radar. Reflectivity differences between the two radars were reduced and reflectivity correlations were enhanced. Errors caused by attenuation were eliminated, while variation details in the reflectivity factors were retained. The VTC method is superior to the bin-by-bin method in terms of correction amplitude and can be used for attenuation correction of shorter wavelength radar assisted by longer wavelength radar data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: insecticide-treated nets (ITN); pyrethroid; mosquito; strain characterisation; insecticide resistance; method development; durability monitoring; product evaluation; quality control (QC); dual active ingredients (dual-AI); bioefficacy
Online: 25 March 2022 (14:12:38 CET)
Durability monitoring of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing a pyrethroid in combination with a second active ingredient (AI) must be adapted so that the insecticidal bioefficacy of each AI can be monitored independently. An effective way to do this is to measure rapid knock down of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of mosquitoes to assess the bioefficacy of the pyrethroid component and to use a pyrethroid-resistant strain to measure the bioefficacy of the second ingredient. To allow robust comparison of results across tests within and between test facilities, and over time, protocols for bioefficacy testing must include either characterisation of the resistant strain, standardisation of the mosquitoes used for bioassays, or a combination of the two. Through a series of virtual meetings, key stakeholders and practitioners explored different approaches to achieving these goals. Via an iterative process we decided on the preferred approach and produced a protocol consisting of characterising mosquitoes used for bioefficacy testing before and after a round of bioassays, for example at each time point in a durability monitoring study. We present the final protocol and justify our approach to establishing a standard methodology for durability monitoring of ITNs containing pyrethroid and a second AI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0532.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: lung nodule segmentation; 3D segmentation; dual-encoder-based CNN; hard attention
Online: 28 December 2022 (09:03:49 CET)
Measuring pulmonary nodules accurately can help with early diagnosis of lung cancer, which can improve a patient’s chances of survival. Many methods for segmenting nodules have been developed, but they all rely on input from radiologists in the form of a 3D volume of interest (VOI) or use a constant region of interest (ROI) and only consider the presence of nodule within the given VOI. These approaches limit the networks’ ability to detect nodules outside the given VOI and can also include unnecessary structures in the VOI, leading to potentially inaccurate segmentation. In this work, we propose a novel approach for 3D lung nodule segmentation by using 2D region of interest (ROI) inputted from radiologist or computer-aided detection (CADe) system. Particularly, we design a dual-encoder-based hard attention network (DEHA-Net) which incorporates the full slice of thoracic computed tomography scan along with the ROI mask to produce an accurate segmentation mask of lung nodule in the given slice. The proposed architecture exploits the adaptive region of interest (A-ROI) algorithm to automatically investigates the penetration of lung nodule into surrounding slices while eliminating the need to drawing separate ROIs in each slice. Further, the framework performs the multi-view analysis, i.e., in sagittal and coronal views, to improve the segmentation performance. The proposed scheme has been rigorously evaluated on the lung image database consortium and image database resource initiative (LIDC/IDRI) dataset and an extensive analysis of results have been performed. The quantitative analysis shows that the proposed method not only improves the existing state-of-the-art in term of dice score but also, significantly robust against the different types, shape and dimensions of lung nodules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wilkinson power divider; RFID; dual port feeder; port distance; circular polarization
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:48:32 CEST)
In this paper a microstrip Wilkinson power divider with a 90° phase delay at one output port is proposed to obtain circular polarization to feed a dual port RFID antenna. The 90° phase delay was obtained by embedding an extra quarter wavelength at one port of the Wilkinson power divider. The feeding circuit is then mounted on the ground plane of the microstrip antenna feeding the radiating patch directly through the ground plane and dielectric layer thus reducing any fringing effect and resulting a mechanically compact unit. The proposed feeding method offers better expectation of antenna performance with minimal attenuation and coupling losses. The design process generalizes geometric pa- rameters of the Wilkinson power divider for variable port distances. The paper considers both UK and US RFID center frequencies, 870 MHz and 915 MHz respectively. Numeri- cally computed values for geometric design parameters for both frequencies are tabled as future design tools for port distances varying from 18 mm up to 34 mm at 870 MHz and 17 mm up to 32 mm at 915 MHz. Simulation results indicate a return loss (S11) of -20 dB and -26 dB at 870 MHz and 915 MHz operational frequencies respectively at 270° angled quarter wavelength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; dual-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3d printing
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:33:03 CEST)
The kinetics and modeling of dual-wavelength controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC) are presented and measured data are analyzed by analytic formulas and numerical data. The UV-light initiated inhibition effect is strongly monomer-dependent and different monomers have different C=C bond rate constants and conversion efficacy. Without the UV-light, for a given blue-light intensity, higher initiator concentration (C10) and rate constant (k’) lead to higher conversion, as also predicted by analytic formulas, in which the total conversion rate (RT) is an increasing function of k’R, which is proportional to k[gB1C1]0.5. However, the coupling factor b1 plays a different role that higher b1 leads to higher conversion only in the transient regime; whereas higher b1 leads lower steady-state conversion. For a fixed initiator concentration C10, higher inhibitor concentration (C20) leads to lower conversion due to stronger inhibition effect. However, same conversion reduction was found for the same H-factor of H0 = [b1C10 - b2C20]. Conversion of blue-only are much higher than that of UV-only and UV-blue combined, in which high C20 results a strong reduction of blue-only-conversion, such that the UV-light serves as the turn-off (trigger) mechanism for the purpose of spatial confirmation within the overlap area of UV and blue light. For example, UV-light controlled methacrylate conversion of a glycidyl dimethacrylate resin formulated with a tertiary amine co-initiator, and butyl nitrite, subject to a continuous exposure of a blue light, but an on-off exposure of a UV-light. Finally, we developed a theoretical new finding for the criterion of a good material/candidate governed by a double ratio of light-intensity and concentration, [I20C20.]/[I10C10].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: dual-channel sensor; efficient capture; lung cancer biomarker; lung cancer screening
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:37:13 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cancer killer worldwide. Early diagnosis can effectively increase the patient cure rate but existing diagnostic methods limit early lung cancer diagnosis. Therefore, development of a simple but efficient lung cancer screening method is important to improvement of both the diagnosis rate and the survival rate of lung cancer patients. In this study, ten photosensitive materials with high sensitivity and high specificity were screened accurately to construct a microarray sensor that can rapidly identify six types of lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath. Results from hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and difference maps showed that the classification of the analytes agreed with structure similarity laws. The detection results from parallel experiments and structurally similar analytes, in turn, cluster into a group; the fingerprints of the different analytes have specific response regions. The well-screened sensor chip fabrication workload and cost were both reduced by approximately two thirds, while the microfluidic device sensitivity and stability increased by approximately 1.3 times their corresponding values before optimization. The dual-channel device also offers real-time contrast detection and synchronous parallel detection functions and has potential application prospects for use in extensive screening of high-risk populations for lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0307.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: environmental regulation; water resource utilization performance; dual effects; two-step system GMM
Online: 13 April 2023 (07:49:02 CEST)
