COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0393.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Digital health; Telehealth; Saudi Arabia; Artificial Intelligence; Digital Technology
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:36:43 CEST)
COVID-19 poses a significant burden to healthcare systems. Healthcare organisations with a better health innovation infrastructure have faced a reduced burden and achieved success in curbing COVID-19. In Saudi Arabia, digital technologies have played a vital role in fighting SARS-CoV-2 transmission. In this paper, we aimed to summarise the experience of optimising digital health technologies in Saudi Arabia as well as discuss capabilities and opportunities during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. A literature review was conducted up to September 2021 to retrieve peer-reviewed articles that critique the use of digital health technology platforms (DHTPs) in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 outbreak. A small but significant body of literature examined the digital response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Health officials succeeded in optimising and maintaining a strategy to mitigate the spread of the virus via different digital technologies, such as mobile health applications, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. The quick digital response in Saudi Arabia was facilitated by governmental support and considering users and technology determinants. Future research must concentrate on establishing and updating the guidelines for using DHTPs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0440.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: value-based care; healthy ageing; frailty; social care; barriers; health promotion; community; digital solution
Online: 4 August 2023 (14:45:00 CEST)
A new intervention model for promoting healthy ageing grounded on integrated value-based care was developed and tested in the city of Valencia (Spain). Its implementation raised relevant barriers for older adults in their access to health, health promotion, and health self-management linked with their health and digital literacy. This new intervention model included several aspects. On the one hand, researchers together with older adults and their informal caregivers participating in the study, designed personalised care plans, based on older adults’ specific needs, to be implemented with the support of a digital solution. On the other hand, researchers and health and social professionals implemented a series of six workshops in different locations of the city to encourage the sense of community among participants, reinforcing their trust in the new care model and increasing their adherence. Social activities were at the core of the workshops to understand older people’s interaction with the health and social services provided in the neighbourhood. Qualitative and quantitative methods were combined to extract information from older participants on how to engage them as active actors of their own health and understanding their values and preferences. Qualitative results show that after a post-pandemic situation, they were more concerned about social isolation and desired face-to-face contact with their professional care team; however, feelings of loneliness and/or sadness were not considered amongst the reasons to visit health professionals. Some of the conclusions reveal that the use of technology as a supportive tool is well received but with a stress on its role as “supportive”, and not replacing the close contact with healthcare professionals. Professionals recognised the benefits of this new approach but required more time and incentives to dedicate the effort needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: inverse Finite Element Method; iFEM; Digital-Twin; Structural Health Monitoring; crack; Digital Image Correlation
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:04:08 CET)
The inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is a model-based technique to compute the displacement (and then the strain) field of a structure from strain measurements and a geometrical discretization of the same. Different literature works exploit the error between the numerically reconstructed strains and the experimental measurements to perform damage identification in a Structural Health Monitoring framework. However, only damage detection and localization are performed, without attempting a proper damage size estimation. The latter could be based on machine learning techniques, however, an a priori definition of the damage conditions would be required. To overcome these limitations, the present work proposes a new approach in which the damage is systematically introduced in the iFEM model to minimize its discrepancy with respect to the physical structure. This is performed with a maximum likelihood estimation framework, where the most accurate damage scenario is selected among a series of different models. The proposed approach is experimentally verified on an aluminum plate subjected to fatigue crack propagation, which enables the creation of a Digital-Twin of the structure itself. The strain field fed to the iFEM routine is experimentally measured with an Optical Backscatter Reflectometry fiber and the methodology is validated with independent observations of lasers and the Digital Image Correlation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0288.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: eHealth Literacy; digital health literacy; sense of coherence; COVID-19; COVID-HL-Q; Pakistan.
Online: 10 March 2021 (15:07:22 CET)
Amid to the COVID-19 pandemic, digital health literacy (DHL) has become a significant public health concern. This research aims to assess information seeking behavior, as well as the ability to find relevant information and deal with DHL among university students in Pakistan. An online-based cross-sectional survey, using a web-based interviewing technique, was conducted to collect data on DHL. Simple bivariate and multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the association of key characteristics with DHL. The results show a high DHL related to COVID-19 in 54.3% of students. Most of the Pakistani students demonstrated ~50% DHL in all dimensions, except of reliability. Multivariate findings showed that gender, sense of coherence and importance of information were found to be significantly associated with DHL. However, a negative association was observed with students’ satisfaction with information. This led to the conclusion that critical operational and navigations skills are essential to achieve COVID-19 DHL and cope with stress, particularly to promote both personal and community health. Focused interventions and strategies should be designed to enhance DHL amongst university students to combat the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0078.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: aging population; healthcare systems; healthcare system evaluation; chronic illness; digital healthcare; personalization; healthcare usability; healthcare satisfaction
Online: 6 April 2023 (08:48:56 CEST)
The ageing of the population is growing significantly and will challenge healthcare systems. Chronic diseases in the older population require a change in service delivery, and new technologies can be a key element in ensuring the viability and sustainability of these systems. However, the generation gap and the physical and cognitive decline commonly associated with the older generation are barriers to the transition to these models of care. Despite this, there has been a trend towards digital healthcare, which has many potential benefits for the older population. Numerous studies have assessed the acceptability of new technologies for older people in health care. These studies highlight the importance of perceived usefulness, compatibility, ease of use and personalisation of the technology. Personalisation is necessary to ensure that the system is useful for users, and different characteristics such as country of origin, gender, age or comfort with the technology should be taken into account. A person-centred approach in the development of new health technology systems is essential to ensure that applications can be better tailored to the needs of different ageing populations. Many organisations have dedicated time and resources to ensure a person-centred approach in the development of new health technology systems, and putting the individual first is the best way forward in digital health. This article presents the work carried out in this regard in the framework of the European TeNDER project together with an analysis of the results obtained in terms of satisfaction, usefulness and usability by end users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0177.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Digital Health; Mobile; mobile-based applications; medical apps; Saudi Arabia
Online: 11 April 2023 (02:58:44 CEST)
This study aimed at assessing the extent to which the Saudi general population has embraced digital health medical applications to meet their health-related needs so that the Saudi Ministry of Health and government can appropriately be guided on scaling up of digital health across the country. As such, this study was guided by the question of to what extent do the Saudi people use digital health mobile-based applications?. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing snowballing sampling approach. Frequencies, Chi-square, and Spearman rank correlation statistics were used to offer descriptive and inferential analysis of the variables. The majority of the participants were economically able to afford smart devices that have medical apps, had at least an app on such devices, and highly regarded the benefits of the apps. Unfortunately, their understanding of how to use such apps was limited and this posed a barrier to embracing digital health alongside difficulty downloading apps, and medical ethical concerns. Although there is a willingness, extra effort is needed from the Saudi Ministry of Health and government to promote the uptake of digital health in Saudi Arabia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: digitalisation; digital learning; mental health; parenting; China
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:28 CET)
While a raft of existing Chinese literature examines the associations between the outbreak of the pandemic and students’ mental health, rarely do Chinese studies assess the nuanced relationships between digital learning, parenting, and students’ mental health since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Such a rarely discussed topic has substantial scholarly value as mismanagement of digital learning and parenting, such as the exposure to cyberbullying and negative parenting during the public health crisis, could add substantial, unforeseeable psychological burdens for Chinese students. In this article, the author applied a systematic review to find all relevant Chinese literature that contains the words “digital learning”, “children/adolescents”, “mental health”, and “parenting” published since January 2020. As such a complex topic has rarely been addressed in Chinese contexts, the author was only able to find four related scholarly articles. The author summarises the arguments and empirical findings to explore the nuanced relationships between a) digitalisation, isolation, parenting, and children’s mental health, b) parenting, teacher-student relationships, and students’ mental health, and c) maternal and paternal parenting styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: sustainability; digital transformation; suitable for aging; service ecological theory; health service
Online: 6 May 2022 (07:45:20 CEST)
The ageing transformation of digital health services faces issues of how to distinguish influencing factors, redesign services, and effectively promote measures and policies. In this study, in-depth interviews are conducted and grounded theory applied to open coding, main axis coding, and selective coding to form concepts and categories. Trajectory equifinality modeling clarified the evolution logic of digital transformation. Based on the theory of service ecology, a digital health service ageing model is constructed from the "macro-medium-micro" stages and includes governance, service, and technology transformation paths. The macro stage relies on organizational elements to promote the institutionalization of management and guide the transformation of governance for value realization, including the construction of three categories: mechanism, indemnification, and decision-making. The meso stage relies on service elements to promote service design and realize service transformation suitable for aging design, including the construction of three categories: organization, resources, and processes. The micro stage relies on technical elements to practice experiencing humanization, including the construction of three categories: target, methods, and evaluation. These results deepen the understanding of the main behaviors and roles of macro-organizational, meso-service, and micro-technical elements in digital transformation practice and have positive significance for health administrative agencies to implement action strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: responsible innovation; user engagement; role of users; digital health; informed; involved; innovative patient
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:38:38 CET)
Despite the recognition of the importance of stakeholder inclusion into decisions about new solutions offered to society, responsible innovation (RI) has stalled at the point of articulating a process of governance with a strongly normative loading, without clear practical guidelines toward implementation practices. The principles of RI direct us to involve the user early in the innovation process. However, it lacks direction of how to involve users and stakeholders into this process. In this article, we try to understand how to empower users to become a part of innovation process though empirical cases. Based on 11 cases of firms innovating in digital health and welfare services, we look on firm practices for user integration into their innovation process, as well as how user’s behavior is changing due to new trends such as availability of information and digitalization of services. We try to explore this question through lenses of responsible innovation in the emerging field of digital healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1572.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mental Health; Digital Health; Interaction; User Experience; Participatory Design; Telehealth
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:35:02 CET)
User experience-related challenges play a significant part in user-technology interactions. However, design processes have not always kept up with the evolving needs of users in terms of technology interactions. This paper aims to present the design, structure and evaluation of an integrated mental health intervention platform (AMGR-I), emphasizing the importance of user-centred design and engagement in addressing the evolving needs of users in technology interactions, specifically focusing on individuals with mental health disorders. The AMGR-I pilot platform integrates community, e-learning, and care sub-platforms to provide a holistic approach to mental health intervention. The study utilizes participatory design research with targeted users to gather insights into user preferences and expectations. By involving the targeted audience in the design process, the platform’s user-centered design can be improved effectively. The platform recognizes the changing view of users, who now seek products that deliver pleasure, enjoyment, engagement, and embodiment. This research contributes to the field by highlighting the importance of user-centered design in the development of a comprehensive platform for mental health support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0258.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: digital environments; over exposure; children; vitamin D; melatonin; myopia; sleep loss; depression; obesity internet addiction; serotonin; dopamine; oxidative stress
Online: 16 March 2020 (04:22:15 CET)
Environmental studies, metabolic research, and state of the art neurobiology point towards the reduced amount of natural day and sunlight exposure of the developing child’s organism as the consequence of increasingly long hours spent indoors online as the single unifying source of a whole set of health risks identified worldwide, as is made clear in this review of the current literature. Over exposure to digital environments, from abuse to addiction, now concerns even the youngest (ages 0 to 2), and triggers, as argued on the basis of clear examples herein, a chain of interdependent negative and potentially long-term metabolic changes. This leads to a deregulation of the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter pathways in the developing brain, currently associated with online activity abuse and/or internet addiction, and akin to that found in severe substance abuse syndromes. A general functional working model is proposed under the light of evidence brought to the forefront in this review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: digital health; sports science; global research; bibliometrics; Citespace
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:21:27 CEST)
Digital health has gained widespread adoption across various disciplines. Within the field of sport science, there is growing interest in digital health, leading to a surge in research activities. The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric and visualization analysis, tracing the evolutionary trajectory, identifying research hotspots, and uncovering emerging trends in digital health within the domain of sport science. By doing so, this research aims to offer scholars a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the dynamic landscape in this field. To achieve this, the Web of Science core collection was chosen as the primary database. A thorough literature search was performed, focusing on digital health and sport science, resulting in the screening of 1870 English-language documents. The findings revealed a consistent upward growth trend in the annual publication count from 2010 to 2023. Notably, the United States, specifically the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania System of Higher Education, and John B. Cronin, emerged as the most prolific contributors in terms of publications. Collaborative efforts among countries, institutions, and authors were also observed. The research hotspots identified encompassed several areas, including the evaluation of digital health technologies' effectiveness, exploration of the relationship between digital health technologies and physical activity/exercise performance, and the use of digital health technologies in assessing and rehabilitating sports injuries. Among the prominent digital health technologies employed in these studies were virtual reality, social media, and wearable devices. The predominant types of studies utilized meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, and cross-sectional studies. Looking towards the future, the study identified several key research trends. These include the exploration of telemedicine, artificial intelligence-based machine learning, therapeutic interventions, and physical therapy within the realm of digital health. These emerging areas signify promising directions for future investigation and development in the field of digital health within sport science.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0072.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Dopamine; Brain; Reward; Stress; Pathological Adaptation; Behavior; Covid19 pandemic; Digital Addiction; Global Mental Health
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:09:42 CEST)
When “hijacked” by compulsive behaviors that affect the reward and stress centers of the brain, functional changes in dopamine circuitry occur as the consequence of pathological brain adaptation. As a brain explanans for mental health, with a central functional role in behavioral regulation from healthy reward seeking to pathological adaptation to stress in response to adversity, we may use dopamine regulation in interaction with other brain mechanisms, as discussed herein, to gather a deeper insight into environmentally triggered mental health changes to understand, for example, specific behavioral changes observed during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Pandemic-related adversities, the stresses they engendered, and the long lockdown periods where people had to rely on digital tools to get feed-back rewards via the internet can be seen as the major triggers of changes in motivation and reward seeking behavior worldwide. The pathological adaptation of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry in the brain offers a highly plausible explanation why, when pushed by fate and circumstance into a physiological brain state of anti-reward, human behavior and mental health changes almost inevitably depending on individual vulnerability to stress. A unified conceptual account that places dopamine function at the centre of the current global mental health context is proposed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hypertension; blood pressure; lifestyle; digital health; ehealth; prevention; behavioral change
Online: 7 March 2022 (10:55:20 CET)
