ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0061.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: noctilucent clouds; linear discriminant analysis; convolutional neural networks
Online: 7 October 2019 (11:07:56 CEST)
In this paper, we present a framework to study the spatial structure of noctilucent clouds formed by ice particles in the upper atmosphere at mid and high latitude during summer. We study noctilucent cloud activity in optical images taken from three different locations and under different atmospheric conditions. In order to identify and distinguish noctilucent cloud activity from other objects in the scene, we employ linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with feature vectors ranging from simple metrics to higher-order local autocorrelation (HLAC), and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). Finally, we propose a Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based method for the detection of noctilucent clouds. The results clearly indicate that the CNN based approach outperforms LDA based methods used in this article. Furthermore, we outline suggestions for future research directions to establish a framework that can be used for synchronizing the optical observations from ground based camera systems with echoes measured with radar systems like EISCAT in order to obtain independent additional information on the ice clouds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0163.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: authenticity; chromatographic fingerprint; fatty acids; classification; linear discriminant analysis
Online: 13 December 2018 (08:43:49 CET)
The fatty-acid profiles of five main commercial pistachio cultivars, including Ahmad-Aghaei, Akbari, Chrok, Kalle-Ghouchi and Ohadi, were determined by gas chromatography: palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3) arachidic (C20:0) and gondoic (C20:1) acid. Based on the oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) ratio, a quality index was determined for these five cultivars: Ohadi (2.40) < Ahmad-Aghaei (2.60) < Kale-Ghouchi (2.94) < Chrok (3.05) < Akbari (3.66). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fatty-acid data yielded three significant PCs, which together account for 80.0% of the total variance in the data set. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model evaluated with cross validation correctly classified almost all samples: the average percent accuracy for the prediction set was 98.0%. The high predictive power for the prediction set shows the ability to indicate the cultivar of an unknown sample based on its fatty-acid chromatographic fingerprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Songyuan earthquake; Songyuan site; sand liquefaction; hyperbolic model; discriminant formula
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:12:47 CEST)
Based on the 5.7-magnitude earthquake that stroke Songyuan (China) and 172 groups of liquefaction data collected in mainland China, the hyperbolic liquefaction discriminant formula originally proposed by Sun Rui was revised, and a new formula for the liquefaction of sand was put forward. Groups of data derived from the Bachu earthquake in Xinjiang and an earthquake that occurred in New Zealand (47 and 195 groups, respectively) were used to carry out a back-judgment test, then, the results were compared with those of the existing standard method. Overall, the results showed that the new formula for hyperbolic liquefaction discrimination compensates for the conservative liquefaction discrimination of the older formula; moreover, it has a good applicability to different intensities, groundwater levels, and the deep sand layer of the Songyuan site, reflected by a more balanced success rate. Therefore, combining the existing liquefaction discrimination methods and the research results of discrimination, it is necessary to establish a suitable regional identification method through the continuous accumulation of liquefaction data and expanding database.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0718.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: artificial intelligence; blessing of dimensionality; clusters; errors; separability; discriminant; dimensionality reduction
Online: 30 June 2021 (08:43:04 CEST)
This work is driven by a practical question, corrections of Artificial Intelligence (AI) errors. Systematic re-training of a large AI system is hardly possible. To solve this problem, special external devices, correctors, are developed. They should provide quick and non-iterative system fix without modification of a legacy AI system. A common universal part of the AI corrector is a classifier that should separate undesired and erroneous behavior from normal operation. Training of such classifiers is a grand challenge at the heart of the one- and few-shot learning methods. Effectiveness of one- and few-short methods is based on either significant dimensionality reductions or the blessing of dimensionality effects. Stochastic separability is a blessing of dimensionality phenomenon that allows one-and few-shot error correction: in high-dimensional datasets under broad assumptions each point can be separated from the rest of the set by simple and robust linear discriminant. The hierarchical structure of data universe is introduced where each data cluster has a granular internal structure, etc. New stochastic separation theorems for the data distributions with fine-grained structure are formulated and proved. Separation theorems in infinite-dimensional limits are proven under assumptions of compact embedding of patterns into data space. New multi-correctors of AI systems are presented and illustrated with examples of predicting errors and learning new classes of objects by a deep convolutional neural network.