ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: ecology; disturbance; forest ecosystems; lidar; disturbance detection; forest structure
Online: 8 November 2019 (03:31:45 CET)
The study of vegetation community and structural change has been central to ecology for over a century, yet how disturbances reshape the physical structure of forest canopies remains relatively unknown. Moderate severity disturbance including fire, ice storms, insect and pathogen outbreaks, affects different canopy strata and plant species, which may give rise to variable structural outcomes and ecological consequences. Terrestrial lidar (light detection and ranging) offers an unprecedented view of the interior arrangement and distribution of canopy elements, permitting the derivation of multidimensional measures of canopy structure that describe several canopy structural traits with known linkages to ecosystem functioning. We used lidar-derived canopy structural measured within a machine learning framework to detect and differentiate among various disturbance agents, including moderate severity fire, ice storm damage, age-related senescence, hemlock woolly adelgid, beech bark disease, and chronic acidification. We found that disturbance agents such as fire and ice storms primarily affected the amount and position of vegetation within canopies, while acidification, pathogen and insect infestation, and senescence altered canopy arrangement and complexity. Only two of the six disturbance agents significantly reduced leaf area, indicating that this commonly quantified canopy feature is insufficient to characterize many moderate severity disturbances. Rather, measures of canopy structure, including those that describe multidimensional change, are needed to characterize disturbance at moderate severities because structural changes from these events are spatially and quantitatively variable. Our findings suggest that standard disturbance detection methods, such as optical based remote sensing platforms, may currently be limited in their ability to detect, differentiate, and characterize disturbance. Further, we conclude that a more broadly inclusive definition of ecological disturbance that incorporates multiple aspects of canopy structure change will improve the modeling, detection, and prediction of functional implications of moderate severity disturbance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: neurobrucellosis; gait disturbance; flaccid paraprasia; weakness
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:41:47 CEST)
Brucellosis is a multi-system infectious disease that exhibits with various manifestations and complications. Neurobrucellosis is a rare but serious presentation of brucellosis that can be discovered in every stages of the disease. Laboratory tests and physical examination and patient history are generally the basis for diagnosing the disease. It has both insidious and prolonged clinical course of the disease and long-term therapies. Also the most common pattern of exhibition is subacute or chronic. We reported a case of young female who had history of painless weakness in the right lower limb (proximal and distal) that started gradually and had progressed over the time, and after a month she felt weakness in the left lower limb with the same pattern. Lumbosacral Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with and without contrast was shown evidence of enhancement thickening of caudal equina ventral roots. Brucella antigen titer was positive, the result was 1/160. And other clinical tests were normal. Patient treated with Intravenous injection (IV) Rifampicin and Intravenous Cotrimoxazole. patient was discharged with good health and continuinng all two medications for 5 months. The descision was taken to report this case as a result of entire respond in patient’s illness after a enduring disease. Neurobrucellosis is a treatable disease in which it would be better to consider a high indication of suspicion. Due to if ignored, it may cause significant morbidity and mortality.
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Macroalgae, Facilitation; Disturbance, Invertebrates, Intertidal reef.
Online: 13 May 2019 (14:17:13 CEST)
Intertidal fucoid algae function as ecosystem engineers across temperate marine regions. In this investigation we assess the function of the alga dominating rocky reefs in temperate Australia and New Zealand, Hormosira banksii. Invertebrate and algal species assemblages were examined within areas of full H. banksii canopy, areas where it was naturally patchy or absent (within its potential range on the shore) and areas where the intact canopy was experimentally disturbed. Differences in its species assemblage were detected between areas with natural variation in H. banksii cover (full, patchy, absent), with defined species associated with areas of full cover. Differences were also detected between experimentally manipulated and naturally patchy areas of canopy cover. Species richness declined strongly following canopy manipulations, and did not recover even twelve months after initial sampling. Both light intensity and temperature were buffered by full canopies compared to patchy canopies and exposed rock. This study allows us to predict the consequences to the intertidal community due to the loss of canopy cover, which may result from a range of disturbances such as trampling, storm damage, sand burial and prolonged exposure to extreme temperature, and further allow for improved management of this key autogenic ecosystem engineer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0579.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Problematic Internet use, sleep disturbance, sex difference, adolescents
Online: 24 October 2018 (14:15:09 CEST)
The Internet use has become an integral part of daily life, adolescents are especially at a higher risk to develop problematic Internet use (PIU). Although one of the most well-known comorbid conditions of PIU is sleep disturbance, little is known about the sex disparity in this association. This school-based survey in students of grades 7-9 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of PIU and sleep disturbance among Chinese adolescents, to test the association between PIU and sleep disturbance, and to investigate the role of the child’s sex in this association. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit participants, and a two-level logistic regression models were fitted. The mean Internet addiction test scores was 37.2 (SD: 13.2), and 15.5% (736) met the criteria for PIU. After adjusting for control variables, problematic Internet users were at a higher risk of sleep disturbance (adjusted odds ratio=2.41, 95% CI=2.07-3.19). Sex-stratified analyses also demonstrated that association was greater in girls than boys. In this respect, paying more attention to the sleep patterns of adolescents who report excessive Internet use is recommended, and this early identification may be of practical importance for schools, parents, and adolescents themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0279.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: alarm substance; alarm signals; disturbance signals; fish; Ostariophysi