Worldwide, it is estimated that at least 1 in 4 adults suffers from hypertension, and this number is expected to increase as populations grow and age. Blood pressure (BP) possesses substantial heritability, but is also heavily modulated by lifestyle factors. As such, digital, lifestyle-based in-terventions are a promising alternative to standard care for hypertension prevention and man-agement. In this study we assessed the prevalence of elevated and high BP in a Dutch general pop-ulation cohort undergoing a health screening, and observed the effects of a subsequent self-initiated, digitally-enabled lifestyle program on BP regulation. Baseline data were available for 348 participants, of which 56 had partaken in a BP-focused lifestyle program and got re-measured 10 months after the intervention. Participants with elevated SBP and DBP at baseline showed a mean decrease of 7.2 mmHg and 5.4 mmHg, respectively. Additionally, 70% and 72.5% of participants showed an improvement in systolic and diastolic BP at remeasurement. These improvements in BP are superior to those seen in other recent studies. The long-term sustainability and the efficacy of this and similar digital lifestyle interventions will need to be estab-lished in additional, larger studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0557.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cyberethics; cybercivility; health professions education; scoping review; pedagogy; theoretical frameworks; digital professionalism; e-professionalism; cultural sensitivity; emerging technologies
Online: 8 September 2023 (08:58:51 CEST)
As digital technologies rapidly integrate into Health Professions Education (HPE), gaining a comprehensive understanding of cyberethics becomes crucial. This scoping review aimed to explore the pedagogy of cyberethics within HPE, with an emphasis on its definitions, conceptualizations, theoretical foundations, and interventions. Drawing from 37 documents spanning 2012-2022, primarily originating from the U.S. and encompassing both peer-reviewed and grey literature, the study highlighted a significant gap in the explicit definition and conceptualization of cyberethics. Additionally, the evident lack of specific theoretical frameworks in the majority of these documents could hamper the progression and replicability of research. Among the reviewed articles, only four introduced cyberethics educational interventions, indicating a substantial avenue for future research. While the study utilized comprehensive search methods, limitations such as language biases and the potential omission of pertinent documents were present. Future investigations should broaden the cyberethics discourse to encompass emerging technologies and their ethical implications within HPE. Crafting comprehensive, culturally sensitive, and inclusive guidelines is pivotal in nurturing ethical digital practices in the health care community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0591.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: health indicator; performance degradation assessment; deep learning; vibration monitoring; bearing; remaining useful life; digital twin
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:59:20 CET)
Estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of components is a crucial task to enhance the reliability, safety, productivity, and to reduce maintenance cost. In general, predicting the RUL of a component includes constructing a health indicator ( ) to infer the current condition of the component, and modelling the degradation process, to estimate the future behavior. Although many signal processing and data-driven based methods were proposed to construct the , most of the existing methods are based on manual feature extraction techniques, and need the prior knowledge of experts, or rely on a large amount of failure data. Therefore, in this study, a new data-driven method based on the convolutional autoencoder (CAE) is presented to construct the . For this purpose, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) technique is used to convert the raw acquired vibrational signals into a two-dimensional image; then, the CAE model is trained by the healthy operation dataset. Finally, the Mahalanobis Distance (MD) between the healthy and failure stages is measured as the . The proposed method is tested on a benchmark bearing dataset and compared with several other traditional construction models. Experimental results indicate that the constructed exhibits a monotonically increasing degradation trend and has a good performance to detect incipient faults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0931.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: digital competence assessment; health professions students; telehealth; Covid-19; training program
Online: 14 November 2023 (12:57:23 CET)
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic triggered a swift transition to online learning, remote work and an increased demand for proficiency in telehealth and digital health among health professions students as they prepare for their future careers. In responding to the question: “What are the essential constructs and the validity of a digital competence assessment scale for health professions students", this study sought to develop and validate a digital competence assessment scale (DigiCAS-HPS). The present study followed a mixed-methods approach: qualitative methods (phase 1) for generating and refining items in the scale through literature review on digital frameworks, pilot testing and expert review, and quantitative methods (phase 2) including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for its validation. The study revealed a two-factor structure, encompassing Digital Communication, Collaboration, and Online Security (Factor 1) and Digital Content Development and Software Mastery (Factor 2), demonstrating strong construct validity and reliability. Regarding differences in digital competence across groups, older and soon-to-graduate students exhibited higher proficiency in digital content development and software mastery. The two critical facets of DigiCAS-HPS scale could tailor training programs and ensure that health professions students are well-prepared for the evolving telehealthcare landscape. This promotes the growth and accessibility of telehealth, which is increasingly vital in the post-COVID-19 new normal era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0300.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: health service managers; competency frameworks; capacity building; digital health; health informatics; health workforce; health management degrees
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:47:29 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up digital health transformation across the health sectors to enable innovative health service delivery. Such transformation relies on competent managers with the capacity to lead and manage. However, the health system has not adopted a holistic approach in addressing the health management workforce development needs, with many hurdles to overcome. The objectives of this paper are to present the findings of a three-step approach in understanding the current hurdles in developing a health management workforce that can enable and maximise the benefits of digital health transformation, and to explore ways of overcoming such hurdles. Methods: A three-step, systematic approach was undertaken, including an Australian digital health policy documentary analysis, an Australian health service management postgraduate program analysis, and a scoping review of international literatures. Results: The main findings will guide the formulation of strategies in developing a digitally enabled health management workforce in the digital health era. Conclusions: With the ever-changing landscape of digital health, being able to lead and manage in times of system transformation requires a holistic approach to develop the necessary health management workforce capabilities and system-wide capacity. The evidence would support that this can be achieved with the required system, policy, educational and professional organizational enablers, which drive a digital health focused approach across all the healthcare sectors, in a coordinated and contextual manner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: health literacy; media health literacy; ehealth literacy; social environment; health apps; social support; digital health; empowerment
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:45:44 CEST)
Health literacy describes skills and competencies that enable people to gain access to, understand and apply health information to positively influence their own health and the health of those in the social environment. In an increasingly media saturated and digitized world, these skill sets are necessary for accessing and navigating sources of health information and tools, such as television, the Internet, and mobile apps. The concepts of Media Health Literacy (MHL) and eHealth Literacy (eHL) describe the specific competencies such tasks require. This article introduces the two concepts, and then reviews findings on the associations of MHL and eHL with several contextual variables in the social environment such as socio-demographics, social support, and system complexity, as a structural variable. As eHL and MHL are crucial for empowering people to actively engage in their own health, a growing body of literature reports of the potential and the effectiveness of intervention initiatives to positively influence these competencies. From an ethical standpoint, equity is emphasized, stressing the importance of accessible media environments for all - including those at risk of exclusion from (digital) media sources. Alignment of micro and macro contextual spheres will ultimately facilitate both non-digital and digital media to effectively support and promote public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0009.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Digital Twin; Internet-of-Medical-Things (IoMT); Security; Privacy; Blockchain; Non-fungible Token (NFT); Virtual Healthcare Services; Access Control; Data Sharing
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:21:25 CEST)
Seniors safety is a compelling need, which necessitates 24/7 real-time monitoring and timely dangerous action recognition. Being able to mirror characteristics of physical objects (PO) to corresponding logical objects (LO) and seamlessly monitor their footprints thus detect anomaly parameters, Digital Twins (DT) has been considered a practical way to provide virtual health services for seniors safety. Meanwhile, widely adopted Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) consisting of wearable sensors and non-contact optical cameras for self and remote health data monitoring also raises concerns on information security and privacy violation. Therefore, security of POs, LOs and reliable data sharing among healthcare professionals are challenging as constructing trust and privacy-preserving virtual health services. Thanks to characteristics of decentralization, traceability and unalterability, Blockchain is promising to enhance security and privacy properties in many areas like data analysis, finance and healthcare. This paper envisions a lightweight authentication framework (LAF) to enable secure and privacy-preserving virtual healthcare services. Leveraging Non-Fungible Token (NFT) technology to tokenize LOs and data streams on blockchain, anyone can certify the authenticity of a digital LO along with its synchronized data between PO without relying on a third-party agency. In addition, the NFT-based tokenization not only allows owners fully control their IoMT devices and data, but it also enables verifiable ownership and traceable transferability during data sharing process. Moreover, NFT only contains references to encrypted raw data that are saved on off-chain storage like local files or distributed databases, such a hybrid storage strategy ensures privacy-preservation for sensitive information. A proof-of-concept prototype is implemented and tests are conducted on a case study of seniors safety. The experimental evaluation shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed LAF solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online health information; digital literacy; e-Health; e-Health solutions; Dr. Google
Online: 5 October 2022 (03:55:03 CEST)
The investment in digital e-Health services is a priority direction in the development of global health care systems. While people are increasingly using the Web for health information, it is not entirely clear what is the physicians’ attitude towards digital transformation, and the acceptance of new technologies in healthcare. The aim of this cross-sectional survey study was to investigate physicians’ self-digital skills, and their opinions on obtaining online health knowledge by patients, as well as the recognition of physicians’ attitudes towards e-Health solutions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to emerge the variables from self-designed questionnaire, and cross-sectional analysis comparing descriptive statistics and correlations for dependent variables using the one-way ANOVA (F-test). 307 physicians participated in the study, reported using the internet mainly several times a day (66.8%). Most participants (70.4%) were familiar with new technologies and rate their e-Health literacy high, although 84.0% reported the need for additional training in this field, and reported a need to introduce a larger number of subjects shaping digital skills (75.9%) in medical studies 53.4% of physicians perceived Internet-sourced information as sometimes reliable, and in general assessed the effects of using it by their patients negatively (41.7%). Digital skills increased significantly with frequency of internet use (F = 13.167; p = 0.0001), and decreased with physicians’ age, and the need for training. Those who claimed that patients often experienced health benefits from online health showed higher digital skills (-1.06). Physicians most often recommended their patients to obtain laboratory test results online (32.2%), and to arrange medical appointments via the Internet (27.0%). Along with the deterioration of physicians’ digital skills, the recommendation of e-Health solutions decreased (r = 0.413), and lower the assessment of e-Health solutions for the patient (r = 0.449). Physicians perceive digitization as a sign of the times, and frequently use its tools in daily practice. The evaluation of Dr. Google’s phenomenon and online health is directly related to their own e-Health literacy skills, but there is still a need for practical training to deal with digital revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0002.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Digital; end-user; framework; health; implementation; learning; model; professional; research; social; theory
Online: 4 May 2022 (06:48:50 CEST)
Digital health research is an emerging discipline that requires easy-to-understand theoretical frameworks and implementation models for digital health providers in health and social care settings. The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened demand for digital health discipline-specific instruction on ‘how to’ manage evidence-based digital health transformation. Access to the use of these models guarantees that digital health providers can investigate phenomena using safe and suitable approaches and methods to conduct research and identify answers to challenges and problems that arise in health and social care settings. The COMPASS theory is designed to aid transformation of health and social care environments. A navigational rose of primary quadrants is divided by four main compass points, with person-centred care being central to the philosophy. Two axes produce Cartesian planes that intersect to form a box plot, which can be used to discover human and physical resource weightings to augment digital health research design and implementation. A third continuum highlights stakeholders' capabilities, critical for any multidisciplinary study. The COMPASS mnemonic guides end-users through the process of design, development, implementation, evaluation, and communication of digital health transformations. The theory's foundations are presented and explained in context of the 'new normal' of health and social care delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0399.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health; psychosomatic rehabilitation; internet delivered digital trainings; multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary interventions
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:32:39 CEST)
The need for new technologies into healthcare services has been stressed. However, little is known about the effectiveness of digital interventions integrated in psychosomatic rehabilitation processes. Data from 724 patients from psychosomatic rehabilitation clinics were analyzed for effectiveness of digital trainings examined by a change in symptoms related to depression, anxiety, stress and loneliness from pre- to post-rehabilitation. Rehabilitation satisfaction was examined in association with reaching rehabilitation goals and satisfaction with communication. Mixed repeated measures analysis of covariances, analysis of covariances, and hierarchical stepwise regression analyses were performed. Results indicated a superior effectiveness for the intervention group receiving all offered digital treatments in addition to the regular face-to-face rehabilitation program with regard to symptoms of depression, F(2,674)=3.93, p<.05, ηp2=.01), and anxiety, F(2,678)=3.68, p<.05, ηp2=.01), post-rehabilitation with large effect sizes for both depression (d=1.28) and anxiety (d=1.08). In addition, rehabilitation satisfaction was positively associated with reaching rehabilitation goals and perceived communication with healthcare workers. Digital interventions appeared effective in supporting mental health of psychosomatic rehabilitation patients post-rehabilitation. This finding supports the inclusion of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary digital and face-to-face treatment programs and call for more implementations of new technologies in a context of complexity to improve health and healthcare service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel lining; health assessment; fractal dimension; tunnel-lining crack index; digital inspection test; field test
Online: 26 April 2017 (05:59:58 CEST)
The stability assessment of aged tunnel linings were mainly evaluated based on the visual inspection, and the Tunnel-lining Crack Index (TCI) is one of the most widely used tunnel lining health assessment indexes in Japan. However, the intersection and distribution of cracks, which can influence the stability of tunnel lining greatly, were not considered in the TCI. A new method was proposed for the health assessment of tunnel lining, which evaluate the lining states according to the fractal dimension of cracks. Based on the machine vision-based method, the crack image can be extracted efficiently. The fractal dimension of lining cracks in one span can be obtained in a few minutes. A series of comparative tests and field tests were conducted to evaluate the validity of this new method. The comparative tests confirmed that fractal dimension can characterize the density, width, and distribution of cracks. The results also certificated that the influence of crack width is larger than the crack density. The intersection of cracks, which will increase the risk of lining collapse, can also increase the fractal dimension, whereas the TCI keep constant. The fractal dimensions of tunnel lining cracks were obtained according to the digital inspection test of Hidake Tunnel in Japan for all the 65 spans. Moreover, the TCI was obtained through statistical methods. The correlation between fractal dimension and TCI of tunnel lining was studied. The significance of the new evaluation index is that it can identify some unusual spans of tunnel lining and provide a basis for further internal testing. As a complement to the conventional visual inspection method, the fractal dimension of the cracks is a promising health assessment index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0521.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; GPT-3; OpenAI; chatbots; digital health; artificial intelligence; automation; technological advancement; human-AI interaction; collaboration; open science
Online: 28 January 2023 (07:56:35 CET)
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionize research by automating data analysis, generating new insights, and supporting the discovery of new knowledge. The top 10 contribution areas of AI towards public health were gathered in this feasibility study. We utilized the “text-davinci-003” model of GPT-3, using OpenAI playground default parameters. The model was trained with the largest training dataset any AI had, limited to a cut-off date in 2021. This study aimed to test the ability of GPT-3 to advance public health and to explore the feasibility of using AI as scientific co-author. The AI was asked for input including scientific quotations and the human authors reviewed responses for plausibility. We found that GPT-3 was able to assemble, summarize, and generate plausible text blocks relevant for public health concerns, elucidating valuable areas of application for itself. However, most quotations were invented by GPT-3 and thus, invalid. Ac-cording to today’s rules, we conclude that AI can contribute to public health research as a team member. Nevertheless, good scientific practice needs to be also followed for AI contributions, and a broad scientific discourse on AI contributions is needed. Policies for good scientific practice should be updated timely following this discourse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0254.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: autonomous systems; multiple sclerosis; stroke; smart mirror; autonomy; lived experience; home healthcare; digital health technology; data sharing.
