ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0299.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: dispersion management; mid-span spectral inversion; dispersion map; optical phase conjugator; residual dispersion per span; random distribution; chromatic dispersion; nonlinear Kerr effect; wavelength division multiplexed
Online: 17 August 2022 (04:17:45 CEST)
The weakness of the dispersion-managed link combined with optical phase conjugation to compensate for optical signal distortion caused by chromatic dispersion and nonlinear Kerr effect of standard single mode fiber is its limited structural flexibility. We propose dispersion map that can simultaneously compensate for the distorted wavelength division multiplexed signal while increasing the configurational flexibility. Each residual dispersion per span (RDPS) in the former half of the proposed link is randomly determined, and in the latter half, the arrangement order of RDPS is the same as or inverted in the former half. We confirm that the dispersion maps in which the RDPS distribution pattern in the latter half is opposite to the arrangement order in the former half are more effective in compensation, and rather, the compensation effect is better than in the dispersion map of the conventional scheme. The notable result of this paper is that the increase of flexibility can be achieved through random arrangement of RDPS in the former half, and the compensation improvement can be achieved by through inverse arrangement in the latter half which make the distribution profile of each half link roughly symmetric with respect to the midway optical phase conjugator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0153.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: conduction; heterogeneity; inhomogeneity; dispersion; mouse; heptanol
Online: 11 May 2022 (13:08:36 CEST)
Background: Previous studies have associated slowed ventricular conduction in the arrhythmogenesis mediated by the gap junction and sodium channel inhibitor heptanol in mouse hearts but did not study the propagation patterns that might contribute to the arrhythmic substrate. This study used a multi-electrode array mapping technique, to further investigate different conduction abnormalities in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts exposed to 0.1 or 2 mM heptanol. Methods: Multi-electrode array recordings were made from the left ventricular epicardium in spontaneously beating hearts, during right ventricular regular 8 Hz pacing or S1S2 pacing. Results: In spontaneously beating hearts, heptanol at 0.1 and 2 mM significantly reduced the heart rate from 314±25 to 189±24 and 157±7 bpm, respectively (ANOVA, P<0.05 and P<0.001). During regular 8 Hz pacing, Mean LATs were increased by 0.1 and 2 mM heptanol from 7.1±2.2 ms to 19.9±5.0 ms (P<0.05) and 18.4±5.7 ms (P<0.05). The standard deviation of mean LATs was increased from 2.5±0.8 ms to 10.3±4.0 ms and 8.0±2.5 ms (P< 0.05), and the median of phase differences was significantly increased from 1.7±1.1 ms to 13.9±7.8 ms and 12.1±5.0 ms by 0.1 and 2 mM heptanol (P<0.05). P5 took a value of 0.2±0.1 ms and was not significantly altered by heptanol at 0.1 or 2 mM (1.1±0.9 ms and 0.9±0.5 ms, P>0.05). P50 was increased from 7.3±2.7 ms to 24.0±12.0 ms by 0.1 mM heptanol and then to 22.5±7.5 ms by 2 mM heptanol (P< 0.05). P95 was increased from 1.7±1.1 ms to 13.9±7.8 ms by 0.1 mM heptanol and to 12.1±5.0 ms by 2 mM heptanol (P<0.05). These changes led to increases in the absolute inhomogeneity in conduction (P5-95) from 7.1±2.6 ms to 31.4±11.3 ms, 2 mM: 21.6±7.2 ms, respectively (P<0.05). The inhomogeneity index (P5-95/P50) was significantly reduced from 3.7±1.2 to 3.1±0.8 by 0.1 mM and then to 3.3±0.9 by 2 mM heptanol (P<0.05). Conclusion: Increased activation latencies, reduced CVs and increased dispersion index of conduction were associated with both spontaneous and induced ventricular arrhythmias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0191.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: ultrashort pulses; dispersion; pulse distortion; optical communications
Online: 20 January 2019 (09:17:07 CET)
Ultrashort pulses are severely distorted even by low dispersive media. While the mathematical analysis of dispersion is well known, the technical literature focuses on pulses, which keep their shape: Gaussian and Airy pulses. However, the cases where the shape of the pulse is unaffected by dispersion is the exception rather than the norm. It is the object of this chapter to present a variety of pulses profiles, which have analytical expressions but can simulate real-physical pulses with greater accuracy. In particular, the dynamics of smooth rectangular pulses, physical Nyquist-Sinc pulses, and slowly rising but sharply decaying ones (and vice-versa) are presented. Besides the usage of this chapter as a handbook of analytical expressions for pulses' propagations in a dispersive medium, there are several new findings. The main ones are: Analytical expressions for the propagation of chirped rectangular pulses, which converge to extremely short pulses; analytical approximation for the propagation of Super-Gaussian pulses; the propagation of Nyquist Sinc Pulse with smooth spectral boundaries and an analytical expression for a physical realization of an attenuation compensating Airy pulse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0344.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: brazing; alumina dispersion-strengthened copper; mechanical test
Online: 19 July 2018 (05:18:58 CEST)
Alumina dispersion-strengthened copper, Glidcop, is used widely in high-heat-load ultra-high-vacuum components for synchrotron light sources (absorbers), accelerator components (beam intercepting devices) and in nuclear power plants. Glidcop has similar thermal and electrical properties to OFE (oxygen free electrical) copper, but has superior mechanical properties, thus making it a feasible structural material; its yield and ultimate strength are equivalent to those of mild-carbon steel. The purpose of this work has been to develop a brazing technique to join Glidcop to Mo, using a commercial Cu-based alloy. The effects of the excessive diffusion of the braze along the grain boundaries on the interfacial chemistry and joint microstructure, as well as on the mechanical performance of the brazed joints, has been investigated. In order to prevent the diffusion of the braze into the Glidcop alloy, a copper barrier layer has been deposited on Glidcop by means of RF-sputtering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0015.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Casimir effect, dispersion, ultraviolet divergences, infrared divergences
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:58:15 CET)
It is familiar that the Casimir self-energy of a homogeneous dielectric ball is divergent, although a finite self-energy can be extracted through second order in the deviation of the permittivity from the vacuum value. The exception occurs when the speed of light inside the spherical boundary is the same as that outside, so the self-energy of a perfectly conducting spherical shell is finite, as is the energy of a dielectric-diamagnetic sphere with $\varepsilon\mu=1$, a so-called isorefractive or diaphanous ball. Here we re-examine that example, and attempt to extend it to an electromagnetic $\delta$-function sphere, where the electric and magnetic couplings are equal and opposite. Unfortunately, although the energy expression is superficially ultraviolet finite, additional divergences appear that render it difficult to extract a meaningful result in general, but some limited results are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0268.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: isomorphic optinalysis; dispersion; statistical mirrors; estimators; statistical properties
Online: 13 September 2021 (13:26:35 CEST)
The statistical properties of a good estimator include robustness, unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. However, the commonly used estimators of dispersion have lack or are weak in one or more of these properties. In this paper, I proposed statistical mirroring as a good alternative estimator of dispersion around defined location estimates or points. In the main part of the paper, attention is restricted to Gaussian distribution and only estimators of dispersion around the mean that functionalize with all the observations of a dataset were considered at this time. The different estimators were compared with the proposed estimators in terms of alternativeness, scale and sample size robustness, outlier biasedness, and efficiency. Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate artificial datasets for application. The proposed estimators (of statistical meanic mirroring) turn out to be suitable alternative estimators of dispersion that is less biased (more resistant) to contaminations, robust to scale and sample size, and more efficient to a random distribution of variable than the standard deviation, variance, and coefficient of variation. However, statistical meanic mirroring is not suitable with a mean (of a normal distribution) close to zero, and on a scale below ratio level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0756.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Atmospheric Dispersion; Integral Model; Flammable Hazards; Flammable distances
Online: 31 March 2021 (10:11:28 CEST)
Integral atmospheric dispersion models are used widely for flammable hazard and its risk analysis. There is a widespread belief that flammable distances from these models are conservative when flammable ranges are calculated using the 0.5 lower flammability limits (LFL) concentration threshold. This is erroneous. This paper traces through the development of these models and the research that led to the Birch Guidance. It shows that the 0.5 LFL is a necessary factor to transform the results of dispersion models designed for environmental assessment to applications to flammable hazard assessment in quiescent conditions. Current applications do not take account of turbulence due to wind, large and small obstructions, etc. A set of simple guidance is given in the paper to manage flammable hazards based on results from atmospheric dispersion models, including topics for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0345.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: spatial dispersion; field profile; metamaterials; photonics; RF engineering
Online: 19 July 2018 (05:23:37 CEST)
We show that an experimentally plausible system consisting of a modulated wire medium hosted in a metal cavity can preserve the longitudinal field profile shaping predicted by Boyd et al. (2018) on the basis of a perfectly periodic wire-only structure. These new frequency domain numerical results are a significant step towards justifying the construction of an experimental apparatus to test the field profile shaping in practise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0211.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: solute transport, dispersion, hagen-poiseuille flow, non-fickian
