ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Digitalization; Sustainable digitalization; Artificial Intelligence; Sustainable Development; SDGs; Assessment Framework; Mindful; Digital Age; Digitainability
Online: 24 February 2022 (11:03:32 CET)
Digitalization is widely recognized as a transformative power for sustainable development. Careful alignment of progress made by digitalization with the globally acknowledged Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is crucial for inclusive and holistic sustainable development in the digital era. However, limited reference has been made in SDGs about harnessing the opportunities offered by digitalization capabilities. Moreover, research on inhibiting or enabling effects of digitalization considering its multi-faceted interlinkages with the SDGs and their targets is fragmented. There are only limited instances in the literature examining and categorizing the impact of digitalization on sustainable development. To overcome this gap, this paper introduces a new Digitainability Assessment Framework (DAF) for context-aware practical assessment of the impact of the digitalization intervention on the SDGs. The DAF facilitates in-depth assessment of the many diverse technical, social, ethical, and environmental aspects of a digital intervention by systematically examining its impact on the SDG indicators. Our approach draws on and adapts concepts of the Theory of Change (ToC). The DAF should support developers, users as well policymakers by providing a 360-degree perspective on the impact of digital services or products, as well as providing hints for its possible improvement. We demonstrate the application of the DAF with the three test case studies illustrating how it supports in providing a holistic view of the relation between digitalization and SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: "dual carbon" goal; renewable energy; digitalization; governance
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:02:40 CEST)
Digital technology makes energy systems more dynamic, efficient, reliable and sustainable. Promoting the digital governance of renewable energy is not only a key part of energy transformation, but also an important initiative to cope with the global energy crisis, which provides a new impetus for realizing the goal of net-zero emissions. In order to achieve the "dual-carbon" goal, China has been actively promoting energy reform and enhancing the wide application of digital technologies in the development and utilization of renewable energy. The digital governance system and governance capacity of renewable energy is an important support for the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity. Although the digital governance of renewable energy in China has better policy support and advantages, the dilemmas it faces are still relatively prominent, including unsound laws and policies, insufficient governance capacity, and security loopholes in digital technology, etc. Therefore, this paper proposes a problem-oriented approach to the digital governance of renewable energy. Therefore, this paper puts forward problem-oriented optimization suggestions to innovate the legal system of renewable energy digital governance, promote the digital transformation of China's renewable energy industry, provide development space for renewable energy digital governance in a diversified mode, and enhance the digital governance capacity by improving the renewable energy security system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0078.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: digitalization; clinical chemistry; artificial intelligence; interoperability; FAIRification
Online: 15 July 2022 (05:00:44 CEST)
Laboratory medicine is a digital science. Every large hospital produces a wealth of data each day - from simple numerical results from e.g. sodium measurements to highly complex output of “-omics” analyses, as well as quality control results and meta-data. Processing, connecting, storing, and ordering extensive parts of these individual data requires Big Data techniques. Whereas novel technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning have exciting application for the augmentation of laboratory medicine, the Big Data concept remains fundamental for any sophisticated data analysis in large databases. To make laboratory medicine data optimally usable for clinical and research purposes, they need to be FAIR: findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable. This can be achieved for example by automated recording, connection of devices, efficient ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) processes, careful data governance, and modern data security solutions. Enriched with clinical data, laboratory medicine data allow a gain in pathophysiological insights, can improve patient care, or they can be used to develop reference intervals for diagnostic purposes. Nevertheless, Big Data in laboratory medicine do not come without challenges: The growing number of analyses and data derived from them is a demanding task to be taken care of. Laboratory medicine experts are and will be needed to drive this development, take an active role in the ongoing digitalization, and provide guidance for their clinical colleagues engaging with the laboratory data in research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart villages; smart development; sustainability; digitalization; ICT
Online: 6 July 2018 (09:55:57 CEST)