Environmental regulation has dual effects on water resource utilization performance through various channels such as the "three red lines" and the "Porter hypothesis". Based on the detailed analysis of the impact path of environmental regulation on water resource utilization performance, the two-step system GMM method was adopted to test the dual effects of environmental regulation on water resource utilization performance by using panel data of 30 provinces and cities from 2004 to 2020. The results show that: (1) Environmental regulation has a significant direct impact on water resource utilization performance, and is currently in the stage of positive relationship of an inverted u-shaped relationship. (2) Environmental regulation has a significant indirect impact on water resource utilization Environmental regulation has dual effects on water resource utilization performance through various channels such as the "three-red lines" and the "Porter hypothesis". In accordance with a detailed examination of the influence path of environmental regulation on the performance of water resource utilization, the double effects of environmental regulation on water resource utilization performance were examined using panel statistics from 30 provinces and cities from 2004 to 2020 using the two-step system GMM approach. The results demonstrate that: (1) Environmental regulation has a direct effect on water resource utilization performance which is currently in the stage of the positive relationship of an inverted u-shaped relationship. (2) The influence of environmental regulation on water resource utilization performance through government intervention and industrial structure adjustment is indirect, among which government intervention can significantly improve water resource utilization performance, while the growth of the tertiary industry as a percentage can lower water resource utilization performance. (3) Both direct and indirect impacts indicate that enhancing the efficiency of the use of water resources is sustainable, and the water resource utilization performance of the preceding period had a major positive impact over the present phase. Therefore, the paper sets out a few policy suggestions, such as choosing reasonable environmental regulation tools, actively guiding the market-oriented reform with constraints, and upgrading the industrial structure in a green way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0221.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: hCA IX and XII; dual inhibitors; molecular modeling studies; in vitro assays
Online: 11 July 2020 (02:30:03 CEST)
The tumour-associated isoenzymes, hCA IX and hCA XII catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. These isoforms are highly overexpressed in many types of cancer, where they contribute for the acidification of the tumor environment promoting the tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In this work, in order to identify novel dual hCA IX and XII inhibitors, virtual screening techniques and biological assays were combined. A structure based virtual screening towards hCA IX and XII was performed using a database of approximately 26000 natural compounds. The best shared hits were submitted to a thermodynamic analysis and 3 promising best hits were identified and evaluated in terms of their hCA IX and XII inhibitor activity. In vitro biological assays are in line with the theoretical studies and revealed that Syringin, Lithospermic acid, and (-)- Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol behave as good hCA IX and hCA XII dual inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0116.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Horadam number; Horadam polynomial; complex number; hyperbolic number; dual number; hybrid number
Online: 12 January 2020 (13:29:43 CET)
The hybrid numbers are a generalization of complex, hyperbolic and dual numbers. In this paper, we introduce the Horadam hybrid polynomials called Horadam hybrinomials. We also give some special cases and algebraic properties of the Horadam hybrinomials. Finally we obtain some applications related to the Horadam hybrinomials in matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0321.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lithium-ion battery; safety; separator; coaxial electrospinning; dual-nozzle; core-shell nanofiber
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:00:49 CEST)
Though the energy density of lithium-ion batteries continues to increase, safety issues related with the internal short-circuit and the resulting combustion of highly flammable electrolyte impede the further development of lithium-ion batteries. It has been well-accepted that a thermal stable separator is important to postpone the entire battery short-circuit and thermal-runaway. Traditional methods to improve the thermal stability of separators includes surface modification and/or developing alternate material systems for separators which may always affect the battery performance negatively. Herein, a thermostable and shrink-free separator with little compromise in battery performance is prepared by coaxial electrospinning and tested. The separator consists of core-shell fiber networks where poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) layer serves as shell and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the core. This core-shell fiber network exhibits little or even no shrinking/melting at elevated temperature over 250 °C. Meanwhile, it shows excellent electrolyte wettability and can take large amount of liquid electrolyte three times more than that of conventional Celgard 2400 separator. In addition, the half-cell using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as cathode and the aforementioned electrospun core-shell fiber network as separator demonstrates superior electrochemical behavior, stably cycling for 200 cycles at 1 C with a reversible capacity of 130 mAh g-1 and little capacity decay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mitochondria; Eclipsed protein targeting; Yeast model system; TDH1; TDH2; Dual protein tar-geting
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:57:13 CEST)
Dual localization or dual targeting refers to the phenomenon by which identical, or almost identical, proteins are localized to two (or more) separate compartments of the cell. From previous work in the field, we had estimated that a third of the mitochondrial proteome is dual targeted to extra-mitochondrial locations and suggested that this abundant dual targeting presents an evolutionary advantage. Here we set out to study how many additional proteins whose main activity is outside mitochondria are also localized, albeit at low levels, to mitochondria (eclipsed). To do this we employed two complementary approaches utilizing the α-complementation assay in yeast to uncover the extent of such eclipsed distribution: one systematic and unbiased and the other based on Mitochondrial Targeting Signal (MTS) predictions. Using these approaches, we suggest 280 new eclipsed distributed protein candidates. Interestingly, these proteins are enriched for distinctive properties compared to their exclusively mitochondrial-targeted counterparts. We focus on one unexpected eclipsed protein-family of the Triose-phosphate DeHydrogenases (TDH), and prove that indeed their eclipsed distribution in mitochondria is important for mitochondrial activity. Our work provides a paradigm of deliberate eclipsed mitochondrial localization, targeting and function, and should expand our understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: dual-task; Trail-Walking Test; gait disorder; diagnosis; motor-cognitive interference; Parkinson's disease
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:57:20 CEST)
Background and Aims. Most research on Parkinson's disease (PD) focuses on describing symp-toms and movement characteristics. Studies rarely focus on the early detection of PD and the search for suitable markers of a prodromal stage. Early detection is important, so treatments that may potentially change the course of the disease can be attempted early on. While gait disturb-ances are less pronounced in the early stages of the disease, the prevalence, and severity increase with disease progression. Therefore, postural instability and gait difficulties could be identified as sensitive biomarkers. The aim was to evaluate the discriminatory power of the Trail-Walking Test (Schott, 2015) as a potential diagnostic instrument to improve the predictive power of the clinical evaluation concerning the severity of the disease and record the different aspects of walking. Methods. 20 older healthy (M = 72.4 years, SD = 5.53) adults and 46 older adults with PD and the motor phenotypes postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD; M = 69.7 years, SD = 8.68) and tremor dominant (TD; M = 68.2 years, SD = 8.94) participated in the study. The participants performed a motor-cognitive dual task (DT) of increasing cognitive difficulty in which they had to walk a given path (condition 1), walk to numbers in ascending order (condition 2), and walk to numbers and letters alternately and in ascending order (condition 3). Results. With an increase in the cognitive load, the time to complete the tasks (seconds) become longer in all groups, F(1.23, 73.5) = 121, p < .001, ɳ2p = .670. PD-PIGD shows the longest times in all conditions of the TWT, F(2, 60) = 8.15, p < .001, ɳ2p = .214. Mutual interferences in the cognitive and motor domain can be observed. How-ever, clear group-specific patterns cannot be identified. A differentiation between the motor phenotypes of PD is especially feasible with the purely motor condition (TWT-M; AUC = . 685, p = 0.44). Conclusions. PD patients with PIGD must be identified by valid, well-evaluated clinical tests that allow a precise assessment of the disease's individual fall risk, the severity of the dis-ease, and the prognosis of progression. The TWT covers various aspects of mobility, examines the relationship between cognitive functions and walking, and enables differentiation of the motor phenotypes of PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: broadband; circular polarization; CubeSat; dual band; high-gain antenna; polarizer; reflectarray; satellite communications
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:18:48 CEST)
This paper presents two designs of high-efficiency polarizer reflectarray antennas able to generate a collimated beam in dual-circular polarization using a linearly polarized feed, with application to high-gain antennas for data transmission links from a Cubesat. First, an 18 cm x 18 cm polarizer reflectarray operating in the 17.2 - 22.7 GHz band has been designed, fabricated and tested. The measurements of the prototype show an aperture efficiency of 52.7% for right-handed circular polarization (RHCP) and 57.3% for left-handed circular polarization (LHCP), both values higher than those previously reported in related works. Then, a dual-band polarizer reflectarray is presented for the first time, which operates in dual-CP in the frequency bands of 20 and 30 GHz. The proposed antenna technology enables a reduction of the complexity and cost of the feed chain to operate in dual-CP, as a linear-to-circular polarizer is no longer required. This property, combined with the lightweight, flat profile and low fabrication cost of printed reflectarrays, makes the proposed antennas good candidates for Cubesat applications.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser welding; Dual phase steel; Similar/dissimilar welded joints; Microhardness; Tensile properties; Fatigue
