ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: distillation column; disturbance rejection; genetic algorithm; H∞ control; linear matrix inequalities; static output feedback
Online: 26 December 2017 (05:22:09 CET)
The current work addresses the control of two-input two-output (TITO) Wood and Berry model of a binary distillation column. The controller design problem is formulated in terms of multivariable H∞ control synthesis. The controller structure takes the form of simplest static output feedback (SOF) control. The controller synthesis is performed using a hybrid approach of blending linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and genetic algorithm (GA). The performance of the static output feedback controller is compared with three other controllers designed for Wood and Berry model available in the literature. The first simulation study is performed for the case of tracking a unit step command in the presence of a step change in output disturbance. A second simulation study is performed for rejecting a change in sinusoidal output disturbance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0230.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: QKD; distillation; reconciliation
Online: 10 August 2021 (12:01:40 CEST)
We present an error reconciliation method for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) that corrects 100% of errors generated in regular binary frames transmitted over a noisy quantum channel regardless of the quantum channel error rate. In a previous investigation, we introduced a novel distillation QKD algorithm whose secret key rate descends linearly with respect to the channel error rate. Now, as the main achievement of this work, we demonstrate an improved algorithm capable of retaining almost all the secret information enclosed in the regular binary frames. Remarkably, this technique increases quadratically the secret key rate as a function of the double matching detection events and doubly quadratically in the number of the quantum pulses. Furthermore, this reconciliation method opens up the opportunity to use less attenuated quantum pulses, would allow greater QKD distances at drastically increased secret key rate. Since our method can be implemented as a software update, we hope that quantum key distribution technology would be fast deployed over global data networks in the quantum era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0222.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: frame; distillation; QKD
Online: 14 April 2020 (15:13:55 CEST)
We introduce a new integral method for Quantum Key Distribution to perform sifting, reconciliation and amplification processes to establish a cryptographic key through the use of binary structures called frames which are capable to increase quadratically the secret key rate. The method can be implemented with the usual optical Bennett-Brassard (BB84) equipment allowing strong pulses in the quantum regime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0523.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: QKD; distillation; amplification; reconciliation
Online: 21 December 2020 (12:10:10 CET)
We present a new post-processing method for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) that raise cubically the secret key rate in the number of double matching detection events. In Shannon’s communication model information is prepared at Alice’s side then it is intended to pass it over a noisy channel. In our approach, secret bits do not rely in Alice’s transmitted quantum bits but in Bob’s basis measurement choices. Therefore measured bits are publicly revealed while bases selections remain secret. Our method implements sifting, reconciliation and amplification in a unique process, it just require a round iteration, no redundancy bits are sent and there is no limit in the correctable error percentage. Moreover, this method can be implemented as a post processing software into QKD technologies already in use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Desalination; Multi Effect Distillation; Multi Stage Flash; Vapor Compression Distillation; Renewable Energies.
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:33:03 CET)
Abstract: Thermal desalination is yet a reliable technology in the treatment of brackish water and seawater; however, its demanding high energy requirements have lagged it compared to other non-thermal technologies such as reverse osmosis. This review provides an outline of the development and trends of the three most commercially used thermal or phase change technologies worldwide: Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Multi Stage Flash (MSF), and Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD). First, state of water stress suffered by regions with little fresh water availability and existing desalination technologies that could become an alternative solution are shown. The most recent studies published for each commercial thermal technology are presented, focusing on optimizing the desalination process, improving efficiencies, and reducing energy demands. Then, an overview of the use of renewable energy and its potential for integration into both commercial and non-commercial desalination systems is shown. Finally, research trends and their orientation towards hybridization of technologies and use of renewable energies as a relevant alternative to the current problems of brackish water desalination are discussed. This reflective and updated review will help researchers to have a detailed state of the art of the subject and to have a starting point for their research, since current advances and trends on thermal desalination are shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0485.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: QKD; distillation; reconciliation; conjugate frame
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:03:56 CEST)