Online: 5 July 2023 (08:57:32 CEST)
The home is becoming a key location for healthcare delivery, including the use of technology driven by autonomous systems (AS) to monitor and support healthcare plans. Using the example of a smart mirror, this paper describes the outcomes of focus groups with people with multiple sclerosis (MS; n=6) and people who have had a stroke (n=15) to understand their attitudes towards the use of AS for healthcare in the home. We thematic analysis to analyse the data. The results indicate that the use of such technology depends on the level of adaptability and responsiveness to the users’ specific circumstances, including their relationships with the healthcare system. A smart mirror would need to support manual entry, responsive goal setting, effective aggregation of data sources and integration with other technology, have a range of input methods, be supportive rather than prescriptive in messaging, and give the user full control of their data. Barriers to adoption include a perceived lack of portability and practicality, lack of accessibility and inclusivity, a sense of redundancy, being overwhelmed by multiple technological devices, and a lack of trust in data sharing. These results inform the development and deployment of future health technologies based on the lived experiences of people with health conditions who require ongoing care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0298.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: digital image correlation; semantic filter; structural health monitoring; unique salient patterns; wind turbine
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:38:16 CEST)
Large structures such as wind turbines are subject to environmental factors and varying operational loads which may result in structural damage, making components of these large structures prone to performance and mechanical degradation. The use of high-definition optical vision sensors in digital image correlation (DIC) allow for the application of a non-destructive image registration technique in which it measures finite three-dimensional deformations on surfaces through correlations of a unique pattern or set of unique localized patterns. However, the physical placement of an artificial marker such as a unique speckled pattern on the surface of the structure is time-consuming and often impractical for large structures. Therefore, we propose a novel auto-mated methodology that searches and segments salient and unique regions of an image as well as for all subsequent images to assist in performing efficient displacement measurements for vibrational study and structural health monitoring purposes. Our algorithm is validated on a con-trolled set of images, as well as on a small structure and large real-world wind turbine, which suggests the algorithm’s efficacy without the use of artificial markers for large structural health monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0975.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: digital citizenship; digital culture; digital literacy; digital museums; global citizenship; participatory design
Online: 26 April 2023 (09:54:50 CEST)
In the paper, we explore the notion of global digital citizenship, particularly with respect to museums and cultural heritage organizations. In this perspectives study, we explore current examples of how museums can adapt to the tenets of global digital citizenship necessary to navigate and participate in increasingly interconnected digital worlds and culture, and to collectively address global challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0616.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: digital transformation; digital maturity; esports businesses; digital resilience; thematic analysis
Online: 11 July 2023 (03:03:03 CEST)
Digital transformation has become the top priority for 80% of sports companies worldwide, but statistics show that between 70% and 95% of all digital transformation projects fail due to signif-icant and varied challenges that sports companies face during the process of digital transfor-mation. This is because strategy, not digital technology, drives digital transformation, and suc-cess is unlikely without a mature digital transformation model. Moreover, the digital transfor-mation model of developing and emerging markets is not the same and cannot be adopted as a blueprint. Therefore, the aim of this research was to propose a framework for the digital trans-formation maturity of esports businesses in developing and emerging markets. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 15 stakeholders of esports businesses in Iran. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interviews, and three main perspectives were identified: (1) enablers, (2) digital resilience and capabilities, and (3) digital transformation ma-turity stages. The enablers were formed by six sub-themes, including governance and leader-ship, strategy, culture and skills, innovation, technology, and data. Digital resilience and capa-bilities were formed by four sub-themes, including business model and ecosystem, digital cus-tomer experience, digital employee experience, and digital processes. Additionally, it was found that digital transformation maturity stages are based on four stages of digital beginners, digital followers, digital conservatives, and digital leaders. The findings indicate that moving towards digital transformation and achieving digital resilience in esports businesses will be impossible without synergy between enablers and digital resilience and capabilities. This framework can be useful for esports businesses to evaluate their current digital status and effectively guide them towards a desirable digital status. Furthermore, esports businesses can prioritize their efforts and resources for digital transformation by focusing on targeted capabilities and enablers and ensure more effective and efficient allocation of resources towards digital transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0519.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Digital Mental Health community; Peer Online Community; Experience measure; Forums; User testing; Quality of Care; Measure design and development; Peer support; Affinity maps
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:34:46 CET)
Online digital mental health communities can contribute to users’ mental health positively and negatively. Yet the measurement of outcomes and impact relating to digital mental health communities is difficult to capture. In this paper we demonstrate the development of an online experience measure for a specific children and young people’s community inside a digital mental health service. The development is informed by three phases: (i) item reduction through Estimate-Talk-Estimate modified Delphi methods, (ii) user testing with participatory action research and (iii) a pilot within the digital service community to explore its use. Rounds of experts talks help to reduce the items. User experience workshops helped to inform the usability and appearance, wording, and purpose of the measure. Finally, the pilot results highlight completion rates, difference in scores for age and community roles and a preference to ‘relate to others’; as a mechanism of support. Outcomes frequently selected in the measure show the importance of certain aspects of the community, such as safety, connection, and non-judgment previously highlighted in the literature. Self-reported helpfulness scales like this one could be used as indicators of meaningful engagement within the community and its content but further research is required to ascertain its acceptability and validity. Phased approaches involving stakeholders and participatory action research enhances the development of digitally enabled measurement tools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: paediatrics; pediatrics; delivery of care; health technology; digital poverty; confidentiality; usage guidelines; continuity of care; technology to supplement; personalised approach and user design.
Online: 22 February 2021 (11:52:50 CET)
Background: The use of technology in paediatrics is increasing, and new health technology will change the way in which paediatric care is delivered in the future. This review is part of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Paediatrics 2040 project, which is developing a credible vision for the future of paediatrics in the UK. Aims: To summarise the impact of health technology on the delivery of paediatric care over the last ten years. To learn from existing technology use and make recommendations for future implementation. Methods: A search strategy was developed and two databases (Cochrane Library and PubMed) were systematically searched in August 2019 for relevant publications in English. Searches were limited to papers published between January 2009 and August 2019 (with further rapid review of papers published between September 2019 and November 2020). We included papers that studied young people up to the age of 24 or on those providing care for this population. A thematic synthesis of the data from the included studies was undertaken using seven domains of paediatric care. Results: 128 studies were included, grouped by domain of care. Most included studies were defined as digital (n=55) or communication (n=37). Studies looked at the different types of health technology used within different domains of care, including secondary and tertiary care (n=39), public health and prevention (n=29), and community (n=20). Studies were assessed on delivery of care outcomes using positive, negative, mixed and no effect. The most common outcomes reported were adherence and satisfaction. Discussion: This review highlights the growing importance of technology in delivering paediatric care. Six themes emerged: the importance of clear guidelines, continuity of care, confidentiality and privacy, digital poverty, using a personalised approach, and using technology to supplement rather than replace. In future, technology development should involve the end user throughout the design process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0340.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital Transformation; SME; Digital Orientation; Digital Capability; Financial Performance; Mediation Analysis
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:25:48 CET)
The COVID-19 crisis has emphasized the importance of digital transformation of SMEs and has served as an accelerator. Digital transformation empowers SMEs to rethink the way they make decisions and apply technology in meaningful and sustainable ways. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of digital transformation, fostered by COVID-19, and its potential contribution to the sustainability of SMEs. This paper examines a new conceptual framework designed on resource-based theory perspectives by using a survey data of 246 SMEs in Latvia and employing mediation analysis. The main findings of the study are that digital orientation and digital capability have direct positive effects on digital transformation; higher levels of digital orientation and capability, mediated by digital transformation, lead to higher revenue; as well as a more sophisticated business model in the case of digital orientation. Even if we cannot confirm that higher digital capability, mediated by digital transformation, leads to a more sophisticated business model, we found statistically significant direct effects from digital capability to digital transformation and from digital transformation to business model. These findings can be useful for policymakers, managers and practitioners to clarify how digital orientation, digital capability intermediated through digital transformation affect sustainability of SMEs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0291.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); depression; healthcare workers; insomnia; anxiety; PHQ-8 (Pa-tient Health Questionnaire-8); ISI (Insomnia Severity Index); digital health
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:49:45 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant medical and psychological challenges worldwide, and not only exceeded the capacity of hospitals and intensive care units but also an individuals’ ability to cope with life. Health-care workers have continued to provide care for patients despite exhaustion, fear of transmission to themselves and their family, illness or death of friends and colleagues, and losing many patients. They have also faced additional stress and anxiety due to long shifts combined with unprecedented population restrictions, including personal isolation. In this study, we study the effect of an app-based Yoga of Immortals (YOI) intervention on mental health of healthcare workers. In this study, the health care workers were digitally recruited, and their psychological parameters were measured using validated questionaries. The participants were randomly grouped into control and test groups. The validated psychological measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scales. The digital YOI intervention significantly reduced the anxiety, depression symptoms, and insomnia in healthcare workers of all age groups. In contrast, there was no improvement in the control group. This study details the effectiveness of an app-based YOI intervention in healthcare workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0768.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); non-communicable diseases (NCDs); disease self-management; digital health application; randomized controlled trial; multiple behavior change
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:49:15 CET)
(1) Background: Prevention of acute cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) requires promoting health-protective behaviors (e.g., physical activity) and preventing health-compromising behaviors (sitting). Digital health interventions provide much potential. Based on multiple behavioral change theory, an intervention (reCardial app) was evaluated, and the following hypotheses were tested: H1: Health behaviors (physical activity, sitting) and disease self-management (self-care maintenance, self-care confidence) are closely interrelated. H2: Change in health behaviors and disease self-management indicators over time is more pronounced in reCardial app-users. H3: In the intervention group, changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicate a positive trajectory. (2) Methods: A study with the design of a randomized controlled trial over 12 weeks was conducted. 40 CVD-patients were randomized equally to the Intervention Group (35% women; Mage=60.6years) and Control Group (45% women; Mage=61.5years). (3) Results: Findings support H1 with significant correlations between health behaviors (r=0.45-0.63**), and disease self-management (r=-0.32-0.54**), H2 with Eta²=0.21 (not statistically significant) and H3 partially with d=0.101 for systolic blood pressure but not regarding diastolic blood pressure. (4) Conclusions: Replications are needed with larger samples and more objective measures. The app can help prevent and manage CVD by means of promoting health-protective behaviors and preventing health-compromising behaviors. Taking different behaviors into account can increase intervention effects and with that support of users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1718.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital transformation; small and medium enterprises (SMEs); digital maturity; digital transformation strategy
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:31:22 CEST)
Proposed study aims to investigate the digital transformation of Greek small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a particular focus on their digital maturity and the strategic and organizational factors contributing to digital transformation. The research issue of digital transformation is attracting considerable interest among academics and business practicians since COVID-19 accelerated the procedure of implementing Industry’s 4.0 principles all over global economies. Quantitative research on 147 Greek SMEs revealed most important issues on how these businesses implement digital transformation, factors accelerating or decelerating the process, barriers and expected outcomes. Research enlights how SMEs face the transition to digital business and reveals the factors that can facilitate the whole process. Results can be valuable for stakeholders enabled to digital transformation process from both business and academic point of view, while there exist aspects that can contribute to policy makers / motivation developers in state’s level as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: digital village; rural households; subjective well-being; digital transformation; rural digital economy
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:45:40 CEST)
With the advancement of the economy and society, policymakers acknowledge the significance of improving rural households' well-being as a crucial factor in promoting sustainable economic and social development. Based on the matching data of China Household Finance Survey and Digital Rural County Index, this study empirically examines the effect and mechanisms of digital village construction on subjective well-being of rural households. The results revealed that digital village construction has a significant improvement in their subjective well-being. The impact of digital village construction is particularly significant in rural areas located in the western regions of China, as well as among households possessing higher levels of human capital. The process through which digital village construction enhances the subjective well-being of rural households involves the augmentation of household income, the promotion of non-farm employment opportunities, and the enhancement of rural governance. This study provides robust micro-empirical evidence highlighting the positive welfare effects of digital rural construction. This study provides insights into the digital village construction within the happiness economy framework, offering a new perspective. The imperative to strengthen rural digital infrastructure and improve farmers' proficiency in modern information skills is a strategic policy aimed at enhancing well-being of rural households.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0340.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Digital Biomarkers; Digital Phenotyping; Wearables; Sensors; Livestock
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:08:40 CEST)