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:49:00 CET)
The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and the mechanical properties of la-ser-welded joints combined of DP800 and DP1000 high strength thin steel sheets. The welded joints (WJ) comprised of similar/dissimilar steels with similar/dissimilar thickness were consisted of different zones and exhibited similar microstructural characteristics. The trend of microhard-ness for all WJs was consistent, characterized of the highest value at hardening zone (HZ) and lowest at softening zone (SZ). The degree of softening was more severe and the size of SZ was wider in the WJ combinations of DP1000 than DP800. The tensile test fractures were located at the base material (BM) for all DP800 weldments, while the fractures occurred at the fusion zone (FZ) for the weldments with DP1000 and those with dissimilar sheet thicknesses. The DP800-DP1000 weldment presented similar yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values but lower elongation (EI) in comparison with the DP800-DP800 weldment, which showed similar strength properties as the BM of DP800. However, the EI of DP1000-DP1000 weldment was much lower in comparison with the BM of DP1000. The DP800-DP1000 weldment with dissimilar thicknesses showed the highest YS and UTS values compared with the other weldments, but with the lowest EI. The fatigue fractures occurred at the WJ for all types of weldments. The DP800-DP800 weldment had the highest fatigue limit and DP800-DP1000 with dissimilar thick-nesses had the lowest fatigue limit. The fatigue crack initiated from the weld surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: positive deviance; dual-method use; contraception; unintended pregnancy; sexually transmitted infection; HIV/AIDS
Online: 5 July 2020 (07:04:27 CEST)
Dual-method use is the most reliable form of protection against unintended pregnancies and HIV/STIs. Although dual-method use remains uncommon among women in stable relationships, some women do practice it. In this study, we explored the barriers that make dual-method use rare and the behaviors of women who practice dual-method use using a positive deviance framework in Uganda. We screened 150 women using highly effective contraceptives at five health facilities. We identified nine women who practiced dual-method use and 141 women who did not. In a qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews with all nine women practicing dual-method use and 10 women randomly selected out of the 141 who did not. We performed a thematic analysis using the positive deviance framework. Regardless of practicing dual-method use or not, women faced perceived barriers against dual-method use, such as partner’s objection, distrust, shyness about introducing condoms into marital relationships, and limited access to condoms. However, women practicing dual-method use had higher levels of risk perception about unintended pregnancies and HIV/STIs. They also engaged in unique behaviors, such as influencing their partners’ condom use by initiating discussions, educating their partners on sexual risks and condom use, and obtaining condoms by themselves. These findings will be useful in developing effective community-led and peer-based interventions promoting dual-method use to reduce the dual burden of unintended pregnancies and HIV/STIs among women in Uganda.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: dual-scale SiCp/A356 composites; hot deformation behavior; microstructure; constitutive equation; processing map
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:39:24 CEST)
Hot deformation at elevated temperature is essential to densify the particle reinforced Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) and improve their performance. However, hot deformation behavior of the AMCs is sensitive to the variation of hot processing parameters. In this paper, optimal processing parameters of the dual-scale SiCp/A356 composites was determined to explore the control strategy of the microstructure. Hot compression tests were conducted at the temperature ranging from 460 to 520℃ under strain rates from 0.01 to 5 s−1. Constitutive equation and processing maps were presented to determine the hot processing parameters. Microstructure evolution of the dual-scale SiCp/A356 composites was analyzed. The strain rate of 0.62 ~ 5s-1 and deformation temperature of 495 ~ 518℃ is suitable for the hot processing. The number of DRX grains in the “safe” domains is larger and the dislocation density is lower compared to those of instability domains. DRX particles mainly occurred around SiC particles. The presence of SiC particles can promote effectively the DRX nucleation, which result in that the dynamic softening mechanism of the dual-scale SiCp/A356 composites is dominated DRX.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0013.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: organic permeable dual-base transistors; vertical channel; logic circuits; threshold voltage; TCAD simulation
Online: 2 May 2020 (13:29:45 CEST)
Vertical-channel organic dual-gate/base transistors would be highly interesting since vertical organic transistors are the fastest organic transistors demonstrated today. However, incorporating a dual gate/base structure into an ultra-short channel vertical architecture represents a substantial challenge. Here, we successfully realize a new device concept of vertical organic permeable dual-base transistors (OPDBTs), where either of both base electrodes can be used to change the on-currents and tune the threshold voltages. The optimized devices yield a high on-current density of 1.54 A cm-2 and a large current gain of 9.2×105, corresponding to a high transmission value of 99.998%. The detailed operation mechanisms are investigated by calibrated TCAD simulations with the Poole-Frenkel mobility model, Gaussian density of states and tunneling model. Finally, high-performance logic circuits, e.g. inverter, NAND/AND computation functions are demonstrated with one single OPDBT operating at supply voltages of < 2.0 V. We believe that OPDBTs offer a compact and technologically simple hardware platform with excellent application potential for vertical-channel organic transistors in complex logic circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0201.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lithium ion battery; safety; flame retardant; separator; electrospun fibers; dual-nozzle coaxial electrospinning
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:19:49 CEST)
Lithium-ion batteries have attracted enormous interests recently as promising power sources. However, the safety issue associated with the employment of highly flammable liquid electrolyte impedes the further development of next-generation lithium-ion batteries. Recently, researchers reported the use of electrospun core-shell fiber as the battery separator consisting of polymer layer as protective shell and flame retardants loaded inside as core. In case of a typical battery shorting, the protective polymer shell melts during thermal-runaway and the flame retardants inside would be released to suppress the combustion of the electrolyte. Due to the use of a single precursor solution for electrospinning containing both polymer and flame retardants, the weight ratio of flame retardants is limited and dependent. Herein, we developed a dual-nozzle, coaxial electrospinning approach to fabricate the core-shell nanofiber with a greatly enhanced flame retardants weight percentage in the final fibers. The weight ratio of flame retardants of triphenyl phosphate in the final composite reaches over 60 wt.%. The LiFePO4-based cell using this composite nanofiber as battery separator exhibits excellent flame-retardant property without compromising the cycling stability or rate performances. In addition, this functional nanofiber can also be coated onto commercial separators instead of being used directly as separators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0568.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: conformal field theory; ground states; dual nets; U(1)-current algebra; Virasoro algebra
Online: 30 July 2018 (08:29:10 CEST)
We construct families of ground state representations of the U(1)-current net and of the Virasoro nets Virc with central charge c ≥ 1. We show that these representations are not covariant with respect to the original dilations, and those on the U(1)-current net are not solitonic. Furthermore, by going to the dual net of with respect to the ground state representations of Virc, one obtains possibly new family of Möbius covariant nets on S1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma; ab interno trabeculectomy; goniotome; trabectome; Kahook Dual Blade; MIGS; minimally invasive surgery
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:50:14 CET)
Objective: To evaluate three different microincisional ab interno trabeculectomy procedures in a porcine eye perfusion model. Methods: In perfused porcine anterior segments, 90 degrees of trabecular meshwork (TM) were ablated using the Trabectome (T; n = 8), Goniotome (G; n = 8), or Kahook device (K; n = 8). After 24 hours, additional 90 degrees of TM were removed. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and outflow facility were measured at 5 µL/min and 10 µL/min perfusion to simulate an elevated IOP. Structure and function were assessed with canalograms and histology. Results: At 5 µL/min infusion rate, T resulted in a greater IOP reduction than G or K from baseline (76.12% decrease versus 48.19% and 47.96%, P = 0.013). IOP reduction between G and K was similar (P = 0.420). Removing another 90 degrees of TM caused an additional IOP reduction only in T and G but not in K. Similarly, T resulted in the largest increase in outflow facility at 5 µL/min compared with G and K (first ablation: 3.41 times increase versus 1.95 and 1.87; second ablation: 4.60 versus 2.50 and 1.74) with similar results at 10 µL/min (first ablation: 3.28 versus 2.29 and 1.90 (P = 0.001); second ablation: 4.10 versus 3.01 and 2.01 (P = 0.001)). Canalograms indicated circumferential flow beyond the ablation endpoints. Conclusions: T, G and K significantly increased the outflow facility. In this model, T had a larger effect than G and K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0064.v3