Over the recent decades people’s (rural and urban) communities are facing numerous social and economic changes and challenges. Some of those challenges have been increasingly addressed through the lenses of technological developments and digitalization. In this paper we have made a review of already existing practices while focusing on the existing implementations of the smart village concept and the importance of digital transformation for rural areas. We give special attention to EU policies which we are using as an already existing framework for understanding our own forthcoming examples. We have shown the parallels between the findings and insights from different regions and made an evaluation of presented practices. Our main argument stems from our own previous experiences and experiences of other research approaches, and is grounded on the argument that rural areas are not uniform, and that smart rural development has to be applied in combination with place-based approach. We present the cases of Slovenian pilot practices and support our argument by proposing the FabVillage concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0134.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: budgeting; digitalization; budgeting functions; company performance; management accounting
Online: 4 December 2023 (04:20:35 CET)
The objectives of this article are to examine whether the application of digitalization in enterprise budgeting affects the fulfilment of budgeting functions and their qualitative characteristics, and to investigate whether the realization of budgeting functions brings benefits. The research was conducted from the perspective of contingency theory, both internal and external conditions. The study used an online survey targeting company budgeting staff. Structural Equation Modelling was utilized to validate the structural model (PLS-SEM technique). The conclusions confirm that the application of digitalization, which particularly pertains to ERP, Business Intelligence systems and accounting systems with budgeting solutions, positively impacts the fulfilment of budgeting functions and most of their qualitative characteristics, while Blockchain makes a minor contribution. Our research suggests that contingency variables, particularly internal ones such as company size, the quality of the organizational structure, and support for competitive strategy, continue to affect budgeting implementation even with the participation of digitalization in budgeting. Budgeting functions and their qualitative aspects are notably correlated with the advantages derived from budgeting, including financial performance, sustainable development and budget task execution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: freight transportation; future scenarios; intuitive logic; logistics; digitalization
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:00:14 CET)
Road freight transportation is a key function of modern societies. At the same time, road freight transportation accounts for significant emissions. To reach the UN sustainability goals, sustainable road freight transportation is key. Digitalization, including automation, digitized information, and AI provide opportunities to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and increase service levels in road freight transportation. Digitalization may also radically change the business ecosystem in the sector. In this paper, the question “How will digitalization change the road freight transportation landscape?” is addressed by developing four different future scenarios, using Sweden as a case study. For each of the four scenarios the impacts on the road freight transportation sector are investigated, and opportunities and barriers to reach a sustainable transportation system in each of the scenarios are discussed. In all scenarios an increase in vehicle kilometers travelled is predicted, and in three of the four scenarios significant increases of recycling and urban freight flows are predicted. The scenario development process highlighted how there are important uncertainties in the development of the society that will be highly important for the development of the digitized freight transportation landscape. One example is the sustainability paradigm, which was identified as a strategic uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1873.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital Economy; Digitalization; Fintech Scope; Principal Component Analysis; Sustainability
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:15:49 CEST)
The digital economy is a fundamental feature of sustainability. The economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainability stand up for digitalization and digital transformation projects. In order to understand and practice the digital economy, the goal of our paper is to evaluate accurate variables regarding fintech scope for discussing the efficient implication of these projects. The principal component analysis is used to investigate and evaluate the sustainable digital economy indicators. An empirical case from health care services in Africa from World Bank projects discusses this challenge. Results help produce an effective understanding of how the digital economy enables facing fintech challenges in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0425.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: digitization; digitalization; digital health; hospital; nursing; nurses; vignette experiment
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:34:45 CEST)