Online: 23 August 2018 (04:12:15 CEST)
Chemical communication of predation risk has evolved multiple times in fish species, with the conspecific alarm substance (CAS) contemporaneously being the most well understood mechanism. CAS is released after epithelial damage, usually when prey fish is captured by a predator, and elicits neurobehavioral adjustments in conspecifics which increase the probability of avoiding predation. As such, CAS is a partial predator stimulus, eliciting risk assessment-like and avoidance behaviors, and disrupting the predator sequence. The present paper reviews the distribution and putative composition of CAS in fish, and presents a model for the neural processing of these structures by the olfactory and the brain aversive systems. Applications of CAS in the behavioral neurosciences and neuropharmacology are also presented, exploiting the potential of model fish (e.g., zebrafish, guppies, minnows) on neurobehavioral research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0360.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Landsat; MODIS; change detection; forest disturbance; forest health
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:48:32 CEST)
The Operational Remote Sensing (ORS) program leverages Landsat and MODIS data to detect forest disturbances across the conterminous United States (CONUS). The ORS program was initiated in 2014 as a collaboration between the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Geospatial Technology and Applications Center (GTAC) and the Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team (FHAAST). The goal of the ORS program is to supplement the Insect and Disease Survey (IDS) and MODIS Real-Time Forest Disturbance (RTFD) programs with imagery-derived forest disturbance data that can be used to augment traditional IDS data. We developed three algorithms and produced ORS forest change products using both Landsat and MODIS data. These were assessed over Southern New England and the Rio Grande National Forest. Reference data were acquired using TimeSync to conduct an independent accuracy assessment of IDS, RTFD, and ORS products. Overall accuracy for all products ranged from 77.64% to 93.51% (kappa 0.09–0.59) in the Southern New England study area and 59.57% to 79.57% (kappa 0.09–0.45) in the Rio Grande National Forest study area. In general, ORS products met or exceeded the overall accuracy and kappa of IDS and RTFD products. This demonstrates the current implementation of ORS is sufficient to provide data to augment IDS data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: micropositioners; reinforcement learning; disturbance observer; deep deterministic policy gradient
Online: 15 March 2022 (07:58:27 CET)
The robust control of high precision electromechanical systems, such as micropositioners, is challenging in terms of the inherent high nonlinearity, the sensitivity to external interference, and the complexity of accurate identification of the model parameters. To cope with these problems, this work investigates a disturbance observer-based deep reinforcement learning control strategy to realize high robustness and precise tracking performance. Reinforcement learning has shown great potential as optimal control scheme, however, its application in micropositioning systems is still rare. Therefore, embedded with the integral differential compensator (ID), deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) is utilized in this work with the ability to not only decrease the state error but also improves the transient response speed. In addition, an adaptive sliding mode disturbance observer (ASMDO) is proposed to further eliminate the collective effect caused by the lumped disturbances. The sterling performance is revealed with intensive tracking simulation experiments and demonstrates the improvement in the accuracy and response time of the controller.
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: aboveground biomass, Belowground biomass, Biteyu forest, Carbon stocks, disturbance
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:07:11 CEST)
The carbon stocks in the forests originated from the atmosphere and are accumulated in the organic matter of trees and soils. Forests play major roles in providing ecosystem services like climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration and nutrient flow dynamics. Therefore, the major objective of this study was to estimate carbon stocks of Biteyu forest by quantifying the aboveground biomass of trees, belowground carbon, soil carbon, and carbon stocks of litter pool. Systematic sampling technique was employed for vegetation and carbon data collection. The total of 10 line transects were laid along elevational gradients. The transects were 500 m apart and sampling plots were 300 m apart from each other. Each transect has comprised of a minimum of 4 plots to a maximum of six totaling 50 plots representing the forest for the investigation. A square sample plot of 900 m2 was used to collect vegetation data with a DBH ≥ 2.5 cm and a height of 2 m and above. To sample herbaceous vegetation in the forest floor, five smaller subplots of 1 m x 1 m = 1 m2 (four at the corner and one at the centre of the main plot) were established. The disturbance level was also determined using the cattle interference and selective cutting of trees. The appropriate allometric models were applied for both aboveground and belowground biomass estimations. The findings showed that cattle interference affects the forest understory from growing and recruitment. The mean of cattle interference was 4.77±2.12 per ha and the mean of wood stump was 26.67±9.37 per ha. The size class analysis showed that the smallest diameter class (2.5-10 cm) in the forests represented 37.05% of the total stem density. The diameter classes between 10 and 30 cm comprised a stem density of 41.08%. It was estimated that the total carbon stock of Biteyu forest was about 166.67 ± 16.4 ha-1. The carbon stock in AGB and BGB was estimated to be 87.13 ± 11.80 t ha-1 and 22.94 ± 2.84 t ha-1, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of soil and litter carbon pools to the total carbon in the forest ecosystem were 56.37 ± 1.73 and 0.26 ± 0.01 t ha-1 , respectively. From the present study it can be concluded that estimated mean carbon stock of the forest is smaller than that of other similar forests in the dry evergreen montane forest, which was attributed to the higher anthropogenic disturbances. Therefore, the interventions, which reduce the climate change effect, would be very important in the maintenance of forest ecosystem functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0336.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: forest disturbance; deforestation; sustainability; fractal analysis; entropy; forest management.