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Active acoustics; Multibeam Sonar; Dual-beam Sonar; Split-beam Sonar, Environmental monitoring; Offshore renewable energy
Online: 10 December 2018 (15:44:02 CET)
Marine renewable energy is emerging as one of the fast-growing industry in the last decades, as modern society pushes for technologies that can convert energy contained from winds, waves, tides and stream flows. The implementation of renewable energy technologies impose high demands on both structural and environmental engineering, as the energy converters have to work under extreme conditions where parameters such as sea-bottom configuration, water transparency and depth, sea-states and prevailing winds are harsh. Constant monitoring of the marine environment is crucial in order to keep this sector reliable. Active acoustics is becoming a standard tool to collect multi-dimensional data from physical, geological and biological properties of the marine environment. The Div. of Electricity of Uppsala University have been developing an environmental monitoring platform based on sonar (Sound Navigation And Raging) systems. This platform aims to monitor the installation, operation and decommissioning of marine renewable energy converters. The focus will be given the observations of behaviours of marine animals in vicinity of energy converters but also structural inspection and monitoring of MRETs. This paper describes how this multifunctional environmental monitoring platform come to existence from the design to the deployment phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT); dual-rotor wind turbine; counter-rotating wind turbine; dual-rotor permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSM); control system; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); actuator line modeling (ALM)
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:14:17 CEST)
In this paper, dual-rotor counter-rotating (CR) configurations of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) are briefly inspected and divided into three types. This investigation was focused on one of these types – the CR-VAWT with co-axial rotors, in which two equal rotors are placed on the same shaft, displaced from each other along it and rotate in opposite directions. For this CR-VAWT with three-blade H-Darrieus rotors, the properties of the design in terms of aerodynamics, mechanical transmission and electric generator, as well as control system are analyzed. A new direct-driven dual-rotor (DR) permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) was proposed, in which two built-in low-power PM electric machines have been added. They perform two functions – start-up and overclocking of the rotors to the angular velocity at which the lifting force of the blades is generated and stabilizing the CR-VAWT work as wind gusts act on the two rotors. Detailed in this paper is the evaluation of aerodynamic performance of the CR-VAWT via 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The evaluation was conducted using the CONVERGE CFD software with the inclusion of the actuator line model for the rotor aerodynamics, which significantly reduces the computational effort. Obtained results show that both rotors, while they rotate in opposite directions, had a positive impact on each other: the power coefficients of the upper and lower rotors in the CR-VAWT increased by 5.5% and 13.3% respectively compared to the single-rotor VAWT at the optimal distance between the rotors of 0.3 from a rotor height.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1880.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: five-level dual boost converter; pseudo-totem pole (PTP); efficiency; voltage and current stress
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:40:47 CEST)
In this paper, based on the pseudo-totem pole (PTP) circuit, a family of five-level PTP dual boost converters (PDBC) is proposed. Dual boost converter has some unique advantages such as no bridge arm shoot-through risk and no switch body diode reverse recovery problem, so that it has a good application prospect. Compared with conventional three-level PTP converters, PDBCs has higher power density, higher efficiency, and low voltage and current stress. The topological derivation process, working principle, modulation and strategy of the topology are analyzed firstly. Further, the number of power devices, the switches voltage and current stress of the proposed topology is analyzed. Finally, a representative five-level PDBC experimental prototype is designed with AC input 220V/50Hz, DC output 400V/1kW, and peak efficiency of 98.27%. The experimental results show that the five-level PDBC proposed in this paper has higher efficiency and verify the correctness of the topology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0500.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: no-reference image quality assessment; dual-stream networks; contrast sensitivity; ventral pathway; dorsal pathway
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:49:49 CEST)
Blind image quality assessment (BIQA) aims to evaluate image quality in a way that closely matches human perception. To achieve this goal, the strengths of deep learning and the characteristics of human visual system (HVS) can be combined. In this paper, inspired by the ventral pathway and dorsal pathway of HVS, a dual-pathway convolutional neural network is proposed for BIQA task. The proposed method consists of two pathways: “what” pathway, which mimics the ventral pathway of HVS to extract the content features of distorted images, and the “where” pathway, which mimics the dorsal pathway of HVS to extract the global shape features of distorted images. Then, the features from the two pathways are fused and mapped to an image quality score. Additionally, the gradient images weighted by the contrast sensitivity are used as the input to the “where” pathway, allowing it to extract global shape features that are more sensitive to human perception. Moreover, a dual-pathway multi-scale feature fusion module is designed to fuse the multi-scale features of the two pathways, enabling the model to capture both global features and local details, thus improving the overall performance of the model. The experiments conducted on six databases show that the proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: X-band dual-polarization phased array radar; Precipitation attenuation; Precipitation types; Raindrop size distributions
Online: 27 April 2023 (08:14:57 CEST)
X-band dual-polarization phased array radar (XPAR-D) possesses high temporal-spatial resolutions and plays a significant role in detecting meso- and micro-scale convective systems. However, the precipitation attenuation it endures necessitates an effective correction method. This study selected radar data from XPAR-D at the peak of Maofeng Mountain in Guangzhou during May 16-17, 2020 from three precipitation stages after quality control. Attenuation coefficients are calculated for different precipitation types through scattering simulations of raindrop size distribution (RSD) data. Drawing upon this, an attenuation correction algorithm (MZH-KDP method) is proposed for radar reflectivity factor (ZH) according to different raindrop types, and is compared to the ZH-KDP method currently in use. The results indicate that the attenuation amount of XPAR-D echoes depends on the attenuation path and echo intensity. When the attenuation path is shorter and the echo intensity is weaker, the amount of attenuation and correction is smaller. Difficulties arise when there are noticeable deviations in such a situation, which are challenging to solve via attenuation correction methods. Longer attenuation paths and stronger echoes highlight the advantages of the MZH-KDP method, while the ZH-KDP method tends to overcorrect the bias. The MZH-KDP method outperforms the ZH-KDP method for different precipitation types. The superior correction capability of the MZH-KDP method provides a significant advantage in improving the performance of XPAR-D for the detection of extreme weather.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: lung-on-a-chip; porous membrane; gas-liquid dual-channel chip; nanoparticle; numerical simulation
Online: 29 November 2022 (07:32:29 CET)
Recently, there has been increasing attention toward inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) to develop in-halation therapies for diseases associated with the pulmonary system and investigate the toxic ef-fects of hazardous environmental particles on human lung health. Taking advantage of microfluidic technology for cell culture applications, lung-on-a-chip devices with great potential in replicating the lung air-blood barrier (ABB) have opened new research insights in preclinical pathology and therapeutic studies associated with aerosol NPs. Surprisingly, the air interface in such devices, which makes them tremendously unique among the other common liquid-based cellular mi-crosystems and enables exposure of cultivated cells to the drug/toxic aerosols, has been largely disregarded. Accordingly, there exists a significant research gap in the comprehensive under-standing of the NPs’ dynamics in the lung-on-a-chip devices, which is momentous to control the injection of aerosols to the target area and attain a desired physiochemical efficacy. To address this research gap, a numerical parametric study is presented to provide a deep insight into the dynamic behavior of the airborne NPs in a gas-liquid dual-channel lung-on-a-chip device with a porous membrane separating the channels. A finite element multi-physics model is developed to enable a particle tracing investigation simultaneously in both air and medium phases to replicate the in vivo conditions avoiding laborious and costly experimental trials. The results include the impact of fluid flow as well as geometrical properties on the distribution, deposition, and translocation of the NPs with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 900 nm in the lung-on-a-chip. The obtained results strongly suggest the aerosol injection of NPs instead of the aqueous solution for more efficient deposition on the substrate of the air channel and higher translocation to the media channel. The current study proposes to optimize the affecting parameters to control the injection and delivery of aerosol par-ticles into the lung-on-chip device depending on the objectives of biomedical investigations and provides optimized values for some specific cases. Therefore, this study can assist scientists and researchers in complementing their experimental investigation in future preclinical studies on pulmonary pathology associated with inhaled hazardous and toxic environmental particles, as well as therapeutic studies for developing inhalation drug delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040072