Online: 30 May 2017 (07:53:21 CEST)
We present an exact expression for the upscaled dynamic dispersion coefficient (D) for one-dimensional transport by Hagen-Poiseuille flow which is the basis for modeling transport in porous media idealized as capillary tubes. The theoretical model is validated by comparing the breakthrough curves (BTCs) from a 1D advection-dispersion model with dynamic D to that from direct numerical solutions utilizing a 2D advection-diffusion model. Both Taylor dispersion theory and our new theory are good predictors of D at lower Peclet Number (Pe) regime, but gradually fail to capture most parts of BTCs as Pe increases. However, our model generally predicts the mixing and spreading of solutes better than Taylor’s theory since it covers all transport regimes from molecular diffusion, through anomalous transport, and to Taylor dispersion. The model accurately predicts D based on the early part of BTCs even at relatively high Pe regime (~62) where the Taylor’s theory fails. Furthermore, the model allows for calculation of the time scale that separates Fickian from non-Fickian transport. Therefore, our model can readily be used to calculate dispersion through short tubes of arbitrary radii such as the pore throats in a pore network model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0014.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: PM10; TSP; pollutants; element markers; epidemiological; dispersion modeling
Online: 13 March 2017 (08:49:10 CET)
No doubt pollution is a global problem which must be holistically tackled. In doing this, adequate knowledge of the sources of pollution is important, therefore the aim of this paper is to review source apportionment with reference to top-down and bottom-up methods. In this paper, dispersion modeling, emissions inventory, and sampling methods were discussed. Also, analytical methods involved in top-down source apportionment were mentioned. The two techniques are needed to evaluate pollutants and their sources. Based on these two approaches, pollution control strategy would be developed and decisions can be made in deciding the right approach to solve or reduce the pollution problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0192.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: nonlinear Schrödinger equation system; few-mode propagation; Kerr effect; Raman scattering; dispersion; implicit/explicit Crank–Nicolson scheme; pulse chirping, second-order dispersion, third-order dispersion, chirp pulse, optical pulse compression, pulse collapse
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:57:12 CET)
This paper discusses approaches to the numerical integration of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations system in case of few-mode wave propagation. The wave propagation assumes the propagation of up to nine modes of light in an optical fiber. In this case, the light propagation is described by the non-linear coupled Schrödinger equation system, where propagation of each mode is described by own Schrödinger equation with other modes interactions. In this case, the non-linear coupled Schrödinger equation system solving becomes increasingly complex, because each mode affects the propagation of other modes. The suggested solution is based on the direct numerical integration approach, which is based on a finite-difference integration scheme. The well-known explicit finite-difference integration scheme approach fails, due to the non-stability of the computing scheme. Due to this fact, the combined explicit/implicit finite-difference integration scheme, based on the implicit Crank–Nicolson finite-difference scheme, is used. It allows ensuring the stability of the computing scheme. Moreover, this approach allows separating the whole equation system on the independent equation system for each wave mode at each integration step. Additionally, the algorithm of numerical solution refining at each step and the integration method with automatic integration step selection are used. The suggested approach has performance gains (or resolutions) up to three or more orders of magnitude in comparison with the split-step Fourier method due to the fact that there is no need to produce direct and inverse Fourier transforms at each integration step. The main advantage of the proposed method is the ability to calculate the propagation of an arbitrary number of modes in the fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: biopharmaceutical; nephroprotective; oral absorption; self-micellizing solid dispersion; thymoquinone.
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:43:27 CET)
Nigella sativa's thymoquinone (TQM), a water-insoluble phytonutrient exhibits nephroprotective effects. This study intends to develop a self-micellizing solid dispersion (SMSD) of TQM for better biopharmaceutical and nephroprotective performance. Soluplus®-based SMSD of TQM was created and tested for physicochemical properties, solubility, and pharmacokinetics in rats. Plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), nephrotoxic indicators, and oxidative stress biomarkers were also tested. During SMSD preparation, TQM was found amorphous, boosting solubility. Minimal band changes between TQM and Soluplus® indicate insignificant drug-carrier interactions. SMSD-TQM generated fine micelles in water, improving TQM's solubility by 97.8% in 60 min. SMSD-TQM was 4.9 times more bioavailable orally in rats than crystalline TQM. In a rat model of acute renal damage by cisplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.), SMSD-TQM (10 mg-TQM/kg, p.o.) reduced blood creatinine and BUN by 56% and 63.2%, respectively. These findings imply that SMSD-TQM may be a potent dosage option for enhancing TQM's nutrient value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0395.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air quality; nitrogen oxides; dispersion modelling; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 31 March 2022 (05:55:45 CEST)
Road vehicles are a large contributor to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) pollution. The routine road-side monitoring stations, however, may underrepresent the severity of personal exposure in urban areas, because long-term average readings cannot capture the effects of momentary, high peaks of air pollution. While numerical modelling tools historically have been used to propose an improved distribution of monitoring stations, ultra-high resolution Computational Fluid Dynamics models can further assist the relevant stakeholders in understanding the important details of pollutant dispersion and exposure at local level. This study deploys a 10 cm-resolution CFD model to evaluate actual high peaks of personal exposure to NOx from traffic, by tracking the gases emitted from the tailpipe of moving vehicles being dispersed towards the roadside. The investigation shows that a set of four Euro 5-rated diesel vehicles travelling at constant speed may generate momentary road-side concentrations of NOx as high as 1.25 mg/m3, with 25% expected increase for doubling the number of vehicles and approximately 50% reduction when considering Euro 6-rated vehicles. The paper demonstrates how the numerical tool can be used to identify the impact of measures to reduce personal exposure, such as protective urban furniture, as traffic patterns and environmental conditions change.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Fullerene; Endofullerene; Aqueous Fullerene Dispersion; Antioxidant Potential; Kinetic Chemiluminometry
Online: 26 May 2021 (14:19:39 CEST)
The antioxidant potential (capacity and activity) of aqueous fullerene dispersions (AFD) of non-functionalized C60, C70, and Gd@C82 endofullerene (in micromolar concentration range) was estimated based on chemiluminescence measurements of the model of luminol and generation of organic radicals by 2,2’-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP). The antioxidant capacity was estimated by the TRAP method, from the concentration of half-suppression, and from the suppression area in the initial period. All three approaches agree and show that the antioxidant capacity of AFDs increased in the row Gd@C82 < C70 < C60. Mathematical modeling of the long-term kinetics data was used for antioxidant activity estimation. The effect of C60 and C70 is found to be quenching of the excited product of luminol with ABAP-generated radical and not an actual antioxidant effect; quenching constants differ insignificantly. Apart from quenching with a similar constant, the AFD of Gd@C82 exhibits actual antioxidant action. The antioxidant activity in Gd@C82 is 300-fold higher than quenching constants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0232.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: biogenic dispersion; epidemic model; system dynamics; astrobiology; stellar clusters
Online: 12 October 2020 (11:53:44 CEST)
The discovery of a growing number of exoplanets and even extrasolar systems supports the scientific consensus that it is possible to find other signs of life in the universe. The present work proposes for the first time, an explicit mechanism inspired by the dynamics of biological dispersion, widely used in ecology and epidemiology, to study the dispersion of biogenic units, interpreted as complex organic molecules, between rocky or water exoplanets (habitats) located inside star clusters. The results of the dynamic simulation suggest that for clusters with populations lower than 4 M+/ly3 it is not possible to obtain biogenic worlds after 5 Gyr. Above this population size, biogenic dispersion seems to follow a power law, the larger the density of worlds lesser will be the impact rate (β ) value to obtain at least one viable biogenic Carrier habitat after 5 Gyr. Finally, when we investigate scenarios by varying β, a well-defined set of density intervals can be defined in accordance to its characteristic β value, suggesting that biogenic dispersion has a behavior of “minimal infective dose” of “minimal biogenic effective” events by interval i.e. once this dose has been achieved, doesn’t matter if additional biogenic impact events occur on the habitat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0323.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: scattering; heterogeneity; anisotropy; elastic waves; dispersion; attenuation; Mohorovičić discontinuity
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:01:02 CEST)