Currently, large volumes of data are being collected on farms using multimodal sensor technol-ogies. These sensors measure the activity, housing conditions, feed intake, and health of farm animals. With traditional methods, the data from farm animals and their environment can be collected intermittently. However, with the advancement of wearable and non-invasive sensing tools, these measurements can be made in real-time for continuous quantitation relating to clinical biomarkers, resilience indicators, and behavioral predictors. The digital phenotyping of humans has drawn enormous attention recently due to its medical significance, but much research is still needed for the digital phenotyping of farm animals. Implications from human studies show great promise for the application of digital phenotyping technology in modern livestock farming, but these technologies must be directly applied to animals to understand their true capacities. Due to species-specific traits, certain technologies required to assess phenotypes need to be tailored ef-ficiently and accurately. Such devices allow for the collection of information that can better inform farmers on aspects of animal welfare and production that need improvement. By explicitly ad-dressing farm animals’ individual physiological and mental (affective states) needs, sensor-based digital phenotyping has the potential to serve as an effective intervention platform. Future re-search is warranted for the design and development of digital phenotyping technology platforms that create shared data standards, metrics, and repositories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0169.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: digital platforms; digital auction; livestock systems; Zimbabwe
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:51:38 CEST)
Livestock contribute towards household food security in rural communities through income generation and provision of animal-source food. However, livestock system are fragile for example, in Zimbabwe, communities face challenges such as fewer buyers, poor infrastructure, and information asymmetry when selling livestock. Emerging digital platforms promise opportunities to address these challenge but only anecdotal evidence exist. This paper uses data from Beitbridge to explore the potential of digital platforms to revitalise the livestock auction system. Study findings show that digital platforms are designed with affordances which can help overcome challenges within the livestock system. However, these digital platforms are also fraught with hidden complexities such as power dynamics. Thus, despite digital platforms’ affordances, their design inherently extends beyond technical functions. Therefore, there is an urgent need for discussions exploring the contrast between affordances and complexities to enable target users to make informed decisions on the adoption and use of digital platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0447.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: digital epigraphy; cultural heritage; digital collection; lemmatization; Epidoc
Online: 7 December 2023 (09:33:30 CET)
In the face of geopolitical threats in Artsakh, the preservation of Armenia's epigraphic heritage has become a mission of both historical and cultural urgency. This project delves deep into Armenian inscriptions, employing advanced digital tools and strategies like the Oxygen text editor and EpiDoc guidelines to efficiently catalogue, analyze, and present these historical treasures. Amidst the adversities posed by Azerbaijan's stance towards Armenian heritage in Artsakh, the digital documentation and preservation of these inscriptions have become a beacon of cultural resilience. The XML-based database ensures consistent data, promoting scholarly research and broadening accessibility. Integrating the Grabar Armenian dictionary addressed linguistic challenges, enhancing data accuracy. This initiative goes beyond merely preserving stone and text; it is a testament to the stories, hopes, and enduring spirit of the Armenian people in the face of external threats. Through a harmonious blend of technology and traditional knowledge, the project stands as a vanguard in the fight to ensure that Armenia's rich epigraphic legacy and the narratives they enshrine remain undiminished for future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0869.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: temporomandibular joint, diagnostic application, digital health, digital therapeutics.
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:18:56 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a mobile application by comparing its diagnoses to those of Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine specialists and further imaging results (TMJ CBCT and MRI) in 500 patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The research focused on three diagnostic categories: initial specialist diagnoses, final diagnoses after imaging, and the mobile app's diagnoses. The concordance rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the diagnoses were examined, with further imaging serving as the gold standard. The mobile app demonstrated a high concordance rate compared to both final (0.93) and initial specialist diagnoses (0.86). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values also indicated strong reliability, affirming the app's diagnostic validity. Although the concordance rate was slightly lower when comparing the app's diagnoses to imaging results (CBCT and MRI), specialist diagnoses yielded similar results. The study suggests that user-friendly diagnostic mobile applications, based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, could enhance the clinical management of TMD. Given the reliability of mobile applications for diagnostic purposes, their wider implementation could facilitate the provision of appropriate and timely treatments for patients with TMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0466.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: metaverse; corporate digital responsibility; CDR; regulation; digital technologies
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:16:55 CEST)
"Metaverse" as a term came to the fore in 2021 when Facebook rebranded its corporate identity to Meta, and signaled its intention to invest at least $10 billion in developing the concepts and related products that year. However, there is still little consensus in defining what constitutes the metaverse, although there is a widespread, though not universal, agreement that it will bring a wide range of benefits across society. More specifically, the advent, and continuing evolution, of the metaverse has strategic and operational implications for, and impacts on, industry and business at large. Adopting an inductive, interpretivist approach, this exploratory research article presents case examples of the guidance on the responsible development of the metaverse provided by two IT business services companies. The article identifies the major risks and responsibilities associated with the metaverse and assesses how companies might address these responsibilities. Very little research has been published in this area and this article attempts to make a small contribution to filling this gap in the literature. The article finds that responsibilities are largely in line with those currently associated with corporate digital responsibility, and concludes that the strategic impact and extent of regulatory change will depend on the nature of the metaverse that materialises in the forthcoming decade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1115.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Film, Radio And Television Keywords: media; digital media; entertainment; paradigm shift; digital age
Online: 15 June 2023 (09:40:35 CEST)
The advent of the digital age has brought about significant transformations in the entertainment industry, challenging traditional paradigms and redefining the ways in which content is created, distributed, and consumed. This research paper critically reviews the paradigm shift occurring in the entertainment industry, focusing on the implications of digital technologies, the rise of online platforms, changing consumer behavior, and the impact on various stakeholders. By analyzing relevant literature, industry reports, and case studies, this paper aims to comprehensively understand the challenges and opportunities presented by the digital age and assess its impact on the entertainment industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0442.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital transformation; digital strategy; corporate culture; leadership; performance
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:10:26 CET)
Digital transformation of companies is often referred to as a future track and a strategic path towards ensuring the survival and sustainability of companies. In this paper, we aim to outline this transformation process in Tunisian companies and identify its driving factors and finally explain its key success factors. To this end, we examine a sample of 70 companies operating in all economic sectors. The results indicate that such a digital strategy has a significant and a positive effect on the success of digital transformation of companies. Leadership has an effect at a low level of digital maturity. On the other hand, corporate culture does not have a significant effect on digital transformation. These results contribute to explaining this emerging phenomenon by focusing on the driving factors as well as the factors that contribute to its success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0298.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin; digital thread; framework; shipyard; industry 4.0
Online: 12 December 2020 (11:53:13 CET)
This paper provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art digital twin and digital thread technology in industrial operations. Both are transformational technologies that have the advantage of improving the efficiency of current design and manufacturing. Digital twin is an important element of the Industry 4.0 digitalization process; however, the huge amount of data that are generated and collected by digital twin offer challenges in handling, processing and storage. The paper aims to report on the development of a new framework that combines the digital twin and digital thread for better data management in order to drive innovation, improve the production process and performance, and to ensure continuity and traceability of information. The digital twin/thread framework incorporated behavior simulation and physical control components, in which these two components rely on the connectivity between the twin and thread for information flow and exchange to drive innovation. The twin/thread framework encompasses specifications that include organizational architecture layout, security, user access, cloud computing set-up, and hardware and software requirements. It is envisaged that the framework will be applicable to enhancing optimization of operational processes and traceability of information in the physical world, especially in Industry Shipyard 4.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: digital devices; digital media; toddler; children; language abilities
Online: 3 August 2020 (11:39:57 CEST)
Background: Over the past decade, the use of digital tools has grown and research evidence suggests that traditional media and new media offer both benefits and health risks for young children. The abilities to understand and use language represent two of the most important competencies developed during the first 3 years of life through the interaction of the child with people, objects, events, and other environmental factors. The main goal of our study is to evaluate the relationship between digital devices use and language abilities in children between 8-36 month, considering also the influence of several variables. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study on 260 healthy children (140 males = 54%) aged between 8-36 months (mean=23.5±7.18 months). All the parents completed a self-report questionnaire investigating the use of digital devices by their children, and a standardized questionnaire for the assessment of language skills (MacArthur). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between different variables. Subsequent moderation analysis were performed to verify the influence of other factors. Results: W found a statistically significant negative correlation between the total daily time of exposure to digital devices and the Actions and Gestures Quotient (ß=-0.397) in children between 8-17 months, and between the total daily time of exposure to digital devices and Language Quotient (ß=-0.224) in children between 18-36 months. Sex, level of education/job of parents, modality of use/content of digital device do not significantly affect these relationships. Conclusion: In our study we found that a longer time of exposure to digital devices was related to lower mimic-gestural skills in children from 8-17 months and to lower language skills in children between 18-36 months, regardless of age, sex, socio-economic status, content and modality of use. Further studies are needed to confirm and better understand this relationship, but parents and pediatricians are advised to limit the use of digital devices by children and encourage the social interaction to support the learning of language and communication skills in this age group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0285.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: common framework for digital competence of teachers; digital competence; digital communication; digital content creation; informational literacy; problem solving; safety; teacher training
Online: 20 July 2018 (05:43:03 CEST)
Digital competence is one of the 8 key competences for life-long learning developed by the European Commission, and is requisite for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment in the knowledge society. To accompany young learners in the development of the competence, and to guarantee optimal implementation of ICTs, it is necessary that teachers are, in turn, literate. We had 43 Secondary School teachers in initial training to assess their own level of competence in the 21 sub-competences in 5 areas identified by the DIGCOMP project, using the rubrics provided in the Common Framework for Digital Competence of Teachers (Spanish Ministry of Education). Overall, pre-service teachers' conceptions about their level of Digital Competence was low (Initial). Students scored highest in Information, which refers mostly to the operations they performed while being students. Secondly, in Safety and Communication, excluding Protection of Digital Data and Preservation of the Digital Identity. Lowest values were achieved in Content Creation and Problem Solving, the dimensions most closely related with the inclusion of ICTs to transform teaching-learning processes. The knowledge or skills they exhibit are largely self-taught and, so, we perceive an urgent need to purposefully incorporate relational and didactic aspects of ICT integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mobile learning; mobile pedagogy, EdTech; digital immigrant; digital literacy
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:46:03 CET)
The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic challenged education systems worldwide to quickly pivot their teaching-learning processes from in-person to virtual modes in order to control the spread of the virus. In a short period of time, teachers were forced to adopt new remote teaching methods to ensure the continuation of education. This paper examines how teachers in Pakistan leveraged mobile technology as an alternative teaching strategy to provide access to education during these unprecedented times. Through in-depth individual interviews with selected teachers, the study explores the potential of mobile technology to transform traditional teaching methods into interactive learning environments. The findings highlight the importance of embracing new pedagogical possibilities offered by mobile technology and the need for effective teacher professional development in the post-pandemic era. The study offers valuable insights into how mobile technology can be effectively utilized in education, even in the most challenging circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: narrative-digital approach; literary education; ICT; digital narrative; storytelling
Online: 12 July 2021 (14:19:26 CEST)
The article considers the peculiarities of practical implementation of the narrative-digital approach in the process of studying disciplines of literary cycle at philological faculties. The authors emphasize that the key to the effective transition to distance and combined forms of studying is creation of a productive national information and didactic space, with involvement of IT and appropriate level of training of all participants in the pedagogical process. Under these conditions, the application of the narrative-digital approach is promising, which in literary education of philologists is based on interdisciplinary interactive basis, which combines possibilities of narrative methods with computer technology. The integration of digital technologies into philological field causes a number of methodological difficulties, requires all subjects of educational activity to develop digital skills that are not related to professional humanities knowledge, but meet the requirements of trained competitive and highly qualified specialists. The authors conducted a sociological study on the readiness of students of philological specialties of pedagogical universities to implement the narrative-digital approach to educational practice. Research provides optimal software that allows you to implement this approach in practice, offers a selection of didactic tasks, substantiates feasibility of their use in classes of different types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0017.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Digital Surface Model, Digital Terrain Model, Steep edge detection
Online: 2 July 2018 (16:42:05 CEST)
In this paper we will present a simplified approach for extracting the ground level – a digital terrain model (DTM) – from the surface provided in a digital surface model (DSM). Most existing algorithms try to find the ground values in a digital surface model. Our approach works the opposite direction by detecting probable above ground areas. The main advantage of our approach is the possibility to use it with incomplete DSMs containing much no data values which can be e.g. occlusions in the calculated DSM. A smoothing or filling of such original derived DSMs will destroy much information which is very useful for deriving a ground surface from the DSM. Since the presented approach needs steep edges to detect potential high objects it will fail on smoothed and filled DSMs. After presenting the algorithm it will be applied to a test area in Salzburg and compared to a terrain model freely available from the Austrian government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0450.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: digital mental health intervention; unguided program; universal prevention; health care workers; new coronavirus
Online: 27 March 2023 (07:53:18 CEST)
