SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0166.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Earth magnetic field; celestial magnetic field; magnetic dipole; Clifford algebra; Dirac equation; spin-gravity coupling potential; curved space-time
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:48:46 CET)
The magnetic field of the earth plays an important role in the ecosystem, and the magnetic field of celestial bodies is also important in the formation of cosmic large-scale structures, but the origin and evolution of the celestial magnetic field is still an unresolved mystery. Many hypotheses to explain the origin have been proposed, but there are some insurmountable difficulties for each one. At present, the theory widely accepted in scientific society is the dynamo model, it says that, the movement of magnetofluid inside celestial bodies, which can overcome the Ohmic dissipative effect and generate persistent weak electric current and macroscopic magnetic field. However, this model needs an initial seed magnetic field, and the true values of many physical parameters inside the celestial body are difficult to obtain, and there is no stable solution to the large range of fluid motion. These are all difficulties for the dynamo model. Furthermore, it is difficult for the dynamo to explain the correlation between the dipole magnetic field and angular momentum of a celestial body. In this paper, by calculating the interaction between spin of particles and gravity of celestial body according to Clifford algebra, we find that a rotational celestial body provides a field $\Omega^\alpha$ for spins, which is similar to the magnetic field of a dipole, and the spins of charged particles within the celestial body are arranged along the flux line of $\Omega^\alpha$, then a macroscopic magnetic field is induced. The calculation shows that the strength of $\Omega^\alpha$ is proportional to the angular momentum of the celestial body, which explains the correlation between the magnetic intensity and angular momentum. The results of this paper suggest that further study of the effects of internal variables such as density, velocity, pressure and temperature of a celestial body on $\Omega^\alpha$ may provide some new insights into the origin and evolution of celestial magnetic field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0618.v1
Subject: Keywords: Boundary element method (BEM); magnetic polarization tensor; magnetic induction; dipole approximation
Online: 22 April 2021 (20:55:17 CEST)
The magnetic polarization tensor has a promising capability of determining the geometry and material properties of metallic samples. In this paper, a novel computation method is proposed to estimate the magnetic polarization tensors for the metallic samples using the boundary element method. In this method, the metallic sample is placed in a uniformly distributed magnetic field. Based on assumptions that the excitation frequency and/or the conductivity of the sample is very high, the metallic sample is regarded as a perfect electrical conductor (PEC). Therefore, the scattered field at a certain distance can be simulated. By utilising the boundary element method, the magnetic polarization tensor can be derived from the simulated scattered field. The theoretical calculation is presented and simulations and experiments have been carried out to validate the proposed method. The results from the simulation are matched with the analytical solution for the case of sphere samples. Moreover, there is a good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental results for the copper cylindrical samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0400.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: nuclear magnetic dipole moment; nuclear magnetic shielding; gas-phase NMR
Online: 31 March 2022 (08:00:05 CEST)
Multinuclear NMR studies of the gaseous mixtures that involve volatile compounds and 3He atoms are featured in this review. Precise analyses of the 3He and other nuclei resonance frequencies show linear dependences on the gas density. Extrapolation of the gas phase results to the zero-pressure limit gives ν0(3He) and ν0(nX) resonance frequencies of nuclei in a single 3-helium atom and nuclei in molecules at a given temperature. The NMR frequency comparison method provides an approach for determining different nuclear magnetic moments. Application of quantum chemical shielding calculations which include a more complete and careful theoretical treatment allows the shielding of isolated molecules to be achieved with great accuracy and precision. They are used for evaluation of nuclear moments without shielding impact on bare nuclei: 10/11B, 13C, 14N, 17O, 19F, 21Ne, 29Si, 31P, 33S, 35/37Cl, 33S , 83Kr, 129/131Xe, and 183W. On the other hand, new results of nuclear moments were used for reevaluation of absolute nuclear magnetic shielding in molecules under study. Additionally, 3He gas in water solutions of lithium and sodium salts was used for measurements of 6/7Li and 23Na magnetic moments and reevaluation of shielding parameters of Li+ and Na+ water solvated cations. In this paper, guest 3He atoms that play a role in probing the electron density in many host macromolecules are presented as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0304.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: polarisable Dirac dipole; quark scaling; hadron mass spectrum; Z boson; Higgs boson; topquark