The geometry of mesoscopic inhomogeneities plays an important role in determining the macroscopic propagation behaviors of elastic waves in a heterogeneous medium. Non-equiaxed inhomogeneities can lead to anisotropic wave velocity and attenuation. Developing an accurate scattering theory to describe the quantitative relation between the microstructure features and wave propagation parameters is of fundamental importance for seismology and ultrasonic nondestructive characterization. This work presents a multiple scattering theory for strongly scattering elastic media with general tri-axial heterogeneities. A closed analytical expression of the shape-dependent singularity of the anisotropic Green’s tensor for the homogeneous reference medium is derived by introducing a proper non-orthogonal ellipsoidal coordinate. Renormalized Dyson’s equation for the coherent wave field is then derived with the help of Feynman’s diagram technique and the first-order-smoothing approximation. The exact dispersion curves and the inverse Q-factors of coherent waves in several representative medium models for the heterogeneous lithosphere are calculated numerically. Numerical results for small-scale heterogeneities with the aspect ratio varying from 1 to 7 show satisfactory agreement with those obtained from real earthquakes. The results for velocity dispersion give rise to a novel explanation to the formation mechanism of different seismic phases. The new model has potential applications in seismology and ultrasonic microstructure characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0361.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Emission; Turbulence; Roof slope; Scaled model; Wind tunnel; Dispersion
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:25:39 CEST)
The application of naturally ventilated pig buildings (NVPBs) with outdoor exercise yards is on the rise mainly due to animal welfare considerations, while the issue of emissions from the buildings to the surrounding environment is important. Since air pollutants are mainly transported by airflow, the knowledge on the airflow characteristics downwind the building is required. The objective of this research was to investigate airflow properties downwind of a NVPB with a roofed outdoor exercise yard for roof slopes of 5°, 15°, and 25°. Air velocities downwind a 1:50 scaled NVPB model were measured using a Laser Doppler Anemometer in a large boundary layer wind tunnel. A region with reduced mean air velocities was found along the downwind side of the building with a distance up to 0.5 m (i.e. 3.8 times building height), in which the emission concentration might be high. It was found that a smaller roof slope (i.e. 5° slope) resulted in a higher and shorter wake zone and thus a shorter air pollutant dispersion distance. It was concluded that a smaller roof slope could contribute to the dilution of air pollutants and a lower air pollutant concentration near the ground.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: longitudinal dispersion coefficient; machine learning algorithms; rivers; statistical parameters
Online: 9 May 2019 (12:42:50 CEST)
Longitudinal dispersion coefficient (LDC) plays an essential role in modeling the transport of pollution and sediment in the natural rivers. As a result of transportation processes, the concentration of pollution changes along the river. Different studies have been conducted to provide simple equations for estimating LDC. In this study, Support Vector Regression (SVR), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), M5P and Random Forest (RF) examined to predict the LDC in the natural streams. The hydraulic and geometric features of different rivers gathered for developing the mentioned models for LDC estimation and various statistical criteria were utilized to scrutinize of the models. Furthermore, the Taylor chart was used to evaluate the models and achieved results showed that among machine learning models, M5P displayed the superior performance with CC of 0.823, SI of 0.812, NS of 0.577 and WI of 0.879. As well, S-D model with CC of 0.795 SI of 0.827, NS of 0.558 and WI of 0.890 had more precise results than other empirical models. The results indicates that the developed M5P model with simple formulations was superior to other machine learning models and empirical models and therefore, it can be used as a proper tool for estimating LDC in natural rivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: emulsion; dispersion; crystallization; melt emulsification; crystallization index; aggregation; nucleation
Online: 16 November 2017 (05:09:39 CET)
Crystallization behavior of hexadecane (C16H34), octadecane (C18H38), eicosane (C20H42), and docosane (C22H46) dispersions of similar mean droplet diameter (x50.2 ≈ 15 µm) was investigated in quiescent systems and compared to crystallization under mechanical stress. In quiescent systems, the required supercooling decreased with increasing chain length of the alkanes to initiate crystallization. Crystallization of alkane dispersions under mechanical stress resulted in similar onset crystallization supercooling, as during quiescent crystallization. Increase of mechanical stress did not affect the onset crystallization supercooling within alkane dispersions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves; fiber metal laminate; dispersion diagram; displacement field
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:41:42 CEST)
Guided ultrasonic waves are suitable for use in the context of structural health monitoring of thin-walled, plate-like structures. Hence, observing the wave propagation in the plates can provide an indication of whether damage has occurred in the structure. In this work, the wave propagation in fiber metal laminate consisting of thin steel foils and layers of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer is studied, focusing on the main propagation characteristics like dispersion diagrams and displacement fields. For this purpose, the dispersion diagrams derived from the analytical framework and numerical simulations are first determined and compared to each other. Next, the displacement fields are computed using the global matrix method for two excitation frequencies. The results derived from the analytical framework is used to validate numerically determined displacement fields based on a 2D and a 3D modeling approach. For both investigations the results of the analytical treatment and the numerical simulation show good agreement. Furthermore, the displacement field reveals the typical and well-known characteristics of the propagation of guided waves in thin-walled structures. Since the use of full 3D models involves a very high computational cost, this work also successfully investigates the possibility for model order reduction to decrease the computational time and costs of the simulation without the loss of accuracy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0212.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: phases of water; microstructure; dispersion; physical and chemical properties; polywater
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:25:51 CEST)
A brief review of the history of the problem is intended to trace the progress in the development of scientific views on the structure of water. The discoveries in this area made in the first half of the last century are considered in comparison with modern data. It is shown that due to the de facto ban on the study of the structure of water in 1971, work in this direction was frozen for a long time. The paradox is that many forgotten truths have been independently "rediscovered" in our time, which speaks of their authenticity. On the basis of scientific literature and their own research, the authors come to the conclusion that water under room conditions is a microdispersed system, one phase of which is represented by continuous water, and the other - by polywater, discovered in the 70s of the last century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0146.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: SO2 emissions; computer vision; time-averaged dispersion model; CrIS; JPSS
Online: 4 February 2021 (21:53:35 CET)
Long-term continuous time series of SO2 emissions are considered critical elements of both volcano monitoring and basic research into processes within magmatic systems. One highly successful framework for computing these fluxes involves reconstructing a representative time-averaged SO2 plume from which to estimate the SO2 source flux. Previous methods within this framework have used ancillary wind datasets from reanalysis or numerical weather prediction (NWP) to construct the mean plume and then again as a constrained parameter in the fitting. Additionally, traditional SO2 datasets from ultraviolet (UV) sensors lack altitude information which must be assumed to correctly calibrate the SO2 data and to capture the appropriate NWP wind level which can be a significant source of error. We have made novel modifications to this framework which do not rely on prior knowledge of the winds and therefore do not inherit errors associated with NWP winds. To perform the plume rotation, we modify a rudimentary computer vision algorithm designed for object detection in medical imaging to detect plume-like objects in gridded SO2 data. We then fit a solution to the general time-averaged dispersion of SO2 from a point source. We demonstrate these techniques using SO2 data generated by a newly developed probabilistic layer height and column loading algorithm designed for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), a hyperspectral infrared sensor aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System’s Suomi-NPP and NOAA-20 satellites. This SO2 data source is best suited to flux estimates at high-latitude volcanoes and at low-latitude, but high-altitude volcanoes. Of particular importance, IR SO2 data can fill an important data gap in the UV-based record: estimating SO2 emissions from high-latitude volcanoes through the polar winters when there is insufficient solar backscatter for UV sensors to be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0317.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: scattering; elastic waves; porous materials; dispersion; attenuation; Mohorovičić discontinuity; seismology
Online: 28 July 2019 (15:18:25 CEST)
