ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Water quality; dissolved oxygen; Neural network; Metaheuristic schemes
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:50:43 CET)
The great importance of estimating dissolved oxygen (DO) dictates utilizing proper evaluative models. In this work, a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) network is trained by three capable metaheuristic algorithms, namely multi-verse optimizer (MVO), black hole algorithm (BHA), and shuffled complex evolution (SCE) for predicting the DO using the data of the Klamath River Station, Oregon, US. The records (DO, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) belonging to the water years 2015 - 2018 (USGS) are used for pattern analysis. The results of this process showed that all three hybrid models could properly infer the DO behavior. However, the BHA and SCE accomplished this task by simpler configurations. Next, the generalization ability of the developed patterns is tested using the data of the 2019 water year. Referring to the calculated mean absolute errors of 1.0161, 1.1997, and 1.0122, as well as Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.8741, 0.8453, and 0.8775, the MLPs trained by the MVO and SCE perform better than the BHA. Therefore, these two hybrids (i.e., the MLP-MVO and MLP-SCE) can be satisfactorily used for future applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0535.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Dissolved Calcium; Kentucky Lake; Streams; Ohio River; Zebra Mussel
Online: 9 October 2023 (12:33:42 CEST)
Dissolved calcium (Ca2+) concentrations in freshwater ecosystems are of growing concern as increasing levels have been implicated in altering the environmental conditions and biodiversity. Elevated Ca2+ levels and sporadic re-emergence and disappearance of invasive zebra mussels in Kentucky Lake in recent years served as a motivation for this study. The objective of this study was to determine Ca2+ spatial and temporal patterns in Kentucky Lake, selected tributary streams, and the Ohio River during and following a zebra mussel invasion. Over 1000 water samples were collected and analysed for dissolved calcium during 2018-2022. Approved analytical methods were followed for sampling and measuring dissolved calcium levels. Results revealed significant spatial and temporal patterns. Kentucky Lake Ca2+ levels varied between 15-25 mg/L depending on the sampling location and month/year. Kentucky Lake channel sites exhibited comparably higher concentrations of Ca 2+ than did most embayment and/or stream sites, indicating that tributary streams did not serve as primary sources of calcium to the lake. Dissolved calcium levels at main lake sites exceeded the threshold for zebra mussel growth and reproduction in 2018 during the time when zebra mussels were present. Calcium in lake water samples collected from 2019 through 2022 was at or just below the threshold. Temporal trend data showed a gradual increase in Ca2+ in Kentucky Lake throughout the study period but remaining at or below the threshold level considered critical for the zebra mussels’ reproduction and development. Calcium levels in the Ohio River site at Paducah were similar to Kentucky Lake reflecting the predominance of Tennessee River water, while levels at the Brookport site were consistent with values known to support zebra mussel populations. The elevated calcium levels in Kentucky Lake waters during the late winter and early spring months may be due to natural sources (mineral weathering) as well as human activities in the Tennessee River basin. This study emphasizes the need for continued calcium monitoring in the watershed to determine the potential for future zebra mussel outbreaks and potential influences on the lake ecosystem and its functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0518.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: aquaculture water quality; dissolved oxygen (DO); forecasting; EEMD; LSTM
Online: 22 September 2020 (10:02:09 CEST)
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) concentration is a vital parameter that indicates water quality. DO short term forecasting using time series analysis on data collected from an aquaculture pond is presented here. This can provide data support for an early warning system for an improved management of the aquaculture farm. The conventional forecasting approaches are commonly characterized by low accuracy and poor generalization problems. In this article, we present a novel hybrid DO concentration forecasting method with ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based LSTM (Long short-term memory) neural network (NN). With this method, first, the sensor data integrity is improved through linear interpolation and moving average filtering methods of data preprocessing. Next, the EEMD algorithm is applied to decompose the original sensor data into multiple intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Finally, the feature selection is used to carefully select IMFs that are strongly correlated with the original sensor data and integrate both into inputs for the NN. The hybrid EEMD-based LSTM forecasting model is then constructed. Performance of this proposed model in training and validation sets was compared with the observed real sensor data. To obtain the exact evaluation accuracy of the forecasted results of the hybrid EEMD-based LSTM forecasting model, three statistical performance indices were adopted: MAE, MSE, and RMSE. Results presented for short term (12-hour period) and long term (1-month period) give a strong indication of suitability of this method for forecasting DO values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: peatland management; microbiome; methanogens; dissolved organic matter; Methylococcaceae; sulfate