Online: 12 May 2022 (06:20:43 CEST)
In this article the possible impact on the present state of particle physics theory is discussed of two unrecognized theoretical elements. These elements are the awareness that (a) the quark is a Dirac particle with a polarisable dipole moment in a scalar field and that (b) Dirac’s wave equation for fermions, if derived from Einstein’s geodesic equation, reveals a scaling theorem for quarks. It is shown that recognition of these elements proves by theory quite some relationships that are up to now only empirically assessed, such as for instance, the mass relationships between the elementary quarks, the relationship between the bare mass and the constituent mass of quarks, the mass spectrum of hadrons and the mass values of the Z boson and the Higgs boson.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0306.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: dipole-dipole interaction; unruh effect; quantum field theory in curved space
Online: 24 April 2018 (05:43:23 CEST)
We study the resonant dipole-dipole interaction energy between two uniformly accelerated identical atoms, one excited and the other in the ground state, prepared in a correlated Bell-type state, and interacting with the scalar field or the electromagnetic field nearby a perfectly reflecting plate. We suppose the two atoms moving with the same uniform acceleration, parallel to the plane boundary, and that their separation is constant during the motion. We separate the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction field to the resonance energy shift of the two-atom system, and show that Unruh thermal fluctuations do not affect the resonance interaction, which is exclusively related to the radiation reaction field. However, nonthermal effects of acceleration in the radiation-reaction contribution, beyond the Unruh acceleration-temperature equivalence, affect the resonance interaction energy. By considering specific geometric configurations of the two-atom system relative to the plate, we show that the presence of the mirror significantly modifies the resonance interaction energy between the two accelerated atoms. In particular, we find that new and different features appear with respect to the case of atoms in the free space, related to the presence of the boundary and to the peculiar structure of the quantum electromagnetic field vacuum in the locally inertial frame. Our results suggest the possibility to exploit the resonance interaction between accelerated atoms, as a probe for detecting the elusive effects of atomic acceleration on radiative processes.
Online: 3 November 2019 (18:03:26 CET)
An antenna sensor is proposed to execute dual functions of antenna and sensor in the wireless sensor system, in order to reduce data loss and to increase transmission rate by omitting a certain interface. The as-made sensor was test at a center frequency of 46 MHz for measuring human finger postures using principle of dipole antenna. The antenna sensor was attached on a wearable glove. The results showed that the motion sensor can accurately identify finger angles at 0°, 20°, 40°, 60° and 80°.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0275.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: anomalous electric dipole moment; isospin; gravitational Dirac particle
Online: 26 July 2021 (12:07:54 CEST)
An analysis is presented of the possible existence of a second anomalous dipole moment of Dirac’s particle next to the one associated with the angular momentum. It includes a discussion why, in spite of his own derivation, Dirac has doubted about its relevancy. It is shown why since then it has been overlooked and why it has vanished from leading textbooks. A critical survey is given on the reasons of its reject, including the failure of attempts to measure and the perceived violations of time reversal symmetry and charge-parity symmetry. It is emphasized that the anomalous electric dipole moment of the pointlike electron (AEDM) is fundamentally different from the quantum field type electric dipole moment of an electron (eEDM) as defined in the standard model of particle physics. The analysis has resulted into the identification of a third type Dirac particle, next to the electron type and the Majorana particle. It is shown that, unlike as in the case of the electron type, its second anomalous dipole moment is real valued and is therefore subject to polarization in a vector field. Examples are given that it may have a possible impact in the nuclear domain and in the gravitational domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0054.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: quantum gravity; vacuum polarization; gravitational dipole; Majorana particle
Online: 5 March 2019 (11:14:31 CET)
In this article various heuristic approaches are discussed to solve the dark matter phenomenon by the concept of vacuum polarization. They are compared with a more fundamental approach, based upon an entropy model of the visible universe. They all make use of some kind of gravitational dipole. These dipoles seem to violate Einstein’s equivalence principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass. It is shown how the paradox can be solved by a quantum mechanical principle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0159.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Milgrom’s acceleration constant; Bekenstein-Hawking entropy; gravitational dipole; dark matter.