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0479.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Image classification; Texture image analysis; Discriminant features; Combination methods; texture operators
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:21:50 CET)
In many image processing and computer vision applications, the main aim is to describe image contents. So, different visual properties such as color, texture and shape are extracted to make aim. In this respect, texture information play important role in image description and visual pattern classification. Texture is referred to a specific local distribution of intensities that is repeated throughout the image. Since now different operations or descriptors have been proposed to analysis texture characteristics. In the multi object images specific texture operators usually doesn’t provide accurate results. So, in many cases, combination of texture operators are used to achieve more discriminant features. In this paper, some combination methods are survived to analysis effect of combinational texture features in image content description. Also, in the result part, different related methods are compared in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2081.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: FTIR; ATR-FTIR; Linear Discriminant Analisis; LDA; Naif Bayessian Classifier; NBC; chemometrics
Online: 31 July 2023 (09:49:38 CEST)
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), provides valuable biochemical information for biomedical analysis. It aids in identifying cancerous tissues, diagnosing diseases like acute pancreatitis or Alzheimer's, and has applications in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. A combination of FTIR and chemometrics constitute an approach that shows promise in fields like biology, forensics, food quality control, and plant variety identification. The study aims to explore the feasibility of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy for identifying ABO-blood types using spectroscopic tools. We employ various classifying algorithms, including Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and combinations of these methods, to detect A and B antigens and determine the ABO blood type. The results show that these algorithms predict the blood type to a greater extent than random selection, although they do not match the precision of biochemical blood typing tools. Additionally, our findings suggest a higher sensitivity of the methodology in identifying B antigens compared to A antigens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1710.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: symmetry; equivalence relations; bifurcations; polynomial quadratic dynamical system; qualitative theory; singularities; discriminant criterion
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:23:12 CEST)
The behaviour and bifurcations of solutions to three-dimensional (three-phase) quadratic polynomial dynamical systems (DSs) are considered. The integrability in elementary functions is proved for a class of autonomous polynomial DSs. The occurrence of bifurcations of the type twisted fold is discovered on the basis and within the frames of the elements of the developed DS qualitative theory. The discriminant criterion applied originally to two-phase quadratic polynomial DSs is extended to three-phase DSs investigated in terms of their coefficient matrices. Specific classes of D- and S-vectors are introduced and complete description of the symmetry relations inherent to the DS coefficient matrices is performed using the discriminant criterion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0313.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: elephant dung coffee; volatile compound; discriminant marker; SHS GC–MS; chemometrics; coffee authentication
Online: 17 July 2018 (15:02:03 CEST)