The aim of this study is to describe a research protocol of a multi-country randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of a smartphone CBT stress management program on improving depression and other health- and work-related outcomes among hospital nurses in Vietnam and Thailand during the COVID-19 epidemic as a part of the COCONATS project. The study is a two-arm, parallel randomized control trial. Hospital nurses (N = 1,500) will be recruited in Vietnam and Thailand, and those who meet the criteria will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control (treatment as usual) group. A seven-week, seven-module smartphone-based stress management program will be developed to teach CBT skills. The intervention group will participate in the program for 10 weeks. Depression as the primary outcome will be measured using the DASS21 at baseline and in 3- and 6-month follow-up surveys. A mixed model repeated measures analysis will be used to test the intervention effect in the total combined sample, on an intention-to-treat basis. This is the first study to investigate the effectiveness of a self-guided smartphone CBT program on improving depression among hospital nurses using a RCT design in South-East Asian middle-income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0283.v1
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:10:02 CET)
The digital transition processes have demonstrated an enormous capacity to develop and implement sustainable solutions, which allow solving several problems such as poverty, high rates of species extinction and lack of equal opportunity. However, little attention is paid to the connection between the digital transition and sustainability. Thus, a systematic review of the bibliometric literature was developed to fill this knowledge gap and demonstrate the potential contributions of the digital transition to environmental, economic and social sustainability aspects. In environmental sustainability, the digital transition involves the application of technologies such as AI, big data analytics, IoT, and mobile technologies that are used to develop and implement sustainability solutions in areas such as sustainable urban development, sustainable production and pollution control. In economic sustainability, emerging digital technologies can drive transformation into the more sustainable circular economy, the digital sharing economy, and establish sustainable manufacturing and infrastructure design. In the digital transition to social sustainability, the studies analyzed demonstrate the need for multidimensional policy perspectives to address the current digital divide. For effective management of the digital transition that achieves sustainability goals, the study discusses alternative approaches that include innovation through experimentation, and dynamic and sustainable advantages achievable through temporary benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: digital literacy; digital game-based assessment; ECGD; AHP; assessment model
Online: 4 December 2023 (15:12:33 CET)
This study measured secondary students’ digital literacy using a digital game-based assessment system that was designed and developed based on the Evidence-Centered Game Design (ECGD) approach. A total of 188 secondary students constituted the valid samples in this study. Fine-grained behavioral data generated from students’ gameplay processes were collected and recorded with the assessment system. The Delphi method was used to extract feature variables related to digital literacy from the process data, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to construct the measurement model. The assessment results of the ECGD-based assessment had a high correlation with standardized test scores, which have been shown to be reliable and valid in prior large-scale assessment studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Sharing Economy; Collaborative Digital Platform; Digital Business Model; Urban Logistics
Online: 17 November 2023 (12:36:06 CET)
The increase in online orders following the COVID-19 pandemic has heightened consumer ex-pectations regarding prompt deliveries. However, this phenomenon has subsequently triggered a substantial increase in the number of vehicles navigating through urban areas, highly affecting the overall quality of life within cities. Capitalizing on the complexities posed by urban logistics, this paper proposes an innovative digital business model for logistics services. In this context, we introduce “Urban Logistics as a Service (ULaaS), platform”, a concept rooted in the principals of circular economy and harnessed through the application of the Canvas methodology. The con-ceptual framework outlines the ULaaS ecosystem and explores potential user-functionality com-binations. The proposed platform serves as both an on-demand service provider and a control hub for stakeholders such as traffic authorities, policymakers, logistics providers, carriers, and shippers. This platform streamlines citywide logistics to enhance movement efficiency, ease congestion, and reduce emissions. The ULaaS concept was validated through analysis of data collected from interviews in the unique social context of Campinas City, Brazil. The key value-generating mod-ules within the ULaaS ecosystem include parking reservations, shared warehousing, e-commerce deliveries, and comprehensive logistics solutions. However, implementing Urban Logistics as a Service has challenges. These include defining public and private sector roles, creating effective pricing models, and fairly distributing respon-sibilities among service providers. The paper also elucidates various monetization models and required investments, crucial for fostering potential private sector involvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0031.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: children’s privacy; digital world; children’s privacy in the digital world
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:31:55 CET)
In article 16 of the United Nations Convention (UN), or the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), which is usually called the Convention on the Rights of the Child, outlines the right of every child to privacy and protection against violations of privacy related to the home. , family, communication, and their good name. Children's privacy, especially when it comes to personal data, requires strict boundaries. Current digital developments influence children's parenting and thinking patterns with potential negative impacts. Children can be targets of abuse in the digital world. Children's personal data is often used until they become independent. This research, using normative legal methods, aims to analyze regulations related to the protection of children's personal data in the digital era. Therefore, updates are needed in the laws and regulations governing children's personal data to safeguard their privacy rights in accordance with the UNCRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1965.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: 3D printing; digital light processing; stereolithography; digital dentistry; dental material
Online: 3 October 2023 (02:56:01 CEST)
3D printing technology has brought about a paradigm shift in the delivery of clinical care in medicine and dentistry. There are several different 3D printing technologies, which, along with different printable materials with unique biomechanical properties, allows for a wide range of applications for 3D printing in dentistry. The clinical use of 3D printing has created versatile applications which streamline our digital workflow. Technological advancements have also paved the way for the integration of new dental materials in dentistry. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms of 3D printing, the dental materials relevant to each mechanism and the possible applications of these materials within different areas of dentistry. Understanding the existing spectrum of 3D printing applications in dentistry will serve to further expand its use in the dental field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0868.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Digital Transformation; Digital Competences; Professional Training; Public Services; Human Capital.
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:24:30 CEST)
Digital transformation can become a complex process when workers have insufficient skills, which makes training in the digital field essential. Herein, we intended to relate digital literacy perceived by workers with their training needs for the Portuguese public sector context. Additionally, based in the Human capital theory, we also investigate which professional/demographic characteristics increase training propensity in digital fields. Through an online questionnaire, a dataset with information on 573 workers was obtained. Data analysis was made by using a probabilistic regression model and additional statistical techniques. The results revealed that workers with higher levels of education and higher professional skills have higher probability of participating in training in the digital field. On average, workers reveal low levels of digital knowledge and low participation in training in the digital fields, but the majority present a willingness to participate in future training sessions, especially in the fields of Dataset management, Cybersecurity and Communication systems. This study provides information on training in the digital field of workers in the public sector, which is essential for public organizations to better prepare for digital transformation. Additionally, it contributes to a very recent literature on digital learning, and it can be extended to other contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0242.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; mathematics; digital tools; digital skills; teacher; e-learning
Online: 14 March 2023 (03:42:56 CET)
This qualitative study explores the implementation and conformation process of digital devices in teaching and learning before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory as a framework, the study examines the adoption and adaptation of digital devices by in-service secondary mathematics teachers (n=62) and their perceptions and preferences towards instructional modality. The findings suggest that despite the increased reliance on digital devices during the pandemic, there is a less likelihood of using them in face-to-face classrooms in developing countries like Nepal. The adoption of online learning has not yet reached the confirmation stage, even after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, online learning was not widely implemented or confirmed by teachers in developing countries societies. The study also provides important insights into the challenges and opportunities of using digital devices in post-COVID-19 classrooms, and its implications for policymakers and educators in Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0446.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; Digital Divide; Online Learning; Multi-level Digital Divide
Online: 30 June 2021 (12:28:15 CEST)
The devastating COVID-19 pandemic forced academia to go virtual. Educational institutions around the world have stressed online learning programs in the aftermath of the pandemic. However, because of insufficient access to ICT, a substantial number of students failed to harness the opportunity of online learning. This study explores the latent digital divide exhibited during the COVID-19 pandemic while online learning activities are emphasized among Bangladeshi students. It also investigates the digital divide exposure and the significant underlying drivers of the divide. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect quantitative data mixed with open-ended questions to collect qualitative information from the student community. The findings revealed that despite the majority of students have physical access to ICT but only 32.5% of students could attend online classes seamlessly, 34.1% of the students reported the data prices as the critical barrier, and 39.8% of students identified the poor network infrastructure is the significant barrier for them to participate in online learning activities. Although most students possess physical access to the device and the Internet, they face the first-level digital divide due to the quality of access and maintaining subscriptions. Consequently, they fail to take advantage of physical access, resulting in the third-level digital divide (Utility Gap) and submerging them into a digital divide cycle. This paper aimed to explore the underlying issues of the digital divide among Bangladeshi students to assist relevant stakeholders (e.g., the Bangladesh government, Educational Institutions, Researchers) in providing the necessary insights and theoretical understanding to arrange adequate support for students to undertake conducive online learning activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Digital Smile Design; digital dentistry; dentistry software; dentistry design software
Online: 21 April 2021 (11:46:39 CEST)
Without impacting the dental sciences, breakthroughs in technology and applications could not be accomplished. In the advancement of technology and information technology, dentistry and dental materials have been fully active, so much so that they have revolutionized dental techniques. Material & methods; We want to produce the first series of articles in this review on the use of digital techniques and software, such as Smile Concept Digital. The goal is to gather all the findings on the use of this program and to highlight the fields of use. The analysis included forty-nine articles, the latter discussing the use of Digital Smile Design and the area of use. The research aims to classify the dental fields are using "digitization." Change is constant in this field and will be increasing Interest in dentistry by recommending the speed and reliability of outcomes for care planning. Conclusion: As seen in the study, the digital workflow facilitates recovery that is reliable both from an aesthetic and functional point of view. The current area of use of Digital Smile Design techniques in the different branches of medicine and dentistry as well as knowledge have emerged from this research
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Industry 4.0; Digitalization; Digital production; Digital Twin, 5G,innovative management
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:43:28 CET)
Purpose- This study seeks to investigate the collaboration between Digitalization and traditional manufacturing industry and investigate, how digitalized management brings new chances and challenges of management. Design/methodology/approach – The author designed a content analytical study researching the role of digitalization in traditional manufacturing industries. The article presents a selective but systematical review of recent digitalization trend and digital twin to be applied for innovative management in Industry 4.0 era. Findings– Digitalization is highly correlated with traditional manufactory in Industry 4.0 era. The study brings a new outlook on the next wave of Digitalization and review of associated challenges and opportunities for management and innovation in traditional manufacturing industries. Research limitations/implications – The research focuses on two branches of traditional industries only: machine tools building and metalworking industries. Future research needs to examine other traditional industries. The research is limited to 2 high related traditional manufacturing industries, machine tools and metalworking industry. Practical implications – The study and application of digitalization should be highly recommended and launched in traditional manufacturing industries. Universities, institutes and vocational schools should update, optimize their courses systems according to prediction of future industry. Originality/value – The paper enhances understanding about the collaboration between digitalization and traditional manufacturing industry. This paper analyzes an important issue the digitalization serves traditional industries. It is unique in its broad analysis of the related terms – Digitalization, Machines 4.0, Industry 4.0 and innovative management in Industry 4.0 era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0620.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Digital twin; Precision Livestock Farming; digitosome; Digital cohort; animal farming
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:48:12 CET)
Digital twin technology is already improving efficiencies and reducing costs across multiple industries and sectors. As the earliest adopters, space technology and manufacturing sectors have made the most sophisticated gains with automobile and natural resource extraction industries following close behind with recent investments in digital twin technology. The application of digital twins within the livestock farming sector is the next frontier. The possibilities that this technology may fuel are nearly endless as digital twins can be used to improve large-scale precision livestock farming practices, machinery and equipment usage, and the health and well-being of a wide variety of farm animals. Currently, many pioneers of digital twins in livestock farming are already applying sophisticated AI technology to monitor both animals and environment around the clock, which leads to a better understanding of animal behavior and distress, disease control and prevention, and smarter business decisions for the farmer. Mental and emotional states of animals can be monitored using recognition technology that examines facial features such as ear postures and eye white regions. Used with modeling, simulation and augmented reality technologies, digital twins can help farmers build more energy-efficient housing structures, predict heat cycles for breeding, discourage negative behaviors of livestock, and potentially much more. As with all disruptive technological advances, the implementation of digital twin technology will demand a thorough cost and benefit analysis by individual farms. Digital twin application will need to overcome challenges and accept limitations that arise. However, regardless of these issues, the potential of digital twins promises to revolutionize livestock farming in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: circular economy; industry 4.0; data; 9R’s; digital technologies; digital intelligence
Online: 8 August 2018 (05:31:47 CEST)