Online: 6 August 2021 (11:16:52 CEST)
It is shown that the Lambda component in the cosmological Lambda-CDM model can be conceived as vacuum energy, consisting of gravitational particles subject to Heisenberg’s energy-time uncertainty. These particles can be modelled as elementary polarisable Dirac-type dipoles (“darks”) in a fluidal space at thermodynamic equilibrium, with spins that are subject to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Around the baryonic kernels, uniformly distributed in the universe, the spins are polarized, thereby invoking an increase of the effective gravitational strength of the kernels. It explains the dark matter effect of galaxies to the extent that a numerical value of Milgrom’s acceleration constant can be assigned by theory. Non-polarized vacuum particles beyond the baryonic kernels compose the dark energy at the cosmological level. The result is an interpretation of gravity at the quantum level in terms of quantitatively established shares in baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy, which correspond with the values of the Lambda-CDM model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0605.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: hydrometeorological variability; Indian Ocean Dipole; principal component analysis; mutual information
Online: 25 September 2020 (11:45:13 CEST)
In this study, we used statistical models to analyze nonlinear behavior links with atmospheric teleconnections between hydrometeorological variables and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode over the East Asia (EA) region. The analysis of atmospheric teleconnections was conducted using principal component analysis and singular spectrum analysis techniques. Moreover, the nonlinear lag-time correlations between climate indices and hydrological variables were calculated using mutual information (MI) techniques. The teleconnection-based nonlinear correlation coefficients (CCs) were higher than the linear CCs in each lag time. Additionally, we documented that the IOD has a direct influence on hydro-meteorological variables, such as precipitation within the Korean Peninsula (KP). Moreover, during the warm season (June to September) the variation of hydro-meteorological variables in the KP demonstrated significantly decreasing patterns during positive IOD years and they have neutral conditions during negative IOD years in comparison with long-term normal conditions. Finally, the revealed relationship between climate indices and hydro-meteorological variables and their possible changes will allow better understanding of stakeholder decision-making regarding to manage of freshwater management over the EA region. It can also provide useful data for long-range water resources prediction, to minimize hydrological uncertainties in a changing climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0736.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: milgrom's acceleration constant; bekenstein-hawking entropy; gravitational dipole; dark matter
Online: 15 September 2020 (05:44:52 CEST)
It is shown that the Lambda component in the cosmological Lambda-CDM model can be conceived as vacuum energy, consisting of gravitational particles subject to Heisenberg’s energy-time uncertainty. These particles can be modelled as elementary polarisable Dirac-type dipoles (“darks”) in a fluidal space at thermodynamic equilibrium, with spins that are subject to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Around the baryonic kernels, uniformly distributed in the universe, the spins are polarized, thereby invoking an increase of the effective gravitational strength of the kernels. It explains the dark matter effect to the extent that the numerical value of Milgrom’s acceleration constant can be assessed by theory. Non-polarized vacuum particles beyond the baryonic kernels compose the dark energy. The result is a quantum mechanical interpretation of gravity in terms of quantitatively established shares in baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy, which correspond with the values of the Lambda-CDM model..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0142.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: anomalous electric dipole moment; Dirac particle; Pauli’s spin vector; isospin
Online: 26 November 2019 (03:57:09 CET)
An analysis is presented of the possible existence of a second anomalous dipole moment of Dirac’s particle next to the angular one. It includes a discussion why, in spite of his own derivation, Dirac has doubted about its relevancy. It is shown why since then it has been overlooked and why it has vanished from leading textbooks. A critical survey is given on the reasons of its reject, including the failure of attempts to measure and the perceived violations of time reversal symmetry and chargeparity symmetry. It is emphasized that the anomalous electric dipole moment of the pointlike electron (AEDM) is fundamentally different from the quantum field type electric dipole moment of an electron (eEDM) as defined in the standard model of particle physics and that its measurement requires different instrumentation. A proposal has been described how to prove or disprove its existence by experiment. Moreover, by reference from literature, the possible impact is discussed in the nuclear domain and in the gravitational domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0347.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Moon; Earth; tidal locking; dipole magnetic field; solar wind; moonfall
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:30:43 CEST)