Previously, using the conjugate frame-based reconciliation approach, we defined a method to correct errors produced in pairs of non-orthogonal quantum states that are transmitted through a quantum key distribution (QKD) link. The security of the frame-based reconciliation was discussed in order to deal with Photon Number Division (PNS) attack and Intercept and Forward (IR) attack, among others. However, until the time of publication we did not have the distillation software to test our method. In this article, following the conjugate frame distillation method, we present the implementation of the post-processing system that demonstrates that it is capable of correcting errors in the presence of error rates close to unity. The system shows that when the number of double-sensing events at Bob's station is as low as 100, the number of secret bits stays above 4500 bits in about 12 seconds, giving a secret rate of 375 bits per second while that the channel error rate reaches 90\%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0333.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: rosé wine; probiotic yeast; fermentation; distillation; viability
Online: 22 September 2022 (05:44:56 CEST)
This paper reports for the first time on the production of probiotic alcoholic and non-alcoholic rosé wines with enhanced health benefits made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii probiotic yeast. The alcohol, sugar, volatile acidity lactic and malic acid contents were assessed for S. cerevisiae var. boulardii before and after fermentation and distillation and compared with a conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ex-bayanus) yeast. The free amino nitrogen and gluconic acid concentrations in the musts were determined. Yeast viability was evaluated after fermentation and distillation as a function of time (0, 15 days, 3 months and 6 months) both at room temperature (25±0.5ºC) and refrigerator temperature (4±0.5ºC). The results obtained showed that the probiotic rosé wine produced with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii possesses the typical values and sensory attributes of other commercial wines produced with S. cerevisiae (ex-bayanus). The probiotic S. cerevisiae var. boulardii yeast survives the high alcohol content produced during fermentation and vacuum distillation. The study also showed that this probiotic rosé wine stored either at room temperature or in a refrigerator keeps its probiotic viability for at least six months, which makes it a promising for large-scale production, in which long storage times are required by both producers and consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0222.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: bioethanol, fruits, Corn Threshing Residue, fermentation, distillation
Online: 30 March 2017 (17:49:30 CEST)
Alcoholic fermentations were performed adapting the technology to exploit the residual thermal energy (hot water at 83-85°C) of a cogeneration plant and to valorize agricultural wastes. Substrates were apple, kiwifruit and peaches wastes and Corn Threshing Residue (CTR). Saccharomyces bayanus was chosen as biocatalyst. The fruits, fresh or blanched, were mashed; CTR was gelatinized and liquefied by adding Liquozyme® SC DS (Novozyme); saccharification simultaneous to fermentation was carried out using the enzyme Spirizyme® Ultra (Novozyme). Lab-scale static fermentations were carried out at 28°C and 35°C, using raw fruits, blanched fruits and CTR, monitoring the ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was reached with CTR (10,22%9 and among fruits with apple (8,71%). Distillations at low temperatures and under vacuum, to exploit warm water from cogeneration plant, were tested; distillation at 80°C and 200 mbar or 400 mbar allowed to recover 93,35 and 89,59 % of ethanol respectively. These results support a fermentation process coupled to a cogeneration plant, fed with apple wastes and with CTR when apple wastes are not available, where hot water from cogeneration plant is used in blanching and distillation phases. The scale up in a pilot plant was also carried out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar distillation; intelligent artificial approach; thermal analysis; water treatment
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
The problem of water drinking supply is very important in the world, especially for developing countries, in particular Algeria. In this work we propose to study a distillation system based on solar energy process using an artificial intelligence approach in order to enhance the performance and the daily production. For this purpose, a conventional solar still and capillary film solar still was used. The operating parameters of the two distilleries are analyzed and the neural network approach was used to predict the performance through the amount of distillate, solar radiation and ambient temperature. The sensitivity between the operating parameters of the solar still for two case have been studied through the artificial neuron network model. The obtained results are promising, analyzed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0112.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: membrane distillation; polyvinylidene fluoride; copper oxide nanoparticles; membrane morphology
Online: 6 July 2018 (09:03:09 CEST)