Elephant dung coffee (Black Ivory Coffee) is a special Thai coffee produced from Arabica coffee cherries consumed by Asian elephants and collected from their feces. In this work, elephant dung coffee and controls were analyzed using static headspace gas chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry (SHS GC–MS), and chemometric approaches were applied for multivariate analysis and the selection of marker compounds that are characteristic of the coffee. Seventy-eight volatile compounds belonging to 13 chemical classes were tentatively identified, including 6 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, one carboxylic acid, 3 esters, 17 furans, one furanone, 13 ketones, 2 oxazoles, 4 phenolic compounds, 14 pyrazines, one pyridine, 8 pyrroles and 3 sulfur-containing compounds. Moreover, four potential discriminant markers of elephant dung coffee, including 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-furfurylfuran and 3-penten-2-one were established. The proposed method may be useful for elephant dung coffee authentication and quality control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: resilience; control; sector-coupled; district energy system; optimisation; deduction; classification; linear discriminant analysis; emissions
Online: 13 September 2021 (11:16:11 CEST)
We present a method to turn results of model-based optimisations into resilient and comprehensible control strategies. Our approach is to define priority lists for all available technologies in a district energy system. Using linear discriminant analysis and the results of the optimisations, these are then assigned to discrete time steps using a set of possible steering parameters. In contrast to the model-based optimisations, the deduced control strategies do not need perfect foresight but solely rely on data about the present. Our result indicate that the results of the control strategies obtained using the proposed method are comparable to the results of the linear optimisations, in our case in terms of emissions and prices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1595.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network; Seed viability; Principal component analysis; Outlier; Support vector machine; Linear Discriminant Analysis
Online: 27 November 2023 (05:17:44 CET)
Seeds can maintain their quality for a limited time; after that, they will lose their germination ability and vigor. Some physiological and physicochemical changes in the structure of the seeds during storage can decrease the quality of the seeds which is known as aging. Therefore, detection of the strong young seeds from the old ones is a vital issue in the modern agriculture. Conventional methods of detection of the seed viability and germination are destructive, time-consuming and costly. In this research, two peanut cultivars, namely North Carolina 2 (NC-2) and Florispan were selected and three artificial aging levels were induced to them. Hyperspectral images (HSI) of the samples were acquired and the seed viability was evaluated using two pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) image processing models, AlexNet and VGGNet. The noise of the reflection spectra of the samples was relatively resolved and modified by combining Preprocessing techniques of moving average (MA) and standard normal variate (SNV). Using principal component analysis (PCA), the dimensions were declined and three principal components (PC) were extracted. These PCs were then used as variables in the classification of support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results showed the high capability of CNN architectures such as AlexNet and VGGNet in detection of the seed viability based on the HIS with no pre-processing and feature extraction. The mentioned architectures reached the accuracy of 0.985 and 0.986, respectively. The combination of feature extraction method of PCA with LDA and SVM classifiers showed that the use of a limited number of PCs instead of all wavelengths can decrease the complexity of modeling, while enhancing the efficiency of the models such that LDA and SVM classifiers achieved the accuracy of 0.983 and 0.986 in classification of peanut sees, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1467.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: body-worn sensors; multi layer classifier; random forest; kernel fisher discriminant analysis; SVM; stepwise regression
Online: 23 October 2023 (16:18:56 CEST)
This study presents a research plan that utilizes data obtained from wearable devices to identify human activities and gain insights into human behavior. We developed a model capable of classifying activities similar to human behavior and evaluated the effectiveness and generalization capabilities of this model. The data underwent initial preprocessing, including standardization and normalization. Additionally, recognizing the inherent similarities between human activity behaviors, we introduced a multi-layer classifier model. The first layer is a random forest model based on stepwise regression, which may encounter reduced accuracy for similar activities. The second layer employs a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model based on Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA). KFDA is used to reduce the dimensionality of data points with potential confusion, followed by SVM for classification. The model was experimentally evaluated and applied to four benchmark datasets: UCI DSA, UCI HAR, WISDM, and IM-WSHA. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieved recognition accuracies of 99.71%, 98.71%, 99.12%, and 97.6% on these datasets, indicating excellent recognition performance. Furthermore, to assess the model's generalization ability, we performed K-fold cross-validation on the random forest model and utilized ROC curves for the SVM classifier. The results indicate that our multi-layer classifier model exhibits robust generalization capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: histopathology; benign; adenocarcinoma; PSO; GWO; KL divergence; IWO; Multilayer Perceptron; Bayesian Linear Discriminant Analysis Classifier