(1) Background: The usage of digital technologies in hospital nursing provides potential solutions to the shortage of qualified nurses and current pandemic challenges. The process involves changes and requires willingness to learn. In this respect, leaders can motivate nurses. Therefore, this vignette study examined which motives and values leaders must address in order to promote nurses’ motivation to use different digital technologies. (2) Methods: We asked hospital nurses in an online vignette study to assess fictitious situations about the imminent introduction of a digital technology. The situations differed regarding the devices (tablet/smart glasses), addressed motives (extrinsic/intrinsic), and values (efficiency/patient orientation). (3) Results: We included 299 responses in the analysis. The tablet vignettes caused especially high motivation, more than the vignettes of the smart glasses (Z = -6.653, p = <0.001). The leader was more motivating when emphasizing effi-ciency rather than patient orientation (Z = -2.995, p =0.003). The dataset did not give significant re-sults regarding extrinsic and intrinsic motives. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest efficiency as a motive for using known digital technologies. Management actions can provide the structural framework and training so that responsible leaders can ensure their staff’s engagement to also use unknown devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainable Infrastructure; Governance; Design; Protocols; Implementation; Value Chain; Digitalization
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:11:56 CEST)
Twenty-first century infrastructure needs to respond to changing demographics, becoming climate neutral, resilient, and economically affordable, while remaining a driver for development and shared prosperity. However, the infrastructure sector remains one of the least innovative and digitalized, plagued by delays, cost overruns, and benefit shortfalls [1-4]. The root cause is the prevailing fragmentation of the infrastructure value chain . To support overcoming the shortcomings, an integration of the value chain is needed. This could be achieved through a use-cased-based creation of federated digital platforms applied to infrastructure projects. Such digital platforms enable full-lifecycle participation and responsible governance guided by a shared infrastructure vision.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Digitalization; sensor technology; block chain technology; data models; livestock
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:29:39 CEST)
As the global human population increases, animal agriculture must adapt to provide more animal products while also addressing concerns about animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health. The purpose of this review is to discuss the digitalization of animal farming with Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies, specifically biosensors, big data, and block chain technology. Biosensors are noninvasive or invasive sensors that monitor an animal’s health and behavior in real time, allowing farmers to monitor individual animals and integrate this data for population-level analyses. The data from the sensors is processed using big data-processing techniques such as data modelling. These technologies use algorithms to sort through large, complex data sets to provide farmers with biologically relevant and usable data. Blockchain technology allows for traceability of animal products from farm to table, a key advantage in monitoring disease outbreaks and preventing related economic losses and food-related health pandemics. With these PLF technologies, animal agriculture can become more transparent and regain consumer trust. While the digitalization of animal farming has the potential to address a number of pressing concerns, these technologies are relatively new. The implementation of PLF technologies on farms will require increased collaboration between farmers, animal scientists, and engineers to ensure that technologies can be used in realistic, on-farm conditions. These technologies will call for data models that can sort through large amounts of data while accounting for specific variables and ensuring automation, accessibility, and accuracy of data. Issues with data privacy, security, and integration will need to be addressed before there can be multi-farm databases. Lastly, the usage of blockchain technology in animal agriculture is still in its infancy; blockchain technology has the potential to improve the traceability and transparency of animal products, but more research is needed to realize its full potential. The digitalization of animal farming can supply the necessary tools to provide sustainable animal products on a global scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: mini-bioreactors; parallelization; automation; digitalization; multivariate analysis; dynamic processes
Online: 17 October 2018 (06:19:46 CEST)
Mini-bioreactor systems enabling automatized operation of numerous parallel cultivations have been used to accelerate and optimize bioprocess development. As implementation of fed-batch conditions, multiple options of process control and sample analysis are possible, these systems represent valuable screening tools for large-scale production. However, the dynamic behavior of cultivations has not yet been considered regarding data evaluation and decision making during high-throughput screening in mini-bioreactors. In this study, the characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH22 secreting recombinant endopolygalacturonase is performed in 48 parallel fed-batch cultivations regarding 16 experimental conditions. Automated parallel process control, frequent sampling and analysis were implemented. Data-driven multivariate methods were developed to allow for fast, automated decision making as well as online predictive data analysis regarding endopolygalacturonase production. Using dynamic process information, a cultivation with abnormal behavior could be detected by principal component analysis as well as two clusters of similarly behaving cultivations, later classified according to the feeding rate. By decision tree analysis, cultivation conditions leading to an optimal recombinant product formation could be identified automatically. The developed method is easily adaptable and suitable for automatized process development reducing the experimental times and costs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: circular economy; building information modeling; built environment; building sector; digitalization