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Yang–Baxter equation (QYBE); Euler’s formula; dual numbers; UJLA structures; classical means inequalities; poetry
Online: 21 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
We consider a multitude of topics in mathematics where unification constructions play an important role: the Yang–Baxter equation and its modified version, Euler’s formula for dual numbers, means and their inequalities, topics in differential geometry, etc. It is interesting to observe that the idea of unification (unity and union) is also present in poetry. Moreover, Euler’s identity is a source of inspiration for the post-modern poets.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Yang-Baxter equation; Euler’s formula; dual numbers; non-associative algebras; UJLA structures; mean inequalities
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:18:43 CEST)
This paper is a continuation of previous papers on unification theories publishes in AXIOMS. We present results about the (modified) Yang-Baxter equation, Euler’s formula, dual numbers, coalgebra structures, non-associative structures, differential geometry, and (mean) inequalities. We will also attempt to relate our discussion to some Brain Studies and Machine Learnig.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power control; battery charging; dual active bridge; energy storage system; hardware-in-loop
Online: 22 May 2017 (07:43:32 CEST)
Grid energy storage system for PV Applications is connected with three different power sources i.e. PV Array, Battery and the Grid. It is advisable to have Isolation between these three different sources to provide safety for the equipment. The configuration proposed in this paper provides the complete isolation between the three sources. A Power Balancing Control (PBC) for this configuration is proposed to operate the system in three different modes of operation. Control of a dual active bridge (DAB) based battery charger which provides a galvanic isolation between batteries and other sources is explained briefly. Various modes of operation of a Grid energy storage system are also presented in this paper. Hardware-In-Loop (HIL) Simulation is carried out to check the performance of the system and the PBC algorithm. Power circuit (comprises of inverter, dual active bridge based battery charger, grid, PV cell, batteries, contactors and switches) is simulated and the controller hardware and user interface panel are connected as HIL with the simulated power circuit through Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). HIL simulation results are presented to explain the control operation, steady state performance in different modes of operation and the dynamic response of the system.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: suicide; suicidal mental imagery; flash-forwards; intrusions; preventive intervention; eye movement dual task (EMDT)
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:59:53 CEST)
Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite growing evidence, there are still few effective interventions available to reduce suicide risk. In this article, we describe theoretical models of suicide ideation and behavior and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards) is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT) treatment for suicidal intrusions describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0118.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: tissue-like phantoms; dual-modal imaging; fluorescence lifetime (FLT); FLT imaging (FLIM); diffusion reflection
Online: 27 October 2016 (11:52:21 CEST)
Tissue-like phantoms are widely used as a model for mimicking the optical properties of live tissue. This paper presents the results of a diffusion reflection method as well as fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy measurements of fluorescein-conjugated gold nanorods in solution as well as inserted in solid tissue-imitating phantoms. A lack of consistency between the fluorescence lifetime results of the solutions and the phantoms raises a question about the ability of tissue-like phantoms to maintain the optical properties of inserted contrast agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0209.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: practical entanglement distillation; bilevel optimization; fuzzy formulation; quantum state tomography; coupled map lattices; dual annealing
Online: 2 June 2023 (14:08:44 CEST)
Practical entanglement distillation is a critical component in quantum information theory. Entanglement distillation is often utilized for designing quantum computer networks and quantum repeaters. The practical entanglement distillation problem is formulated as a bilevel optimization problem. A fuzzy formulation is introduced to estimate the quantum state (density matrix) from pseudo-likelihood functions (i.e., quantum state tomography). A scale-independent relationship between fuzzy relations in terms of the pseudo-likelihood functions is obtained. The entanglement distillation optimization problem was solved using the combined coupled map lattice and dual annealing approach. Comparative analysis of the results is then conducted against a standard dual annealing algorithmic implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0116.v8
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Convex dual variational formulation; duality principle for non-convex optimization; model in non-linear elasticity
Online: 12 January 2023 (02:41:45 CET)
This article develops a duality principle and a related convex dual formulation suitable for a large class of models in physics and engineering. The results are based on standard tools of functional analysis, calculus of variations and duality theory. In particular, we develop applications to a model in non-linear elasticity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0207.v9
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: convex dual variational formulation; duality principle for non-convex local primal optimization; Ginzburg-Landau type equation
Online: 24 November 2022 (14:33:34 CET)
This article develops duality principles and related convex dual formulations suitable for the local optimization of non-convex primal formulations for a large class of models in physics and engineering. The results are based on standard tools of functional analysis, calculus of variations and duality theory. In particular, we develop applications to a Ginzburg-Landau type equation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0255.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; peroxygenase; peroxidase; protein engineering; oxidation; hydroxylation; epoxidation; sulfoxidation; dual-functional small molecule
Online: 21 February 2022 (14:17:19 CET)
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are promising versatile oxidative biocatalysts. However, the practical use of P450s in vitro is limited by their dependence on the co-enzyme NAD(P)H and the complex electron transport system. Using H2O2 simplifies the catalytic cycle of P450s; however, most P450s are inactive in the presence of H2O2. By mimicking the molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of natural peroxygenases and peroxidases, an artificial P450 peroxygenase system has been designed with the assistance of a dual-functional small molecule (DFSM). DFSMs, such as N-(ω-imidazolyl fatty acyl)-l-amino acids, use an acyl amino acid as an anchoring group to bind the enzyme, and the imidazolyl group at the other end functions as a general acid-base catalyst in the activation of H2O2. In combination with protein engineering, the DFSM-facilitated P450 peroxygenase system has been used in various oxidation reactions of non-native substrates, such as alkene epoxidation, thioanisole sulfoxidation, and alkanes and aromatic hydroxylation, which showed unique activities, and regio- and enantioselectivities when compared with native P450s. Moreover, the DFSM-facilitated P450 peroxygenase system can switch to the peroxidase mode by mechanism-guided protein engineering. In this short review, the design, mechanism, evolution, application, and perspective of these novel non-natural P450 peroxygenases for the oxidation of non-native substrates are discussed.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; remote work; dual labor market; polarization; collective bargaining; rule revision unfavorably to workers
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:12:27 CEST)
This research analyzed South Korean companies’ adoption of remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic, by focusing on the dual labor market structure comprising of the primary (large corporations) and the secondary sectors (small and medium enterprises (SMEs)). Companies in the dual labor market were classified as per firm size. We used Statistics Korea’s August supplementary data from the Economically Active Population Survey, covering 2017–2020. This empirical study analyzed the factors affecting remote work in 2020, after the outbreak of the pandemic. The results showed that the probability of large corporations introducing remote work during the pandemic increased by a significantly larger margin than for small and medium-sized firms. This suggests that the polarization within the dual labor market structure between large corporations and SMEs also spilled over into companies’ adoption of remote work, which was initially introduced to prevent the spread of the pandemic. Additionally, the polarization in the use of digital technology is likely to persist even after the pandemic. Hence, based on our analysis of remote work adoption in the dual labor market, this study examined the system and factors of labor-management relations contributing toward such polarization and presented policy directions for the current labor market structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mexican Amerindian, Dual diagnosis, polygenic risk scores, psychiatric diseases, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance use disorder
