ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: anuran; competition; disruptive selection; diversification; fear; phenotypic plasticity; resource polymorphism; specialization
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:07 CET)
Disruptive selection arises when extreme phenotypes have a fitness advantage compared to more intermediate phenotypes. Theory and evidence suggest that intraspecific resource competition is a key driver of disruptive selection. However, while competition can be indirect (exploitative) or direct (interference), the role of interference competition in disruptive selection has not been tested, and most models of disruptive selection assume exploitative competition. We experimentally investigated whether the type of competition affects the outcome of competitive interactions using a system where disruptive selection is common: Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles develop into alternative resource-use phenotypes: carnivores, which consume fairy shrimp and other tadpoles, and omnivores, which feed on algae and detritus. Tadpoles intermediate in phenotype have low fitness when competition is intense, as they are outcompeted by the specialized tadpoles. Our experiments revealed that the presence of carnivores significantly decreased foraging behavior in intermediate tadpoles, and that intermediate tadpoles had significantly lower growth rates in interference competition treatments with carnivores but not with omnivores. Interference competition may therefore be important in driving disruptive selection. As carnivore tadpoles are also cannibalistic, the ‘fear’ effect may have a greater impact on intermediate tadpoles than exploitative competition alone, similarly to non-consumptive effects in predator-prey or intraguild relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0737.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: disruptive technology; financial innnovation; social innovation; MNCs
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:03:36 CEST)
This study aims to assess and identify the role of disruptive/digital technologies in financial innovation strategies as part of social innovations at both firm and country level. There are few studies of this type that "cross-examine" technical/social innovative capacity at the firm level vs. the same innovative capacity at the level of the world's major countries. Our proposed study brings some novel elements to the literature on this topic. First, the study synthesizes the factors/variables explaining technical/social innovative capacity as ranked by the GCI (Global Competitiveness Index) and GII (Global Innovation Index) at the country level and then correlates these variables with the factors explaining innovative capacity for the 50 companies in the BCG (Boston Consulting Group) ranking. Second, the study identifies three "driving forces" (digital technologies, managers and the market) as the main variables determining financial innovativeness at firm level. Third, based on the "cross" analysis of the information/data provided by the BCG study vs. the GII and GCI studies, the study suggests some ways to delineate and quantify financial innovation as part of social innovation (e.g., it is argued that 80% of the social innovation achieved annually by a firm relates to the financial relationships engaged by the firm with various categories of stakeholders). Finally, the study is also important from a pragmatic point of view as it suggests/proposes a number of principles that can be considered by managers for building a KM (knowledge management) and continuous innovation strategy. From a theoretical perspective, the study provides a starting point for further research aimed at explaining firm-level financial innovation through the massive use of disruptive technologies.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: geographies of disruption; data analytics; policy intervention; Uber; disruptive technology; disruptive innovation; path dependency; platform development; platform economics
Online: 27 November 2018 (06:52:38 CET)
The topic of technology development and its disruptive effects has been the subject of much debate over the last 20 years with numerous theories at both macro and micro scale offering potential models of technology progression and disruption. This paper focuses on how the potential theories of technology progression can be integrated and considers whether suitable indicators of this progression and any subsequent disruptive effects (particularly considering these geographically) might be derived, based on the use of big data analytic techniques. Given the magnitude of the economic, social and political implications of many disruptive technologies, the ability to quantify disruptive change at the earliest possible stage could deliver major returns by reducing uncertainty, assisting public policy intervention and managing the technology transition through disruption into deployment. However, determining when this stage has been reached is problematic because small random effects in the timing, direction of development, the availability of essential supportive technologies or “platform” technologies, market response or government policy can all result in failure of a technology, its form of adoption or optimality of implementation. This paper reviews some of the key models of technology evolution and their disruptive effect including, in particular, the geographical spread of disruption. It suggests a methodology for utilising the recent explosion of open and web-discoverable data to determine a methodology to achieve this earlier determination and considers the potential exploitation of big data modelling and predictive analytical techniques to achieve this goal.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0118.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Disruptive Technologies; Operational Breakeven; Altman’s Z-score; Enyi’s RSR; Going Concern; Market Induced Survival Ratio; Disruptive Technology Gains Index
Online: 5 November 2021 (11:31:53 CET)
Disruptive technologies (DT) have featured prominently in almost every human activity since the advent of computerization. The likely effects of DT on economic processes and human professions have and continue to generate fears and debates which spurred this investigation. To break away from the traditional approach the operational breakeven theory and the discriminant analysis techniques of Altman’s Z-score, and Enyi’s Relative Solvency Ratio were used to examine the relationship between firms’ market-induced-survival-ratio (MISR) and the disruptive technology gains index (DTGI) of seventy-three firms drawn from Nigeria and India. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. The results showed that a sizeable number of firms has profited from the introduction of disruptive technologies with MISR and DTGI returning a 10% significant relationship while others are still struggling to measure up to the requirements of disruptive technologies in their chosen economic fields. The implication of this is that businesses must brace up and embrace digital transformation if they must stay afloat in this era of disruptive technologies. This study recommends a revolutionary approach to digital transformation in view of the fast pace of global integration while managers and business owners should adopt more pragmatic approach in appraising the operations and finances of a firm for effective results and timely responses to potential business challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: disruptive technologies; emerging technologies; smart city; urban (city) resilience