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:05:45 CEST)
With the advent of digitization, the integration of advanced technologies in operations and projects across all sectors is in progress. Accordingly, efforts are being made to utilize cutting-edge technologies to improve the circularity of the built environment. This study aimed to review the existing applications and limitations of building information modeling (BIM) tools for circular economy (CE) implementation from this perspective. A literature review was conducted to provide an overview of the use of BIM tools for conducting life cycle assessments, energy analysis, waste management, and formulation of material passports for buildings. It was found that BIM tools, which are available across all life cycle phases of building, have a great potential to improve the circularity of the sector. The overview provided on the use of various BIM tools may help stakeholders of the built environment understand the role of BIM for CE adoption in the sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0203.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digitalization; IT management; German automotive industry; new model; digital transformation
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:10:25 CEST)
This article examines how digitalisation is impacting the management of IT. Phase 1 of the re-search focuses on the German automotive industry, and adopts a qualitative inductive approach, based on feedback from 19 semi-structured interviews with IT managers and professionals. Five key aspects of digitalisation are identified, and a new model for the management of IT is devel-oped. Phase 2 then reviews the deployment of digital technologies in eight organisations from other industry sectors and assesses the overall impact on the management of IT. The results suggest that the transition to new IT management structures in the German automotive industry may be the forerunner of a change process that will impact more widely in other industries, in particular where digital technologies are now embedded in an organisation’s products or services. The results also provide some new perspectives on the conceptualisation of digitalisation and digital transformation, and represent a contribution to the developing theory around new tech-nology deployment and IT management in the digital era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Industry 4.0; Digitalization; Digital production; Digital Twin, 5G,innovative management
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:43:28 CET)
Purpose- This study seeks to investigate the collaboration between Digitalization and traditional manufacturing industry and investigate, how digitalized management brings new chances and challenges of management. Design/methodology/approach – The author designed a content analytical study researching the role of digitalization in traditional manufacturing industries. The article presents a selective but systematical review of recent digitalization trend and digital twin to be applied for innovative management in Industry 4.0 era. Findings– Digitalization is highly correlated with traditional manufactory in Industry 4.0 era. The study brings a new outlook on the next wave of Digitalization and review of associated challenges and opportunities for management and innovation in traditional manufacturing industries. Research limitations/implications – The research focuses on two branches of traditional industries only: machine tools building and metalworking industries. Future research needs to examine other traditional industries. The research is limited to 2 high related traditional manufacturing industries, machine tools and metalworking industry. Practical implications – The study and application of digitalization should be highly recommended and launched in traditional manufacturing industries. Universities, institutes and vocational schools should update, optimize their courses systems according to prediction of future industry. Originality/value – The paper enhances understanding about the collaboration between digitalization and traditional manufacturing industry. This paper analyzes an important issue the digitalization serves traditional industries. It is unique in its broad analysis of the related terms – Digitalization, Machines 4.0, Industry 4.0 and innovative management in Industry 4.0 era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1590.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Digitalization; Supply Chain Disruptions; Digital Supply Chain; Resilience; Best Practices; sustainability
Online: 25 October 2023 (05:25:22 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic strained global supply chains, and companies faced numerous produc-tion, logistics, or material management problems. It is claimed that the digitalization of supply chains can have the potential to make supply chains more resilient to interruptions and disrup-tions. This article focuses on describing the experiences of three large Austrian family-owned business during the supply chain disruptions caused by the pandemic and the Ukraine war. This assessment is done from the perspective of the supply chain leaders in the organization. We provide insights on what worked and what did not for these firms and what we can take away from their experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0487.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Circular Business Model; Digitalization; Circular transition; Digital transformation; equipment lifecycle extension.