Online: 12 September 2018 (01:20:54 CEST)
In order to summarized the polygenic background of psychiatric diseases, polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been developed. Recently, PRS have been use to predict patients with higher comorbidities in psychiatric diseases, like dual diagnosis. PRS are principally derived in analysis of Caucasian and Asian populations, we are not aware of how this PRS could be applied in populations with high admixture. In order to explored this, the present work has the aim to analyzed if previous calculated PRS for psychiatric diseases could predict dual diagnosis in Mexican population, and also, if PRS calculation could be influenced by Mexican Amerindian (MA) global ancestry. We performed PRS calculation, using PRSice, with summary genome-wide association statistics previously published for psychiatric diseases, and also, performed Nagelkerke correlation test in order to established if PRS are correlated with dual diagnosis. We found that dual diagnosis could be predicted by major depressive disorder polygenic risk score. Nevertheless, schizophrenia polygenic risk score is highly correlated with global MA ancestry, independently of the schizophrenia diagnosis. Our results reinforced the notion that PRS calculation could be deviated by the MA global ancestry, nevertheless analysis on larger sample sizes are required in order to clarified this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0275.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: near threshold computing (NTC); dual-supply; static random access memory (SRAM); reliability; write aggregation buffer
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:45:16 CEST)
Energy-efficient microprocessors are essential for a wide range of applications. While near-threshold computing is a promising technique to improve energy efficiency, optimal supply demands from logic core and on-chip memory are conflicting. In this paper, we perform static reliability analysis of 6T SRAM and discover the variance among different sizing configuration and asymmetric minimum voltage requirements between read and write operations. We leverage this asymmetric property in near-threshold processors equipped with voltage boosting capability by proposing an opportunistic dual-supply switching scheme with a write aggregation buffer. Our results show that proposed technique improves energy efficiency by more than 21.45% with approximate 10.19% performance speed-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0068.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: dual-frequency RFID; indoor localization; non line of sight; received signal strength; inertial measurement unit
Online: 15 September 2017 (14:18:59 CEST)
The mitigation of NLOS (non-line-of-sight) propagation conditions is one of main challenges in wireless signals based indoor localization. When RFID localization technology is applied in applications, RSS fluctuates frequently due to the shade and multipath effect of RF signal, which could result in localization inaccuracy. In particularly, when tags carriers are walking in LOS (line-of-sight) and NLOS hybrid environment, great attenuation of RSS will happen, which would result in great location deviation. The paper proposes an IMU-assisted (Inertial Measurement Unit) RFID based indoor localization in LOS/NLOS hybrid environment. The proposed method includes three improvements over previous RSS based positioning methods: IMU aided RSS filtering, IMU aided LOS/NLOS distinguishing and IMU aided LOS/NLOS environment switching. Also, CRLB (Cramér-Rao Low Bound) is calculated to prove theoretically that indoor positioning accuracy for proposed method in LOS/NLOS mixed environment is higher than position precision of only use RSS information. Simulation and experiments are conducted to show that proposed method can reduce the mean positioning error to around 3 meters without site survey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1432.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Two-mode Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon equation; Kudryashov method; exponential-expansion method; dual-wave solutions; symbolic computation
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:38:22 CEST)
In this paper, we exhibit new dynamical properties of the two-mode Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon (TMCDG) equation. This model describes the motion of dual-waves in dispersive and nonlinear media, which mainly depends on the nonlinearity and dispersion parameters. The overlapping of such two-mode waves is affected by the phase-velocity parameter. The study takes a full advantages of the Kudryashov method and of the exponential-expansion method. For the first time, dual-wave solutions are obtained for arbitrary values of the nonlinearity and dispersive factors. The graphs of the novel solutions are also provided in order to depict the waves propagation, as well as to show the influence of the parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; deep learning; image-to-image translation; dual-energy computed tomography; pulmonary embolism; emergency radiology
Online: 18 April 2022 (09:45:00 CEST)
Detector-based spectral CT offers the possibility of obtaining spectral information from which discrete acquisitions at different energy levels can be derived, yielding so-called virtual monoenergetic images (VMI). In this study, we aimed to develop a jointly optimized deep learning framework based on dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) data to generate synthetic monoenergetic images (SMI) for improving automatic pulmonary embolism (PE) detection in single-energy CTPA scans. For this purpose, we used two data sets: our institutional DE-CTPA data set D1 comprising polyenergetic arterial series and the corresponding VMI at low-energy levels (40 keV) with 7,892 image pairs, and a 10% subset of the 2020 RSNA Pulmonary Embolism Detection Challenge data set D2, which consisted of 161,253 polyenergetic images with dichotomous slice-wise annotations (PE/no PE). We trained a fully convolutional encoder-decoder on D1 to generate SMI from single-energy CTPA scans of D2, which were then fed into a ResNet50 network for training of the downstream PE classification task. The quantitative results on the reconstruction ability of our framework revealed high-quality visual SMI predictions with reconstruction results of 0.984 ± 0.002 (structural similarity) and 41.706 ± 0.547 dB (peak-signal-to-noise ratio). PE classification resulted in an AUC of 0.84 for our model, which achieved improved performance compared to other naive approaches with AUCs up to 0.81. Our study stresses the role of using joint optimization strategies for deep learning algorithms to improve automatic PE detection. The proposed pipeline may prove to be beneficial for computer-aided detection systems and could help rescue CTPA studies with suboptimal opacification of the pulmonary arteries from single-energy CT scanners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ac–dc power converters; battery chargers; dual active bridge; DAB; optimal design; power MOSFETs; single-stage
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:06:09 CEST)
The growing attention for plug-in electric vehicles, and the associated high-performance demands, have initiated a development trend towards highly efficient and compact on-board battery chargers. These isolated ac-dc converters are most commonly realized using two conversion stages, combining a non-isolated power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with an isolated dc-dc converter. This, however, involves two loss stages and a relatively high component count, limiting the achievable efficiency and power density and resulting in high costs. In this paper a single-stage converter approach is analyzed to realize a single-phase ac-dc converter, combining all functionalities into one conversion stage and thus enabling a cost-effective efficiency and power density increase. The converter topology consists of a quasi-lossless synchronous rectifier followed by an isolated dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter, putting a small filter capacitor in between. To show the performance potential of this bidirectional, isolated ac-dc converter, a comprehensive design procedure and multi-objective optimization with respect to efficiency and power density is presented, using detailed loss and volume models. The models and procedures are verified by a 3.7 kW hardware demonstrator, interfacing a 400 V dc-bus with the single-phase 230 V, 50 Hz utility grid. Measurement results indicate a state-of-the-art efficiency of 96.1% and power density of 2.2 kW/dm3, confirming the competitiveness of the investigated single-stage DAB ac-dc converter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0264.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: early-season detection; crop types; convolutional neural network; Dual-1DCNN; SAR; optical image; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:49:04 CEST)
Early-season crop-type data are required for a variety of agricultural monitoring and decision-making applications. The early season in this study referred to the prophase and middle of a growth season. Early-season detection of crop types remains challenging because of limited discriminative features, especially for landscapes that are characterized by complex cropping patterns. In fact, different remote-sensing satellites can increase the frequency of data acquisition, which can provide more information in the early season. Moreover, optical and radar sensors have different degrees of sensitivity to crop parameters. Therefore, the integration and application of two types of multitemporal data are of great significance to improve the accuracy and timeliness of crop type detection.In deep learning (DL), convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) models have great potential for temporal feature extraction. Compared with RNNs, CNNs usually have fewer parameters and are more conducive to determining early-season detection dates of different crop types, which requires a lot of training because of the need to model on different dates. Nevertheless, revisit dates and temporal intervals of different satellites are usually different, resulting in different data acquisition time series; these data cannot be directly used as input for the same convolutional layer. To address this challenge, a Dual-1DCNN was bulit based on the CNN model in this study. Moreover, an incremental training method was used to attain the network on each data acquisition date and obtained the best detection date for each crop type in the early season. A case study for Hengshui City in China was conducted using time series of Sentinel-1A (S1A) and Sentinel-2 (S2). To verify this method, classical methods support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) were implemented. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the Dual-1DCNN extracted discriminative features from S1A and S2 time series at the early season by producing the highest overall accuracy (OA: 87.23%); (2) for summer maize, cotton, and common yam rhizome, the Dual-1DCNN achieved F1 values of 92.39%, 87.71%, and 84.38%, respectively, at the early season (moreover, the early seasons were almost 40, 70, and 80 days before the end of the growth seasons, respectively). These findings suggested that the Dual-1DCNN is promising for the accurate and timely detection of crop types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0374.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: dual-rotor; modular-stator; hybrid-excited; axial-flux permanent magnet vernier machine; 3-D finite-element method
