Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: MIF; Lingulodinium polyedra; transmembrane protein; dinoflagellate; stress response; secretion
Online: 11 July 2020 (17:23:36 CEST)
Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factors (MIF) are pivotal cytokines/chemokines for vertebrate immune systems. MIFs are typically soluble single-domain proteins that are conserved across plant, fungal, protist, and metazoan kingdoms but their functions have not been determined in most phylogenetic groups. Here we describe an atypical multidomain MIF protein. The marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra produces a transmembrane protein with an extra-cytoplasmic MIF domain, which localizes to cell wall-associated membranes and vesicular bodies. This protein is also present in the membranes of extracellular vesicles accumulating at the secretory pores of the cells. Upon exposure to biotic stress, L. polyedra exhibits reduced expression of the MIF gene and reduced abundance of the surface-associated protein. These findings indicate that the transmembrane MIF may contribute to intercellular communication and/or interactions between free-living organisms in multispecies planktonic communities and raise the question of possible analogies in MIF functions between cells of metazoan organisms and protist communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0122.v1
Subject: Keywords: Dinoflagellate; Saxitoxins; Mating systems; Resting cysts; PSP outbreak; Chilean Patagonia
Online: 5 November 2021 (12:57:35 CET)
The bloom-forming toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella was first detected in Southern Chile (39.5–55°S) 50 years ago and is responsible for most of the area’s cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Given the complex life history of A. catenella, which includes benthic sexual cysts, in this study we examined the potential link between latitude, toxicity, and sexual compatibility. Nine clones isolated from Chilean Patagonia were used in self- and out-crosses in all possible combinations (n=45). The effect of latitude on toxicity, reproductive success indexes, and cyst production was also determined. Although the toxin profiles were similar for all strains, consisting of C1, C2, GTX4, GTX1, GTX3, and NeoSTX, a latitudinal gradient was determined for their proportions (%) and content per cell (pg cell−1), with the more toxic strains occurring in the north (−40.6°S). Reproductive success also showed a latitudinal tendency and was lower in the north. None of the self-crosses yielded resting cysts. Rather, the production of resting cysts was highest in pairings of clones separated by distances of 1000–1650km. Our results contribute to a better understanding of PSP outbreaks in the region and demonstrate the importance of resting cysts in fueling new toxic events. They also provide additional evidence that the introduction of strains from neighboring regions is a cause for concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0182.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: dinoflagellate; Karenia mikimotoi; glycolipids; monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; monogalactosylmonoacylglycerol; polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl ester; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli; Candida albicans; anti-inflammatory activity
Online: 17 January 2020 (09:18:08 CET)
A New monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), a known monogalactosylmonoacylglycerol (MGMG) and a known polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl ester (PUFAME) were isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi. The planar structure of the glycolipids was elucidated using MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses and comparisons to the known glycolipid to confirm its structure. The isolation of PUFAME strongly supports the polyunsaturated fatty acid fragment of these glycolipids. The relative configuration of the sugar was deduced by comparisons of 3JHH values and proton chemical shifts with those of known glycolipids. All isolated compounds MGDG, MGMG and PUFAME (1-3) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. All compounds modulated macrophage responses, with compound 3 exhibiting the greatest anti-inflammatory activity.