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:37:37 CEST)
Digitalization technologies have been identified as enablers for the adoption of Circular Economy practices. The machinery value chain, addressed in this study, is affected by the introduction of digital technologies that enable real-time monitoring data on product condition and control optimization deploying predictive analytics techniques, as well as the offerings of circular-based services. Machinery lifetime extension can be digitally enabled on both old and new machines. The research objectives were to investigate how digital technologies enable the adoption of circular economy-based business models in manufacturing companies and provide an answer about i) what Life Cycle Extension Strategy is suitable for digital circular business model adoption and ii) how digitalization of machines enables manufacturing companies to innovate their business model. The correlation matrix is the tool developed from the proposed approach; it aims at supporting manufacturers in the very first contact with circular business models. In the context of the European RECLAIM project, two manufacturers apply the approach, proving its validity and wide applicability. The next steps are expected to introduce quantitative indicators to define thresholds for the steps toward circularity, without replacing the qualitative approach, as it guarantees the wide applicability of the approach in context that never considered circularity yet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0250.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Management; telework; communication; human resource management; business; digitalization; Covid-19 pandemic
Online: 15 August 2022 (05:57:07 CEST)
In the context of the pandemic caused by Covid-19, an important aspect that was affected and changed was the way people communicate. Communication efficiency can be improved by using modern technologies, for example: mobile devices, digital audio and video platforms, text platforms, social media and more. For further economic success, digital skills are needed not only for executives, but also for managers, in order to be able to lead teams and avoid situations of stress and tension in the virtual environment. This scientific paper includes a primary research of how the pandemic affected the communication at the workplace. For this a qualitative analysis was first performed, in which the interview was used as a working tool. Next, on the basis of a questionnaire, a hypothesis was formulated and validated afterwards through multiple linear regression. This research highlighted the particularly important role of communication and, in this context, the role of the remote team leader. In order to keep the team motivated and interested in the virtual environment, the manager must use modern tools to motivate, support and express his appreciation when the team, respectively the members of his team, achieve their goals successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2142.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: telecommuting; SDGs; organizational behavior; sustainable behaviors; living & working environment; leadership 4.0; digitalization
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:27:16 CEST)
Since the outbreak of the Covid-19, working from home has become the norm for millions of workers worldwide. The current research focuses on the benefits and challenges of teleworking in the administrative sectors of greek healthcare units, with a view to harnessing the knowledge gained through experience, in order to create the frame for sustainable behaviors. Anyways, the implementation of teleworking requires complex and dynamic changes in technical and behavioral aspects. Therefore, a systematic review was also conducted to identify the relationships between telecommuting and organizational behavior, with the aim of achieving sustainable development in businesses. Moreover, an important positive aspect of telework that emerged from this literature review appears to create opportunities for potential direct or indirect linkages between telework and many SDGs areas, based on the fact that telework appears to be a community-friendly form of work. In summary, this research strongly suggests that leaders facilitate telecommuters to adopt green practices and volunteerism that can consequently contribute to the SDGs. However, in order to meet the challenges arising from unprecedented times, the leaders of the organizations will have to redesign their policies, while the states will have to focus on guaranteeing the rights and freedoms of the workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1684.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: literature education; post-pandemic era; digitalization; pedagogical shifts; challenges; opportunities; future research directions
Online: 27 November 2023 (09:12:11 CET)
In this inclusive review article, the focus is on navigating the dynamic landscape of literature education, particularly the profound pedagogical shifts observed in the aftermath of the pandemic. The article synthesizes global insights, delving into how educators have adapted to hybrid models and embraced digital tools, fundamentally transforming the reading, analysis, and engagement with literary works. Exploring the integration of digital tools in literature education, the review uncovers the transformative impact of technology on traditional pedagogies. It analyzes the challenges and opportunities inherent in adapting literature education to the digital era, emphasizing the need for inclusive practices and adaptability. The article concludes by suggesting future research directions, encompassing AI integration, inclusive practices, cultural variations, long-term effects of hybrid models, and effective pedagogical strategies for technology integration. With a comprehensive approach, this review not only summarizes the current state of literature education but also discusses its implications, offering a holistic understanding of the contemporary educational landscape and setting the stage for future research endeavors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0063.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digitalization; IT strategy; digital transformation; hospitality industry; hotel industry; key properties; technology integration