Online: 18 July 2018 (15:36:57 CEST)
Monitoring the ratio of forested and deforested areas plays a key role in studying the dynamics of forest areas. Appropriate mapping of anthropogenic forest disturbances is particularly important in the context of sustainable forest management. It provides ecological, social and economic information which is crucial for forest policymakers. In the last two decades, the forest areas of the Moldo-Transylvanian Carpathians have been subject to a high rate of deforestation which at present state lacks proper quantification. We present a novel methodology for monitoring the forest disturbance dynamics in Moldo-Transylvanian Carpathians by use of fractal analysis including entropy, Fractal Fragmentation Index (FFI) and Tug-of-War lacunarity (Λ_(T-o-W)). This was necessary to quantify and identify the disorder (entropy), the fragmentation (FFI) and heterogeneity of the spatial distribution (Λ_(T-o-W)) patterns. Based on satellite images of the forest areas (annually 2000-2014), increased fragmentation was demonstrated by FFI increase, a measure of the degree of disorder (entropy) and heterogeneity (lacunarity). Our results revealed that textural and fractal analysis can be an effective tool for the extraction of quantitative information about the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest disturbance. The methods developed, and results obtained are a complementary approach to forest disturbance mapping (based on traditional image classification) for future development and adaptation of forestry management policies to ensure a sustainable management and exploitation of forest areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0076.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Acanthaster; coral reefs, disturbance; management; population outbreaks; research priorities
Online: 22 August 2017 (10:20:00 CEST)
Research on the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS) has waxed and waned over the last few decades, mostly in accordance with the occurrence of population outbreaks at key locations, such as Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. This review considers advances in our understanding of the biology and ecology of CoTS based on the latest resurgence of research interest, which culminated in this current special issue on the Biology, Ecology and Management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish. More specifically, this review considers progress against 41 specific research questions posed in the seminal review by P. Moran 30 years ago, as well as exploring new directions for CoTS research. Despite the plethora of research on CoTS (>1,200 research articles), there are persistent knowledge gaps that constrain effective management of outbreaks. Although directly addressing some of these questions will be extremely difficult, there have been considerable advances in understanding the biology of CoTS, if not the proximal and ultimate cause(s) of outbreaks. Moving forward, researchers need to embrace new technologies and opportunities to advance understanding of CoTS biology and behaviour, with focus given to key questions that will improve effectiveness of management to reduce the frequency and likelihood of future outbreaks, if not preventing them altogether.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0048.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: dissipativity analysis; generalized neural networks; Markovian jump parameters; stochastic disturbance
Online: 6 April 2020 (11:06:56 CEST)
This paper analyzes the robust dissipativity of uncertain stochastic generalized neural networks (USGNNs) with Markovian jumping parameters and time-varying delays. In practical applications most of the systems refer to uncertainties, hence, the norm-bounded parameter uncertainties and stochastic disturbance are considered. Then, by constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) and by employing integral inequalities LMI-based sufficient conditions of the considered systems are established. Numerical simulations are given to show the merit of the presented results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0392.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: time series; lake changes; remote sensing; inland lake; lake disturbance
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:45:43 CET)
Inland lake variations are considered sensitive indicators of global climate change. However, human activity is playing as a more and more important role in inland lake area variations. Therefore, it is critical to identify whether anthropogenic activity or natural event is playing as the dominant factor in inland lake surface area change. In this study, we proposed a Douglas-Peucker simplification algorithm and bend simplification algorithm combined method to locate major lake surface area disturbances; these disturbances were then characterized to extract the time series change features according to documented records; and the disturbances were finally classified into anthropogenic or natural. We took the nine lakes in Yunnan Province as test sites, a 31 years long (from 1987 to 2017) time series Landsat TM/OLI images and HJ-1A/1B used as data sources, the official records was used as references to aid the feature extraction and disturbance identification accuracy. Results of our method for both disturbance location and the disturbance identification could be concluded as follows: 1) The method can accurately locate the main lake changing events based on the time series lake surface area curve. The accuracy of this model for segmenting the lake area time series curves in our study area was 95.24%. 2) Our proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.67%, with F-score of 94.67 for anthropogenic disturbances and F-score of 85.71 for natural disturbances. 3) According to our results, lakes in Yunnan Provence, China, have undergone extensive disturbances, and the human-induced disturbances occurred almost twice as often as natural disturbances, indicating intensified disturbances caused by human activities. This inland lake area disturbance identification method is expected to uncover whether a disturbance to inland lake area is human activity-induced or natural event.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0051.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: natural disturbance; advance regeneration; planting; natural regeneration; uneven-aged silviculture
Online: 18 July 2017 (13:22:12 CEST)