The moon always use the same side to face toward the earth, but there is a dead angle in the mainstream theory of explaining this phenomenon. That is, it cannot explain why the moon doesn't rotate around the axis which is a straight line to connect the mass centers of the earth and moon. Because the numerous meteorite impact craters on the lunar surface indicate that the moon is completely possible to obtain external momentums and rotate around this axis. This paper proposes a plain explanation, that is, the universal gravitation between the earth and moon as well as the earth's magnetic field have formed a trinity restraint mechanism on the moon. According to this explanation, the moon's rotation can be locked, and the mechanism of lunar libration has been revealed out, which can also confirm mutually with the natural phenomenon that the moon has sought a balance in the swing. In addition, with the help of all kinds of detection data from the Apollo moon landings and other circumlunar spacecraft, as well as the studies and analysis of lunar soil samples, the conclusion is that as far as a whole for the moon, it belongs to paramagnetic substances, and its relative permeability is between 1.008 and 1.03. Although the magnetic flux density of the earth on the lunar orbit has been dropped below 0.0008125 nT or lower due to the impact of the solar wind, but it can be used as a reason to lock the moon without rotating around the axis which is a straight line to connect the mass centers of the earth and moon. If another main reason to cause the existence of this fact cannot be found, even if the magnetic flux density of the geomagnetism in lunar orbit is very small, it also should not be artificially ignored. In this regard, we can artificially change the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, and carefully observe the lunar libration and in the distance between the earth and the moon, to verify the arguments in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0713.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Milgrom’s acceleration constant; Bekenstein-Hawking entropy; gravitational dipole; dark matter
Online: 12 December 2018 (14:36:52 CET)
Conceiving vacuum energy as gravitational particles subject to Heisenberg’s energy-time uncertainty, modelled as dipoles in a fluidal space at thermodynamic equilibrium, and interpreting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy as the effective amount of spins of those dipoles enclosed within the event horizon of the universe, allows the calculation of Milgrom’s acceleration constant. The result is a quantum mechanical interpretation of gravity, and dark matter in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0155.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: discrete dipole approximation (DDA); up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNP); lanthanide-gold
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:34:20 CET)
Up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNP) under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation have been well investigated in the field of bio-imaging. However, the low up-conversion luminescence (UCL) intensity limits applications. Plasmatic modulation has been proposed as an effective tool to adjust the luminescence intensity and lifetime. In this study discrete dipole approximation (DDA) was explored concerning guiding the design of UCNP@mSiO2-Au structures with enhanced UCL intensity. The extinction effects of gold shells could be changed by adjusting the distance between the UCNPs and the Au NPs by synthesized tunable mesoporous silica (mSiO2) spacers. Enhanced UCL was obtained under 808 nm irradiation. Theoretical predictions could not be demonstrated to full extend by experimental data, indicating that better models for simulation need to better take into account inhomogeneities in particle morphologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: EM waves, harvester, wearable antenna, 5G, HATB, dipole antenna, rectifier, efficiency
Online: 4 September 2019 (13:23:48 CEST)
As the rapid development of communication industry, especially the 5G communication and IOT, there will be plenty of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the free space, which carry lots of energies. However, some of these energies are wasted in free space. To reuse these wasted energies, significantly growing interests are towards to the energy harvesting antennas. This paper is aimed to investigate a wearable antenna which can transfer RF energy from ambient sources to direct current by a soft and portable textile antenna. Among the numerous signals in mobile network, the GSM 1800, 3G, WiFi and 4G/5G will be chosen due to the city signal intensity distribution. Hence, a corresponding triple bands antenna has been designed to cover those frequency bands. The CST STUDIO SUITE is used in whole process of antenna design and simulation. The proposed antenna is a hooked dipole antenna with tuning bar (HATB) whose ends have small folded part in each side for better bandwidth performance. The presented antenna provides a wide operating band from 1.8 GHz to 2.5 GHz below -10 dB in return loss. And methods to overcome interference between antennas is found. Furthermore, using the corresponding rectifier to achieve the RF/DC conversion. The overall efficiency of whole rectifier is about 56.8 %, and output power level of the antenna system is 45.92nW. The experimental results could indicate that my textile hooked antenna harvester is a good choice for the charging system of personal wearable attachment, which could achieve low power absorbing for long distance anytime and anywhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0480.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: surface plasmon resonance; core–shell nanoparticles; discrete-dipole approximation; aspect ratio
Online: 25 July 2018 (11:53:51 CEST)