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:04:10 CEST)
This article explores how digitalisation is impacting the hospitality industry and assesses the evolving role of Information Technology (IT) strategy in the digitalisation process. The research approach is qualitative and inductive, based on six in-depth interviews with senior IT professionals in the hospitality industry. Findings indicate significant differences in the role of IT strategy in guiding digitalisation in the companies studied. The depth of information provided by the interviewees supports the development and application of a model that profiles the companies regarding their degree of digitalisation and technology integration. Analysis of interview material allows the identification of key properties for successful digitalization: process agility, workforce adaptability, and technology manageability, along with a clear data culture and ensured cybersecurity. However, disparate systems and technologies, and a lack of data integrity, are key issues that leave hospitality companies with difficult choices in progressing digitalisation initiatives. The applied model and identification of key properties for successful digitalisation contribute to the development of related theory and can also be used as a reference point for senior IT professionals working in the industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Artificial neural network; Deep learning; Hybrid model; Hybrid neural network; Bioprocess; Digitalization; Industry 4.0
Online: 4 October 2023 (06:52:01 CEST)
Deep learning is emerging in many industrial sectors in hand with big data analytics to streamline production. In the biomanufacturing sector, big data infrastructure is lagging comparatively to other industries. A promising approach is to combine Deep Neural Networks (DNN) with prior knowledge in Hybrid Neural Network (HNN) workflows that are less dependent on the quality and quantity of data. This paper reviews published articles over the past 30 years on the topic of HNN applications to bioprocesses. It revealed that HNNs were applied to various bioprocesses, including microbial cultures, animal cells cultures, mixed microbial cultures, and enzyme biocatalysis. HNNs were mainly applied for process analysis, process monitoring, development of software sensors, open- and closed-loop control, batch-to-batch control, model predictive control, intensified design of experiments, quality-by-design, and recently for the development of digital twins. Most previous HNN studies combined shallow Feedforward Neural Networks (FFNNs) with physical laws, such as macroscopic material balance equations, following the semiparametric design principle. Only recently, deep HNNs based on deep FFNNs, Convolution Neural Networks (CNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks and Physics Informed Neural Networks (PINNs) have been reported. The biopharma sector is currently a major driver but applications to biologics quality attributes, new modalities, and downstream processing are significant research gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0406.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: cyber security; secure development; prototyping; web security; internet of things; software security; digitalization; socio-technical security
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:24:24 CET)
Secure development is a proactive approach to cyber security. Rather than building a technological solution and then securing it in retrospect, secure development strives to embed good security practices throughout the development process and thereby reduces risk. Unfortunately, evidence suggests secure development is complex, costly, and limited in practice. This article therefore introduces security-focused prototyping as a natural precursor to secure development that embeds security at the beginning of the development process, can be used to discover domain specific security requirements, and can help organisations navigate the complexity of secure development such that the resources and commitment it requires are better understood. Two case studies–one considering the creation of a bespoke web platform and the other considering the application layer of an Internet of Things system–verify the potential of the approach and its ability to discover domain specific security requirements in particular. Future work could build on this work by conducting case studies to further verify the potential of security-focused prototyping and even investigate its capacity to be used as a tool capable of reducing a broader, socio-technical, kind of risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0429.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Agri-Food; Food Supply Chain; Blockchain; IoT; Big Data; Sustainability; Food Security; COVID-19; Food Safety; Digitalization
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:52:59 CET)