Forest managers are often required to restore forest stands following natural disturbances, a situation that may become more common and more challenging under global change. In parts of Central Europe, particularly in mountain regions dominated by mixed temperate forests, the use of relatively low intensity, uneven-aged silviculture is a common management approach. Because this type of management is based on mimicking less intense disturbances, the restoration of more severe disturbance patches within forested landscapes has received little attention within the context of uneven-aged silviculture in the region. The goal of this paper is to synthesize research on the restoration of forests damaged by disturbances in temperate forests of Slovenia and neighbouring regions of Central Europe, where uneven-aged silviculture is practiced. We place particular emphasis on the most important biotic and abiotic drivers of post-disturbance regeneration, and use this information to inform silvicultural decisions about applying natural or artificial regeneration in disturbed areas. We conclude with guidelines for restoration silviculture in uneven-aged forest landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: stochastic disturbance accommodating control; edgewise vibrations; minimum-variance unbiased estimator
Online: 1 May 2017 (11:11:31 CEST)
Vibrations of blades and tower have important impact for wind turbine. This paper presents a active controller design to suppress blade edgewise vibrations under aerodynamic load and gravitational load.Treating the sum of aerodynamic load input in edgewise direction and gravitational load as unknown disturbance input,a stochastic disturbance accommodating control(SDAC) approach is proposed to design a controller which it utilizes a minimum-variance unbiased estimator(MVUE) to estimate both state and unknown input. The stability analysis proved that the proposed SDAC is bounded in mean square.In order to verify the performance of the minimum-variance unbiased estimator and the proposed SDAC, numerical simulations using Matlab/Simulink have been carried out for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5-MW wind turbine.Under the different circumstance which exists the random process and measure noise and noise free. It is shown that the estimation value by MVUE can tracking the real state and unknown input. The results are also compared to the traditional linear quadratic regulator(LQR) and show that the proposed stochastic disturbance accommodating control scheme can further reduce displacement in edgewise vibrations direction and the control strategy is more effective than the LQR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0180.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: aberrant salience; source monitoring; psychosis; cognitive biases; self-disturbance; neuroimagining; fMRI
Online: 7 July 2021 (13:05:30 CEST)
Cognitive biases are an important factor contributing to the development and symptom severity of psychosis. Despite that various cognitive biases are contributing to psychosis, they are rarely investigated together. In the current systematic review, we aimed at investigating specific and shared neural correlates of two important cognitive biases: aberrant salience and source monitoring. We conducted a systematic search of fMRI studies of said cognitive biases. Eight studies on aberrant salience and eleven studies on source monitoring were included in the review. We critically discussed behavioural and neuroimaging findings concerning cognitive biases. Various brain regions are associated with aberrant salience and source monitoring in individuals with schizophrenia and the risk of psychosis. Ventral striatum and insula contribute to aberrant salience. The medial prefrontal cortex, superior and middle temporal gyrus contribute to source monitoring. The anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus contribute to both cognitive biases, constituting a neural overlap. Our review indicates that aberrant salience and source monitoring may share neural mechanisms, suggesting their joint role in producing disrupted external attributions of perceptual and cognitive experiences, thus elucidating their role in positive symptoms of psychosis. Account bridging mechanisms of these two biases is discussed. Further studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0415.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: seagrass; anthropogenic disturbance; boat anchoring; meadow traits; habitat loss; island ecosystem
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:03:57 CEST)
Seagrass ecosystems are lost due to habitat disturbance, coastal development and human pressure. We assessed the impact of boat anchors from traditional fishing and recreational activities on the seagrass Halophila ovalis from the Andaman and Nicobar Isalnds of India. The plant density, biomass, morphometrics, canopy height and percentage cover were estimated from two sites of Govind Nagar beach of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The shoot density of H. ovalis was reduced by physical damage caused by boat anchors. The morphometrics of H. ovalis, such as number of leaves per ramet, leaf length, width and horizontal rhizome length were significantly reduced when impacted by boat anchors. Seagrass canopy height and percentage cover were reduced by 41% and 47% respectively. Though the impact of boat anchors reported here is on small-scale, it may impact feeding grounds of locally endangered dugongs. Therefore, proper management and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the loss of dugong grass habitats from tourism, recreational and fishing activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0136.v1
Subject: Keywords: species composition; fagaceae; keystone; restoration potential; anthropogenic disturbance; fragmented forests; coppicing
Online: 6 August 2020 (05:09:00 CEST)
The montane subtropical broadleaved humid forests of Meghalaya (Northeast India) are highly diverse and situated at the transition zone between the Eastern Himalayas and Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspots. Fagaceae family are the keystone species forms an important component of these forests. These forests in Meghalaya are highly degraded and fragmented due to anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., mining, unsustainable forest utilization, shifting cultivation, browsing, etc.). In this study, we assessed for the first time, the restoration potential (i.e. capacity to naturally regenerate and sustain desired forest structure) of Fagaceae species (2 Lithocarpus, 4 Castanopsis, and 4 Quercus species) in Meghalaya and how the biotic and abiotic factors, as well as anthropogenic disturbances, influence the restoration potential of these species. We selected fragmented forest patches in six locations on an elevational gradient on south-facing slopes in the Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. Fagaceae was the most dominant family in all sites except one site (Laitkynsew) where Fagaceae was co-dominant with Lauraceae. The family also had high natural regeneration (i.e., a high number of seedlings and saplings) but low recruitment to adult trees (DBH ≥ 10cm) at all sites. This study provides a means for assessing regeneration and a basis for forest management strategies in degraded and fragmented forests of Meghalaya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0201.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wind damage; wind disturbance; Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; machine learning; random forest