In this work, numerical simulations for the absorption and scattering efficiencies of spheroid core–shell nanoparticles (CSNs) were conducted and studied using the discrete-dipole approximation method. The characteristics of surface plasmon resonances (SPR) depend upon shell thickness, the compositions of the core and shell materials, and the aspect ratio of the constructed CSNs. We used different core@shell compositions, specifically Au@SiO2, Ag@SiO2, Au@TiO2, Ag@TiO2, Au@Ag, and Ag@Au, for extinction spectra analysis. We also investigated coupled resonance mode wavelengths by adjusting the composition’s layer thickness and aspect ratio. In this study, we show that the extinction efficiency of the Ag@TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) was higher than that of the others, and we examined the impact of TiO2 shell thickness and Ag core radius on SPR peak positions. From the extinction spectra we found that the Ag@TiO2 nanoparticle had better refractive index sensitivity and figure of merit when the aspect ratio was set to 0.3. All of the experimental results proved that the tunability of these plasmonic resonances was highly dependent on the material used, the layer thickness, and the aspect ratio of the core@shell CSNPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0152.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, return strokes, dipole fields, accelerating charges, radiation fields, static fields, velocity fields
Online: 12 December 2018 (15:21:10 CET)
Electric and/or magnetic fields are generated by stationary charges, uniformly moving charges and accelerating charges. These field components are described in the literature as static fields, velocity fields (or generalized Coulomb field) and radiation fields (or acceleration fields), respectively. In the literature, the electromagnetic fields generated by lightning return strokes are presented using the field components associated with short dipoles and in this description the one to one association of the electromagnetic field terms with the physical process that gives rise to them is lost. In this paper, we will derive expressions for the electromagnetic fields using field equations associated with accelerating (and moving) charges and separate the resulting fields into static, velocity and radiation fields. The results illustrates how the radiation fields emanating from the lightning channel give rise to field terms varying as inverse of distance and distance squired, the velocity fields generating field terms varying as inverse of distance squired and the static fields generating fields components varying as inverse of distance squired and distance cube. These field components depend explicitly on the speed of propagation of the current pulse. However, the total field does not depend explicitly on the speed of propagation of the current pulse. It is shown that these field components can be combined to generate the field components pertinent to the dipole technique. However, in this conversion process the connection of the field components to the physical process taking place at the source that generate these fields (i.e. static charges, uniformly moving charges and accelerating charges) is lost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0452.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: silicon; nanowire; lithium; second harmonic generation; multiphoton; non-centrosymmetric; inversion symmetry; polarization; electric dipole moment.
Online: 28 September 2021 (08:21:03 CEST)
This research will examine the computational methods to calculate the nonlinear optical process of second harmonic generation (SHG) that will be hypothesized to be present during lithium ion insertion into silicon nanowires. First it will be determined whether the medium in which SHG is conveyed is non-centrosymmetric or whether the medium is inversion symmetric where SHG as a part of the second-order nonlinear optical phenomenon does not exist. It will be demonstrated that the main interaction that determines SHG is multiphoton absorption on lithium ions. The quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) is used as the background that generates coherent states for electrons and photons that transverse the length of the silicon nanowire. The matrix elements of the Hamiltonian which represents the energy of the system will be used to calculate the probability density of second-order nonlinear optical interactions which includes collectively SHG, sum-frequency generation (SFG) and difference-frequency generation (DFG). As a result it will be seen that at varies concentrations of lithium ions (Li+) within the crystallized silicon (c-Si) matrix the second-order nonlinear optical process has probabilities substantial enough to create second harmonic generation that could possibly be used for such applications as second harmonic imaging microscopy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: beef tallow biodiesel; fatty acid esters; atomic charge; molecular dipole moment; HOMO-LUMO energy gap; electrostatic potential
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:37:39 CEST)
This study deals with computational analysis of dominant fatty acid ethyl esters characterized from the biodiesel produced from waste beef tallow by means of KOH catalyzed ethanol based transesterification. Ethyl palmitate, Ethyl Oleate, Ethyl Stearate and Ethyl Myristate were identified as dominant fatty acid esters and were computed for molecular analysis in Gaussian 09 software using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP method) with 6-31G* as basis set. Geometric parameters were in accordance with existing experimental values and population analysis exhibited negative charge for oxygen atoms, both positive & negative charge for carbon atoms in all ester molecules. The molecular dipole moment was higher for unsaturated ester molecule and quadruple moment proposed electronic dislocation in X+Y direction. Also, energy gap decreased slightly with increasing carbon chain but reduced drastically with increase in unsaturation. Electrostatic potential mapping displayed negative electrostatic potential for oxygen atoms in ester linkage of all ester molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0740.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Elliptical dipole antenna; EM/circuit co-simulation; Low-cost; Low-Power; RF oscillator; RTLS; Ultrawide band antennas; Power gating