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:23:02 CEST)
Lung cancer is a prevalent malignancy that impacts individuals of all genders and is often diagnosed late due to delayed symptoms. To catch it early, researchers are developing algorithms to study lung cancer images. One such method uses computer aided detection to classify as benign or malignant from the histopathological images. Standard histopathological images were used from a Lung and Colon Cancer Histopathological Image Dataset (LC25000) which contains two classes of benign and malignant of 5000 each. Images were preprocessed and features extracted using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO). Feature selection methods used are KL Divergence and Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO). Seven different classifiers like SVM, KNN, Random Forest, Decision Tree, Softmax Discriminant, Multilayer Perceptron, and BLDC were used to analyze and classify the images as benign or malignant. Results were compared using standard metrics, and kappa analysis assessed classifier agreement. The Decision Tree Classifier with GWO feature extraction achieved good accuracy of 85.01% without Feature selection and Hyperparameter Tuning approaches. Furthermore, we present a methodology to enhance the accuracy of the classifiers by employing hyperparameter tuning algorithms based on Adam and RAdam. By combining features from GWO and IWO, and using the RAdam algorithm, the Decision Tree classifier achieves the commendable accuracy of 91.57%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0791.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Mint; Plant volatiles; Electronic Nose; Principal Component Analysis; Linear Discriminant Analysis; k-Nearest-Neighbors Analysis
Online: 31 December 2020 (11:45:40 CET)
Mints emit diverse scents that exert specific biological functions and are relevance for applications. The current work strives to develop electronic noses that can electronically discriminate the scents emitted by different species of Mint as alternative to conventional profiling by gas chromatography. Here, 12 different sensing materials including 4 different metal oxide nanoparticle dispersions (AZO, ZnO, SnO2, ITO), one Metal-Organic Frame as Cu(BPDC), and 7 different polymer films including PVA, PEDOT: PSS, PFO, SB, SW, SG, PB were used for functionalizing of QCM sensors. The purpose was to discriminate six economically relevant Mint species (Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata, Mentha spicata ssp. crispa, Mentha longifolia, Agastache rugosa, and Nepeta cataria). The adsorption and desorption datasets obtained from each modified QCM sensor were processed by three different classification models including Principal Component Analy-sis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and k-Nearest Neighbor Analysis (k-NN). This allowed discriminating the different Mints with classification accuracies of 97.2% (PCA), 100% (LDA), and 99.9% (k-NN), respectively. Prediction accuracies with a repeating test measurement reached up to 90.6% for LDA, and 85.6% for k-NN. These data demonstrate that this electronic nose can discriminate different Mint scents in a reliable and efficient manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0188.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: MTBC; virtual screening; topological indices; linear discriminant analysis; pharmacological activity distribution diagrams; antimicrobial drugs; drug design
Online: 14 September 2022 (03:32:55 CEST)
A method is developed to identify molecular scaffolds potentially active against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). A structurally heterogeneous set of compounds active against MTBC was used to obtain a structural pattern model based on structural invariants. This model was statistically validated through a Leave-n-Out test. It successfully discriminated between active or inactive compounds over 86% in database sets and was also able to select new active chemical structures in external databases. The selection of new substituted pyrimidines, pyrimidones and triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines was particularly interesting because these structures could provide new scaffolds in this field. The seven selected candidates were synthesized and six of them showed activity in vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0278.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Basil; Mint; Plant volatiles; Electronic Nose; Principal Component Analysis,; Linear Discriminant Analysis; k-Nearest-Neighbors Analysis.