Membrane distillation techniques appear as one of the most promise alternative to guarantee the availability of potable water in time of scarce of this essential resource. For membrane preparation, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is preferred due to the easier synthesis procedures with respect to other fluorine based polymers. In this work, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) at different weight percent (wt.%), embedded in PVDF membranes supported on non-woven polyester fabric (NWPET) were prepared by the phase-inversion method, and characterized by spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, Raman) and electron microscopy techniques (SEM). The PVDF deposited onto the NWPET was highly composed by its polar -phase (F()= 53 %) which was determined from the ATR-FTIR spectrum. The F() value was kept constant, in the whole range of CuONPs studied (2-10 wt.%) as was determined from the ATR-FTIR spectrum. The absence of signals corresponding to CuONPs in the ATR-FTIR spectra and the appearance of peaks at 297, 360 and 630 cm-1 in the Raman spectra of the membranes suggested that the CuONPs are preferably located in the inner of the membrane but not on its surface. The membrane morphologies were characterized by SEM. From the obtained SEM micrographs, a decrease and increase in the amount of micropores and nanopores, respectively, near to the surface and intercalated in the finger-like layer were observed. As result of the CuONPs addition, the nanopores in the sponge-like layer decrease in size. The values of water contact angle (WCA) measurements showed a trend to decrease from 94° to 80° upon the addition of CuONPs (2-10 wt.%) indicating a diminish in the hydrophobicity degree of the membranes. Apparently, the increase in the amount of nanopores near to the surface decreased the membrane roughness becoming less hydrophobic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: PMMA; Pyrolysis; Plastics Wastes; Depolymerization; Distillation; Recovery of Methylmethac-rylate
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:19:43 CEST)
In this work, the cross-linked PMMA-based dental resins scraps were submitted to pyrolysis to recover MMA (Methylmethacrylate). The thermal degradation of cross-linked PMMA-based dental resins scraps was analyzed by TG/DTG to guide the operating conditions in pilot scale. The pyrolysis experiments carried out in a reactor of 143L, at 345, 405, and 420°C, 1.0 atmosphere. The reaction liquid products obtained at 345°C, physicochemical characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, and refractive index. The chemical composition of liquid products obtained at 345°C, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 110 minutes, at 405°C, 50, 70, and 130 minutes, and at 420°C, 40, 50, 80, 100, 110, and 130 minutes determined by GC-MS. The experiments show that liquid phase yields were 55.50%, 48.73%, and 48.20% (wt.), at 345, 405, and 420°C, respectively, showing a smooth sigmoid behavior, decreasing with increasing temperature, while that of gas phase were 31.69%, 36.60%, and 40.13% (wt.), respectively, increasing with temperature. The liquid products density, kinematic viscosity, and refractive index obtained at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 110 minutes, varied between 0.9227 and 0.9380 g/mL, 0.566 and 0.588 mm2/s, and 1.401 and 1.414, respectively, showing percentage deviations between 0.74 and 2.36%, 7.40 and 10.86%, and 0.00 and 0.92%, respectively, compared to standard values for density, kinematic viscosity, and refractive index of pure MMA at 20 °C. The GC-MS identified in the reaction liquid products at 345, 405, and 420°C, 1.0 atm, esters of carboxylic acids, alcohols, ketones, and aromatics, showing concentrations of MMA between 83.454 and 98.975% (area.). For all the depolymerization experiments, the concentrations of MMA in the liquid phase, between 30 and 80 minutes, reach purities above 98% (area.), decreasing drastically with increasing reaction time after 100 minutes, thus making it possible to depolymerize the cross-linked PMMA-based dental resins scraps by pyrolysis to recover MMA. The optimum operating conditions to achieve high MMA concentrations, as well as elevated yields of liquid reaction products were 345 °C and 80 minutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0116.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: coffee pulp; coffee by-products; sensory evaluation; fruit spirit; methanol; distillation
Online: 13 April 2022 (05:09:35 CEST)
Coffee pulp, obtained from wet coffee processing, is the major by-product accumulating in the coffee producing countries. One of the many approaches valorising this underestimated agricultural residue is the production of distillates. This research project deals with the production of spirits from coffee pulp using three different Coffea arabica varieties as a substrate. Coffee pulp was fermented for 72 hours with a selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae L.), acid, pectin lyase, and water. Several parameters, such as temperature, pH, sugar concentration and alcoholic strength were measured to monitor the fermentation process. Subsequently, the alcoholic mashes were double distilled with stainless steel pot stills and a sensory evaluation of the products was conducted. Furthermore, the chemical composition of fermented mashes and produced distillates were evaluated. It showed that elevated methanol concentrations were present in mashes and products of all three varieties. The sensory evaluation found the major aroma descriptor for the coffee pulp spirits as being stone fruit. The fermentation and distillation experiments revealed that coffee pulp can be successfully used as a raw material for the production of fruit spirits. However, the spirit quality and its flavour characteristics can be improved with optimised process parameters and distillation equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0188.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Açaí; Residual Seeds; Pyrolysis; Bio-Oil; Distillation; Bio-gasoline; Bio-kerosene
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:10:32 CET)
The bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) seeds at 450 ºC, 1.0 atmosphere, in technical scale, submitted to fractional distillation to produce biofuels-like fractions. The distillation of bio-oil carried out in a laboratory distillation column (Vigreux) of 30 cm. The physical-chemistry properties (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value and refractive index) determined by official methods. The chemical functions present in distillation fractions determined by FT-IR and the chemical composition by GC-MS. The distillation of bio-oil yielded gasoline, light kerosene, and kerosene-like fuel fractions of 16.16, 19.56, and 41.89% (wt.), respectively. All the physical-chemistry properties (density, kinematic viscosity, acid value and refractive index) increase with boiling temperature. The gasoline-like fraction is composed by 64.0% (area.) hydrocarbons and 36.0% (area.) oxygenates, while light kerosene-like fraction by 66.67% (area.) hydrocarbons and 33.33% (area.) oxygenates, and kerosene-like fraction by 19.87% (area.) hydrocarbons and 81.13% (area.) oxygenates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Filuferru; spirit; distillation; grape marc; volatile compounds; copper; trace elements; GC-MS; ICP-MS; PCA
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:23:20 CEST)
Traditional Filuferru is an ancient spirit from Sardinia, Italy, usually obtained from the distillation of wine or grape marc. In this contribution, the results of the first chemical characterization of a wide number of craft Filuferru samples has been accomplished in terms of evaluation of the alcoholic strength, qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analysis of the volatile composition of the distillate, and its trace element composition by means a ICP-MS method. Both instrumental methods have been validated and applied on 21 craft samples of Filuferru, whereas one sample of commercial distillate has been analyzed for comparison purposes. Alcoholic strength ranged between 41.0 and 62.4% (v/v). Sixty volatile compounds were identified and ten of them have been quantified. Analogies and differences with Grappa (i.e. the Italian distilled spirit most close to Filuferru) have been highlighted in the qualitative and quantitative profile of this matrix. Often meaningful amounts of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, dietyl acetal and acetic acid were measured. Elemental analysis, performed on toxic, non-toxic elements and oligoelements, 18 in total, revealed a wide variability of concentrations in both analytes and samples. High concentrations of Cu are sometimes evidenced, likely caused by losses from the distillation apparatus. The principal components analysis (PCA) allowed the differentiation of the ten volatile compounds quantified in two groups: the former, described mainly by PC1, constituted by acetic acid, ethyl acetate, dietyl acetal and acetaldehyde, and the second, described by PC2, constituted by 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, the two coeluiting isomers 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol,1-hexanol, 2-phenylethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Data obtained may be useful in order to establish a regulation for the production of high-quality traditional Filuferru from Sardinia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0644.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), Spirulina, Hydroprocessing, Hydrotreating, Upgrading, Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), Hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), Fractional distillation, Drop-in biofuels, Nitrogen distribution
Online: 27 October 2018 (21:20:47 CEST)
To obtain drop-in fuel properties from non-feed biomass, we herein report the catalytic hydrotreatment of microalgae biocrude, produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina. Our contribution focuses on the effect of temperature, initial H2 pressure, and residence time on the removal of heteroatoms (O and N). In contrast to common hydrotreating experimental protocols at batch scale, we devised a set of two-level factorial experiments and studied the most influential parameters affecting the removal of heteroatoms. It was found that up to 350 °C, the degree of deoxygenation (de-O) is mainly driven by temperature, whereas the degree of denitrogenation (de-N) also relies on initial H2 pressure and temperature-pressure interaction.Based on this, complete deoxygenation was obtained at mild operating conditions (350 °C), reaching a concurrent 47 % denitrogenation. Moreover, three optimized experiments are reported with 100 % removal of oxygen. In addition, the analysis by GC-MS and Sim-Dis gives insight to the fuel quality. The distribution of heteroatom N in lower (<340 °C) and higher (>340 °C) fractional cuts is studied by a fractional distillation unit following ASTM D-1160. Final results show that 63-68 % of nitrogen is concentrated in higher fractional cuts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0364.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Explainable Artificial Intelligence; Soft Sensors; Industry 4.0; Smart Manufacturing; Cyber-Physical System; Crude Oil Distillation; Debutanization; LPG Purification
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:43:08 CEST)
Refineries execute a series of interlinked processes, where the product of one unit serves as the input to another process. Potential failures within these processes affect the quality of the end products, operational efficiency, and revenue of the entire refinery. In this context, implementation of a real-time cognitive module, referring to predictive machine learning models, enables to provide equipment state monitoring services and to generate decision-making for equipment operations. In this paper, we propose two machine learning models: 1) to forecast the amount of pentane (C5) content in the final product mixture; 2) to identify if C5 content exceeds the specification thresholds for the final product quality. We validate our approach by using a use case from a real-world refinery. In addition, we develop a visualization to assess which features are considered most important during feature selection, and later by the machine learning models. Finally, we provide insights on the sensor values in the dataset, which help to identify the operational conditions for using such machine learning models.