Scattering of elastic waves in heterogeneous media has become one of the most important problems in the field of wave propagation due to its broad applications in seismology, natural resource exploration, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and biomedical ultrasound. Nevertheless, it is one of the most challenging problems because of the complicated medium inhomogeneity and the complexity of the elastodynamic equations. A widely accepted model for the propagation and scattering of elastic waves, which properly incorporates the multiple scattering phenomenon and the statistical information of the inhomogeneities is still missing. In this work, the author developed a multiple scattering model for heterogeneous elastic continua with strong property fluctuation and obtained the exact solution to the dispersion equation under the first-order smoothing approximation. The model establishes an accurate quantitative relation between the microstructural properties and the coherent wave propagation parameters and can be used for characterization or inversion of microstructures. Starting from the elastodynamic differential equations, a system of integral equation for the Green functions of the heterogeneous medium was developed by using Green’s functions of a homogeneous reference medium. After properly eliminating the singularity of the Green tensor and introducing a new set of renormalized field variables, the original integral equation is reformulated into a system of renormalized integral equations. Dyson’s equation and its first-order smoothing approximation, describing the ensemble averaged response of the heterogeneous system, are then derived with the aid of Feynman’s diagram technique. The dispersion equations for the longitudinal and transverse coherent waves are then obtained by applying Fourier transform to the Dyson equation. The exact solution to the dispersion equations are obtained numerically. To validate the new model, the results for weak-property-fluctuation materials are compared to the predictions given by an improved weak-fluctuation multiple scattering theory. It is shown that the new model is capable of giving a more robust and accurate prediction of the dispersion behavior of weak-property-fluctuation materials. Numerical results further show that the new model is still able to provide accurate results for strong-property-fluctuation materials while the weak-fluctuation model is completely failed. As applications of the new model, dispersion and attenuation curves for coherent waves in the Earth’s lithosphere, the porous and two-phase alloys, and human cortical bone are calculated. Detailed analysis shows the model can capture the major dispersion and attenuation characteristics, such as the longitudinal and transverse wave Q-factors and their ratios, existence of two propagation modes, anomalous negative dispersion, nonlinear attenuation-frequency relation, and even the disappearance of coherent waves. Additionally, it helps gain new insights into a series of longstanding problems, such as the dominant mechanism of seismic attenuation and the existence of the Mohorovičić discontinuity. This work provides a general and accurate theoretical framework for quantitative characterization of microstructures in a broad spectrum of heterogeneous materials and it is anticipated to have vital applications in seismology, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and biomedical ultrasound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0159.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Pollution dispersion; PM10; air quality; Land Use Regression; Symos’97
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:18:22 CEST)
Abstract: The air pollution dispersion modelling via spatial analyses (Land Use Regression – LUR) is an alternative approach to the air quality assessment to the standard air pollution dispersion modelling techniques. Its advantages are mainly much simpler mathematical apparatus, quicker and simpler calculations and a possibility to incorporate other factors affecting pollutant’s concentration. The goal of the study was to model the PM10 particles dispersion modelling via spatial analyses v in Czech-Polish border area of Upper Silesian industrial agglomeration and compare results with results of the standard Gaussian dispersion model SYMOS’97. Results show that standard Gaussian model with the same data as the LUR model gives better results (determination coefficient 71% for Gaussian model to 48% for LUR model). When factors of the land cover and were included into the LUR model, the LUR model results were significantly improved (65% determination coefficient) to the level comparable with Gaussian model. The hybrid approach combining the Gaussian model with the LUR gives superior quality of results (65% determination coefficient).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0280.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: atmospheric pollution; dispersion modeling; particulate matter; urban and environmental planning; public health
Online: 27 September 2018 (05:15:40 CEST)
It is currently difficult to obtain accurate fine dust information in residential areas due to the insufficient number of air quality monitoring systems and spatial imbalances. Therefore, a detailed particulate matter dispersion model including factors such as land use and meteorological information was developed in this study and used to create fine dust concentration distribution maps. The fine dust concentration distribution maps currently available to citizens were compared with those obtained by dispersion modeling, and population distribution data were employed to compare the populations exposed to fine dust according to the two methods. The results of the existing method and the developed particulate matter dispersion model differed significantly. For instance, the PM2.5 concentrations in Daejeon, South Korea, on February 17, 2018, were 56% “Good” and 44% “Moderate,” according to the existing method, while they were 31% “Good,” 26% “Moderate,” 28% “Unhealthy,” and 15% “Very Unhealthy,” according to the dispersion model. Furthermore, the existing method indicated that no portion of the population was exposed to poor fine dust concentrations, while the proposed model revealed that over 170 thousand people were exposed to such concentrations. These results on fine dust distributions will contribute to sustainable urban and environmental planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: powder handling, flowability, dosing, transport, mixing, dispersion, piezoelectric actuators, vibrations
Online: 26 February 2018 (16:00:40 CET)
Since fine powders tend strongly to adhesion and agglomeration, their processing with conventional methods is difficult or impossible. Typically, in order to enable the handling of fine powders, chemicals are added to increase the flowability and reduce adhesion. This contribution shows that instead of additives also vibrations can be used to increase the flowability, to reduce adhesion and cohesion, and thus to enable or improve processes such as precision dosing, mixing, and transport of very fine powders. The methods for manipulating powder properties are described in detail and prototypes for experimental studies are presented. It is shown that the handling of fine powders can be improved by using low-frequency, high-frequency or a combination of low- and high-frequency vibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0409.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Phonon dispersion; PDOS; Mechanical properties; Power factor and Figure of Merit
Online: 22 November 2022 (07:12:14 CET)
The density functional theory was used to explore the structural, electronic, dynamical, and thermoelectric properties of a VIrSi Half-Heulser (HH) alloy. The minimum lattice constant of 5.69 ( ̊A) was obtained for VIrSi alloy. Besides, the band structure and the projected density of states for this HH alloy were calculated, and the gap between the valence and conduction bands was noted to be 0.2 eV. Also, the quasi-harmonic approximation was used to predict the dynamical stability of the VIrSi HH alloy. At 300 K, the Seebeck Coefficient of 370 and -270 μV.K−1., respectively, was achieved for the p and n-type doping. From the power factor result, the highest peak of 18 X 1011W/cm.K2 is obtained in the n-type doping. The Figure of Merit (ZT) result revealed that VIrSi alloy possesses a high ZT at room temperature, which would make VIrSi alloy applicable for thermoelectric performance.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Polymer Nanocomposites; Nanofiller Dispersion; Flow-Cells; Experimental and Numerical; Viscoelastic Fluids
Online: 1 December 2020 (18:25:01 CET)
Melt mixing is a convenient method to prepare polymer nanocomposites, but the extent of the dispersion of the solid filler reached is often limited, and may compromise the anticipated performance of these materials during service. Since the efficiency of extensional flows on dispersion is now well recognized, several mixers were designed with the aim of inducing both shear and extensional flow components. This work combines experimental and numerical data to better understand the kinetics of the dispersion of graphite nanoplates in a polypropylene melt, using a mixing device that consists of a series of stacked rings with equal outer diameter and alternating larger and smaller inner diameters, thus creating a series of converging/diverging flows. Numerical simulation of the flow using the opensource OpenFOAM software assuming both inelastic and viscoelastic responses predicted the velocity, streamlines, flow type and shear and normal stress fields for the mixer. Experimental and computed data were combined to determine the trade-off between the local degree of dispersion of the PP/GnP nanocomposite, measured as Area ratio, and the absolute average value of the hydrodynamic stresses multiplied by the local cumulative residence time. From considerations based on a theoretical approach to dispersion, the cohesive strength of the GnP agglomerates studied was estimated to be in the range 3 - 10kPa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0304.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quasi-monochromatic waves; group velocity; dispersion relation; longitudinal modulation; coherence time
Online: 13 November 2018 (09:24:07 CET)
The wave packet consisting of two harmonic plane waves with the same frequencies, but with different wave vectors is considered. The dispersion relation of a packet is structurally similar to the dispersion relation of a relativistic particle with a nonzero rest mass. The possibility of controlling the group velocity of a quasi-monochromatic wave packet by varying the angle between the wave vectors of its constituent waves is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0091.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: polyacrylonitrile; chemical modification; thiourea; polar pharmaceuticals; sulphonation; dispersion-solid phase extraction
Online: 5 November 2018 (08:48:52 CET)
Pharmaceuticals contain biologically active components that can pollute water courses as a result of the excretions from individuals and/or uncontrolled release of residues from chemical plants, and they can pose a hazard to health. Pharmaceutical residues can persist at low concentrations in the environment, and thus may be potentially harmful to aquatic animals and to humans. Controlling and monitoring such residues are therefore a prime interest, for example, a solid-phase extraction uses solid sorbents to purify and preconcentrate the residues prior to their chemical analysis. In the present study, poly (acrylonitrile-co-divinylbenzene-80) sorbents are synthesised by varying the comonomer feed ratios under precipitation polymerisation conditions to deliver a family of porous polymer microspheres. Acrylonitrile confers polar characters onto the sorbents, and the acrylonitrile-derived nitrile groups can be chemically transformed via polymer-analogous reactions into thioamide and sulfonated residues which make the sorbents even more suitable for the capture of polar analytes, including selected pharmaceuticals. The utility of the porous thioamide-sulfonated containing sorbents is demonstrated via the dispersion-solid phase extraction of mefenamic acid from aqueous media; mefenamic acid is an anthranilic acid derivative which is a potent, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is found in environmental waters at low concentrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0356.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: higher-mode surface waves; dispersion curves; morphological component analysis; Radon transform