Online: 16 February 2020 (16:22:46 CET)
Drained peatlands are significant sources of the greenhouse gas (GHG) carbon dioxide. Rewetting is a proven strategy to protect carbon stocks; however, it can lead to increased emissions of the potent GHG methane. The response to rewetting of soil microbiomes as drivers of these processes is poorly understood, as are biotic and abiotic factors that control community composition. We analyzed the pro- and eukaryotic microbiomes of three contrasting pairs of minerotrophic fens subject to decade-long drainage and subsequent rewetting. Also, abiotic soil properties including moisture, dissolved organic matter, methane fluxes and ecosystem respiration rates. The composition of the microbiomes was fen-type-specific, but all rewetted sites showed higher abundance of anaerobic taxa compared to drained sites. Based on multi-variate statistics and network analyses we identified soil moisture as major driver of community composition. Furthermore, salinity drove the separation between coastal and freshwater fen communities. Methanogens were more than tenfold more abundant in rewetted than in drained sites, while their abundance was lowest in the coastal fen, likely due to competition with sulfate reducers. The microbiome compositions were reflected in methane fluxes from the sites. Our results shed light on the factors that structure fen microbiomes via environmental filtering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1603.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biochar; soil; , organic amendments; enzyme activity; dehydrogenase; dissolved organic carbon
Online: 26 September 2023 (08:17:53 CEST)
Biochars are often proposed as a strategy for long-term carbon sequestration. Nevertheless, application of pyrolysed feedstock, particularly along with exogenous organic matter, may affect carbon dynamics in soil through introduction of labile carbon pools and stimulation of extracellular enzymes activity. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of biochars and unprocessed organic amendments addition in two agricultural soils on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and activity of three enzymes involved in carbon turnover. In the incubation experiment, activity of dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, cellulase and DOC content were measured on day 30, 60, 90, 180 and 360. Addition of biochars stimulated the activity of dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase, while cellulase was suppressed. Fresh biomass amendment enhanced activity of the enzymes through priming effect. DOC content tended to be the highest in treatments with high enzyme activity, suggesting that DOC introduced with amendments acted as a source of energy for microbes. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochar properties and presence of exogenous organic matter affect microbial response in soil, what might be crucial for carbon sequestration potential of biochar. However, long-term studies are recommended to fully understand the mechanisms that determine response of soil biota to biochar addition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0873.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: synthetic fertilizer; dissolved organic carbon; phosphorus fractions; acidity; soil depth
Online: 12 May 2023 (03:32:40 CEST)
The influence of long-term chemical fertilization in paddy soils is based on the interaction between labile carbon and phosphorus fractions and how this influences soil organic carbon (SOC). Four soil depths (0–30 cm) were analyzed in this study. Easily oxidized organic carbon components, such as permanganate oxidized carbon (POXC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and other physicochemical soil factors were evaluated. The correlation and principal component analyses were used to examine the relationship between soil depth and the parameter dataset. The results showed that Fe-P concentrations were greater in the 0–5 cm soil layer. DOC, inorganic phosphate fraction, and other soil physiochemical characteristics interacted more strongly with SOC in the 0–5 cm soil layer, compared to that in the 10–15 cm layer, influencing soil acidity. An increase in DOC in the 0–5 cm soil layer had a considerable effect on lowering SOC, consistent with P positively correlated with POXC, but negatively with SOC and water-soluble carbon (WSC). The changes in SOC could be attributed to the relationship between DOC and inorganic phosphate fractions (as Fe-P) under a specific soil pH condition. An increase in soil DOC could be caused by changes in the P fraction and pH. The DOC:Avai. P ratio could serve as a compromise for the C and P dynamic indicators. The soil depth interval is a critical element that influences these interactions. Agricultural policy and decision-making may be influenced by the P from chemical fertilization practices, considering the yields and environmental effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0378.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: water quality; outdoor sports; dissolved oxygen; stagnant water; cable ski
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:36:47 CEST)