Online: 10 June 2021 (08:09:36 CEST)
The Lamiaceae belong to the species-richest families of flowering plants and harbor many species used as herbs or for medicinal applications, such as Basils or Mints. Evolution of this group has been driven by chemical speciation, mainly of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The commercial use of these plants is characterized by a large extent of adulteration and surrogation. To authenticate and discern the species, is, thus, relevant for consumer safety, but usually requires cumbersome analytics, such as Gas Chromatography, often to be coupled with Mass Spectroscopy. We demon-strate here that quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM)-based electronic noses provide a very cost-efficient alternative, allowing for a fast, automated discrimination of scents emitted from leaves of different plants. To explore the range of this strategy, we used leaf material from four genera of Lamiaceae along with Lemongrass as similarly scented, but non-related outgroup. In order to unambiguously differentiate the scents from the different plants, the output of the 6 different SURMOF/QCM sensors was analyzed using machine learning (ML) methods, together with a thorough statistical analysis. The exposure and purging datasets (4 cycles) obtained from a QCM-based, low-cost homemade portable e-Nose were analyzed with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classification model. Prediction accuracies with repeating test measurements reached values of up to 90%. We show that it is not only possible to discern and identify plants on the genus level, but even to discriminate closely related sister clades within a genus (Basil), demonstrating that e-Noses are a powerful technology to safeguard consumer safety against the challenges of globalized trade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0024.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: extra-virgin olive oil adulteration; vegetables oils; triglycerides; fatty acids; linear discriminant analysis; principal component analysis
Online: 3 December 2018 (13:38:58 CET)
Nowadays, the fingerprinting methodologies of olive oils are dominated. They consider the entire analytical signal, which is acquired and recorded by the analytical instrument, directly from olive oil or isoleted fraction, i,e chromatogram. The shape and intensity of the recorded signal the instrumental fingerprint from the whole olive oil adulteration. Therefore, the methodolygy is based on the chemical composition (Fatty acids and Triglycerides compositions). However, Fatty acids composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ∆ECN42 proved to be effective in the Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil and 3% of corn oil. Therefore, compared to classical methods PCA and new approach of using LDA application could represent an alternative and innovative tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0318.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Flower Region of Interest (FRoI); Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA); retrieval of flower videos; Multiclass Support Vector Machine
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:29:59 CET)
Searching, recognizing and retrieving a video of interest from a large collection of a video data is an instantaneous requirement. This requirement has been recognized as an active area of research in computer vision, machine learning and pattern recognition. Flower video recognition and retrieval is vital in the field of floriculture and horticulture. In this paper we propose a model for the retrieval of videos of flowers. Initially, videos are represented with keyframes and flowers in keyframes are segmented from their background. Then, the model is analysed by features extracted from flower regions of the keyframe. A Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is adapted for the extraction of discriminating features. Multiclass Support Vector Machine (MSVM) classifier is applied to identify the class of the query video. Experiments have been conducted on relatively large dataset of our own, consisting of 7788 videos of 30 different species of flowers captured from three different devices. Generally, retrieval of flower videos is addressed by the use of a query video consisting of a flower of a single species. In this work we made an attempt to develop a system consisting of retrieval of similar videos for a query video consisting of flowers of different species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0013.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: sustainability; trust; distress; transport services; road freight transport; modal shift potential; shift paradigm; modelling; prediction; General Discriminant Analysis
Online: 1 June 2018 (10:44:39 CEST)
Confidence in intermodal transport has not yet been defined. There are many different approaches to the concept of trust. However, the authors embedded them in the light of the challenges of sustainability, linking with the shift paradigm. The objective of the article is to indicate the directions and criteria for the implementation of the shift paradigm, inscribed in the idea of sustainable transport. The auxiliary objective is to predict which countries in a given year will have the TRUST status, i.e. implement the shift paradigm, and which will not implement it (DISTRESS). The article uses taxonometric techniques and built a model using General Discriminant Analysis. On their basis, the utility function was approximated, including the directions of implementation of the shift paradigm depending on the scale of the environmental load of transport. In the course of the research, an original and innovative econometric model was constructed, pointing to three variables, which had the greatest impact on trust. Thanks to the cognitive value of the model, it is possible to identify individuals who deserve the trust, i.e. it will implement the shift paradigm, with 93% probability. In the future, it is worth expanding the research by models for each country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0063.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: optical sensing; absorbance; fluorescence; fingerprinting; recognition of motor oils; oxidation of carbocyanine dyes; linear discriminant analysis; k-nearest neighbors algorithm