Technological advances such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, big data, social media, geographic information systems represent a building block of the digital transformation that supports the resilience of the food supply chain (FSC) and increases its efficiency. This paper reviews the literature surrounding digitalization in FSCs. A bibliometric and key-route main path analysis was carried out to objectively and analytically uncover the knowledge development in digitalization within the context of sustainable FSCs. The research began with the selection of 2140 articles published nearly over five decades. Then, the articles were examined according to several bibliometric metrics such as year of publication, countries, institutions, sources, authors, and keywords frequency. A keyword co-occurrence network was generated to cluster the relevant literature. Findings of the review and bibliometric analysis indicate that research at the intersection of technology and the FSC has gained substantial interest from scholars. On the basis of keyword co-occurrence network, the literature is focused on the role of information communication technology for agriculture and food security, food waste and circular economy, and the merge of the Internet of Things and blockchain in the FSC. The analysis of the key-route main path uncovers three critical periods marking the development of technology-enabled FSCs. The study offers scholars a better understanding of digitalization within the agri-food industry and the current knowledge gaps for future research. Practitioners may find the review useful to remain ahead of the latest discussions of technology-enabled FSCs. To the authors’ best knowledge, the current study is one of the few endeavors to explore technology-enabled FSCs using a comprehensive sample of journals articles published during the past five decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0862.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: digital twin system; shipbuilding; shipyard; digitalization; product lifecycle; technology applied to maritime industry; quality management; dimensional quality control
Online: 24 April 2023 (13:53:38 CEST)
Current trends in industrial development strive for maximum digitalization. The digital industrial revolution has been going on for more than a dozen years, Industry 4.0 and the idea of digital twins (DT) is becoming the focus of virtually all industrial sectors. Some sectors are more predisposed to digitalization, for others the process is much more difficult. This depends mainly on the specific characteristics and susceptibility of a given industry, including the current degree of digitalization of enterprises, as well as the knowledge and mental readiness of employees. The individual characteristics of an industry are important. Shipyards belong to the industry with a traditional approach, where the degree of digitalization remains low. As a result, the efficiency of shipbuilding processes and the quality of ships built are not sufficiently controlled. The article addresses this problem, reviews work in the field of digitalization of shipbuilding processes and points out the needs and challenges in this area. The article proposes the concept of a DT system for the entire ship design and production process. Key areas of digitalization of actual processes were defined, and a division was made into planning, monitoring and process analysis activities. Special attention was paid to the area of dimensional quality control and the Dimensional Quality Management Metasystem (DQMM) was featured in the comprehensive DT system. The requirements were defined and the limitations of the proposed solution were identified, taking into account a number of external factors including the degree of readiness of the manufacturer – the shipyard. The developed DT system concept was tested on the example of the construction process of a simplified ship. Practical aspects of the implementation of the proposed solution, in particular DQMM, were indicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0510.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Metaverse; Key Characteristics; Theoretical Framework; Digitalization of Assets; Governance by Law; Combination of Virtual and Real; Rule of Technological Association
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:17:38 CEST)
This study delves into the essential characteristics of the Metaverse and its impact on the real world. The Metaverse, a parallel universe composed of countless 3D virtual worlds, has become a hot topic in technology. With the development of advanced technologies such as Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), blockchain, and Artificial Intelligence, the Metaverse is gradually changing people's lifestyles and work methods, expanding the boundaries of the digital economy. This study profoundly investigates the attributes of the Metaverse, such as asset digitization, application scenario-based, scope economy, industry universality, integrated innovation, and the platform ecosystem. Additionally, we propose a theoretical framework to aid in understanding and shaping this emerging field. We conducted a thorough study and analysis of a specific case, explored the key features of the Metaverse, unveiled the profound impact of Metaverse characteristics on social and economic development, and verified our theoretical framework with this case. This research provides new perspectives and methods for academic studies and offers robust support and guidance for practical applications and decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0565.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digitainability; Digitalization; Sustainability; Artificial Intelligence; Blockchain; Smart homes; Big data; Sustainable Development; SDGs; Technology Assessment Framework; Agenda 2030; Digital Age
Online: 30 December 2022 (01:32:00 CET)