Online: 30 June 2021 (16:00:12 CEST)
The goal of this paper is to present a low-cost, low-power prototype of a pulsed Ultra Wide Band UWB) oscillator and an UWB elliptical dipole antenna integrated on the same Radio Frequency (RF) Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and its digital control board for Real Time Locating System (RTLS) applications. The design is compatible with IEEE 802.15.4 high rate pulse repetition UWB standard being able to work between 6 GHz and 8.5 GHz with 500 MHz bandwidth and with a pulse duration of 2 ns. The UWB system has been designed using the CST Microwave Studio transient Electro-Magnetic (EM) circuit co-simulation method. This method integrates the functional circuit simulation together with the full wave (EM) simulation of the PCB’s 3D model allowing fast parameter tuning. The PCB has been manufactured and the entire system has been assembled and measured. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement with respect to the radiation performances as well as the power consumptions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0314.v1
Subject: Keywords: Clifford algebra; Abelian Lie algebra; eigen function; separation of variables; Dirac equation; Pauli equation, dipole magnetic field; axisymmetric potential
Online: 20 March 2020 (09:55:59 CET)
Clifford algebra is unified language and efficient tool for geometry and physics. In this paper, we introduce this algebra to derive the integrable conditions for Dirac and Pauli equations. This algebra shows the standard operation procedure and deep insights into the structure of the equations. Usually, the integrable condition is related to the special symmetry of transformation group, which involves some advanced mathematical tools and its availability is limited. In this paper, the integrable conditions are only regarded as algebraic conditions. The commutators expressed by Clifford algebra have a neat and covariant form, which are naturally valid in curvilinear coordinate system and curved space-time. For Pauli and Schr\"odinger equation, many solutions in axisymmetric potential and magnetic field are also integrable. We get the scalar eigen equation in dipole magnetic field. By the virtue of Clifford algebra, the physical researches may be greatly promoted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0154.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: water bridging; dipole waves; coherent states; polymerase chain reaction; DNA amplification; DNA transduction; enzyme catalytic activity; fractal-like self-similarity
Online: 25 April 2017 (04:24:21 CEST)
We discuss the role of water bridging the DNA-enzyme interaction by resorting to recent 1 results showing that London dispersion forces between delocalized electrons of base pairs of DNA 2 are responsible for the formation of dipole modes that can be recognized by Taq polymerase. 3 We describe the dynamical origin of the high efficiency and precise targeting of Taq activity in 4 PCR. The spatiotemporal distribution of interaction couplings, frequencies, amplitudes, and phase 5 modulations comprise a pattern of fields instantiating the electromagnetic image of DNA in its 6 water environment, which is what the polymerase enzyme actually recognizes at long range. The 7 experimental realization of PCR amplification, achieved through replacement of the DNA template 8 by the treatment of pure water with electromagnetic signals recorded from viral and bacterial DNA 9 solutions, is found consistent with the gauge theory paradigm of quantum fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0198.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: huperzine A-AChE; molecular docking; intermolecular interaction; quantum chemical calculation; charge density distribution; atomic charges; dipole moment; electrostatic potential; toxicity analysis
Online: 23 August 2016 (12:33:27 CEST)
Huperzine A is an herbal reversible inhibitor of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE). A molecular docking analysis on Huperzine A molecule has been carried out to understand its structure, conformational flexibility, intermolecular interaction and the binding affinity in the active site of AChE enzyme. Further, the charge density distribution of huperzine A molecule (lifted from the active site of AChE) was determined from the high level quantum chemical calculations coupled with charge density analysis. The binding affinity of Huperzine A towards AChE was calculated from the molecular docking; the lowest docked energy is -8.46 kcal/mol. In the active site, huperzine A molecule interacts with acyl binding pocket-Phe330 of AChE, that is, the bicyclo ring group of huperzine A forms an intermolecular interaction with the oxygen atom of main chain of the amino acid residue Phe330 at the distances 3.02 and 3.25 Å respectively. On the other hand, a gas phase study on huperzine A molecule also performed using HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods with the basis set 6-311G**. The molecular structure, conformation, and the charge density distribution of huperzine A molecule in the gas phase have determined using quantum chemical calculations and the charge density analysis. The comparative studies between the gas phase and the active site forms of huperzine A molecule, explicitly reveals the degree of conformational modification and the charge density redistribution of huperzine A when present in the active site. The dipole moment of the molecule in the active site is 6.85 D, which is slightly higher than its gas phase value (5.91 D). The electrostatic potential (ESP) surface of active site molecule clearly shows the strong electronegative and positive ESP regions of the molecule, which are the expected strong reactive locations of the molecule.