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:57:32 CEST)
Optical “fingerprints” are widely used in chemometrics-assited recognition of samples of different nature. An emerging trend in this area is the transition from obtaining "static" spectral data to reactions occurring over time. The indicator reactions are usually carried out in aqueous solutions; in this study we have developed the reactions that occur in an organic solvent, which makes it possible to recognize fat-soluble samples. In this capacity, we used 5W40, 10W40 and 5W30 motor oils of 4 manufacturers, totally 6 samples. The procedure involved mixing of the dye, sample, and reagents (HNO3, HCl, or t-butyl hydroperoxide) in ethanolic solution in a 96-well plate and measuring absorbance or near-IR fluorescence intensity every several minutes during 20–55 min. The obtained photographic images were processed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN). The discrimination accuracy was evaluated by using the validation procedure. Reaction of oxidation of a dye with nitric acid allowed to recognize all 6 samples with 100% accuracy by LDA. Merging data of 4 reactions that did not provide complete discrimination ensured an accuracy of 93% by kNN technique. The developed indicator systems have good prospects for the discrimination of other fat-soluble samples. Overall, the results confirm the viability of the kinetic-based discrimination strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2267.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Metabolomics; Cheese seasonality; Pecorino Romano PDO; Conjugated linoleic acids; Omega-3; Fatty acid; Mineral; Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis; Linear Discriminant Analysis; Cross validation
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:57:36 CEST)
The seasonal variation in fatty acids and minerals concentrations was investigated through the analysis of Pecorino Romano cheese samples collected in January, April, and June. A fraction of samples contained missing values in their fatty acid profile. Probabilistic Principal component analysis coupled with Linear Discriminant Analysis was employed to classify cheese samples on a production season basis while accounting for missing data and quantifying the missing Fatty acids concentration for the sample in which they were absent. The levels of rumenic acid, vac-cenic acid and omega-3 compounds were positively correlated with the spring season, while the length of the saturated fatty acids increased throughout the production seasons. Concerning the classification performances, the optimal number of principal components (i.e., 5) achieved an ac-curacy in cross-validation equal to 98 %. Then, when the model was tasked to impute the lacking Fatty acid concentration values, the optimal number of principal components resulted in an R2 value in cross-validation of 99.53%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: DSC melting profile; Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA); Artificial neural networks (ANN); Multiple Linear Regression (MLR); MARS; SVM; Food fraud; Oils adulteration
Online: 20 July 2023 (13:56:40 CEST)
Flaxseed oil is one of the best sources of n-3 fatty acids, thus its adulteration with refined oils can lead to a reduction in its nutritional value and overall quality. The purpose of this study was to use the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique to detect adulterations of cold-pressed flaxseed oil with refined rapeseed oil (RP). Based on the melting phase transition curve, parameters such as peak temperature (T), peak height (h), and percentage of area (P) were determined for pure and adulterated flaxseed oils with a RP concentration of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50% (w/w). Significant linear correlations (p ≤ 0.05) between the RP concentration and all DSC parameters were observed, except for h1. In order to assess the usefulness of the DSC technique for detecting adulterations, three chemometric approaches were compared: 1) classification models (Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA Adaptive Regression Splines, MARS, Support Vector Machine, SVM, Artificial Neural Networks, ANNs); 2) regression models (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, MARS, SVM, ANNs, PLS) and 3) a combined model of Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). With the LDA model, the highest accuracy of 99.5% in classifying the samples, followed by ANN> SVM > MARS was achieved. Among the regression models, the ANN model showed the highest correlation between observed and predicted values (R= 0.996), while other models showed goodness of fit as following MARS> SVM> MLR. Comparing OPLS-DA and PLS methods, higher values of R2X(cum) =0.986 and Q2 =0.973 were observed with the PLS model than OPLS-DA. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the DSC technique combined with chemometrics for predicting the adulteration of cold-pressed flaxseed oil with refined rapeseed oil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21/DASS-21; DASS-8; shortened version*; shorter version* of the DASS-21; psychiatric disorders; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; measurement invariance/multigroup analysis; psychological distress; discriminant validity; item coverage; good predictive validity
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:15:27 CEST)
Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman’s correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.000; CFI= 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). It expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from other conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.