ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: θ∗-weak contraction; fixed point; discontinuity at the fixed point; property P; matrix equation; integral equations
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:21:49 CEST)
In this paper, the notion of θ∗-weak contraction is introduced, which is utilized to prove some fixed point results. These results are helpful to give a positive response to certain open question raised by Kannan [Amer. Math. Monthly 76:1969] and Rhoades [Contemp. Math. 72:1988] on the existence of contractive definition which does not force the mapping to be continuous at the fixed point. Some illustrative examples are also given to support our results. As applications of our result, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of a solution of non-linear matrix equations and integral equations of Volterra type as well.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0641.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: three-dimensional laser scanning; rock discontinuity; rock fracture; rock joint; discontinuity orientation.
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:15:02 CEST)
Manual measurement of rock discontinuities is time-consuming and subjective according to the experience of the surveyor. This work proposes a three-dimensional laser scanning-based method for the semi-automatic identification of rock discontinuities. Multisite cloud scanning is performed with real-time kinematic (RTK)-assisted orientation to estimate the rock fracturing degree; then, discontinuity orientations are extracted with the man–machine interactive method or automatic method. The proposed method was applied to actual examples to illustrate its accuracy at identifying rock discontinuities. The sensitivity of the identification accuracy to different parameters was investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0323.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: scattering; heterogeneity; anisotropy; elastic waves; dispersion; attenuation; Mohorovičić discontinuity
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:01:02 CEST)
The geometry of mesoscopic inhomogeneities plays an important role in determining the macroscopic propagation behaviors of elastic waves in a heterogeneous medium. Non-equiaxed inhomogeneities can lead to anisotropic wave velocity and attenuation. Developing an accurate scattering theory to describe the quantitative relation between the microstructure features and wave propagation parameters is of fundamental importance for seismology and ultrasonic nondestructive characterization. This work presents a multiple scattering theory for strongly scattering elastic media with general tri-axial heterogeneities. A closed analytical expression of the shape-dependent singularity of the anisotropic Green’s tensor for the homogeneous reference medium is derived by introducing a proper non-orthogonal ellipsoidal coordinate. Renormalized Dyson’s equation for the coherent wave field is then derived with the help of Feynman’s diagram technique and the first-order-smoothing approximation. The exact dispersion curves and the inverse Q-factors of coherent waves in several representative medium models for the heterogeneous lithosphere are calculated numerically. Numerical results for small-scale heterogeneities with the aspect ratio varying from 1 to 7 show satisfactory agreement with those obtained from real earthquakes. The results for velocity dispersion give rise to a novel explanation to the formation mechanism of different seismic phases. The new model has potential applications in seismology and ultrasonic microstructure characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0317.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: scattering; elastic waves; porous materials; dispersion; attenuation; Mohorovičić discontinuity; seismology
Online: 28 July 2019 (15:18:25 CEST)
Scattering of elastic waves in heterogeneous media has become one of the most important problems in the field of wave propagation due to its broad applications in seismology, natural resource exploration, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and biomedical ultrasound. Nevertheless, it is one of the most challenging problems because of the complicated medium inhomogeneity and the complexity of the elastodynamic equations. A widely accepted model for the propagation and scattering of elastic waves, which properly incorporates the multiple scattering phenomenon and the statistical information of the inhomogeneities is still missing. In this work, the author developed a multiple scattering model for heterogeneous elastic continua with strong property fluctuation and obtained the exact solution to the dispersion equation under the first-order smoothing approximation. The model establishes an accurate quantitative relation between the microstructural properties and the coherent wave propagation parameters and can be used for characterization or inversion of microstructures. Starting from the elastodynamic differential equations, a system of integral equation for the Green functions of the heterogeneous medium was developed by using Green’s functions of a homogeneous reference medium. After properly eliminating the singularity of the Green tensor and introducing a new set of renormalized field variables, the original integral equation is reformulated into a system of renormalized integral equations. Dyson’s equation and its first-order smoothing approximation, describing the ensemble averaged response of the heterogeneous system, are then derived with the aid of Feynman’s diagram technique. The dispersion equations for the longitudinal and transverse coherent waves are then obtained by applying Fourier transform to the Dyson equation. The exact solution to the dispersion equations are obtained numerically. To validate the new model, the results for weak-property-fluctuation materials are compared to the predictions given by an improved weak-fluctuation multiple scattering theory. It is shown that the new model is capable of giving a more robust and accurate prediction of the dispersion behavior of weak-property-fluctuation materials. Numerical results further show that the new model is still able to provide accurate results for strong-property-fluctuation materials while the weak-fluctuation model is completely failed. As applications of the new model, dispersion and attenuation curves for coherent waves in the Earth’s lithosphere, the porous and two-phase alloys, and human cortical bone are calculated. Detailed analysis shows the model can capture the major dispersion and attenuation characteristics, such as the longitudinal and transverse wave Q-factors and their ratios, existence of two propagation modes, anomalous negative dispersion, nonlinear attenuation-frequency relation, and even the disappearance of coherent waves. Additionally, it helps gain new insights into a series of longstanding problems, such as the dominant mechanism of seismic attenuation and the existence of the Mohorovičić discontinuity. This work provides a general and accurate theoretical framework for quantitative characterization of microstructures in a broad spectrum of heterogeneous materials and it is anticipated to have vital applications in seismology, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and biomedical ultrasound.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Transport Corrected SP3; Nodal Expansion Method; Generalized Equivalence Theory; Discontinuity Factors
Online: 3 September 2021 (08:12:14 CEST)
The Simplified Spherical Harmonic (SPN) approximation was first introduced as a three-dimensional (3-D) extension of the plane-geometry Spherical Harmonic (PN) equations. A third order SPN (SP3) solver, recently implemented in the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM), has shown promising performance in the reactor core neutronics simulations. This work is focused on the development and implementation of the transport corrected interface and boundary conditions in NEM SP3 solver, following recent published work on the rigorous SPN theory for piecewise homogeneous regions. A streamlined procedure has been developed to generate the flux zero and second order/moment discontinuity factors (DFs) of the generalized equivalence theory to eliminate the error introduced by pin-wise homogenization. Moreover, several color set models with varying size and configuration are later explored for their capability of generating DFs that can produce results equivalent to that using the whole-core homogenization model for more practical implementations. The new developments are tested and demonstrated on the C5G7 benchmark. The results show that the transport corrected SP3 solver shows general improvements to power distribution prediction compared to the basic SP3 solver with no DFs or only zero order/moment DFs. The complete equivalent calculations using the DFs can almost reproduce transport solutions with high accuracy. The use of equivalent parameters from larger size color set models show better prediction in the whole-core calculations. By coupling different color set models DFs can offer the best accuracy at both eigenvalues and power distributions.