Online: 17 February 2022 (05:06:55 CET)
Management approaches inspired by the variability of natural disturbances are expected to produce forests in the future that will be significantly more resilient and better adapted to local environmental conditions. Due to climate change, windstorms are becoming increasingly common resulting in the destruction not only of extensive forest areas but, quite often, of small-sized and scattered forest lands that can ultimately become home to insects and disease dissemination sites. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify and record areas in the northeastern forests of Greece covered by mixed stands of conifers and broadleaves that experienced massive windthrow following local storms. Based on tree-level data, local topographic features, forest characteristics and the mechanical properties of green wood, a reliable model, to be used for the prediction of similar disturbances in the future, has been created after a thorough comparative study of the most well-known intelligent machine learning algorithms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0436.v1
Subject: Keywords: orthogonal least squares algorithm; neural network; disturbance compensation; satellite atti-tude control
Online: 28 October 2021 (12:44:22 CEST)
Based on the satellite attitude control method, this paper proposes an attitude control method based on neural network disturbance compensation. The paper firstly analyzes the neural network algorithm and proposes an orthogonal least squares algorithm to implement network learning. In this paper, a set of high-precision directional neural network compensation controllers is designed for the attitude control of acupuncture small satellites. The feasibility of the improved orthogonal least-squared algorithm combined with the neural network supplementary control method in satellite attitude control is verified by experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0091.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: mangroves; Caribbean; climate change; sea levels; human disturbance; palynology; biotic responses; Pleistocene; Holocene
Online: 4 November 2022 (09:56:07 CET)
Mangroves are among the world’s most threatened ecosystems. Understanding how these ecosystems responded to past natural and anthropogenic drivers of ecological change is essential not only for understanding how extant mangroves have been shaped, but also for informing their conservation. This paper reviews the available paleoecological evidence for Pleistocene and Holocene responses of Caribbean mangroves to climatic, eustatic and anthropogenic drivers. The first records date from the Last Interglacial when global average temperatures sea levels were slightly higher than the present and mangroves grew in locations and conditions similar to today. During the Last Glaciation temperatures and sea levels were significantly lower and Caribbean mangroves grew far from their present locations, on presently submerged sites. Current mangrove configuration was progressively attained after Early Holocene warming and sea-level rise, in the absence of anthropogenic pressure. Human influence began to be important in the Mid-Late Holocene, especially during the Archaic and Ceramic cultural periods, when sea levels were already at their present position, and climatic and human drivers were the most influencing factors. During the last millennium, the most relevant drivers of ecological change have been the episodic droughts linked to the Little Ice Age and the historical developments of the last centuries.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: wearable sensor; pulse oximetry; sleep disturbance; blood oxygenation; haptic feedback; home care; oxygen concentration
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:32:09 CET)
The study reports about a case of a lung cancer patient with increasing difficulties in falling asleep and frequent periods of wakefulness. Severe dyspnea related to pneumonitis caused as a side effect of immunotherapy worsened the situation. Eventually, fear of falling asleep developed, including panic attacks and anxiety of choking, which was shown to lead to nights of complete wakefulness. The patient did not only sleep poorly; he did not sleep at all at night for several days, as evidenced by the notes he made during the night. Polygraphy showed no evidence of sleep-disordered breathing, but frequent periods of wakefulness and reduced basal saturation around 90% during sleep due to lung changes such as extensive functional failure of the left upper lobe with position-dependent shunts. The authors hypothesized that the symptoms described were causally related to a drop in oxygen saturation in the patient's blood. Therefore, they pursued the goal of finding a measurement technique that is as inexpensive as possible and that the patient can operate without outside assistance and great effort. So the patient started using a low-cost wearable device that allows simultaneous measurements of blood oxygen content, pulse rate and movement intensity. It consists of a finger ring with pulse oximetry sensor and a wristband with the control unit containing a vibration motor. The described device reliably warned of disturbances in oxygen concentration in the blood during the night with its vibration alarm. By use of that device during the whole night at home, the events of reduced oxygen saturation and the anxiety symptoms were reduced. Sleep disturbances with sudden awakenings did not occur when using the device. The patient benefited from the security gained in this way and slept much more peacefully, and he could spend nights without waking up again. In conclusion, wearable oximeters with vibration alarm can be recommended for patients’ home care in lung cancer patients.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0115.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: beaches; coastal avifauna; ecotourism; migratory birds; recreation ecology; recreational disturbance; shorebirds; tourism development; wetlands
Online: 11 September 2019 (05:17:14 CEST)