Abstract: The concept of sustainability applied to sports activities means ensuring that the economic benefits brought about by their development are not obtained at the expense of causing ecological damage or interference in local cultural habits. A cable-ski is a nautical ski system whereby a motorboat is substituted by a cable traction system powered by an electric motor. The effect on the quality of the water in those places that can boast cable-ski facilities has been described in cold freshwater lakes. Objective: Our purpose was to study the evolution of water quality in a ten-year period after the installation of a cable-ski facility in a warm, salted, semi-stagnant pond. Material and Method: Review of the data gathered from the routine test carried out by the Laboratory of the Council of Alcúdia from 2010 to 2019 Results: The levels of dissolved oxygen have increased, being significantly higher in the period 2016 – 2019 than in that of 2010 – 2015. The turbidity of the water has also seen a reduction in the second period with respect to the first. Conclusion: It seems that cable-ski improves the quality of water even warm, high-conductivity, semi-stagnant conditions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0286.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: pd doped graphyne; dissolved gases; adsorption; density functional theory (dft)
Online: 25 September 2019 (16:01:58 CEST)
To realize high response and selectivity gas sensor in detecting dissolved gases in transformer oil, in this study, the adsorption of four kinds of gases (H2, CO, C2H2 and CH4) on Pd-graphyne as well as the gas sensing properties evaluation were investigated. The energetically favorable structure of Pd doped γ-Graphyne was first studied, including the comparison of different adsorption sites and discussion of electronic properties. Then, the adsorption of these four molecules on Pd-graphyne was explored. The adsorption structure, adsorption energy, electron transfer and electron distribution, the band structure and density of states were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the Pd atom prefers to be adsorbed on the middle of three C≡C bonds and the band gap is smaller. The CO adsorption exhibits the largest adsorption energy and electron transfer and brings obvious change to the structure and electron properties to Pd-graphyne. Because of the conductance decrease after adsorption CO and acceptable recovery time at high temperature, the Pd-graphyne can be promising gas sensing materials to detect CO with high selectivity. This work offers theoretical support for the design of nanomaterials based gas sensor using novel structure for industrial application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0410.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Anion exchange, DOC, Dissolved phosphorus, Forest soil, Lysimeters, P transport
Online: 18 October 2018 (10:10:20 CEST)
Incidental P losses from non-point sources may contribute to eutrophication and to decreased soil fertility. These incidents have been related to heavy rainfall on freshly fertilized agricultural soils and little is known about such incidents on more natural soils or in forests. The aim of this work is to determine if incidents of high P leaching also occur in spruce forests, and if such incidents are of significance in P cycling. We found a peak in the mineral soil solution showing that single events of high P leaching occur. The orthophosphate concentration in the Bf-horizon of the 80-year old spruce forest peaked in the autumn of the second year of a continuous monitoring. The concentration increased by more than 85 times compared to the highest concentration obtained earlier during the sampling. The amount leached during this 6 months peak is 10 times higher than the average annual leaching. This P leaching might be due to a combination of high P deposition/through-fall and a high anion exchange with dissolved-organic-carbon and Cl-. We suggest that single events of high sub-surface P leaching may contribute to the overall P leaching, and might increase with the global warming as more DOC is expected to be released to the soil solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1817.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: agriculture waste organic materials; dissolved organic matter; phosphorus sorption; sorption isotherms
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:20:11 CEST)
The effect of organic matter (OM) on soil P-sorption is controversial and needs to be more investigated. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) may be regarded as an influential component on P sorption in natural soils. However, despite the great need for renewable sources of available P and OM in agricultural soils, little is known about interaction between P and DOM in natural soil systems. To uncover if and how soil saturation with DOM derived from different types of abundant agricultural wastes (cattle manure, horse manure, biogas digestate, compost) affects the phosphate sorption, we examined P sorption process in control and DOM-saturated sandy soils. The results indicated that organic matter introduced with agricultural wastes did not always reduce P sorption, but certainly had an effect on impairing P fixation and thus may result in potentially greater P mobility in the soil, including P availability. Up to now, we cannot recommend any of the tested organic amendments to directly overcome the P fixation in arable soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0112.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Atenolol; caffeine; sulfadiazine; dissolved organic matter; sewage; specific sorption; sorption competition
Online: 3 May 2023 (07:55:31 CEST)
Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) enter soil with organic substrates such as manure. Such complex substrates differently affect PhACs’ soil sorption. To elucidate the effects, batch experiments were conducted using five selected chemicals as model constituents. Urea, KH2PO4, acetic acid, phenol and nonadecanoic acid (C:19) altered the sorption strength and/or nonlinearity of sulfadiazine, caffeine and atenolol in a topsoil. The nonlinear Freundlich model best described sorption. Overall, the PhACs’ sorption coefficients increased in the sequence urea<phosphate<phenol<C:19<acetic acid. The sorption nonlinearity also increased in most cases. The effects on sulfadiazine and caffeine were rather similar, but in many cases different from atenolol. Phosphate mobilized sulfadiazine and caffeine and urea mobilized sulfadiazine, which was explained by sorption competition resulting from specific preference of similar sorption sites. Soil sorbed phenol strongly increased the sorption of all three PhACs; phenolic functional groups are preferred sorption sites of PhACs in soil. The large increase in sorption of all PhACs by acetic acid was attributed to a loosening of the soil organic matter and thus the creation of additional sorption sites. The effect of C:19 fatty acid, however, was inconsistent. These results help to better understand the sorption of PhACs in mixtures of soil and manure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: nutrient loading; geospatial model; dissolved inorganic nitrogen; water quality; island management
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:23:41 CET)
Excessive nutrient discharge to tropical island coastlines drives eutrophication and algal blooms with significant implications for reef ecosystem condition and provision of ecosystem services. Management actions to address nutrient pollution in coastal ecosystems include setting water quality standards for discharging surface waters. However, these standards do not account for the effects of groundwater discharge, variability in flow, or dilution, all of which may influence assessment of true nutrient impacts on nearshore reef habitats. We developed a method to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loads to coastal zones by integrating commonly available datasets within a geospatial modeling framework for Tutuila, American Samoa. The DIN loading model integrated an open-source water budget model, water sampling results, and publically available streamflow data to predict watershed-scale DIN loading to the island’s entire coastline. When compared to surface water pathways, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was determined to be the most important coastal delivery mechanism of terrigenous DIN, which supports findings from other tropical islands. Onsite wastewater disposal systems were also found to be the primary anthropogenic sources DIN to coastal waters. Our island-wide DIN loading model provides a simple and robust metric to define spatially-explicit sources and delivery mechanisms of nutrient pollution to nearshore reef habitats. Understanding the sources and primary transport modes of inorganic nitrogen to nearshore reef ecosystems can have significant implications for place-based management interventions aimed at increasing the adaptive capacity of unique island ecosystems to environmental variation and disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0193.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: chromophoric dissolved organic matter; polluted waters; optical properties; Yinma River watershed
Online: 23 August 2016 (10:35:36 CEST)
Spectral characteristics of CDOM in water column are a key parameter for bio-optical modeling. Knowledge of CDOM optical properties and spatial discrepancy based on the relationship between water quality and spectral parameters in Yinma River watershed with in situ data collected highly-polluted waters are exhibited in this study. Seasonal field data sets collected over a period of 2 months in 2015 in Yinma River Watershed. Based on the comprehensive index method, the riverine waters showed serious contamination, especially the COD, Fe, Mn, Hg and DO were out of range contamination warning. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended matter (TSM) with prominent non-homogenizing were significantly high in the riverine waters, but chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) was opposite. Ternary phase diagram showed that non-algal paritcles absorption played an important role in total non-water light absorption (>50%) in most sampling locations, and mean contribution of CDOM were 13% and 22% in summer and autumn respectively. Analysis of ratio of absorption at 250-365 nm (E250:365) and spectral slope (S275-295) indicated that CDOM had higher aromaticity and molecular weight in autumn than in summer, is consistent with the results of water quality and relative contribution. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the environmental variables OSM had a strong correlation with CDOM absorption, followed by heavy metal, e.g., Mn, Hg and Cr6+. However, for the specific UV absorbance (SUVA254), the seasonal values showed opposite results compared with the reported literature. The potential reasons were the more UDOM (uncolored Dissolved Organic Matter) from human source (wastewater effluent) existed in waters. Terrigenous inputs simultaneously are in relation to the aCDOM(440)-DOC relationship with the correlation coefficient was 0.90 in summer (2-tailed, p<0.01), and 0.58 in autumn (2-tailed, p<0.05). Spatial distribution of CDOM parameters exhibited that the downstream regions focused on dry land have high CDOM molecular weight and aromatic hydrocarbon. Partial sampling locations around the cities or countries generally showed abnormal values due to terrigenous inputs. As a bio-optical model parameter, spectral characteristic of CDOM is helpful in adjusting the derived algorithms in highly-polluted environments. The study on organic carbon and pollutants in highly-polluted waters had an important contribution to global carbon balance estimation and water environment protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2078.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Soil phosphorus availability; Dissolved organic matter; Organic fertilizer; Competitive adsorption; Molecular weight