Digitalization is globally transforming the world with profound implications. It has enormous potential to foster progress toward sustainability. However, in its current form, digitalization also continues to enable and encourage practices with numerous unsustainable impacts affecting our environment, ingraining inequality, and degrading quality of life. There is an urgent need to identify such multifaceted impacts holistically. Impact assessment of digital interventions (DIs) leading to digitalization is important specifically for Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs). Action is required to understand the pursuit of short-term gains toward achieving long-term value-driven sustainable development. We need to understand the impact of DIs on various actors and in diverse contexts. A holistic understanding of the impact it creates will help us align it with visions of sustainable development and identify potential measures to mitigate negative short and long-term impacts. The recently developed Digitainability Assessment Framework (DAF) unveils the impact of DIs with an in-depth context-aware assessment and offers an evidence-based impact profile of SDGs at the indicator level. We performed the impact assessment of diverse technologies using DAF. This paper summarizes the insights from the Digitainable Spring School 2022 on "Sustainability with Digitalization and Artificial Intelligence," one of whose goals was to operationalize the DAF as a tool in the action learning process with diverse professionals in the field of digitalization and sustainability. The DAF guides a holistic context-aware process formulation for a given DI. An evidence-based evaluation within the DAF protocol benchmarks a specific DI’s impact against the SDG indicators framework. The operationalization of the DAF was carried out by looking at four different DIs: smart home technologies (SHT) for energy efficiency, blockchain for food security, artificial intelligence for land use cover and changes (LUCC), and big data for international law. Each of the four studies addresses different DIs for digitainability assessment using different techniques for a diverse group of indicators, demonstrating the potential of the DAF but also outlining the existing data gaps that limit a comprehensive analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0629.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: user experience, UX, user interface, user interaction, automotive cockpit design, intuitive driving, driving automation, digitalization, personalization, Valeo Mobius, Valeo MyMobius.
Online: 31 July 2018 (16:18:10 CEST)
As we approach the 135th anniversary of the automobile, two industry trends, automation and digitalization, are rapidly revolutionizing the thus far, relatively unchanged automotive user experience. This paper describes the development of the Valeo MyMobius user interface concept. The goal of this project was to explore how to achieve an intuitive driving experience as the automotive industry undergoes transition from primarily analog to primarily digital interfaces and from physical buttons to multimodal interactions. To achieve the perception of intuitiveness, designers must understand their users, find and reduce physical and cognitive friction points, and bridge knowledge gaps with interface designs that facilitate discovery and learnability. The Valeo MyMobius concept featured steering wheel touch displays that supported quick, frequent menu selections using swiping gestures (common in smartphone interactions) and reinforcing icons (to facilitate learnability). Learning algorithms personalized the experience by tailoring suggestions, while more complex interactions were handled with a conversational voice assistant, which also served as a driving copilot, capable of contextually suggesting when Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) features such as ACC could be utilized. The visual design aesthetic embodied Kenya Hara’s design philosophy of “Emptiness,” reducing visual clutter and creating spaces that are ready to receive inspiration and information. Altogether, the Valeo MyMobius concept demonstrated an attainable future where the perception of intuitiveness can be achieved with today’s technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0981.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Aircraft; Urban Air Mobility; Digital Twins; Unmanned Aircraft Systems; Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles; Synthetic data Generation; Data for Resilience; Transport Complex Systems; Smart Cities; Digitalization
Online: 14 July 2023 (11:10:15 CEST)
Autonomous aircraft are the key enablers of future urban services, such as postal and transportation systems. Digital Twins (DT) are promising cutting-edge technologies that can transform the future transport ecosystem into an autonomous and resilient system. However, since DT is a data-driven solution based on AI, proper data management is essential in implementing DT as a Service (DTaaS). One of the challenges in DT development is the availability of real-life data, particularly for training algorithms and verifying the functionality of DT. The current article focuses on data augmentation through synthetic data generation. This approach can facilitate the development of DT in case the developers do not have enough data to train the Machine Learning (ML) algorithm. The current twinning approach provides a prospective ideal state of the engine used for proactive monitoring of the engine’s health as an anomaly detection service. In line with the track of Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAV) for Urban Air Mobility in Smart Cities applications, this paper focuses specifically on the common Hybrid turbo-shaft in drones/helicopters. However, there is a significant gap in real-life similar synthetic data generation in the UAV domain literature. Therefore, Rolling Linear Regression and Kalman Filter algorithms were implemented on noise-added data, which simulate the data measured from the engine in a real-life operational lifecycle. For both thermal and hybrid models, the corresponding DT model has shown high efficiency in noise filtration and a certain amount of predictions with a lower error rate on all engine parameters, except the engine torque.