The Circular Economy has been of growing significance within academic, policymaking and industry groups. Latest developments in the field of Circular Economy has led to an expansion of CE studies focused on interrogating CE as a paradigm, its relationship with sustainability and concepts and definitions of the Circular Economy. Research has also identified the significant potential of applying circular approaches to areas of the economy, including manufacturing and Industry 4.0, which, with data, is enabling latest the advances in digital technologies. This is the first review paper to integrate the fields of CE and digital technologies resulting in a framework which provides directions for policymakers and guidance for future research. To achieve this, we conduct a systematic literature review of the empirical literature related to digital technologies, industry 4.0 and circular approaches, from the point of the 9 Rs. The systematic literature review (SLR) is based on peer-reviewed articles published between 2000-2018. The findings reveal that while research on the circular economy has been on an annual rise, research on digital technologies enabled circular economy is still relatively an untouched area of research across all nine (9) circular approaches. As such this is an area rife for further research. This paper also presents illustrative charts and graphs to summarize the current trends in circular economy research in manufacturing. From this, a framework for future circular economy research for manufacturing for digital technologies is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Digital Mental Health; deprivation; service activity; Mental health concerns; ethnicity; time-series analysis; Covid-19; Text-based online therapy
Online: 2 February 2023 (01:30:05 CET)
The adoption of digital health technologies accelerated during Covid-19, with concerns over the equity of access due to digital exclusion. Using data from a text-based online mental health service for children and young people we explore the impact of the pandemic on service access and presenting concerns and whether differences were observed by sociodemographic characteristics in terms of access (gender, ethnicity and deprivation). We used interrupted time-series models to assess whether there was a change in the level and rate of service use during the Covid-19 pandemic (April 2020-April 2021) compared to pre-pandemic trends (June 2019-March 2020). Routinely collected data from 61221 service users were extracted for observation, those represented half of the service population as only those with consent to share their data were used. The majority of users identified as female (74%) and White (80%), with an age range between 13 and 20 years of age,. There was evidence of a sudden increase (13%) in service access at the start of the pandemic (RR 1.13 95% CI 1.02, 1.25), followed by a reduced rate (from 25% to 21%) of engagement during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic trends (RR 0.97 95% CI 0.95,0.98). There was a sudden increase in almost all presenting issues apart from physical complaints. There was evidence of a step increase in the number of contacts for Black/African/Caribbean/Black British (38% increase; 95% CI: 1%-90%) and White ethnic groups (14% increase; 95% CI: 2%-27%) ), the sudden increase in service use at the start of the pandemic for the most (58% increase; 95% CI: 1%-247%) and least (47% increase; 95% CI: 6%-204%) deprived areas. During the pandemic, contact rates decreased, and referral sources change at the start. Findings on access and service activity align with other studies observing reduced service utilisation. The lack of differences in deprivation levels and ethnicity at lockdown suggests exploring equity of access to the anonymous service. The study provides unique insights into changes in digital mental health use during Covid-19 in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0763.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Organizational culture; digital transformation; digital culture; innovation; organizational change; innovation culture
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:40:27 CEST)
Based on a literature review, a framework for digital organizational culture with a focus on innovation is proposed. This digital organizational culture becomes relevant today since digital transformation requires an appetite for risk and a willingness to undertake, aspects that are strengthened by an environment and atmosphere that motivate individuals to generate new ideas. The proposal begins with a diagnosis of the existing organizational culture, which allows identifying the differences between the components of the current organizational culture and the innovation-oriented digital organizational culture. Through this diagnosis, the gaps that need to be addressed to achieve a digital organizational culture with innovative characteristics are identified. In addition, specific recommendations are proposed to carry out this transformation. In the process, the assumptions underlying the current typology of the company's organizational culture are highlighted. The importance of integrating creativity, risk readiness, and entrepreneurial willingness into the digital organizational culture aimed at innovation is emphasized. These elements are essential to create an environment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1758.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin; DT; Product Lifecycle Quality; PLQ; Digital Twin Certified; DTC
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:46:34 CEST)
Quality products are a main focus for manufacturers. Product users only determine a product is a quality product if it performs in operation to the user’s perceived standard. Product manufactures need to take a product lifecycle quality (PLQ) perspective of quality and not simply focus on manufacturing quality control, which is more accurately specification control. Manufacturing is the key phase where products take their physical form. There are increasing costs and decreasing risk of different physical quality strategies. The information provided using digital twins and virtual testing promises to be both low risk and cost and has the potential to predict what the customer will experience in operation by testing products passively with data and actively with simulation to destruction. Digital Twin Certified (DTC) is proposed as the methodology for accomplishing this. DTC will be especially important for the adoption of additive manufacturing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0531.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Insurtech; Insurance; Digital Transformation
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:30:51 CEST)
The insurance sector has undergone a transformative shift with the emergence of Insurtech, integrating technological innovations into the industry. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the impact of Insurtech on the insurance sector, focusing on the case study of Lemonade. By placing the study in the context of the broader insurance landscape, the review explores the significance and relevance of this transformation. The article analyzes Lemonade's unique business model and its departure from traditional insurance practices. Furthermore, it examines the implications of Lemonade's approach on the industry and the challenges it faces. Through this analysis, the review sheds light on how Insurtech and the transformation of the insurance sector are redefining insurance services and consumer experiences. The future implications of these trends for insurance companies, consumers, and the industry as a whole are also explored. In summary, this review provides valuable insights into the transformative power of Insurtech, emphasizing the importance of technological advancements and innovative approaches in shaping the future of the insurance sector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0330.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: digital marketing; sustainable development
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:38:41 CEST)
A Digital marketing allows brands to disseminate information in a targeted way towards their clients and consumers, making bidirectional communication and interactions between organizations and audiences feasible. This reality not only allows companies to pass on messages about sustainability associated with processes and products with the aim of launching trends and shaping behaviour, but also allows consumers to share their experiences, needs, preferences and expectations. In this sense, the techniques used in the context of digital marketing make it possible not only to communicate products and services but also to show that brands are working to be more sustainable and to disseminate new sustainable trends that help to change consumer mindsets. This research paper employs a Systematic Literature Review with Bibliometric Analysis (SLBA) methodology to explore and synthesize data about how digital marketing can be used to promote and communicate sustainability. In this study, the results show that digital marketing strategies contribute to promoting sustainable development by encouraging sustainable consumption patterns. This scenario is possible by understanding consumer behavior, communicating key messages through the best channels and effectively evaluating green marketing campaigns on consumer attitudes and purchasing decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1822.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Hyperautomation, Digital Transformation, Government
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:08:34 CEST)
Este artigo apresenta o processo de implementação da Hiperautomação no setor público brasileiro, especialmente no âmbito da Procuradoria Geral do Estado de Pernambuco. Devido à atual economia competitiva, a demanda por soluções inteligentes e confiáveis está aumentando. Para atender a essa necessidade, tecnologias inovadoras que abordem a complexidade inerente à transformação digital são desejáveis. Assim, as organizações públicas têm buscado aplicar a automação de processos para atender às necessidades dos cidadãos por um serviço mais eficiente e eficaz. No entanto, podemos observar que a automação pura e direta é apenas parte do processo de transformação. Algumas das razões que explicam a necessidade de ir além da automação de processos e alcançar a hiperautomação é a abundância de dados de várias fontes e tipos. Tudo deve estar dentro dos padrões legais, ressaltando que toda tecnologia deve estar alinhada com transparência e auditabilidade para ser incorporada com segurança. Para a experimentação, foi utilizado o método de pesquisa-ação com a aplicação da Hiperautomação, visando aumentar a arrecadação e a economia do Estado na Procuradoria Geral do Estado de Pernambuco.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0465.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: new digital economy; sustainability
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:18:28 CEST)
This study aims to analyze the interconnection between the concepts of digital economy and sustainability. These concepts have become popular due to awareness of climate change and increased development and adoption of technologies. Researchers, business leaders and policymakers are exploring the many ways digital technologies can be used to address sustainability issues. Using a systematic literature review with a bibliometric analysis, we examined a sample of 92 studies indexed in SCOPUS to identify research activity on this topic through April 2023. We found that 2022 had the highest number of peer-reviewed papers on the subject, with 31 publications. During the research, we also identified multiple opportunities for this interconnection, such as developing renewable energy and sustainable technological solutions, smart cities and sustainable urbanization, and sustainable consumption. These opportunities enabled by digital technologies allow companies to adopt sustainable business strategies and develop sustainable products. Despite these opportunities, the digital economy presents several challenges that can hinder efforts to achieve sustainability goals, such as increased e-waste, high energy consumption and rising carbon emissions, digital divide, job insecurity, growing monopolies, and data protection. These issues must be addressed to enable optimal use of the opportunities presented in the digital economy to promote sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0378.v1
Online: 21 November 2022 (06:45:03 CET)
During most of the lifespan of the Venetian republic, doges or presidents were elected for life. However, a long tenure was a rare event, which effectively resulted in term limits, as has already been deported by several authors. In this paper we examine these tenures and its evolution during the existence of the Venetian republic, trying to prove Smith et al. thesis, but also the event or events that effectively caused that limitation by design. Finally, we will discuss for the causes of this limitation and its effective consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0208.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: digital filter; watershed; hydrology
Online: 18 July 2019 (09:11:22 CEST)
The runoff coefficient (C) represents the relationship between the surface runoff volume and the precipitated volume. It is used in engineering projects for flood estimation methods. Although C values are tabulated and consecrated in hydrological engineering, as if they were constant, they may not correspond to the reality, because in the same catchment, they can vary according to the intensity, temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation events, humidity conditions, and ground cover. This study had the objective of analyzing extreme events of precipitation and the corresponding flows to obtain experimental runoff coefficients (C) and compare them with the tabulated values. The study was conducted in four experimental catchments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, with different land uses and soils. The runoff coefficients (C) were obtained from the analysis of hydrograms and using a digital filter, which allowed the separation of the direct runoff, of the total flow. When analyzing flow and precipitation data in different seasons of the year, selecting events of the floods of catchments and separating the flows, we observed a variation of the flow coefficient values, different from those obtained from tables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Age; Digital Era; Evolution of Pen and Paper; Screens and Keyboards
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:39:28 CEST)
Delve into the ebb and flow of human ingenuity as the researcher traces the evolution of writing from papyrus to pixels. Discover how humble instruments like quill pens and typewriters have propelled human into the digital frontier, forever reshaping the art of expression in the modern age. This article examines the evolution of writing tools from traditional pen and paper to digital writing in the modern age. It explores the development of writing materials such as papyrus, parchment, and paper, as well as the invention of writing tools including quill pens, fountain pens, and typewriters. The rise of digital writing tools, including word processing software and smartphones, is also discussed, along with their benefits such as increased efficiency and productivity, enhanced collaboration and sharing capabilities, and greater accessibility and flexibility. However, the article also highlights the challenges of writing in the digital age, including the impact of digital distractions on writing focus and quality, the issue of online plagiarism and copyright infringement, and the potential loss of traditional writing skills. The article concludes with recommendations for educators, school administrators, students, and researchers to strike a balance between digital and traditional writing practices, to embrace digital writing tools while preserving traditional writing skills, and to understand the importance of the evolution of writing. The theoretical frameworks of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) Theory, Media Ecology Theory, and Activity Theory are also discussed in relation to the evolution of writing tools. Overall, this article provides valuable insights into the history, benefits, and challenges of writing in the digital age, as well as suggestions for navigating the future of writing and its tools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Digital Phenotyping; Broiler Industry; Poultry Production; Digital Twins; Broiler Genomics; Multi-modal Digital Phenotyping Platform; Animal Health Monitoring; Production Resilience
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:39:13 CEST)
In response to escalating global demand for poultry, the industry grapples with an array of intricate challenges, from enhancing productivity to improving animal welfare and attenuating environmental impacts. This comprehensive review explores the transformative potential of digital phenotyping, an emergent technological innovation at the cusp of dramatically reshaping broiler production. The central aim of this study is to critically examine digital phenotyping as a pivotal solution to these multidimensional industry conundrums. Our investigation spotlights the profound implications of 'digital twins' in the burgeoning field of broiler genomics, where the production of exact digital counterparts of physical entities accelerates genomics research and its practical applications. Further, this review probes into the ongoing advancements in the research and development of a context-sensitive, multimodal digital phenotyping platform, custom-built to monitor broiler health. I critically evaluate this platform's potential in revolutionizing health monitoring, fortifying the resilience of broiler production, and fostering a harmonious balance between productivity and sustainability. Subsequently, the paper provides a rigorous assessment of the unique challenges that may surface during the integration of digital phenotyping within the industry. These span from technical and economic impediments to ethical deliberations, thus offering a comprehensive perspective. The paper concludes by highlighting the game-changing potential of digital phenotyping in the broiler industry and identifying potential future directions for the field, underlining the significance of continued research and development in unlocking digital phenotyping's full potential. In doing so, it charts a course towards a more robust, sustainable, and productive broiler industry. The insights garnered from this study hold substantial value for a broad spectrum of stakeholders in the broiler industry, setting the stage for an imminent technological evolution in poultry production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0051.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: art and technology; digital culture; digital identity; human behavior; interdisciplinary studies; museums.; computational culture; cultural conflict; digital heritage; cultural heritage
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:16:12 CET)
This paper looks at key elements of global culture that are driving a new paradigm shift in museums causing them to question their raison d'être, their design and physical space, recognizing the need to accommodate visitor interaction and participation, and to reprioritize institutional outcomes and goals reexamining their priorities. As heritage sharing in online spaces reaches across national, political, and social boundaries on platforms and networks, this has been driven by museum engagement with Internet life during the pandemic. Museum relationships and interactions with communities both local and global, continue to challenge core values and precepts, leading to radical changes in how museums define their roles and responsibilities. In this new cultural landscape, museums are responding to human digital identity in a tidal wave of human interactions on the Internet, from social media to online sharing of images and videos. This is revealing shared perspectives on cultural conflict as being tied to freedom of expression of one’s heritage embedded in digital identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1098.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; COVID-19; Digital Media, Emotions Detection; Machine Learning; Medical Informatics; Mental Health; Natural language Processing; SARS-COV-2; Social Media; Supervised Learning; Vaccination