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:57:50 CEST)
Smart Cities leverage technology to address various urban challenges and creating disaster resilience is one of them. Technology is a vast and ever-evolving field, and hence the research on technology for improving disaster resilience is scattered. A major drawback of prevailing studies is that they continue to overlook the bottlenecks to effectively harness the benefits of technological innovations and that includes the need for a holistic and multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, this research intends to address that need by methodising the scattered research to provide meaningful insights towards the linkages between society and technological innovations through an urban scholar’s perspective. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to explore emerging and disruptive technologies for improving disaster resilience in Smart Cities. The review findings identified the emerging and disruptive technologies for improving disaster resilience in Smart Cities which were then classified. The findings suggested 4 key criteria to classify technologies including their impact the society, adoption speed, technology maturity and capabilities offered to the community. A Smart City which plans the technologies/ tools for disaster resilience may conduct the assessments under the aforementioned criteria, together with their context-specific feasibility assessments to make informed decisions and ultimately prioritise the most suitable for them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: ethics of technology; emerging technologies; disruptive technology; systemic disruption; ethics of disruption
Online: 13 August 2021 (22:53:28 CEST)
Disruptive technologies can be conceptualized in different ways. Depending on how they are conceptualized, different ethical issues come into play. This article contributes to a general framework to navigate the ethics of disruptive technologies. It proposes three basic distinctions to be included in such a framework. First, emerging technologies may instigate localized “first-order” disruptions, or systemic “second-order” disruptions. The ethical significance of these disruptions differs: first-order disruptions tend to be of modest ethical significance, whereas second-order disruptions are highly significant. Secondly, technologies may be classified as disruptive based on their technological features or based on their societal impact. Depending on which of these classifications one adopts and takes as the starting point of ethical inquiry, different ethical questions are foregrounded. Thirdly, the ethics of disruptive technology raises concerns at four different levels of technology assessment: the technology level, the artifact level, the application level, and the society level. The respective suitability of approaches in technology ethics to address concerns about disruptive technologies co-varies with the respective level of analysis. The article clarifies these distinctions, thereby laying some of the groundwork for an ethical framework tailored for assessing disruptive technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: disruptive behavior disorders; conduct disorder; oppositional defiant disorder; aggression; atypical antipsychotics; risperidone; clozapine
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:03:40 CEST)
Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) in childhood, such as conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are characterized by high levels of irritability and aggression. Though psychological management is considered the first-line approach for these disorders, many children and adolescents require adjunctive pharmacotherapy for the control of specific symptoms. Several prior systematic reviews have examined the evidence for the use of antipsychotics in the symptomatic management of DBDs, but have concluded that their efficacy is marginal and limited by significant adverse effects. This paper updates existing reviews of this field by reviewing clinical trials of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with DBDs published in the period 2-1-2017 to 2-10-2022. The PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant citations. Six relevant trials were identified during this period. These trials were critically evaluated in terms of outcome measures, efficacy and safety. Overall, the data from these trials suggests that certain atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone and clozapine, are effective in the short-term management of aggression in DBDs. They have no apparent effect on cognition, but are associated with significant metabolic adverse effects. The results of these trials, and of the earlier systematic reviews, are discussed in the light of global trends towards increasing off-label prescription of antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents, and of recent literature on the neuropharmacology of aggression in this patient population. The need for rational, short-term use of these drugs is highlighted, as well as the importance of post-marketing surveillance for long-term or severe adverse events.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: CAD/CAM; dental ceramics; dental technology; digital dentistry; dental education; dental innovation; disruptive technology
Online: 25 November 2021 (20:06:23 CET)
Digital dentistry, including CAD/CAM dentistry, is perhaps the most disruptive innovation in dentistry to date. The rapid development of digital dentistry technologies over the past several decades has enabled clinicians to improve patient care by significantly reducing the time necessary for the restorative phase of treatment. Advancements in intra-oral scanning and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), in conjunction with new dental CAD/CAM ceramic materials, have simplified patient care and made same-day dentistry a reality. This review aims to present the most recent advancements described in current literature as well as to document the successful implementation of digital dentistry into a predoctoral program. The overall process of CAD/CAM same-day dentistry and the accompanying advancements in software and materials were presented and discussed. Implementation of technology and personnel requirements were reviewed. CAD/CAM dentistry has been influential in shaping and improving dental practice and education, and this influence will only continue with time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0530.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Informatics; Social Informatics; Information Systems; Information System Design; Disruptive Innovation; Technological Determinism; Software Life Cycle