Online: 17 October 2018 (09:00:53 CEST)
Extraction of high-resolution surface waves is essential in surface-wave survey. Because reflections usually interfere with surface waves on X component in a multicomponent seismic exploration, it is difficult to extract dispersion curves of surface waves. The situation goes more serious when the frequencies and velocities of higher-mode surface waves are close to those of PS-waves. A method for surface-wave extraction is proposed based on the morphological differences between reflections and surface waves. Frequency-domain high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) and time-domain high-resolution hyperbolic Radon transform (HRT) are used to represent surface waves and reflections respectively. Then, the sparse representation problem based on the morphological component analysis (MCA) is built and optimally solved to obtain high-fidelity surface waves. An advantage of our method is its ability to extract surface waves when their frequencies and velocities are close to those of reflections. Furthermore, results of synthetic and field examples confirm that the proposed method can attenuate the distortion of surface-wave dispersive energy caused by reflections, which contributes to extracting accurate dispersion curves.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0086.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water quality; soil structure; threshold electrolyte concentration; zero point of dispersion
Online: 4 May 2018 (07:53:35 CEST)
The sustainability of irrigated agriculture depends on the quality of irrigation water used. The electrolyte concentration (EC) of irrigation water may lead to the accumulation of salts in the root zone layers and affect the physiological functions of the crop by osmotic and ion toxicity effects. Further, the cationic and anionic composition of the water may alter the exchangeable cation composition of the soil and as well as its pH. Because of the dominance of sodium salts in many sources of irrigation water, parameters related to sodium such as exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of soils and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of soil solutions have been commonly used to study the effects of sodium in irrigation water on soil structural stability. Quirk and Schofield concept of ‘threshold electrolyte concentration’ (TEC) has shown the importance of electrolytes in preventing the effects of sodium on soil structure. Based on this concept, several models have been proposed to relate ESP or SAR with EC to predict the possible impacts of irrigation water on soil structural stability. However, many research reports indicate that this relationship varies with soils and a given model is not suitable for all types of soils. Further, the effects of potassium and magnesium in the processes leading to clay dispersion are disregarded in these models. This essay analyses all the factors involved in the structural failure of soils with different cationic composition, identify the defects in these TEC models and re-defines TEC on the basis of new insights on dispersive and flocculating charges of soils. This review does not deal with EC effects on crops and also the role of contaminant ions not involved with soil structural stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0089.v1
Subject: Keywords: air contaminant dispersion; data assimilation; particle filter; expectation-maximization algorithm; UAV
Online: 31 July 2017 (11:02:27 CEST)
The precise prediction of air contaminant dispersion is essential to the air quality monitoring and the emergency management of the contaminant gases leakage incidents in the chemical industry park. The conventional atmospheric dispersion models can seldom give precise prediction due to inaccurate input parameters. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of dispersion model, two data assimilation methods (i.e. one is merely based on the typical particle filter while the other is a combination of particle filter and expectation-maximization algorithm) are proposed to assimilate the UAV observations into the atmospheric dispersion model. Two emission cases are taken into consideration, the difference between which is the different dimensions of state variables. To test the performances of the proposed methods, experiments corresponding to the two emission cases are designed and implemented. The results show that the particle filter can effectively estimate the model parameters and improve the accuracy of model prediction when the dimension of state variables is low. In contrast, when the dimension of state variables becomes higher, the method of particle filter combining expectation-maximization algorithm performs better in the parameter estimation accuracy and warm-up time. Therefore, the data assimilation methods are able to effectively support the air quality monitoring and emergency management in chemical industry parks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; enterococcus faecalis; dispersion; viral infection; particle size; Peyer's patch
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:09:21 CEST)
We evaluated the change in water dispersibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Enterococcus faecalis KH2) upon powderization and its influence on their efficacy. When cultured LAB are washed, heat-killed, and powdered, adhesion between LAB occurs and they form aggregation (non-treated LAB, n-LAB). However, a dispersed LAB (d-LAB) powder with less aggregates can be prepared by treating them with a high-pressure homogenizer and adding an excipient during powdering. n-LAB or d-LAB was administered to mice and the Peyer's patches in the small intestine were observed. n-LAB administration showed a high amount of aggregated LAB drifting in the intestinal mucosa, whereas d-LAB reached the Peyer's patches and was taken up into the Peyer's patches. Evaluation in a mouse influenza virus infection model showed that d-LAB was more effective than n-LAB in influenza yield of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) on day 3 post-infection, neutralizing antibody titers of sera and influenza virus-specific IgA in the feces on day 14 post-infection. Thus, the physical properties of LAB affect their efficacy; controlling their water dispersibility can improve their effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0057.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: birefringence; confinement loss; photonic crystal fibre; relative dispersion slope; single mode operation
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:45:04 CEST)
This article reveals a best possible design for hybrid dispersion compensating fiber (HyDCF) with high birefringence established on modified broadband compensating structure through S, C and L telecommunication bands. The simulation outcome exhibits relatively higher birefringence of 3.76×10-2 at wavelength of 1550 nm. The suggested fiber also has dispersion compensation characteristics in an inclusive series of wavelengths which covers 1400-1625 nm. The reported design can achieve dispersion quantity of – 606 ps/ (nm.km) at 1550 nm effective wavelength. The reported fiber design matches the relative dispersion slope (RDS) 0.003694 nm-1 similar to single mode fiber at 1550 nm operating wavelength. This fiber demonstrates negatively flattened effective dispersion of – 2.703 ± 0.734 ps/ (nm.km) within 180 nm flat band ranging from 1460-1640 nm wavelength. It is also convenient to optical high bit rate communication systems. The low confinement loss is found 3.756×10-10 dB/m at the operating wavelength. This design also achieves highly nonlinear coefficient of 50.34 W-1km-1. In some cases, it can also be used in sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0185.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Dispersion operator; Lie algebra; Linear Canonical Transformation; Quantum theory; Phase space representation
Online: 20 August 2016 (10:55:58 CEST)
This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Seismic interferometry; Transdimensional tomography; Surface wave dispersion; probabilistic inversion; Markov chain Monte Carlo
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:23:56 CEST)
Seismic travel time tomography using surface waves is an effective tool for three-dimensional crustal imaging. Historically, these surface waves are the result of active seismic sources or earthquakes. More recently, however, also surface waves retrieved through the application of seismic interferometry are exploited. Conventionally, two-step inversion algorithms are employed to solve the tomographic inverse problem. That is, a first inversion results in frequency-dependent, two-dimensional maps of phase velocity, which then serve as input for a series of independent, one-dimensional frequency-to-depth inversions. As such, a two-dimensional grid of localized depth-dependent velocity profiles are obtained. Stitching these separate profiles together subsequently yields a three-dimensional velocity model. Relatively recently, a one-step three-dimensional non-linear tomographic algorithm has been proposed. The algorithm is rooted in a Bayesian framework using Markov chains with reversible jumps, and is referred to as transdimensional tomography. Specifically, the three-dimensional velocity field is parameterized by means of a polyhedral Voronoi tessellation. In this study, we investigate the potential of this algorithm for the purpose of recovering the three-dimensional surface-wave-velocity structure from ambient noise recorded on and around the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. To that end, we design a number of synthetic tests that take into account the station configuration of the Reykjanes seismic network. We find that the algorithm is able to recover the 3D velocity structure at various scales in areas where station density is high. In addition, we find that the standard deviation on the recovered velocities is low in those regions. At the same time, the velocity structure is less well recovered in parts of the peninsula sampled by fewer stations. This implies that the algorithm successfully adapts model resolution to the density of rays. Also, it adapts model resolution to the amount of noise on the travel times. Because the algorithm is computationally demanding, we modify the algorithm such that computational costs are reduced while sufficiently preserving non-linearity. We conclude that the algorithm can now be applied adequately to travel times extracted from (time-averaged) station-station cross correlations by the Reykjanes seismic network.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ex-ante chances; dispersion of chances; chronic diseases; gambling; statistical test; twin studies; principle of maximum entropy.
