ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0640.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Fitts' law; information theory; index of difficulty; SQRT_MT model
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:02:07 CEST)
Fitts' law predicts the human movement response time for a specific task by a simple linear formulation, in which the intercept and the slope are estimated from the task's empirical data. This research was motivated by our pilot study, which found that the linear regression's essential assumptions are not satisfied in the literature. Furthermore, the keystone hypothesis in Fitts' law, that the movement time per response will be directly proportional to the minimum average amount of information per response demanded by the particular amplitude and target width, has never been formally tested. Therefore, this study developed an optional formulation derived from fusing the findings in psychology, physics, and physiology for fulfilling the statistical assumptions. An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis in Fitts' law and validate the proposed model. To conclude, our results indicated that movement time could be related to the index of difficulty underlying the same constant amplitude. The optional formulation accompanies the index of difficulty in Shannon form robustly performs the prediction better than the traditional model across studies. Finally, a new approach to modeling movement time prediction is deduced from our research results
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Slot Allocation, Performance Comparing, Implementation Difficulty, Linear Integer Programming
Online: 7 May 2019 (10:29:00 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether implementation difficulty can be used in slot allocation model as a new mechanism for slightly weakening grandfather right. According to which, a linear integer programming model is designed to compare and analyze displacement, implementation difficulty and priority with different weights. Test results show that the implementation difficulty can be significantly reduced without causing excessive displacement and disruption of existing priorities, by weight setting while declared capacity is cleared. In addition to this, whether the movements are listed in order of descending priority or not have great impact on displacement and implementation difficulty within slot allocation model. Capacity is surely a key factor affecting displacement and implementation difficulties. This study contributes to propose a new mechanism for slightly weakening grandfather right, which can help decision makers to upgrade slot allocation policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0290.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: breast cancer; survivors; Bayesian structural equation modeling; Quality of life; Difficulty in daily life
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:58:05 CEST)
Background The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship structure of quality of life (QOL) in survivors of breast cancer, including difficulty in daily life and negative experience as health-related indicators. Methods Participants were survivors of breast cancer for more than 2 years after primary breast cancer surgery and belonged to self-help groups. The assessment used FACT-B (QOL), HADS (anxiety and depression), SOC (sense of coherence), WHODAS 2.0 (difficulties in daily life), and CAOD (negative experiences). Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) was performed to analyze the hypothesized model. If the causal model was significant, multiplication of the path coefficient from anxiety and depression to QOL, and from SOC to anxiety and depression, was considered a direct effect on QOL, and from SOC to difficulty in daily life, from difficulty in daily life to negative experiences, and from negative experiences to anxiety and depression were considered indirect effects on QOL. Results Goodness of fit of the model in the BSEM was satisfactory. The direct effect was 0.274, and indirect effect was 0.163. Conclusions These direct and indirect approaches to difficulties in daily life are very significant because they can provide a basis for development of support strategies to increase QOL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0412.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: tidying compulsion; washing compulsion; ordring/arranging compulsion; difficulty in stopping; incompleteness feelings
Online: 23 January 2023 (10:42:34 CET)