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:36:39 CEST)
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from organic fertilizers may increase soil phosphorus (P) availability. However, the frequently observed correlation between soil P availability and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content has led to an excessive focus on DOC content at the expense of DOM properties. The present study investigated the influence of DOM characteristics on soil P availability by using a 6-year field experiment and microcosms of P sorption in paddy soil. Our results showed that partial replacement of chemical P fertilizer with manure or crop straw increased P fertilizer-use efficiency, even when decreasing chemical P input by 34 %, compared to normal chemical fertilization. The microcosm experiment demonstrated that DOM properties, rather than total DOC content, determine soil P sorption capacity, despite the significant correlation between DOC content and P availability observed in the field experiment. Manure-DOM exerted stronger inhibitory effects on P sorption than straw-DOM, and high molecular weight (HMW)-fractionated DOM exerted stronger inhibitory effects on P sorption than low-molecular-weight-fractionated DOM by 16-20%. The mechanism was rooted in the HMW DOM with unique characteristics (e.g., strong aromaticity, hydrophobicity, abundant humic-like components, carboxyl groups, and benzene ring structures) competing for soil P sorption sites (e.g., reduction in specific surface area and micropore volume), decreasing the soil surface charge (e.g., zeta potential), and thereby suppressing P sorption in paddy soil. Our study points out a promising avenue for regulating organic matter properties with organic fertilization to improve P use efficiency in agricultural soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: pollution; dissolved oxygen; Credit River; machine learning; graph neural networks; SHAP analysis
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:15:54 CEST)
An important indicator of human-related pollution in watersheds is dissolved oxygen (DO). The DO is highly dependent on both space and time characteristics of the watershed and is directly linked to eutrophication, which impairs the development of both the aquatic fauna and flora, also negatively impacting the water quality. Aspiring to reach a more accurate and precise forecasting approach to predict levels of DO, the present work proposes new graph-based and transformer-based deep learning models. The models were trained and validated for the Credit River Watershed, and the results were compared with both benchmarking and literature-found approaches. The proposed Graph Neural Network Sample and Aggregate (GNN-SAGE) model was the best-performing approach, reaching coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) values of 97% and 0.34 ppm, respectively. The findings from the Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) indicated that the GNN-SAGE benefited from spatiotemporal information from the surrounding stations, improving the model’s results, and that temperature is a major input attribute for determining future DO levels. The results established that the proposed GNN-SAGE model stands as a state-of-the-art solution for DO forecasting, with potential for real-time water quality applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: API separators; dissolved air flotation; refinery effluent; membrane bioreactors; cost; energy consumption
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:56:02 CEST)
The established classical method of treating oil refinery effluent is flotation followed by biological treatment. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) offer more advanced treatment, producing a clarified and potentially reusable treated effluent, but demand robust pretreatment to remove oil and grease (O&G) down to consistent, reliably low levels. An analysis of a full-scale conventional oil refinery ETP based on flotation alone, coupled with projected performance, energy consumption and costs associated with a downstream MBR, have demonstrated satisfactory performance of flotation-based pre-treatment. The flotation processes, comprising an API separator followed by dissolved air flotation (DAF), provided ~90% removal of both total suspended solids (TSS) and O&G coupled with 75% COD removal. The relative energy consumption and cost of the pretreatment, normalised against both the volume treated and COD removed, was considerably less for the API-DAF sequence compared to the MBR. The combined flotation specific energy consumption in kWh was found to be almost an order of magnitude lower than for the MBR (0.091 vs 0.86 kWh per m3 effluent treated), and the total cost (in terms of the net present value) around one sixth that of the MBR. However, the nature of the respective waste streams generated and end disposal of waste solids differs significantly between the pretreatment and MBR stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: repeated stress; hematology; fish; rainbow trout; hypoxia; dissolved oxygen concentration; RDW; cortisol