This data descriptor summarizes the process applied to identify, screen, select and gather data from the content of 142 peer-reviewed papers/sources that report on the sources and impacts of recreational disturbance on coastal avifauna. While populations of resident and migratory coastal avifauna are under threat and diminishing rapidly across the planet, and particularly in association with Asian flyways, many governments are leveraging booming global demand for coastal recreation and tourism in order to deliver economic development to regional communities. The summary data shared via this data description was extracted from papers collected in a systematic literature review that was designed to explore the global literature on the recreational disturbance of coastal avifauna in order to elucidate the state of the global knowledge regarding this issue and to identify management strategies that could be applied at tropical Asian destinations to minimize the impacts of recreational disturbance and thus enhance the ecological sustainability of coastal recreation and tourism across the region. The data shared via the Excel worksheet associated with this data descriptor was extracted from peer-reviewed articles published in English between 1 January 2000 and the 31 December 2018 with the full text of the article available online. These articles were found by searching several online indexing several databases including Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0207.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: deep mining; coal seam floor; unloading disturbance; space–time difference; stress shell; mechanical mechanism
Online: 16 April 2018 (11:29:05 CEST)
Failure characteristics induced by unloading disturbance and the corresponding mechanical mechanism of the coal seam floor are important theoretical bases for water-bursting prevention from the floor of the coal seam and rock burst alarm in deep mining. However, the existing two-dimensional ground-pressure-control theory based on shallow mining cannot sufficiently guide deep-mining practices. In this study, the redistribution of mining-induced stress field in rocks surrounding the longwall face and mechanical behaviors of strata in deep mining are investigated through a combination of numerical simulation, physical simulation, and field measurement. Results demonstrate that mining-induced stress fields in the floor of the longwall face differ in space and time. Vertical stress unloading from top to bottom of the floor and horizontal stress unloading are relatively low. A concentration zone of high horizontal stress exists at stope boundaries. The critical yield load of rock stratum in the floor is determined through thin plate yield theory. Under the combined effect of concentrated high horizontal and vertical resilience stresses, strata in the floor fracture from seam to seam if the load increases to the minimum critical buckling value. Fractured strata slide along the fracture surface, which leads to floor heave. The stope floor shows evident time-delay progressive failure characteristics. The stress shell in the stope floor in deep mining is found to be a sensitive mechanical parameter that produces three-dimensional ground-pressure behavior in the floor. This ground-pressure behavior in the stope floor is controlled by the existence of the corresponding stress shell and effects induced by its space–time evolution. This study provides theoretical basis for the dynamic control of a hazard-inducing environment in engineering and minimizing or altering disaster-occurrence conditions during the construction engineering of the coal seam floor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: distillation column; disturbance rejection; genetic algorithm; H∞ control; linear matrix inequalities; static output feedback
Online: 26 December 2017 (05:22:09 CET)
The current work addresses the control of two-input two-output (TITO) Wood and Berry model of a binary distillation column. The controller design problem is formulated in terms of multivariable H∞ control synthesis. The controller structure takes the form of simplest static output feedback (SOF) control. The controller synthesis is performed using a hybrid approach of blending linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and genetic algorithm (GA). The performance of the static output feedback controller is compared with three other controllers designed for Wood and Berry model available in the literature. The first simulation study is performed for the case of tracking a unit step command in the presence of a step change in output disturbance. A second simulation study is performed for rejecting a change in sinusoidal output disturbance.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: hybrid energy storage system; L2-gain disturbance attenuation; passivity-based control; port-controlled Hamiltonian model
Online: 16 April 2020 (06:36:09 CEST)
Battery/Supercapacitor(SC) current tracking control is a key issue for hybrid energy storage system (HESS) in electric vehicles. An innovative passivity-based L2-gain adaptive control (PBL2AC) based on port-controlled Hamiltonian model with dissipativity (PCHD) for reference current tracking and bus voltage stability in HESS is presented. The developed PCHD model has considered both parameter variations and external disturbances. By using L2-gain disturbance attenuation, the PBL2AC ensures robust reference current tracking and stable bus voltage. Moreover, adaptive mechanism is adopted to estimate the electrical parameters. To validate the proposed control scheme for HESS, simulations and experiments were done and compared with traditional PID and sliding mode control under several typical driving cycles, and results show that the effectiveness of the proposed controller can be confirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power control; power electronics; pwm inverters; disturbance observer; grid connected system; grid stability; distorted voltage
Online: 19 June 2017 (16:35:26 CEST)
Penetration of grid connected inverters (GCI) has arisen in power systems due to increasing integration of renewable sources. However, restrictive grid codes require that renewable sources connected to the grid with power electronic systems must be properly connected and appropriate currents must be injected to support stability of the grid under grid faults. Simultaneous injection of symmetrical positive and negative sequence currents is mandatory to support stabilization of grid at the instant of grid faults. Conventional synchronously rotating frame dq current controllers are insufficient under grid faults due to low bandwidth of PI controllers. This paper proposes a new grid current control strategy for grid connected voltage source inverters under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. A proportional current controller with a first order low pass filter disturbance observer (DOb) is proposed which establishes positive sequence power requirements and independently control negative sequence current components under unbalanced voltage conditions. The method does not need any parameter, since it estimates nonlinear terms with low pass filter DOb. Simulations are implemented in Matlab/Simulink platform demonstrating the effectiveness of proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: personal mobility vehicle; active tilting; steering axis; steering disturbance; load reaction force; slanted road; rutted road