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:56:20 CET)
This paper proposes a new structure of the dual-rotor hybrid-excited axial-flux permanent magnet vernier machine (DR-HEAFPMVM) with the modular stator and the consequent-pole PM (CPM) rotor for low-speed, high torque density applications such as in-wheel electric vehicles. The tooth-wound non-overlapping armature windings and direct current (DC) excitation windings are respectively arranged in stator main-teeth and split-teeth to obtain the modulated and adjustable air-gap flux densities, which result in the high torque density and outstanding flux-weakening capability. First, the design consideration, operation principle, and the air-gap flux density distributions of the proposed machine are elaborated based on the air-gap permeance function. Then, the influence of the pole ratios (PRs) and the DC excitation currents on the main electromagnetic performances of the DR-HEAFPMVM, such as the flux-weakening capability, back-electromotive force (back-EMF), on-load electromagnetic torque, loss distribution, and efficiencies, is investigated using the 3-D finite-element method (FEM). Results verify the feasibility of the flux adjustment of the DC excitation windings equipped in the split-tooth, and the design with a pole ratio of 8/1 tends to have higher torque density, higher machine efficiency, and considerable flux-weakening capability compared with the other two PRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; lift-off measurement; property measurement; non-destructive testing; dual-frequency eddy current (DEC) testing
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:26:06 CEST)
Lift-offs of the sensor could significantly affect the measurement signal and reconstruction of material properties when using the electromagnetic (inductive) eddy current sensor. Previously, various methods (including novel sensor designs, and features like zero-crossing frequency, lift-off point of intercept) have been used for eliminating the measurement error caused by the lift-off distance effect of the sensor. However, these approaches can only be applied for a small range of lift-off variations. In this paper, a linear relationship has been found between the sensor lift-off and ratio of dual-frequency eddy current signals, particularly under the high working dual frequencies. Based on this linear relationship, the lift-off variation can be reconstructed firstly with a small error of 2.5 % when its actual value is up to 10 mm (10.1 % for 20 mm). The reconstructed lift-off is used to further get the property of the material under a low single frequency. Experiments on different ferrous metals have been carried out for the testing of the reconstruction scheme. Since the inductance is more sensitive to the material property (and less sensitive to the lift-off) under low frequencies, the reconstruction error of the material property is much smaller than that of the lift-off, with 1.4 % under 12 mm (and 4.5 % under 20 mm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0397.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: dual frequency comb spectroscopy; mid-infrared absorption and dispersion spectroscopy; electrical discharge plasma; time-resolved plasma kinetics
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:03:42 CEST)
Conventional mechanical Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) are able to simultaneously measure absorption and dispersion spectra of gas-phase samples. However, they usually need very long measurement times to achieve time-resolved spectra with a good spectral and temporal resolution. Here, we present a mid-infrared dual-comb-based FTS in an asymmetric configuration, providing broadband absorption and dispersion spectra with a spectral resolution of 5 GHz, a temporal resolution of 20 μs, and a total measurement time of a few minutes. We used the dual-comb spectrometer to monitor the reaction dynamics of methane and ethane in an electrical plasma discharge. We observed ethane/methane formation as a recombination reaction of hydrocarbon radicals in the discharge in various static and dynamic conditions. The results demonstrate a new analytical approach for measuring fast molecular absorption and dispersion changes and monitoring fast dynamics of chemical reactions, which can be interesting for chemical kinetic research and particularly for the combustion and plasma analysis community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0231.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: mixture distribution; mixture model; high dimensional statistics; nonparametric maximum likelihood; primal-dual interior-point method; adaptive grid
Online: 20 September 2019 (05:17:17 CEST)
In this paper we describe a nonparametric maximum likelihood (NPML) method for estimating multivariate mixing distributions. Given $N$ independent observations, convexity theory shows that the NPML estimator is discrete with at most $N$ support points. The original infinite NPML problem then becomes the finite dimensional problem of finding the location and probability of the support points. The probability of the support points is found by a Primal-Dual Interior-Point method; the location of the support points is found by an Adaptive Grid method. Our method is able to handle high-dimensional and complex multivariate mixture models.An important application is discussed for the problem of population pharmacokinetics and a non-trivial example is treated.Our algorithm has been successfully applied in hundreds of published pharmacometric studies. In addition to population pharmacokinetics, this research also applies to empirical Bayes estimation and many other areas of applied mathematics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Dual-Miller cycle; thermodynamic analysis; power; ecological coefficient of performance; thermal efficiency; entropy generation; multi-objective optimization
Online: 9 May 2019 (11:27:49 CEST)
Although different assessments and evaluations of Dual-Miller cycle performed, specified output power and thermal performance associated with engine determined. Besides, multi objective optimization of thermal efficiency, Ecological Coefficient of performance ( ) and Ecological function ( ) by the mean of NSGA-II technique and thermodynamic analysis performed. The Pareto optimal frontier obtaining the best optimum solution is chosen by fuzzy Bellman-Zadeh, LINMAP, and TOPSIS decision-making techniques. Based on the results, performances of dual-Miller cycles and their optimization are improved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Gene therapy, gene editing, CRISPR/Cas9, Cas12a, dual AAV, triple AAV, clinical trials, retina, hereditary retinal dystrophies
Online: 1 October 2018 (13:52:23 CEST)
Recently, there have been revolutions in the development of both gene therapy and genome surgical treatments for inherited diseases. Much of this progress has been centered around hereditary retinal dystrophies, because the eye is an immune-privileged and anatomically ideal target. Gene therapy treatments, already demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in numerous clinical trials, are benefitting from the development of new viral vectors, such as dual and triple AAVs. CRISPR/Ca9, which revolutionized the field of gene editing, is being adapted into more precise “high fidelity” and catalytically dead variants. New CRISPR endonucleases, such as CjCas9 and Cas12a, are generating excitement in the field as well. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative, allowing human embryo derived stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to be edited precisely in vitro and then reintroduced into the body. This article highlights recent progress made in gene therapy and genome surgery for retinal disorders, and it provides an update on precision medicine FDA treatment trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: dual steel frame; far field from fault; near field to fault; time history non-linear dynamic analysis
Online: 15 October 2016 (08:39:13 CEST)
This study sought to investigate steel frames’ performance with dual lateral loader system (Frame bending + bracings of divergent and convergent) in near and far filed to fault. In order to this, four categories of steel frame with dual system with 8, 10 and 12 story are designed with average formation based on existing seismic regulation in 2800 standard of Iran and tenth chapter of national regulations of construction (planning and performing steel construction). Time history non-linear dynamic analysis under the effect of near and far field earthquakes has been done on plan’s models. Then the maximum of floors’ dislocation, floors’ drift, roof dislocation, base shear and energy curves of frames are shown and compared with each other. All non-linear time history analyses have been accomplished using PERFORM 3D software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0396.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Protection Routing; Completely Independent Spanning Trees; Dual Protection Routing Trees; Complete graphs; Complete Bipartite Graphs; Hypercubes; Locally Twisted Cubes.