Online: 22 April 2021 (21:14:09 CEST)
Is it possible to measure the dispersion of ex-ante chances (i.e. chances “before the event”) among people, be it gambling, health, or social opportunities? We explore this question and provide some tools, including a statistical test, to evidence the actual dispersion of ex-ante chances in various areas with a focus on chronic diseases. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we derive the distribution of the risk to become ill in the global population as well as in the population of affected people. We find that affected people are either at very low risk like the overwhelming majority of the population but still were unlucky to become ill, or are at extremely high risk and were bound to become ill.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical fibers; spectral filter; modes coupling; dispersion characteristics; composite waveguide; linear polarized modes
Online: 20 January 2020 (09:46:33 CET)
In this paper, design of optical spectral filters based on mode coupling of optical fibers is presented. The finite difference method is applied to find the dispersion characteristics of optical fiber coupler constructing from two fibers as a composite multi-dielectric waveguide with different cores but the same cladding. Also, the field distribution for both fibers as a separate and as a composite waveguide. The spectral characteristics of the filters are investigated depending on the coupling of two linear polarized modes LP01 and LP11. The dependence of the transmission coefficient on operating wavelengths is illustrated. Finally, the spectral bandwidth of filter as a function of the distance between the two cores is addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0252.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: alternative parameterization; normal distribution; dispersion estimators; location-invariance; scale-invariance; scale-and-location-invariance
Online: 19 September 2022 (02:06:09 CEST)
Location-and-scale transformation of a random variable underpins normal distribution, but it is however fundamentally incorrect for scale estimation such as relative dispersion. In this paper, a parametrized alternative to a normal distribution, called scaloc-normal distribution, is proposed that efficiently works and is fundamentally correct with absolute and relative dispersion estimators. The Monte Carlos simulation experiment was used to generate a total of 600,000 artificial datasets in 600 different simulation scenarios from loc-normal (normal) and scaloc-normal distributions. The absolute and relative dispersion were estimated and compared from the two distributions. The results show that scaloc-normal distribution is a good parametrized alternative to loc-normal distribution, fundamentally correct and efficient with both standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The key statistical advancement from loc-normal to scaloc-normal distribution is its fundamental correctness (i.e., scale-invariant property) with an efficient relative estimator of dispersion (i.e., coefficient of variation). Parametrically, the loc-normal and scaloc-normal distributions are very different, but both have linear transformations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0482.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Solute Transport; Bio-geo-chemical reactions; Dispersion; Mixing; Heterogeneity; Effective transport; Microbial communities, Biofilms
Online: 25 November 2021 (15:53:41 CET)
Reactive transport (RT) couples bio-geo-chemical reactions and transport. RT is important to understand numerous scientific questions and solve some engineering problems. RT is highly multidisciplinary, which hinders the development of a body of knowledge shared by RT modelers and developers. The goal of this paper is to review the basic conceptual issues shared by all RT problems, so as to facilitate advance along the current frontier: biochemical reactions. To this end, we review the basic equations to point that chemical systems are controlled by the set of equilibrium reactions, which are easy to model, but whose rate is controlled by mixing. Since mixing is not properly represented by the standard advection-dispersion equation (ADE), we conclude that this equation is poor for RT. This leads us to review alternative transport formulations, and the methods to solve RT problems using both the ADE and alternative equations. Since equilibrium is easy, difficulties arise for kinetic reactions, which is especially true for biochemistry, where numerous frontiers are open (how to represent microbial communities, impact of genomics, effect of biofilms on flow and transport, etc.). We conclude with the basic 10 issues that we consider fundamental for any conceptually sound RT effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mo-Si-B alloys; laser additive manufacturing; high-temperature mechanical properties; oxide dispersion strengthening
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:38:52 CET)
Intermetallic alloys like e.g. Iron-Aluminides, Titanium-Aluminides or Molybdenum- Silizides are prospective materials for high-temperature applications. For additive manufacturing (AM) intermetallic structural materials are particularly challenging due to their high melting points, oxygen susceptibility and low temperature brittleness. The feasibility of manufacturing intermetallic Mo-Si-B alloys with the laser additive manufacturing process of direct energy deposition (DED) is demonstrated and recent results in characterizing rapidly solidified material with respect to correlations between process, composition and microstructures are presented. The possibility to dope the material with Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) for dispersion is successfully demonstrated. Current challenges, e.g. homogenous distribution of alloying elements and applicability are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0520.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: malodor analysis; agricultural odor; turbulent dispersion; GC-Olfactometry; GC-O; solid-phase microextraction; SPME; multidimensional gas chromatography; MDGC; process odor; dispersion modeling; transient odor events; rolling unmasking effect; odor-cued grab sampling
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:49:16 CEST)
Downwind odor characteristics can be very different depending upon the size of the upwind point-source, interim topography, and wind conditions. At one extreme, the downwind odor plume from a relatively large, confined animal feeding operation (CAFO), located on a flat open plain and under stable, near-straight-line wind conditions can be rather broad, sustained and predictable relative to a fixed receptor site downwind. In contrast, the plume from a small point-source (e.g., a roof vent stack) located on irregular topography and under rapidly shifting wind conditions can be intermittent and fleeting. These transient odor events can be surprisingly intense and offensive, in spite of their fleeting occurrence and perception. This work reports on efforts to optimize an environmental odor sampling strategy, which is optimized for the challenges of (1) sampling of such transient odor 'spikes' and (2) the prioritization of odors/odorants from multiple, closely co-located point-sources, under such transient event conditions. Protocol refinement has emerged by way of 2 environmental odor assessment projects which have been undertaken on behalf of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The challenge of transient odor events has been mitigated utilizing rapid, odor cued whole-air grab capture sampling into metalized-FEP gas sampling bags, followed by immediate adsorption transfer onto SPME fibers or sorbent tubes for stabilization during the shipment and storage interval between collection and final analysis. Initial results demonstrated approximately 11 fold increases in target odorant yields for 900 mL sorbent tube transfers from 2-3 second 'burst' odor event bag-captures, as compared to equivalent direct collections at the same downwind receptor location but during perceived (stable) odor 'lull' periods. Results-to-date targeting refinement and field trials of this integrated environmental odor assessment strategy are presented. Preliminary application targeting general odor sampling and point-source differentiation utilizing tracer gases is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0145.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: dispersion of light; gravitational field; fundamental physics constant; vacuum; speed of light; spectroscopic binary system; double gravitational lens
Online: 19 August 2022 (08:04:34 CEST)
In any region of a space, the gravitational field cannot be eliminated. The speed of light in a vacuum has never been observed and cannot be observed with current technology. Till now, only the speed of light in a gravitational field has been observed. Here, it is presented that light could be dispersion in a gravitational field analogous to the dispersion of light in the Newtonian prism experiment. The relativistic mass density on the surface of a neutron star is on the level of 1017kgm-3 while on the surface of the Earth is only 6.63*10-7kgm-3, the speed of light acted by the gravitational field of a neutron star is much larger than that by the Earth. Therefore, light dispersion in strong gravitational field could be generally observed from the picture of a star and it should have been observed through the spectroscopic binary system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma; pigment dispersion; intraocular pressure; trabecular meshwork; cytoskeleton; phagocytosis; gene expression microarray; signal pathway
Online: 27 March 2018 (05:22:15 CEST)