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:24:36 CET)
Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV) which has an inward tilting angle turns with the lateral force due to large camber angle, so it is necessary to consider the lateral movement of the tire vertical load axis during turning. Although the steering torque mechanism are very different from those of automobiles, there are not many examples which studied the steering torque mechanism of PMV. In this paper, based on the effects of six components force acting on the tires, a method for setting the steering axis specifications is derived, including the geometrical minimization of steering moment disturbance due to the vertical load reaction force during turning. Although, automobile tires have a significant ground camber angle when traveling on rutted roads, they do not have it on slant roads because the vehicle body tilts along the road surface. On the other hand, in PMV, the vehicle body always keeps upright when traveling both on slanted roads and on rutted roads. Therefore, the tires have ground camber angles on both types of road surface. We study the straight running ability under such road surface disturbances based on the geometrical minimization of steering moment disturbance due to the vertical load reaction force during turning. This straight running ability can be a remarkable strong point of PMV with an inward tilt mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0126.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Cumulative effects; fine sediment; particulate phosphorus; sediment geochemistry; gravel-bed rivers; forest disturbance; wildfire; eutrophication; climate change
Online: 8 October 2021 (08:07:28 CEST)
Cumulative effects of landscape disturbance in forested source water regions can alter the storage of fine sediment and associated phosphorus in riverbeds, shift nutrient dynamics and degrade water quality. Here, we examine longitudinal changes in major element chemistry and particulate phosphorus (PP) fractions of river-bed sediment in an oligotrophic river during environmentally sensitive low flow conditions. Study sites along 50 km of the Crowsnest River were located below tributary inflows from sub-watersheds and represent a gradient of increasing cumulative sedi-ment pressures across a range of land disturbance types (harvesting, wildfire, and municipal wastewater discharges). Major elements (Si2O, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, Ti2O, V2O5, P2O5), loss on ignition (LOI), PP fractions (NH4CI-RP, BD-RP, NaOH-RP, HCI-RP and NaOH(85)-RP) and absolute particle size were evaluated for sediments collected in 2016 and 2017. While total PP concentrations were similar across all sites, bioavailable PP fractions (BD-RP, NaOH-RP) increased downstream with increased concentrations of Al2O3 and MnO and levels of landscape disturbance. This study highlights the longitudinal water quality impacts of increasing landscape disturbance on bioavailable PP in fine riverbed sediments and shows how the convergence of climate (wildfire) and anthropogenic (sewage effluent, harvesting, agriculture) drivers can produce legacy effects on nutrients.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: bed bugs; Cimex spp.; Hong Kong; sleep disturbance; health impact; public health; causal agent; infectious agent; vector
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:09:17 CEST)
Bedbug (Cimex spp.) are a nuisance public-health pest that is on the rise globally, particularly in crowded cities such as Hong Kong. To investigate the health impacts of bedbug infestations among bedbug victims, online surveys were distributed in Hong Kong between June 2019 to July 2020. Data on sociodemographics, self-rated health, average hours of sleep per day, and details of bedbug infestation were collected. Bivariate and multivariable analysis were performed using logistic regression. The survey identified 422 bedbug victims; among them, 223 (52.9%) experienced ≥5 bites in the past month, most bites occurred on the arms (n=202, 47.8%) and legs (n=215, 51%), and the most common reaction to bites were itchiness (n=322, 76.3%), redness, and swelling of the skin (n=246, 58.1%), and difficulties sleeping or restlessness (n=125, 29.6%). Bites usually occurred during sleep (n=230, 54.5%). For impact on daily life in the past month, most bedbug victims reported moderate to severe impact on mental and emotional health (n=223, 52.8%) and sleeping quality (n=239, 56.6%). Lower self-rated health (aOR<1) was independently associated with impact to physical appearance (p=0.008), spending money on medication or doctor consultation (p=0.04), number of bites in the past month (p=0.023), and irregular time of bites (p=0.003). Lower average hours of sleep per day (aOR<1) was independently associated with impact on mental and emotional health (p=0.016). This study brings attention to the neglected issue of bedbug infestation by considering bedbugs as an infectious agent instead of a vector and providing empirical evidence describing its health impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0463.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: disturbance; drylands; photovoltaic; plant community; plant traits; rare species; renewable energy; seed traits; seed banks; solar energy
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:55:44 CEST)
Seed bank survival underpins plant population persistence but studies on seed bank trait-environment interactions are few. Changes in environmental conditions relevant to seed banks occur in desert ecosystems owing to solar energy development. We developed a conceptual model of seed bank survival to complement methodologies using in-situ seed bank packets. Using this framework, we quantified the seed bank survival of two closely related annual desert plant species, one rare (Eriophyllum mohavense) and one common (Eriophyllum wallacei) and the seed bank-environment interactions of these two species in the Mojave Desert within a system that emulates microhabitat variation associated with solar energy development. We tracked 4,860 seeds buried across 540 seed packets and found, averaged across both species, that seed bank survival was 21% and 6% for the first and second growing seasons, respectively. After two growing seasons, the rare annual had a significantly greater seed bank survival (10%) than the common annual (2%). Seed bank survival, across both species, was significantly greater in Shade (10%) microhabitats compared to Runoff (5%) microhabitats and Control microhabitats (3%). Our study confers insight into this early life-stage across rare and common congeners and their environmental interactions using a novel conceptual framework for seed bank survival.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0337.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: charcoal; climate change; deforestation; drought; fire; human disturbance; last millennium; non-pollen palynomorphs; pollen analysis; Rapa Nui