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:16:20 CEST)
Global rapidly evolving events, e.g., COVID-19, are usually followed by countermeasures and policies. As a reaction, the public tends to express their emotions on social media platforms. Therefore, predicting emotional responses to events is critical to put a plan to avoid risky behaviors. This paper proposes a machine learning-based framework to detect public emotions based on social media posts in response to specific events. It presents a precise measurement of population-level emotions which can aid governance in monitoring public response and guide it to put in place strategies such as targeted monitoring of mental health, to react to a rise in negative emotions in response to lockdowns, or information campaigns, for instance in response to elevated rates of fear in response to vaccination programs. We evaluate our framework by extracting 15,455 tweets. We annotate and categorize the emotions into 11 categories based on Plutchik’s study of emotion and extract the features using a combination of Bag of Words and Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency. We filter 813 COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets and use them to demonstrate our framework’s effectiveness. Numerical evaluation of emotions prediction using Random Forest and Logistic Regression shows that our framework predicts emotions with an accuracy up to 95%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0473.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Precision livestock farming; Digital livestock farming; Smart farming; Societal impacts; Data ownership; Open access; Sustainability; Animal ethics; Digital divide; Digital agriculture
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:16:27 CET)
The emergence of precision and digital livestock farming presents an opportunity for sustainable animal farming practices that enhance animal welfare and health. However, this transformation of modern animal farming through digital technology has several implications for the technological, social, economic, and environmental aspects of farming. It is crucial to analyze the ethical considerations associated with the digitalization of modern animal farming, particularly in the context of human-animal relationships and potential objectification. This analysis can help develop frameworks for improving animal welfare and promoting sustainability in animal farming.One of the primary ethical concerns of digital livestock farming is the potential for a digital divide between farmers who have access to advanced technologies and those who do not. This could lead to a disparity in animal welfare and health outcomes for different groups of animals. Additionally, the use of artificial intelligence in digital livestock farming may lead to a loss of personal connection between farmers and animals, which could impact the animal's well-being. Another ethical concern of digital livestock farming is the potential for objectification of animals as mere data points. The use of sensors and other monitoring technologies can provide valuable data on animal health and behavior, but it is important to remember that animals are sentient beings with complex emotional and social needs. The use of digital technologies should not lead to neglect of animal welfare or a lack of human responsibility towards animals.Furthermore, social context becomes essential while integrating technologies in the livestock farming to overcome ethics. By considering the cultural and societal norms of different communities, we can ensure that the use of digital technologies does not undermine these values. To address these ethical challenges, the development of standards and codes of conduct for the adoption and implementation of digital livestock farming tools and platforms can help ensure that animal welfare and sustainability are prioritized. This can help alleviate the privacy concerns of stakeholders and improve sustainability in animal farming practices. Additionally, the use of virtual and augmented reality technologies can provide a way to enhance human-animal interactions and provide more personalized care to animals, further promoting animal welfare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1652.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digital economy; perspective area; components; fourth industrial revolution; digital analytics architecture; smart Bangladesh
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:33:28 CEST)
This study aims to determine the present and future scopes of the digital economy in Bangladesh to build a developed and prosperous country by 2041. Simultaneously, it analyses the components of the Digital Economy from numerous perspectives from contributing to Bangladeshi economy with an adaptation of the 4th Industrial Revolution and emerging technologies. In the methodology section, qualitative approach is conducted to determine the research objectives where secondary data is used. Around 100 papers are collected and 51 articles are used for conducting this study. The findings of the study are to present the current state of the digital economy which is developing trends that contribute to national GDP for the adaptation of the 4IR for the transformation of smart Bangladesh. From the conceptual implication, companies and individuals are aware of the digital economy, which would lessen digital divide and create a strong link between technology and the economy. Furthermore, establishing customer confidence and trust would be a big issue for Bangladesh's digital platform economy in the future days. From a practical standpoint, IT industries and commercial organizations would have to deal with emerging 4IR and its technologies. The job market would also be expanded in a variety of areas, which would ultimately benefit the national economy. According to the study's conclusions, the digital economy is predicted to expand its commercial and corporate opportunities. Future research might be extended based on qualitative approach towards a digital Bangladesh and create a better developing economy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0129.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digital Design; Digital Architecture; Image Processing; Machine learning; FPGA; Dedicated Design; Image Processor
Online: 14 April 2022 (05:09:47 CEST)
Many dedicated designs for real-time operations provide functionality on fixed-sized operators, but where speed, scalability, and flexibility are required, extensive research is demanded. Dedicated designs can provide real-time processing for many applications. This paper presents an FPGA-based design of a general image processor. The proposed design is based on a fixed-point representation of binary numbers. The proposed design provides a mechanism to manage matrices on-chip along with matrix arithmetic. The matrices are represented with simple identifiers and microinstruction that assist in the computation of many operations which are useful for solving complex problems. The design was successfully implemented and tested using VHDL language. The proposed design is an efficient architecture as a standalone processor with all embedding computational resources necessary for an embedded image processing application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0139.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digital Manufacturing; Sensors; Machine Learning; Industry 4.0; Optical; Cotton Lint; Industrial Digital Technologies
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:55:26 CEST)
Egyptian cotton is one of the most important commodities to the Egyptian economy and is renowned globally for its quality, which is currently graded by manual inspection. This has several drawbacks including significant labour requirement, low inspection efficiency, and influence from inspection conditions such as light and human subjectivity. This current work uses a low-cost colour vision system, combined with machine learning to predict the cotton lint grade of the cultivars Giza 86, 97, 90, 94 and 96. Unsupervised and supervised machine learning approaches were explored and compared. Three different supervised learning algorithms were evaluated: linear discriminant analysis, decision trees and ensemble modelling. The highest accuracy models (77.3-98.2%) used an ensemble modelling technique to classify samples within the Egyptian cotton grades: Fully Good, Good, Fully Good Fair, Good Fair and Fully Fair. The unsupervised learning technique k-means showed that human error is more likely to occur when classifying lint belonging to the higher quality grades and underlined the need for an intelligent system to replace manual inspection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0325.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: active RC-filter; digital tuning elements; digital potentiometer; digital-to-analog converter, low-pass filter; band-pass filter; inverting amplifier; voltage regulator
Online: 12 April 2021 (21:22:45 CEST)
The most popular schemes of digital potentiometers (DP) and digital-to-analog converters (DAC) are considered. DP and DAC use how elements of parameter adjustment of active RC-filters. The circuits of the DAC on the Kelvin-Varley divider, the Kelvin divider based on the R-2R matrix, and the architecture of the DAC with a segmented circuit are shown. The internal structure of DP an Analog Devices and Intersil company is shown, and also the DP switching circuits in a tunable low-pass filter and a band-pass filter, a programmable inverting amplifier and a voltage regulator are presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0459.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare; digital healthcare; healthcare technology
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:58:09 CEST)
Healthcare sector is a truly dynamic and multidisciplinary system. Progressive practice of computational technologies in healthcare has enhanced electronic therapeutic measures in the care units. The healthcare decision-makers are accenting on the operational usage of digital technology in the system, to improve the health service by reducing human error and excessive load also by increasing possibility to attend more patients simultaneously. Sophisticated medical instruments are using advanced robotics, artificial intelligence to enhance their efficacy. Virtual treatments, self-diagnostics is increasing over time with the advancement of technical support in health. Electronic Health Records (EHR) of patients has created huge medical data (clinical information), which is undoubtedly a good resource for health professionals to take critical decisions and implement them accordingly. The aim of this article is to elucidate how technological developments are associated with clinical improvements in terms of constructing an upgraded health ecosystem. It is imperative to analyze how recent digital paradigms in health are helping to tackle regular and rare clinical challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0463.v1
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:51:41 CET)
Core-shell particles are heterogenous micro- or nanoparticles with solid, liquid or gas core encapsulated by a protective solid shell. The unique composition of core and shell materials imparts smart properties to the particles. Core-shell particles are gaining increasing attention as tuneable and versatile carriers for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and biosensing. This review first provides an overview of fabrication methods for core-shell particles, followed by a brief discussion on their application and a detailed analysis on manipulation including assembly, sorting, and triggered release. We compile current methodologies employed for manipulation of core-shell particles and demonstrate how existing methods of assembly and sorting micro/nanospheres can be adopted or modified for core-shell particles. Various triggered release approaches for diagnostics and drug delivery are also discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0238.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: homomorphic; digital signature; IoT; authentication
Online: 18 February 2022 (17:04:53 CET)
In this paper, we address the problem of compatibility between digital signature schemes and in-network aggregation approaches. In the IoT world, the gateways alter the signed network flows when performing in-network aggregation. Therefore, existing conventional approaches are not suitable for verifying the authenticity of the original flows. This raises the need for energy-effective and secure schemes that enable the destination to validate aggregated network flows. In this regard, a lightweight homomorphic signature scheme is proposed which supports the implementation of aggregation procedures without affecting the verification process. We demonstrate the unforgeability and the privacy of our scheme. We also perform an analytical study of its energy-efficiency. The results suggest that the proposed scheme considerably decreases the processing overhead of the existing set-homomorphic signature schemes. Moreover, it does not add any communication overhead to traditional (non-homomorphic) signature schemes. This, in turn, improves the energy consumption by 30% compared to existing homomorphic signature techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0734.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Digital citizenship; Twitter; e-participation
Online: 30 March 2021 (12:17:49 CEST)
(1) Background: Spain launched an official campaign, #EsteVirusLoParamosUnidos, to try and unite the efforts of the entire country through citizen cooperation to combat coronavirus. The research goal is to analyze the Twitter campaign’s repercussion on general citizen feeling. (2) Methods: The research is based on a composite design that triangulates from a theoretical model, a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. (3) Results: Of the 7357 tweets in the sample, 72.32% were found to be retweets. Four content families were extracted: politics, education, messages to society and defense of occupational groups. The feelings expressed ranged along a continuum, from unity, admiration and support at one end to discontent and criticism regarding the health situation at the other. (4) Conclusions: The development of networked sociopolitical and technical measures that enable citizen participation facilitates the development of new patterns of interaction between governments and digital citizens, increasing citizens’ possibilities of influencing the public agenda and therefore strengthening citizen engagement vis-à-vis such situations.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Forensics, digital forensics, wearable, law
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:06:29 CET)
Digital Evidence is considered as an important type of evidence in many legal cases. Many legislations have dedicated laws to the collection, handling and admissibility of digital evidence. New technologies and new devices are rapidly being developed, which creates new sources of digital evidence. This presents a challenge to law enforcement agencies and digital investigators to stay up to date with the rapid development in the digital field. This paper discusses a relatively new source of digital evidence which is the evidence extracted from Wearable devices. A Fitbit fitness tracker is one of the most common wearable devices used by many people today. This paper presents a case study whereby data extracted from a Fitbit was used as a digital evidence. The admissibility and the challenges of using Wearables as digital evidence is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: virtual worlds; video games; players statistics; COVID-19 lockdown; digital-real crossovers; digital society
Online: 20 September 2023 (11:08:42 CEST)
The expansion of Open World Video Games (OWVGs) has seen the emergence of multiple new fictional worlds. This type of video game is characterized by total immersion in a world built for the players entertainment. What videogames developers want when players enter an OWVG is that they could feel like if they were open a door to an entirely new world and leave the real world behind. These virtual worlds manifest as a complement, an alternative, or the successor to the physical universe, and in some way continue the philosophical tradition of possible worlds begun by Leibniz. Accustomed to ‘surviving’ in hostile environments, millions of people continued to improve their skills in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic while locked in their homes. Once the pandemic seems to start to be left behind, the paper analyzes the virtual worlds created by the video games and the relations between the pandemic and these fictional worlds.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1950.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: digital Implantology; computer-guided implant surgery; digital workflows; full-arch immediate loading; surgical template
Online: 29 August 2023 (11:57:29 CEST)
A maxillary totally edentulism was rehabilitated with one-piece implants starting from pre-existing totally removable denture. A 3D digital scan of the removable denture and upper and lower arches was performed. On this basis, a prototype with optimal esthetic and functional outcomes was re-alized and turned into a custom-made radiological stent with markers. The superimposition of STL and DICOM files allowed the virtual planning of one-piece implants ideal position. The stackable templates composed of a fixed component, namely base template, and removable components, were realized. The fixed component, once secured with anchor pins to the bone, was no longer removed. The removable components, screwed to the fixed component, were used to perform the implant surgery and the immediate prosthetic loading. A base template allowed for maintaining a fixed reference during the entire workflow, improving the transition between the digital project, the surgical procedure, and the prosthetic rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1758.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: digital intelligence empowerment; moderate scale operation of tea farmers; digital literacy; UTAUT theory; improvement
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:19:02 CEST)