The dominant view of cleaning compulsion as a dimension of OCD is that it is motivated by contamination anxiety. However, in daily life, much cleaning is undertaken as part of tidying one’s home. Such cleaning as well as the other tidying chores may equally assume obsessive-compulsive proportions. However, empirical interest in this phenomenon has remained sparse so far. This article aims to increase awareness of this ill-acknowledged symptom cluster among OCD researchers and to invite them to investigate it. After the introduction, clinical evidence for this OCD dimension is dealt with. Next, empirical studies with OCD inventories, which contain items referring to compulsive tidying, are discussed. Two of these made use of an OCD-inventory, devised by the present author. These also provide the data for the main investigation to be discussed in this paper. In that latter study, six OCD-item clusters, among which tidying compulsion, are predicted. These predictions are tested by evaluating and comparing the item-cluster correlations of all six clusters. These also offer a basis to optimize the clusters toward more homogeneous and distinct ones. By comparing predicted with final clusters, the items can be qualified as either hits, false positives, or false negatives. This output provides the details for revising the predictions, but also allows for calculating the values of two global “goodness-of-fit” measures for each predicted cluster. Though the results do not completely endorse the predicted composition of part of the clusters in the second sample, tidying compulsion is doing rather well. To determine the incidence of tidying compulsion based on the cluster scores, decisions had to be made about what constitute a cluster score, how its gravity can be estimated, and what should be the cut-off per cluster to divide the sample into clinical and subclinical cases on each cluster. If these ‒ unavoidably arbitrary ‒ decisions are accepted, both samples show an incidence of tidying compulsion of around 25%. After a brief critical evaluation of all discussed studies, it is concluded that the evidence presented, though modest, is solid enough to warrant further research into tidying compulsion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; virus’ transmission; fear of contagion; breathing difficulty; healthy adolescents; emotion awareness; anxiety-state
Online: 15 August 2020 (08:25:22 CEST)
The COVID-19 appears as a catastrophic health risk with psychological, emotional, social and relational implications. From the early stages of the virus spread, the elderly population was identified as the most vulnerable and the health authorities have rightly focused on such frailest population. Conversely, less attention was paid to emotional and psychological dimension of children and adolescents. Actually, they were less at risk quoad vitam or quoad valetudinem, nevertheless they had to face a reality of anxiety, fears and uncertainties. The current study investigated state anxiety and emotion awareness in a healthy sample of older adolescents, 84 females and 64 males, aged 17 to 19, during the pandemic lockdown, using Self-rating Anxiety Scale and the Italian Emotion Awareness Questionnaire. An unexpected anxious phenomenology, impacting the anxiety ideo-affective domain, was found, while the somatic symptomatology appeared to be less severe. The highest anxiety symptom were the breathing difficulties. These findings supported the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic may be a risk condition for an increased state anxiety in older adolescents and suggest the need to provide 1. an effective, empathic communication system with the direct participation of older adolescents, 2. a psychological counseling service for stress management of adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: motor learning; fine motor coordination task; difficulty level; reduced feedback frequency; time pressure.
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:12:49 CEST)
Improving the acquisition and retention of a new motor skill is of great importance. The present study (i) investigated the effects of difficulty manipulation strategies (gradual difficulty), combined with different modalities of feedback (FB) frequency on performance accuracy and consistency when learning a novel fine motor coordination task, and (ii) examined relationships between novel fine motor task performance and executive function (EF), working memory (WM), and perceived difficulty (PD). Thirty-six, right-handed, novice physical education students volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were divided into three progressive difficulty groups (PDG), 100% visual FB (FB1), 50% FB (FB2), and 33% FB (FB3). Progressive difficulty was increased by the manipulation of the distance to the target; 2 m, 2.37 m, and 3.56 m. Three FB modalities were investigated (i.e.: 100% visual FB (100% FB), 50% reduced feedback condition (50% RFB), and 33% reduced feedback conditions (33% RFB)). Performance assessments were conducted following familiarization, acquisition, and retention learning phases. Two stress-conditions of dart throws were investigated (i.e.: free condition (FC) and time pressure condition (TPC)). After the learning intervention, data showed that, under the free condition, the 100% FB group had a significant improvement in accuracy during all learning phases. Under time pressure condition, for the 50% RFB and the 33% RFB group, the measured variable (accuracy and consistency) showed a significant linear improvement in performance. The association between the percentage of RFB frequencies and the task difficulty (50% group) may be a more appropriate and manageable cognitive load compared to the 33% RFB and the 100% FB group. The present findings could have practical implications for practitioners because, while strategies are clearly necessary for improving learning, the efficacy of the process appears to be essentially based on the characteristics of the learners.