Online: 22 July 2020 (14:07:18 CEST)
Motivation: there is a paradox at the heart of informatics where practical implementation generally fails to understand the socio-technical impact of novel technologies and disruptive innovation when adopted in `real-world’ systems. This phenomenon, termed technological determinism, is manifested in a time-lag between the adoption of novel technologies and an understanding of the underlying theory which develops following research into their adoption. Methods: we consider informatics theory as it relates to: social informatics and how humans’ function in society, the relationship between society and technology, information systems, information systems design, and human-computer interactions. The challenges posed by novel technologies and disruptive innovation are considered as they relate to information systems and information systems design. Open research questions with directions for future research are discussed with an introduction to and our proposed approach to socio-technical information system design. Significance: we conclude that the adoption of disruptive innovation presents both opportunities and threats for all stakeholders in computerised systems. However, determinism is a topic requiring research to generate a suitable level of understanding and technological determinism remains a significant challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: knowledge assets’ combination-embeddedness; major business specificity of knowledge assets; outbound and inbound disruptive innovation
Online: 3 January 2017 (10:17:35 CET)
Innovation is an essential key factor in the technology development history. Past research on innovation focused more on the innovation behavior of technology, but seldom described knowledge assets which also influence innovation behavior greatly. The effect of knowledge assets attribute and result on disruptive innovation is therefore regarded as the research topic in this study, where disruptive innovation is divided into outbound and inbound to combine combination-embeddednessandmajor business specificityof knowledge assets as the research model. Manufacturing enterprises in China are proceeded the questionnaire survey, and 173 valid copies are collected. The empirical analysis shows that combination-embeddedness of knowledge assets presents significantly positive effects on major business specificity and outbound innovationof an enterprise but reveals remarkably negative effects on inbound innovation. Enterprises are suggested to constantly accumulate knowledge assets with low major business specificity before disruptive innovation in order to reduce ineffective inbound innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1043.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: business transformation; digital process maturity; business maturity framework (BMF); incremental changes; maturity assessment; disruptive changes; oil and gas industry
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:01:31 CEST)
This paper examines the use of business maturity models as a tool for achieving business maturity and improving organizational performance in a rapidly changing business environment. Specifi-cally, the paper evaluates existing maturity models and methodologies, analyzes their effective-ness, and develops a novel and enhanced model tailored to the oil and gas sector. The authors highlight the importance of considering fundamental factors that underlie the implementation of maturity models and the need to evaluate their fit with organizational goals and values. The pa-per concludes by emphasizing the ongoing nature of business maturity and the effectiveness of theproposed Business Maturity Framework (BMF) model in enhancing operational excellence, competitiveness, and sustainable growth in the oil and gas industry. The paper makes a notable contribution to the specialized literature precisely through the differ-ent approaches to the business maturity process and through the proposed business maturity model itself as a base of strategy formulation, which includes a new dimension. This dimension analyzes whether the market and customers are ready for the level of digitization that the com-pany wants to achieve in a future state.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0240.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; artificial intelligence; big data; cloud computing; education system; disruptive technologies; industry 4.0; internet of things; skills; virtual and augmented reality
Online: 23 October 2019 (03:45:59 CEST)
The 21st century has witnessed precipitous changes spanning from the way of life to the technologies that emerged. We have entered a nascent paradigm shift (industry 4.0) where science fictions have become science facts, and technology fusion is the main driver. Thus, ensuring that any advancement in technology reach and benefit all is the ideal opportunity for everyone. In this study, disruptive technologies of industry 4.0 was explored and quantified in terms of the number of their appearances in published literature. The study aimed at identifying industry 4.0 key technologies which have been ill-defined by previous researchers and to enumerate the required skills of industry 4.0. Comprehensive literature survey covering the field of engineering, production, and management was done from multidisciplinary databases: Google scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Sage, Taylor & Francis and Emerald insight. Results of the electronic survey showed that 35 disruptive technologies were quantified and 13 key technologies: Internet of things, Big data, 3D printing, Cloud computing, Autonomous robots, Virtual and Augmented reality, Cyber physical system, Artificial intelligence, Smart sensors, Simulation, Nanotechnology, Drones and Biotechnology were identified. Both technical and personal skills to be imparted into the human workforce for industry 4.0 were reported. The study identified the need to investigate the capability and the readiness of developing countries in adapting industry 4.0 in terms of the changes in the education systems and industrial manufacturing settings. The study proposes the need to address integration of industry 4.0 concepts into the current education system.