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:40:17 CEST)
Oxygen is a limiting factor both in the environment and production systems, so reduction may become a stressor. Diel cyclic hypoxia occurs with varying frequency and duration in freshwater habitats. Under a stressful situation fish activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI) which triggers the release of cortisol that induces secondary and tertiary responses. The recovery of individuals depends on their ability to modulate physiological, and biochemical responses to maintain homeostasis. The aim of this study is to determine the hematological and physiological responses of rainbow trout under repeated hypoxic stress in different time points. The methodology of the experiment consisted of dividing the fish in 5 different treatment groups, 2 control groups and 3 hypoxia groups. Every exposure consisted in decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration from 8mg O2/L to 2mg O2/L for 1 hour. After the exposure the fish went to a recovery tank until the sampling procedure. Hematological and physiological results show a habituation of the fish to different parameters such as hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume among others. Overall, our results indicate an ability of rainbow trout to resist this type of hypoxic exposures and a habituation of fish to repeated hypoxia as observed in the different measured parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0229.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality; invasive species; water hyacinth; estuaries; temperature; dissolved oxygen; turbidity; herbicide
Online: 16 July 2019 (08:28:04 CEST)
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive species that has modified ecosystem functioning in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta), California, USA. Studies in lakes and rivers have shown that water hyacinth alters water quality. In tidal systems, such as the Delta, water moves back and forth through the water hyacinth patch so water quality directly outside the patch in either direction is likely to be impacted. In this study, we asked whether the presence or treatment of water hyacinth with herbicides resulted in changes in water quality in this tidal system. We combined existing datasets that were originally collected for permit compliance and long-term regional monitoring into a dataset that we analyzed with a before-after control-impact (BACI) framework. This approach allowed us to describe effects of presence and treatment of water hyacinth, while accounting for seasonal patterns in water quality. We found that although effects of treatment were not detectable when compared with water immediately upstream, dissolved oxygen and turbidity became more similar to regional water quality averages after treatment. Temperature became less similar to the regional average after treatment, but the magnitude of the change was small. Taken together, these results suggest that tidal hydrology exports the effects of water hyacinth upstream, just as river flow is known to transport the effects downstream, creating a buffer of altered water chemistry around patches. It also suggests that although water hyacinth has an effect on dissolved oxygen and turbidity, these parameters recover to regional averages after treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0519.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: dissolved sulfide; iron; hypoxia; buffering capacity; environmental restoration; coastal waters; Mikawa Bay; dead zone
Online: 30 March 2023 (02:58:33 CEST)
This study examined the spatial-temporal distribution of sulfur and iron compounds (dissolved sulfide, iron sulfide, and ionized iron) in sediments from April 2015 to March 2016 at four stations in Mikawa Bay, Japan. Seasonal changes were observed in dissolved sulfide, iron sulfide, and ionized iron in the upper part of the sediment (0–4 cm depth) at all stations. The maximum concentration in the upper part of the central bay was 2.8 mmol L-1. The maximum values of dissolved sulfide (ranging from 1.4 to 8.1 mmol L-1) at stations located in a water way varied among stations. The iron sulfide concentration in the upper part of the sediment at a station where dissolved sulfide concentration in the waterway was relatively low exceeded that at other stations in the waterway during spring to summer. Ionized iron concentration was highest at the station where the dissolved sulfide concentration was low. The study results suggest that iron plays an important role in determining the magnitude of dissolved sulfide accumulation in sediments by binding with dissolved sulfide. The results imply the possibility of mitigating the accumulation of free sulfides, which causes extreme hypoxia, by artificially adding sufficient iron to the seabed.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0446.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: bio-delipidation; dissolved air flotation (DAF); fats, oil and grease (FOG); poultry slaughterhouse wastewater (PSW)
Online: 27 August 2018 (09:48:51 CEST)