In the context of digital empowerment, the digital literacy level of tea farmers has a significant impact on the intelligent development and transformation of the tea industry. This study extends the original model of UTAUT theory by introducing Personal innovativeness theory and Self-efficacy theory, and constructs a new model to explore the influencing factors of moderate scale tea farmers' digital literacy improvement behavior. There are a total of 22 research hypotheses. Using structural equation modeling and collecting questionnaire data for analysis, the following research results were obtained: (1) Performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy, personal innovativeness and self-efficacy all significantly positively affect the willingness of tea farmers to improve their digital literacy, and then according to the path coefficient, in descending order, social influence (0.226)>self-efficacy (0.224)>effort expectancy (0.178)>performance expectancy (0.157)> personal innovativeness (0.155); (2) Facilitating condition and willingness to improve digital literacy have a significant positive impact on tea farmers' digital literacy improvement behavior，and then from the size of the path coefficient, the willingness to improve (0.271)>facilitating condition (0.106); (3) The willingness of tea farmers to improve their digital literacy plays a complete mediating role between personal innovativeness and self-efficacy on their digital literacy improvement behavior, and partially mediates between performance expectancy, social influence, and effort expectancy on their digital literacy improvement behavior, and according to the proportion of indirect effects, the order is effort expectancy (27%), performance expectancy (47%), and social influence (49%); (4) The gender and age of tea farmers have a significant positive moderating effect on the impact of performance expectancy on the willingness to improve digital literacy; age and experience have a significant positive moderating effect on the impact of effort expectancy on the willingness to improve digital literacy; the age of tea farmers has a significant positive moderating effect on the improvement of digital literacy behavior through facilitating condition. This study extends the applicability of the UTAUT theoretical model and proposes strategies to improve the digital literacy of tea farmers, providing practical guidance for tea farmers to improve their digital literacy and providing reference for research related to farmers' digital literacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1283.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: digital heritage; sustainable tourism development; minor heritage sites; heritage enhancement; digital tools; social inclusion
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:11:02 CEST)
Digital technologies are becoming increasingly relevant in the processes of documenting, surveying, enhancing and preserving Cultural Heritage, also through applications that are increasingly optimized and oriented towards new data management and accessibility processes. This great potential can find significant levels of application in the tourism sector, seeking new strategies to access, discover, understand cultural assets. In this direction, many digital applications have already found interesting outcomes in the tourism sector, but there is large room for improvement in the applications for “minor”, small or neglected cultural sites, not included in conventional tourism routes, which play a key-role in social inclusion and territorial cohesion, and for the development of social, economic and environmental sustainability. The paper presents a conceptual framework or possible outline to foster the use of digital technologies through a set of integrated bottom-up and top-down actions, to facilitate connections of minor sites into larger networks, contributing to search for new forms of active fruition and social participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate digital responsibility; CDR; digital technologies; corporate social responsibility; CSR; customer interface; case studies
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:26:24 CEST)
As the digital era advances, many industries continue to expand their use of digital technologies to support company operations, notably at the customer interface, bringing new commercial opportunities and increased efficiencies. However, there are new sets of responsibilities associated with the deployment of these technologies, encompassed within the emerging concept of corporate digital responsibility (CDR), which to date has received little attention in the academic literature. This exploratory paper thus looks to make a small contribution to addressing this gap in the literature. The paper adopts a qualitative, inductive research method, employing an initial scoping literature review followed by two case studies. Based on the research findings, a simple model of CDR parameters is put forward, and the article concludes with a discussion of a number of emergent issues - fair and equitable access, personal and social well-being, environmental implications, and cross-supply chain complexities - that suggest possible directions for future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0560.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nursing education; undergraduate curricula; nursing workforce; digital literacy; information and communication technologies; digital health
Online: 31 January 2023 (01:22:38 CET)
Background and Aims: Nurses are increasingly engaging with digital technologies to enhance safe, evidence-based patient care. Digital literacy is now considered a foundational skill and an integral requirement for lifelong learning, and includes the ability to search efficiently, critique information and recognise the inherent risk of bias in information sources. However, at many universities, digital literacy is assumed. In part, this can be linked to the concept of the Digital Native, a term first coined in 2001 by the US author Marc Prensky, to describe young people born after 1980 who have been surrounded by mobile phones, computers, and other digital devices their entire lives. The objective of this paper is to explore the concept of the Digital Native and how this influences undergraduate nursing education. Materials and Methods: A pragmatic approach has been used for this narrative review, working forward from Prensky’s definition of the Digital Native and backward from contemporary sources of information extracted from published health, education, and nursing literature. Results: The findings from this narrative review will inform further understanding of digital literacy beliefs and how these influence undergraduate nursing education. Recommendations for enhancing the digital literacy of undergraduate nursing students are also discussed. Conclusions: Digital literacy is an essential requirement for undergraduate nursing students and nurses, and is linked with safe, evidence-based patient care. The myth of the Digital Native negates the reality that exposure to digital technologies does not equate with digital literacy and has resulted in deficits in nursing education programs. Digital literacy skills should be a part of undergraduate nursing curricula, and National Nursing Digital Literacy competencies for entry into practice as a Registered Nurse should be developed and contextualised to individual jurisdictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0213.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital gap; academic performance; Information and Communication Technology; digital literacy; virtual education; Covid-19
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:12:52 CET)
This study analyzes the academic performance of students from an official school in Bogotá (Colombia) who had asymmetric access to Information and Communication Technologies during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Classical Linear Regression Model is employed using data from a survey of a representative group of students in the year 2020. Results show technological gaps between students that are associated with asymmetric academic performance against students with limited or null access to the Internet and electronic devices. Results also show that, among students with permanent access to the Internet, women have better scores compared to men’s scores, which implies that women can achieve better academic results than men in virtual education. It is also noted that the sole access to an electronic device does not guarantee good academic achievements if there is no full access to the Internet, and if ICT-use skills have not been developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0090.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: flood mapping; urban flood potential; LIDAR; image segmentation; Digital Surface Model; Digital Elevation Model
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:02:20 CEST)
Degradation of environment quality is currently the prime cause of the recent occurrence of natural disasters; it also contributes in the increase of the area that is prone to natural disasters. This research is aimed to map the potential of areas around Pesanggrahan river in DKI Jakarta by segmenting the Digital Elevation Model derived from LIDAR data. The objective of this segmentation is to find the watershed lines of the DEM image. Data processing in this research is using LIDAR data which take the ground surface data, which is overlaid with Jakarta river map and subsequently, the data is then segmented the image. The expected result of the research is the flood potential area information, especially along the Pesanggrahan river in South Jakarta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0463.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: nonlinear refractive index; noncolinear degenerate phase modulation; femtosecond pulses; quantum dots; inline digital holograms; pump-probe digital holography; diffraction patterns; digital holography; phase shift
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:23:58 CET)
We report on the application of time-resolved inline digital holography to study the nonlinear optical properties of quantum dots deposited onto the sample glass. Fresnel diffraction patterns of the probe pulse due to noncollinear degenerate phase modulation induced by the femtosecond pump pulse were extracted from the set of inline digital holograms and analyzed. Absolute values of the nonlinear refractive index of both sample glass substrate and the deposited layer of quantum dots were evaluated using the proposed technique. To characterize the inhomogeneous distribution of samples’ nonlinear optical properties we proposed to plot an optical nonlinearity map calculated as a local standard deviation of diffraction patterns intensity induced by noncollinear degenerate phase modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0135.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital twin; data analytics; digital thread; workforce adaptability; technology manageability; process agility; template; action list
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:26:17 CEST)
This article sets out to examine how digital twins have been used in a multi-national corporation, what technologies have been used, what benefits delivered and the significance of people and process related issues in achieving successful implementation. A qualitative, inductive research method is used, based on interviews provided by key personnel involved in three digital twin projects. The article concludes that digital twin projects are likely to involve incremental rather than disruptive change, and that successful implementation is usually underpinned by ensuring technology, people and process change factors are progressed in a balanced and integrated fashion. Building upon existing frameworks, three “properties” are identified as being of particular value in digital twin projects - workforce adaptability, technology manageability and process agility – and a related set of steps and actions is put forward as a template and point of reference for future digital twin implementations. The findings are a contribution to the developing theory around digital twins and digitalization in general, and are also of relevance to professionals embarking on DT projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0242.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: digital controller; digital signal processors (DSP); modular multilevel converters (MMC), multi-terminal DC network (MTDC)
Online: 14 June 2018 (03:17:20 CEST)
This paper presents the design and implementation of a digital control system for modular multilevel converters (MMC) and its use in a 5-kW small scale prototype. To achieve higher system control reliability and multi-functionality, the proposed architecture has been built with an effective split of the control tasks between a master controller and six slave controllers, one for each of the six arms of the converter. The MMC prototype have been used for testing both converter and system level controls in a reduced scale laboratory set up of a Multi-Terminal DC transmission network (MTDC). The whole control has been tested in order to validate the proposed control strategies. The tests performed at system level allowed to explore the advantages of using an MMC in a MTDC system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0141.v2
Online: 6 December 2023 (08:55:41 CET)
The purpose of this study is to analyze the self-regulated learning and the ability to write scientific papers of students after learning with the Project-Based Digital Science Module (DSM). This research is a mixed methods by analyzing quantitatively and qualitatively. The research instrument used to obtain data is using a product assessment sheet and a self-regulated learning questionnaire. Data analysis uses N-Gain to determine the increase in self-regulated learning scores and student scientific writing skills scores, and uses linear regression analysis to determine the effect of self-regulated learning on student scientific writing skills. The results obtained showed N-Gain score of learning independent is 0,65 and scientific writing ability is 0,94, then significant’s score from linear regression by using SPSS is 0,22 < 0,05. This result showed an increase in self-regulated learning and the ability to write scientific papers of students on each indicator after learning using the Project-Based Digital Science Module (DSM). In addition, based on the results of data analysis, it can be seen that there is an influence of self-regulated learning on the ability to write scientific papers of students after learning using the Project-Based Digital Science Module.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1938.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digitalisation; bioeconomy; entrepreneurship; digital transformation; AHP
Online: 28 July 2023 (02:38:33 CEST)
the process of rapidly digitalizing and transforming businesses, known as Industry 4.0, was already underway before COVID-19. However, the imposed restrictions during the pandemic significantly amplified the need and motivation for both businesses and consumers to utilize digital tools across all sectors including the sectors of bioeconomy. The agricultural and food production sectors have a predominant role in the bioeconomy of the European Union (EU), followed by wood production. These sectors make significant contributions not only to national economies but also to rural areas. Consequently, the digitalization of businesses within the bioeconomy sector not only transforms the enterprises and value chains themselves but also benefits the rural communities in which these enterprises are situated. This study aims to assess the barriers of the bioeconomy sector and ways to support digital transformation within this sector. The paper analyses bioeconomy in EU and the state of digitalisation in the EU. The empiric analysis is based on the cluster analysis of the digitalisation and R&D indicators of the EU and the AHP analysis that allows determining the digitalisation scenarios in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland carried out by four stake-holder groups - national government; advisory and extension; research and entrepreneurship. The results of the AHP indicate that experts from Lithuania and Poland preferred the scenario that suggested the self-initiative from the entrepreneurs of the sector, but experts from Latvia – prioritization of support for digital transformation using national and EU funding. The AHP results also indicate that the opinions of the national government, consulting, and research experts are more aligned throughout all three countries, but the opinion of entrepreneurs differs from these groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: CAD-CAM materials; digital dentistry; prosthodontics
Online: 18 July 2023 (11:30:38 CEST)
Clinical outcomes of dental restorations depends primarily on the choice of materials used and their fabrication processes. The spectrum of dental CAD-CAM (Computer-Aided Design Computer-Aided Manufacturing) materials presents a wide range of variables on what may be the most suitable material for the clinical case. This narrative review focuses on CAD-CAM dental materials based on their mechanical properties and in relation to their clinical applications. A literature review was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library. Articles addressing at least one of the following topics regarding dental materials for CAD-CAM systems: manufacturers, mechanical features, materials ’composition optical properties, clinical indications and / or outcomes were included in the review. A flowchart was performed as de-scribed in the PRISMA guidelines. Among the 564 articles found, 63 were analyzed and evaluated. Within the limitation of this narrative review, it can be concluded that all CAD-CAM materials presents a wide range of clinical applications due to their improved mechanical properties. Specifically, in addition to materials that have been in use for a long time (such as feldspathic ceramics), resin block composites can also be used for permanent restorations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Digital manufacturing; Quality Management; ERP; MES
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:44:22 CEST)
The rapid market changes and strong product individualization create the need for great flexibility of manufacturing management on new foundations, such as the Industry 4.0 model. Digital manufacturing is the basis for Industry 4.0, that have the following dimensions: (i) digital manufacturing based on advanced digital-oriented technologies, (ii) smart products (advanced manufacturing mode and new characteristics), and (iii) smart supply - chain (procurement of raw materials and delivery of finished products). Bidirectional exchange of information in collaborative manufacturing, using it exchange also for digital platforms of design of the innovative products. In this paper we are showing developed model of one Serbian digital factory model for Quality 4.0 (Q 4.0) , especially in workshop as a part of ERP/MES model.