Pigment dispersion can lead to pigmentary glaucoma, a poorly understood condition of younger myopic eyes with fluctuating high intraocular pressure. It has been difficult to investigate its pathogenesis without a model similar to human eyes in size and behavior. Here we present a porcine ex vivo model that recreates several features of pigmentary glaucoma, including intraocular hypertension, accumulation of pigment in the trabecular meshwork, and declining phagocytosis. We found that trabecular meshwork cells regulate outflow, form actin stress fibers, and have a decreased phagocytic activity. Gene expression microarrays and a pathway analysis of TM monolayers as well as ex vivo anterior segment perfusion cultures indicated that RhoA plays a central role in regulating the cytoskeleton, motility, and phagocytosis in the trabecular meshwork, providing new insights and targets to investigate in pigmentary glaucoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0462.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: London dispersion; ketone complexes; density functional theory; hydrogen bonds; molecular recognition; vibrational spectroscopy; gas phase; benchmark
Online: 20 July 2021 (16:06:47 CEST)
Phenol is added to acetophenone (methyl phenyl ketone) and to six of its halogenated derivatives in a supersonic jet expansion to determine the hydrogen bonding preference of the cold and isolated 1:1 complexes by linear infrared spectroscopy. Halogenation is found to have a pronounced effect on the docking site in this intermolecular ketone balance experiment. The spectra unambiguously decide between competing variants of phenyl group stacking due to their differences in hydrogen bond strength. Structures where the phenyl group interaction strongly distorts the hydrogen bond are more difficult to quantify in the experiment. For unsubstituted acetophenone, phenol clearly prefers the methyl side despite a predicted sub-kJ/mol advantage which is nearly independent of zero point vibrational energy, turning this complex into a challenging benchmark system for electronic structure methods which include long range dispersion interactions in some way.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Odour Legislation; Air Quality; Air Pollution; Odor; Smell; Odour Units; Dispersion Modelling; Agriculture; Environmental Regulations; Policy
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:58:20 CET)
When it comes to air pollution complaints, odours are often the most significant contributor. Sources of odour emissions range from natural to anthropogenic. Mitigation of odour can be challenging, multifaceted, site-specific, and is often confounded by its complexity—defined by existing (or non-existing) environmental laws, public ordinances, and socio-economic considerations. The objective of this paper is to review and summarize odour legislation in selected European countries (France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain, The Netherlands, Italy, Belgium), North America (USA and Canada), South America (Chile and Colombia), as well as Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Asia (Japan, China). Many countries have incorporated odour controls into their legislation. However, odour-related assessment criteria tend to be highly variable between countries, individual states, provinces and even counties and towns. Legislation ranges from (1) no specific mention in environmental legislation that regulates pollutants which are known to have an odour impact to (2) extensive details about odour source testing, odour dispersion modeling, ambient odour monitoring, (3) setback distances, (4) process operations, and (5) odour control technologies and procedures. Agricultural operations are one specific source of odour emissions in rural and suburban areas and a model example of such complexities. Management of agricultural odour emissions is important because of the dense consolidation of animal feeding operations and the advance of housing development into rural areas. Overall, there is a need for continued survey, review, development, and adjustment of odour legislation that considers sustainable development, environmental stewardship, and socio-economic realities, all of which are amenable to a just, site-specific, and sector-specific application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: pigment dispersion syndrome; pigmentary glaucoma; trabecular meshwork; phagocytosis; migration; contraction; cytoskeleton; gene microarray; Rho signaling pathway
Online: 2 April 2018 (07:00:45 CEST)
Purpose: To investigate the effect of pigment dispersion on trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. Methods: Porcine TM cells from ab interno trabeculectomy specimens were exposed to pigment dispersion, then analyzed for changes in morphology, immunostaining, and ultrastructure. Their abilities to phagocytose, migrate, and contract were quantified. An expression microarray, using 23,937 probes, and a pathway analysis were performed. Results: TM cells readily phagocytosed pigment granules. Pigment induced stress fiber formation (pigment (P): 60.1 ± 0.3%, n = 10, control (C): 38.4 ± 2.5%, n = 11, P < 0.001) and contraction at 24 hours onward (P < 0.01). Phagocytosis declined (P: 68.7 ± 1.3%, C: 37.0 ± 1.1%, n = 3, P < 0.001) and migration was reduced after 6 hours (P: 28.0.1 ± 2.3, n = 12, C: 40.6 ± 3.3, n = 13, P < 0.01). Microarray analysis revealed that Rho, IGF-1, and TGFβ signaling cascades were central to these responses. Conclusions: TM cell exposure to pigment dispersion resulted in reduced phagocytosis and migration, as well as increased stress fiber formation and cell contraction. The Rho signaling pathway played a central and early role, suggesting that its inhibitors could be used as a specific intervention in treatment of pigmentary glaucoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0643.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: dispersion; ketone-alcohol complexes; density functional theory; hydrogen bonds; molecular recognition; vibrational spectroscopy; gas phase; benchmark; pinacolone
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:57:33 CEST)
The influence of distant London dispersion forces on the docking preference of alcohols of different size between the two lone electron pairs of the carbonyl group in pinacolone is explored by infrared spectroscopy of the OH stretching fundamental in supersonic jet expansions of 1:1 solvate complexes. Experimentally, no pronounced tendency of the alcohol to switch from the methyl to the bulkier tert-butyl side with increasing size is found. In all cases, methyl docking dominates by at least a factor of two, whereas DFT-optimized structures suggest a very close balance for the larger alcohols, once corrected by CCSD(T) relative electronic energies. Together with inconsistencies when switching from a C4 to a C5 alcohol, this points at deficiencies of the investigated B3LYP and in particular TPSS functionals even after dispersion correction, which cannot be blamed on zero point energy effects. The search for density functionals which describe the harmonic frequency shift, the structural change and the energy difference between the docking isomers of larger alcohols to unsymmetric ketones in a satisfactory way is open.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0397.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: dual frequency comb spectroscopy; mid-infrared absorption and dispersion spectroscopy; electrical discharge plasma; time-resolved plasma kinetics
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:03:42 CEST)
Conventional mechanical Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) are able to simultaneously measure absorption and dispersion spectra of gas-phase samples. However, they usually need very long measurement times to achieve time-resolved spectra with a good spectral and temporal resolution. Here, we present a mid-infrared dual-comb-based FTS in an asymmetric configuration, providing broadband absorption and dispersion spectra with a spectral resolution of 5 GHz, a temporal resolution of 20 μs, and a total measurement time of a few minutes. We used the dual-comb spectrometer to monitor the reaction dynamics of methane and ethane in an electrical plasma discharge. We observed ethane/methane formation as a recombination reaction of hydrocarbon radicals in the discharge in various static and dynamic conditions. The results demonstrate a new analytical approach for measuring fast molecular absorption and dispersion changes and monitoring fast dynamics of chemical reactions, which can be interesting for chemical kinetic research and particularly for the combustion and plasma analysis community.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: radionuclide; tracer; data collection; antimony 125 (125Sb), tritium (3H), dispersion; modelling; English Channel; North Sea; Biscay Bay
Online: 24 January 2020 (16:03:50 CET)
Significant amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides were introduced in ocean waters following nuclear atmospheric tests and development of the nuclear industry. Dispersion of artificial dissolved radionuclides has been extensively measured for decades over the European continental shelf. The radionuclide measurement and release fluxes databases provided here represent an exceptional opportunity to validate dispersion hydrodynamic models. MARS hydrodynamic model have been applied at different scales to reproduce in realistic conditions the measured dispersion. Specific methods have been developed to obtain qualitative and quantitative results and perform model/measurement comparisons. Model validation concerns short to large scales with dedicated surveys following the dispersion: it was performed within two and three dimensions framework and from minutes and hours following a release up to several years. Results are presented concerning the dispersion of radionuclides in marine systems deduced from standalone measurements, or according to model comparisons. It allows characterising dispersion over the continental shelf, pathways, transit times, budgets and source terms. This review exhibits the main features retained from the point of view of radiotracers, hydrodynamic models and model/measurement methods with perspectives of applications in other areas or oceanographic domains.
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Poly(l-lactic acid); PLLA; Optical Rotatory Dispersion; ORD; Polycondensation; Racemization; Thin solid film; Exciton coupling; Organic electronics.