Delipidation is a method of defatting that is generally associated with the removal of residual lipids or lipid groups from matrices in which they are present in minute quantities. The bio-delipidation of protein-rich poultry slaughterhouse wastewater (PSW) pre-treated with a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system was developed using microbial lipases from bacterial strains isolated from the PSW. The efficacy of the bio-delipidation system was quantitatively characterised by comparing the quality parameters i.e., fats, oil and grease (FOGs), turbidity, total suspended solutes (TSS), total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) and protein concentration of the DAF pre-treated PSW and bio-lipidized samples. As hypothesised, the bio-delipidation system was able to effectively reduce the levels of these quality parameters when crude lipases of Bacillus cereus AB1 (BF3) and Bacillus cereus CC-1 (B30) strains were used. Strain-dependent quality characteristics were also observed in bio-delipidized samples. The study successfully managed to complement physical reduction techniques (DAF) with biological strategies (bio-delipidation) for improved PSW quality, with potential industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0052.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: shale gas; lost shale gas content; oil dissolved shale gas content; improved USBM method; Ordos Basin
Online: 9 October 2017 (13:00:10 CEST)
Shale gas content is the key parameter for shale gas potential evaluation and favorable area prediction. Therefore, it is very important to determine shale gas content accurately. Generally, we use the USBM method for coal reservoirs to calculate gas content of shale reservoirs. However, shale reservoirs are different from coal reservoirs in depth, pressure, core collection, etc. This method would inevitably cause problems. In order to make the USBM method more suitable for shale reservoir, an improved USBM method is put forward on the basis of systematic analysis of core pressure history and temperature history during shale gas desorption. The improved USBM method modifies the calculation method of the lost time, and determines the temperature balance time of water heating. In addition, we give the calculation method of adsorption gas content and free gas content, especially the new method of calculating the oil dissolved gas content and water dissolved gas content which are easily neglected. We used the direct method (USBM and the improved USBM) and the indirect method (adsorption gas, free gas and dissolved gas) to calculate the shale gas content of 16 shale samples of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Southeastern Ordos Basin, China. The results of the improved USBM method show that the total shale gas content is high, with an average of 3.97 m3/t, and the lost shale gas content is the largest proportion with an average of 62%. The total shale gas content calculated by the improved USBM method is greater than that of the USBM method. The results of the indirect method show that the total shale gas content is large, with an average of 4.11 m3/t, and the adsorption shale gas content is the largest proportion with an average of 71%. The oil dissolved shale gas content which should be taken attention accounts for about 7.8%. The relative error between the improved USBM method and indirect method is much smaller than that between USBM method and indirect method, which verifies the accuracy of the improved USBM method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0503.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: permafrost hydrology; Russian Arctic; water tracks; hydrological connectivity; stable water isotopes; dissolved organic carbon; electrical resistivity tomography; taliks
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:15:37 CEST)
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment, north-European Arctic. Elevated tundra patches underlain by sands were disconnected from the stream and stored precipitation water from previous months. At the catchment surface and in the water track thalweg, some circular hollows, from 0.2 to 0.4 m in diameter, acted as evaporative basins with low d-excess values, from 2 to 4‰. Other hollows were connected to shallow subsurface runoff, yielding d-excess values between 12 and 14‰. ‘Connected’ hollows yielded a 50% higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, 17.5±5.3 mg/L, than the ‘disconnected hollows, 11.8±1.7 mg/L. Permafrost distribution across the landscape is continuous, but highly variable. Open taliks exist under fens and small hummocky depressions, as revealed by electric resistivity tomography surveys. Isotopic evidence supports upward subpermafrost groundwater migration through open taliks under water tracks and fens/bogs/depressions, and its supply to streams via shallow sub-surface compartment. Temporal variability of isotopic composition and DOC in water track and a major river system, the Vorkuta R., evidence the widespread occurrence of the described processes in the large river basin. Water tracks effectively drain the tundra terrain and maintain xeric veg-etation over the elevated inter-track tundra patches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0109.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: power transformer; fault diagnosis and decision; dissolved gas analysis; intelligent algorithms; reliability assessment; hybrid network; preventive electrical tests
Online: 11 April 2018 (08:58:29 CEST)