Online: 6 June 2023 (07:36:01 CEST)
In IP networks, packet forwarding is destination-based and hop-by-hop, and routes are built as needed. Kwong et al. introduced a protection routing in which packet delivery to the destination node can proceed uninterrupted in the event of any single node or link failure. He then shows that “whether there is a protection routing to the destination” is NP-complete. Tapolcai find that two completely independent spanning trees, abbreviated as CISTs, can be used to configure the protection routing. In this paper, we propose dual protection routing trees, denoted as dual-PRTs to replace CISTs, which are less restrictive than CISTs. Next, we propose a transformation algorithm that uses dual-PRTs to configure the protection routing. Taking complete graphs Kn, complete bipartite graphs Km,n, hypercubes Qn, locally twisted cubes LTQn as examples, we provide a recursive method to construct dual-PRTs on them. This article will show that there are no two CISTs on K3,3, Q3, and LTQ3, but there exist dual-PRTs that can be used to configure the protection routing. As shown in the performance evaluation of simulation results, for both Qn and LTQn, we get the average path length of protection routing configured by dual-PRTs is shorter than that by two CISTs.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0499.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acute and Chronic Inflammation; Bioenergetics; Constituent and Inducible Receptors; Fetus; Genomics; Glycolysis; Immunity; Immune compromised; Immune disorders; Infant; Inheritance; Mitochondrial; Newborn; Placenta; Power within; Power without; Sovereignty; Throphoblast; Tumorigenesis; Tumoricidal; Vaccines; Yin-Yang
Online: 23 February 2021 (07:59:36 CET)
A parallel between defense powers of sovereign nations and effective immunity that guards health is relevant to demonstrate vulnerability of immune system under external forces (vaccines, drugs). History demonstrated that sovereignty (power within) of small nations often threatened or destroyed by military might of powerful nations (power without) who use false-flags and propaganda for motives that are financial-control-driven. Similarly, we propose that body’s complex immune neuroplasticity (power within, adaptive, horizontal) is stretched-thin and weakened by the external forces, particularly by vaccination of the unborn/newborn or immune-compromised individuals. Validity of genomics (innate, perpendicular) as origins of ‘hereditary’ diseases (eg, allergies, diabetes, cancers) that for a century dominated research and treatment is also challenged. In conclusion, we propose that the pressure/power from within creates life with potential to sustain health, while the pressure/power from without, weaken and destroy life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0019.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: defective ZSM-5; hydroxyl nests; Si(OH)Al; Zn(C2H5)2, chemical liquid deposition; operando dual beam FT-IR spectroscopy
Online: 3 December 2018 (09:41:48 CET)
A series of defective ZSM-5 zeolites (~300 nm, SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 55, 100, 400 and 950) were intentionally prepared and systematically studied by XRD, SEM, 29Si MAS NMR, argon physisorption, NH3-TPD and FT-IR technologies. The nature, the amount and the accessibility of the acid sites of defective ZSM-5 zeolites are greatly different from reported ZSM-5 zeolites with perfect crystal structure. The co-existed strong Brønsted acid sites (Si(OH)Al) and weak Brønsted acid sites (hydroxyl nests) over defective ZSM-5 zeolites might lead to unique catalytic function. Zn(C2H5)2 was grafted onto defective ZSM-5 zeolites through chemical liquid deposition (CLD) method. Interestingly, FT-IR spectroscopy studies find that Zn(C2H5)2 was preferentially grafted on the hydroxyl nests with weak acidity rather than the Si(OH)Al groups with strong acidity over different defective ZSM-5 zeolites. Particularly, home-built operando dual beam FTIR-MS was applied to study the catalytic performance of Zn species locating at different sites of defective ZSM-5 zeolites under n-hexane transformation. Results show that Zn species grafted over hydroxyl nests obtain better dehydrogenation performance than Zn species over framework aluminum. This study provides guidance for the rational design of highly efficient alkane dehydrogenative aromatization catalysts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0284.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: dual two-level voltage source inverter; common-mode voltage; discontinuous space vector modulation schemes; centralizing pulse width modulation; open-end load
Online: 22 May 2018 (05:11:06 CEST)
The popular motor drive systems with a single two-level voltage source inverter (VSI) have one main problem that is the occurrence of the common-mode voltage (CMV), which is an effect of the electromagnetic interference, shaft voltage, bearing currents, leakage current. These cause the high stress, increasung temperature and early mechanical failure in machine. To overcome this problem, the technology of the dual two-level VSI fed open-end three-phase ac loads is now available to eliminate the CMV at the ac/induction motor load with the 120-degree modulation technique for controlling each inverter. In this paper, the discontinuous space vector modulation (DSVM) schemes are proposed and applied for the dual two-level VSI fed open-end load. It is based on the 120-degree modulation technique by using only 12 active voltage vectors and the 10 zero voltage vectors from the total 64 voltage vectors along with the different five-segment swicthing sequence designs with centralizing pulse width modulation technqiue in order to not only cancel the CMV in the ac load, but also reduce the switching number/switching loss of the conversion system. Among the various DSVM schemes, their performances are compared in this paper, such as the number of the switching, the step and peak value of the CMV in each inverter, and the quality of the output waveform, etc. The details of the verfication and comparison are carried out by simulation using Matlab/Simulink software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; modular approach; powertrain system; dual-three phase BLDC motor; battery; supercapacitor; hybrid energy storage system (HESS); energy management system (EMS)
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:16:14 CEST)
A modular approach to the construction of electric machines, drive systems, power supply systems is a new direction of modern technology development. Especially, the modular approach is promising for electric vehicles due to such positive aspects as increased efficiency, fault tolerance, overall reliability, safety, enhanced control capabilities, etc. In this work, the modular approach is comprehensively applied to an EV powertrain system, which includes a dual three-phase (DTP) BLDC motor with two machine modules of an asymmetric configuration, two battery modules and a supercapacitor module (SCM). The proposed H–H configuration of modular EV powertrain system includes four voltage source inverters that combine the power modules with the open ends of the windings (OEW) of the module machine armature, and provide control of their operation. Based on the developed mode system of the OEW machine module operation for EV traction and braking, a general control algorithm for the proposed configuration of the modular EV powertrain system has been developed. It combines the control of the operating modes with the functions of maintaining the required SOC level of the SCM and equalizing the SOCs of the two battery modules. The conducted simulation and experimental studies confirmed the workability and effectiveness of the proposed solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0516.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: context-based synthesis of unmeasurable signal; line-scan dual-energy X-ray transmission; vertical and horizontal anisotropy; difference of synthesis; real-time
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:28:04 CEST)
Material identification based on R_value (transparency natural logarithm ratio of low-energy to high-energy) of line-scan dual-energy X-ray transmission (DE-XRT) has a good prospect for industrial application. Unfortunately, the DE-XRT signals before attenuation cannot be directly measured, whereas their precision is very important to R_value. Therefore, a context-based signal synthesis method which takes the filtered signals that remove high-frequency noises and retain low-frequency actual fluctuations as the reference value, and takes into account the vertical (forward/column) direction and horizontal (scanning/row) direction anisotropy of line-scan images was proposed. The vertical is a time series with continuity of signal trend; the horizontal is a spatial characteristic with the fluctuation synchronization within the same row signals. The special synthesis evaluations of curve synthesis difference and surface synthesis difference were also proposed. Experimental results show that the tow evaluations are both only about 0.0007, and it only takes 35 ms to complete the surface synthesis of 119×119 pixels on the CPU with 3.4 GHz main frequency. The presented method can achieve high signal synthesis precision and calculation real-time, so as to facilitate DE-XRT material identification. It can be extended to improve the precision of numerical synthesis in other line-scan uncomplete signals.