Online: 24 November 2020 (09:37:58 CET)
Optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) is a beautiful analytical technique for the study of chiral molecules and polymers. In this study, ORD was applied successfully to follow the degree of polycondensation of l-(+)-lactic acid toward the formation of poly(lactic acid) oligomers (PLAO) and high molecular weight poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) in a simple esterification reaction equipment. PLLA is a biodegradable polymer obtainable from renewable raw materials. The racemization of the intrinsically isotactic PLLA through thermal treatment can be easily followed through the use of ORD spectroscopy. Organic or molecular electronics is a hot topic dealing with the combination of π-conjugated organic compounds and polymers with specific properties (e.g. chirality) which can be exploited to construct optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaic (OPV) high efficiency cells, switchable chirality devices, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and so on. ORD spectroscopy was applied to study either the gigantic optical rotation of PLLA films as well as to detect successfully the excitonic coupling occurring in thin solid PLLA green film loaded with a combination of two dyes: SY96 (a pyrazolone dye) and PB16 (the metal-free phthalocyanine pigment). The latter compound PLLA loaded with SY96 and PB16 shows a really gigantic optical activity in addition to typical ORD signal due to exciton coupling and may be considered as a simple and easily accessible model composite of a chiral polymer matrix combined with π-conjugated dyes for molecular electronics studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0039.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: episodic rainfall; multilayered aquifer; unsaturated flow; preferential flow; kinematic dispersion wave model; random walk; confined-unconfined flow conversion
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:19:09 CEST)
The paper presents a modeling framework to analyze the effect of episodic rainfall supply on groundwater dynamics in the Ionian coastal plain multilayered aquifer. The focus is essentially on the short-term behavior of the shallowest layer, with a specific analysis on episodic rainfall events. In the studied aquifer, groundwater level responds sensitively to rainfall events, highlighting the presence of preferential recharge zones. The hydraulic head peak is a function of groundwater level antecedent to the rainfall event. A kinematic dispersion wave model was used to model infiltration processes via preferential pathways. A one-dimensional and non-linear particle based numerical model was developed. Particles with constant water volume travel according to celerity and hydraulic dispersion to simulate the infiltration rate wave through the vadose zone. The flow rate that reaches the water table represents the input function to determine groundwater level fluctuations along groundwater flow direction and according to the lithological features of the surficial levels of the multilayered aquifer, its storage capacity changes passing from unconfined to confined conditions. The model was validated with high time resolution time series of precipitation and groundwater level coming from Terra Montonata meteo-climatic and groundwater level monitoring station. The developed model represents a basis for evaluating and predicting groundwater discharge of the shallowest layers of the Ionian coastal multilayered aquifer under natural conditions including episodic rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0065.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: radiothermal signals; radiobrightness temperature; normal and high dilution solutions; absorption coefficient; ion hydration shell; new dielectric properties; supramolecular interactions; dispersion
Online: 3 March 2022 (13:52:45 CET)
Using an original method for measuring weak radiothermal electromagnetic signals, experimental data were obtained on the analysis of dispersions of noise attractors of the radiobrightness temperature of aqueous solutions of NaCl, Al (NO₃)3 at dilutions C1 (1:100) – C12 (12:100). The values of dispersions of noise attractors significantly differ from those for the control experiment with water. On the basis of the changed values of the noise attractors of the radiobrightness temperature, the values of the absorption coefficients of the solutions are calculated. The difference between the values of the solutions absorption coefficients and those for water is shown with a successive increase in their values with an increase in the degree of dilution. The difference between the values of the absorption coefficients of solutions of high dilutions and those for water is interpreted as a mechanism of cooperative interaction of ions with water molecules located outside the first hydration shell. A network of water molecules perturbed by ions contributes to the dielectric permittivity was obtained due to new properties at supramolecular interactions on the basis of dispersion interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0087.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: 3D motion capture; full-body biomechanical modeling; X-factor; hip flexibility; whip-like movement; dispersion of impact load during falling
Online: 5 May 2020 (16:01:29 CEST)
Jumping side volley has created breathtaking moments and cherished memories for us. Regrettably, a scientific study on the skill has not been found in literature. Relying on talent of athletes to improvise on the fly can hardly be considered a viable learning strategy. This study targets to fill the gap by quantifying factors contributing to develop its coaching method. Using 3D motion capture (12-cameras, 200Hz) and full-body biomechanical modeling, our study aimed to identify elements that govern entrainment of the skill by examining jumping, kicking and falling phases of its execution. Given the rarity of players who have acquired this skill, we found five subjects for the study. Twenty-three trials were captured and quantified. The results unveil the following key elements: 1) the control of trunk rotation during the jumping, 2) the angle between thighs upon take-off, 3) the whip-like control of the kicking leg during airborne, 4) timing between ball motion and limbs’ coordination, and 5) damping mechanism during falling. An accurate kick can only be achieved through repetitive training. This underlines the need for athletes to master a safe landing technique that minimizes risk of injury during practice. Therefore, training should begin with learning a safe falling technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0744.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Aerosols; dental clinics; infection control; high-volume evacuation; extra-oral suction device; particle concentration; sensor network; dispersion modeling; exposure assessment; air quality
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:32:57 CEST)
Human exposure to infectious aerosols results a transmission of diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and COVID-19. Most dental procedures generate a significant number of aerosolized particles, increasing transmission risk in dental settings. Since the generation of aerosols in dentistry is unavoidable, many clinics started using intervention strategies such as area-filtration units and extraoral evacuation equipment, especially under the relatively recent constraints of the pandemics. However, the effectiveness of these devices in dental operatories has not been studied. Therefore, the dental personnel's ability to position and operate such instruments efficiently is also limited. To address these challenges, we utilized a real-time sensor network for assessment of aerosol dynamics during dental restoration and cleaning producers with and without intervention. The strategies tested during the procedures were (i) local area high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and (ii) extra-oral suction device (EOSD). The study was conducted at the University of Washington School of Dentistry using a network of thirteen fixed sensors positioned within the operatory and one wearable sensor worn by the dental operator. The sensor network provides time and space-resolved particulate matter (PM) data. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization informs aerosol persistence in the operatory. It was found that area filters did not improve the overall aerosol concentration in dental offices significantly. An average of 16% decrease in PM concentration was observed when EOSD equipment was used during the procedures. The combination of real-time sensors and 3D visualization can provide dental personnel and facility mangers with actionable feedback to effectively assess aerosol transmission in medical settings and develop evidence-based intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0026.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric dispersion modelling; backward Lagrangian stochastic model; atmospheric surface-layer; micrometeorological techniques; gaseous emissions; atmospheric ammonia; dry deposition; grassland; open-path measurements; differential optical absorption spectroscopy
Online: 3 March 2018 (12:04:50 CET)
A controlled ammonia (NH3) release experiment was performed at a grassland site to quantify the effect of dry deposition, at the field scale between the source and the receptors (NH3 measurement locations), on the estimates of emission rates by means of inverse dispersion modelling. NH3 was released for 3 hours at a constant rate of Q = 6.29 mg s−1 from a grid of 36 orifices spread over an area of 250 m2. The increase in line-integrated NH3 concentration was measured with open-path optical miniDOAS devices at different locations downwind of the artificial source. Using a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion model (bLSmodelR), the fraction of the modelled release rate to the emitted NH3 (QbLS/Q) was calculated from the measurements of the individual instruments. QbLS/Q was found to be systematically lower than 1, on average between 0.69 and 0.91, depending on the location of the receptor. We hypothesized that NH3 dry deposition to grass and soil surfaces was the main factor responsible for the observed depletion of NH3 between source and receptor. A dry deposition algorithm based on a deposition velocity approach was included in the bLS modelling. Model deposition velocities were evaluated from a ‘big‑leaf’ canopy resistance analogy. Canopy resistances (generally termed Rc) that provided QbLS/Q = 1 ranged from 75 to 290 s m−1, showing that surface removal of NH3 by dry deposition can plausibly explain the original underestimation of QbLS/Q. The inclusion of a dry deposition process in dispersion modelling is crucial for emission estimates, which are based on concentration measurements of depositing tracers downwind of homogeneous area sources or heterogeneously distributed hot spots, such as e.g. urine patches on pastures in the case of NH3.