Compared with conventional methods of fault diagnosis for power transformers, which have defects such as imperfect encoding and too absolute encoding boundaries, this paper systematically discusses various intelligent approaches applied in fault diagnosis and decision making for large oil-immersed power transformers based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA), including expert system (EPS), artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy theory, rough sets theory (RST), grey system theory (GST), swarm intelligence (SI) algorithms, data mining technology, machine learning (ML), and other intelligent diagnosis tools, and summarizes existing problems and solutions. From this survey, it is found that a single intelligent approach for fault diagnosis can only reflect operation status of the transformer in one particular aspect, causing various degrees of shortcomings that cannot be resolved effectively. Combined with the current research status in this field, the problems that must be addressed in DGA-based transformer fault diagnosis are identified, and the prospects for future development trends and research directions are outlined. This contribution presents a detailed and systematic survey on various intelligent approaches to faults diagnosing and decisions making of the power transformer, in which their merits and demerits are thoroughly investigated, as well as their improvement schemes and future development trends are proposed. Moreover, this paper concludes that a variety of intelligent algorithms should be combined for mutual complementation to form a hybrid fault diagnosis network, such that avoiding these algorithms falling into a local optimum. Moreover, it is necessary to improve the detection instruments so as to acquire reasonable characteristic gas data samples. The research summary, empirical generalization and analysis of predicament in this paper provide some thoughts and suggestions for the research of complex power grid in the new environment, as well as references and guidance for researchers to choose optimal approach to achieve DGA-based fault diagnosis and decision of the large oil-immersed power transformers in preventive electrical tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: hot spot temperature; transformer oil-paper insulating system; reliability assessment; dynamic correction; dissolved gas analysis; grey target theory
Online: 15 January 2018 (09:09:34 CET)
This paper develops a novel dynamic correction method for the reliability assessment of large oil-immersed power transformers. First, with the transformer oil-paper insulation system (TOPIS) as the target of evaluation and the winding hot spot temperature (HST) as the core point, an HST-based static ageing failure model is built according to the Weibull distribution and Arrhenius reaction law, in order to describe the transformer ageing process and calculate the winding HST for obtaining the failure rate and life expectancy of TOPIS. A grey target theory based dynamic correction model is then developed, combined with the data of Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) in power transformer oil, in order to dynamically modify the life expectancy calculated by the built static model, such that the corresponding relationship between the state grade and life expectancy correction coefficient of TOPIS can be built. Furthermore, the life expectancy loss recovery factor is introduced to correct the life expectancy of TOPIS again. Lastly, a practical case study of an operating transformer has been undertaken, in which the failure rate curve after introducing dynamic corrections can be obtained for the reliability assessment of this transformer. The curve shows a better ability of tracking the actual reliability level of transformer, thus verifying the validity of the proposed method and providing a new way for transformer reliability assessment. This contribution presents a novel model for the reliability assessment of TOPIS, in which the DGA data, as a source of information for the dynamic correction, is processed based on the grey target theory, thus the internal faults of power transformer can be diagnosed accurately as well as its life expectancy updated in time, ensuring that the dynamic assessment values can commendably track and reflect the actual operation state of the power transformers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1382.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land Use and Land Cover (LULC); in-water optical properties; bio-optics; suspended particulate matter; coloured dissolved organic matter; chlorophyll-a; catchment area; water discharge; land-sea interactions.
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:48:00 CEST)
The optical complexity of coastal waters is mostly caused by the water discharged from land carrying optical components (such as dissolved and particulate matter) into coastal bays and estuaries, and increasing the attenuation of light. This paper aims to investigate the links between in-water optical properties in four Swedish bays (from the northern Baltic proper up to the Bothnian bay) and the land use and land cover (LULC) and the hydrology in the respective catchment of each bay. The optical properties were measured in situ over the last two decades by various research and monitoring groups while the LULC in each bay was classified using the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service based on Landsat 8 and Sentinel-3 data. The absorption coefficient of coloured dissolve organic matter at 440 nm, aCDOM (440), and its spectral slope factor, SCDOM, were mostly correlated to natural land cover classes (Wetland, Meadow) acting as sources of CDOM, while Agricultural and Urban classes seem to act as sinks. The Agricultural class was also found to be a sink for suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) whilst Coniferous and Mixed Forests as well as Meadows acted as a sources. SPOM seems to mostly originate from Natural classes, possibly due to the release of pollen and other organic matter. Overall, the methods applied here allow for a better understanding of effects of land used and land cover on the bio-optical properties, and thus coastal water quality, on a macroscopic scale.