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:58:04 CEST)
Easter Island (Rapa Nui) deforestation has traditionally been viewed as a single event, synchronous in time and space across the island and caused by Polynesian settlers. However, recent studies have challenged this idea introducing the concept of spatio-temporal heterogeneity and suggesting a role for climate change. This paper presents a continuous paleovegetation record of the last millennium (~960 to ~1710 CE), based on palynological analysis of a peat core from Lake Kao. During this time interval, deforestation was gradual, with three main pulses at ~1070 CE, ~1410 CE and ~1600 CE, likely driven by drought, anthropogenic practices (mostly fire) or the coupling of both. Some forest regeneration trends have been documented after the first and the second deforestation pulses. Forests were totally removed by 1600 CE, coinciding with the full permanent human settlement of the Kao area. Comparison with other continuous palynological records available for the last millennium (Aroi marsh and Lake Raraku), confirms that forest clearing was heterogeneous in time and space, rather than synchronous island-wide.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: CADASIL; small vessel disease; retinal and choroidal blood flow disturbance; reduced amplitude of the P50 wave in PERG; retinal drusen
Online: 10 October 2022 (07:01:45 CEST)
Abstract Aim of the study: Presentation of ophthalmic symptoms of Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infracts and Leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Material and methods: Clinical presentation of female patient with diagnosed CADASIL, manifested by transient loss of vision, migraine, convergence insufficiency, diplopia, increased deep tendon reflexes of upper left limb, subcortical infarcts, mood disturbances and dementia. Results: Confirmed NOTCH3 gene mutation (p.Cys212Gly), and presence of granular osmiophilic material (GOM) in cutaneous small vessel wall in immunohistochemistry laboratory test (IHC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral focal vasogenic lesions in white matter of cerebral hemisphere with single micro-focal infarct in the left external capsule. Furthermore, a left eye exophoria, a bilateral peripheral visual field loss of 20 degrees and a loss of nasolabial fold was confirmed during ophthalmic tests. An eye fundus examination as well as a fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed vessel constriction of retinal arteries and a peripheral retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy with focal drusen in the left eye. The doppler ultrasonography (USG) confirmed a decreased blood flow and an increased vascular resistance of the extraocular vessels. The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) revealed a reduced P50 wave amplitude in the patient’s left eye. Conclusions: intermittent blindness, migraine, convergence failure, diplopia with specific MRI signs, NOTCH3 mutation, and the presence of GOM in the skin of small blood vessels in a young or middle-aged patient suggests CADASIL. New observations include: atrophic changes in the RPE, hemodynamic disturbances in blood flow in the short posterior ciliary arteries and in the central retinal artery, single drusen in the retina, and a reduced amplitude of the P50 wave in PERG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0123.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Sentinel-2; Land cover; Vegetation; Mapping; Plant communities; Machine learning; Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem; Gradient Boosting Decision Trees; Solar panel; Vegetation disturbance
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:40:26 CEST)
This research introduces Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem (GPE) mapping at a prefecture level through machine learning of multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite images at 10m spatial resolution, and later integration of prefecture wise maps into country scale for dealing with 88 GPE types to be classified from a large size of training data involved in the research effectively. This research was made possible by harnessing entire archives of Level-2A product, Bottom of Atmosphere reflectance images collected by MultiSpectral Instruments onboard a constellation of two polar-orbiting Sentinel-2 mission satellites. The satellite images were pre-processed for cloud masking and monthly median composite images consisting of 10 multi-spectral bands and 7 spectral indexes were generated. The ground truth labels were extracted from extant vegetation survey maps by implementing systematic stratified sampling approach and noisy labels were dropped out for preparing a reliable ground truth database. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementation of Gradient Boosting Decision Trees (GBDT) classifier was employed for classification of 88 GPE types from 204 satellite features. The classification accuracy computed with 25% test data varied from 65-81% in terms of F1-score across 48 prefectural regions. This research produced seamless maps of 88 GPE types first time at a country scale with an average 72% F1-score. In addition, mapping of solar panels and vegetation disturbance are added.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0290.v1
Subject: Keywords: plant diversity; plant productivity; humped pattern; intrinsic rate of species richness; complementary effect; resource availability; disturbance; species pool effect; competition exclusion; process integration
Online: 10 November 2020 (08:28:28 CET)
The plant productivity-richness relationship (PPR) is one of the most debated and important issues in ecology. There have been distinct stages in the research of this issue, including the discovery of the different PPR shapes, respective tests of influencing processes, and integrative research with vegetation investigation, manipulation experiments, and theoretical analysis. The debate largely focuses on what the dominant shapes and underlying mechanisms are. Recent integrative research works following analyses of respective processes affecting PPR have found that the humped, asymptotic, positive, negative, and irregular shapes of PPR are linked to each other. One shape of PPR may change into another. The balance between positive and negative processes determines the different shapes of PPR. Plant diversity has a globally positive effect on plant productivity.