REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: antiretroviral therapy; differentiated service delivery; retention; suppression; Africa; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2020 (09:53:46 CEST)
Introduction: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV are being scaled up in the expectation that they will improve the quality and efficiency of treatment delivery and reduce costs while maintaining at least equivalent clinical outcomes. Even this minimum requirement of equivalent clinical outcomes is poorly documented for most models and settings, however. We reviewed the recent literature on DSD models to describe what is known about clinical outcomes. Methods: We conducted a rapid systematic review of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science and major international conference abstracts that reported outcomes of DSD models for the provision of ART in sub-Saharan Africa from January 1, 2016 to September 12, 2019. Sources reporting standard clinical HIV treatment metrics, primarily retention in care and viral load suppression, were reviewed and categorized by DSD model and source quality assessed. Results and Discussion: Twenty-nine papers and abstracts describing 37 DSD models and reporting 52 discrete outcomes met search inclusion criteria. Of the 37 models, 7 (19%) were facility-based individual models, 12 (32%) out-of-facility based individual models, 5 (14%) client-led groups, and 13 (35%) healthcare worker-led groups. Retention was reported for 73% of the models and viral suppression for 57%. Where a comparison with conventional care was provided, retention in most DSD models was within 5% of that for conventional care; where no comparison was provided, retention generally exceeded 80%. For viral suppression, all those with a comparison to conventional care reported a small increase in suppression in the DSD model; reported suppression exceeded 90% in 11/21 models. Analysis was limited by the extensive heterogeneity of study designs, outcomes, models, and populations. Most sources did not provide comparisons with conventional care, and metrics for assessing outcomes varied widely and were in many cases poorly defined. Conclusion: Existing evidence on the clinical outcomes of DSD models for HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is limited in both quantity and quality but suggests that retention in care and viral suppression are roughly equivalent to those in conventional models of care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: physics teacher; perception; judgment; differentiated instruction; technology
Online: 21 June 2022 (04:46:53 CEST)
There is a national shift in the new Indonesian curriculum to employ differentiated learning approach in addressing diversity of students’ needs and abilities. Teachers’ judgment obviously corresponds to the duty that takes physics teachers to monitor their students at individual level. Within Indonesian physics education research (PER) context, empirical study that has addressed this subject is still lacking. To fill this gap, eight Indonesian physics teachers’ experiences and limitations about their judgment within differentiated learning environment has been investigated through phenomenological study. Physics teachers were voluntarily recruited after they have declared their endorsement and personal consent to participate in the study. Our participants were distributed over several teaching experiences, geographic regions, and ICT experiences. The latter experience might be taken into account since, through this study, we would project upcoming developmental research about engaging recent technological approaches to cope limitations of teachers’ judgment. Online semi-structured interviews (~ 50 min) were conducted by the first author (P.H.S.) to all physics teachers. Other authors contributed in reviewing the interview protocol (E.I. and H) and training the first author’s pilot interview (H.R.). Model of teachers’ thought and action was implemented to uncover physics teachers’ experiences and limitations in making judgment within diverse students. Findings revealed that physics teachers have conceded that they should adapt learning process in order to meet heterogeneous students’ needs. Personal observation has mainly informed teachers to identify students’ differences. After students have been identified, they creatively designed learning transformations to accommodate spectrum of students’ abilities. Nevertheless, we discovered several limitations encountered by teachers particularly in terms of judgments’ equity, accuracy, and their workload. To overcome this, teachers indicated various and supportive attitudes about technology implementation to assist their judgment. Implications for technological development was provided to address obstacles during the teachers’ judgment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0754.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: forest pest; control effeciency; pest-induced losses; spatially differentiated
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:32:22 CET)
China historically exhibits spatial differentiation from population distribution to ecological or economic development, and the forest pest control work is an epitome of this tendency. In recent times, global warming, man-made monoculture tree plantations, increasing human population density and intensified international trade aggravate forest pest outbreaks. Although Chinese government has complied with the internationally recommended practices, few stones remain unturned due to existing differential regional imbalance of forest pest distribution and control abilities. Evidence shows that the high-income provinces in the south have taken advantage of economic and technological superiority, resulting in the adoption of more efficient pest-control measures. To the contrary, in economically underdeveloped provinces of the northwest, a paucity of financial support has led to serious threats of pest damage that almost mirrored the demarcations of the Hu Huanyong Line. In this paper, we propose introducing public-private partnership (PPP) model into forest pest control and combining the national strategies to enact regional prevention measures in order to break the current spatially differentiated trends in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0235.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: strap muscle invasion; prognosis; differentiated thyroid carcinoma; meta-analysis; review
Online: 14 May 2020 (11:35:41 CEST)
Gross strap muscle invasion (gSMI) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was defined as high-risk recurrent group in the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines. However, controversy persists because several studies suggested gSMI had little effect on disease outcome. Herein, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate impact of gSMI on outcome of DTC. Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE) for studies published until February 2020 was performed. Case-control studies and randomized controlled trials that studied the impact of gSMI on outcome of DTC were included. Results: Six studies (all retrospective studies) involving 13639 patients met final inclusion criteria. Compared with no extrathyroidal extension (ETE), patients with gSMI were associated with increased risk of recurrence (P=0.0004,OR, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.80) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P<0.00001,OR 4.19;95% CI. 2.53 to 6.96). For mortality (P=0.34,OR 1.47;95% CI:0.67 to 3.25), ten-year disease-specific survival (P=0.80, OR 0.91;95% CI:0.44 to 1.88) and distant metastasis (DM) (P=0.21, OR 2.94;95% CI. 0.54 to 15.93), there was no significant difference between gSMI and no ETE group. In contrast with maximal ETE, patients with gSMI were associated with decreased risk of recurrence (P<0.0001,OR, 0.58; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.76) , mortality (P=0.0003,OR 0.20;95% CI:0.08 to 0.48), LNM (P=0.0003,OR 0.64;95% CI. 0.50 to 0.81) and DM (P=0.0009,OR 0.28;95% CI. 0.13 to 0.59). Conclusions: DTC patients with gSMI had a higher risk of recurrence and LNM than those without ETE. However, in contrast with maximal ETE, a much better prognosis was observed in DTC patients with only gSMI. The findings of our meta-analysis provide supportive evidence for the validity of the T category changes in the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer system. The actual impact of gSMI should be re-evaluated and revised in the recurrent risk stratification system in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: plasmonics; nanomedicine; theranostics; copper; VEGF; glioblastoma; differentiated neuroblastoma; peptidomimetics; qPCR; actin.
Online: 11 August 2019 (07:13:00 CEST)
Angiogenin (ANG), an endogenous protein that plays a key role in cell growth and survival, has been scrutinised here as promising nanomedicine tool for the modulation of pro-/ anti-angiogenic processes in brain cancer therapy. Specifically, peptide fragments from the putative cell membrane binding domain (residues 60-68) of the protein were used in this study to obtain peptide-functionalised spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of about 10 nm and 30 nm in optical and hydrodynamic size, respectively. Different hybrid biointerfaces were fabricated by peptide physical adsorption (Ang60-68) or chemisorption (the cysteine analogous Ang60-68Cys) at the metal nanoparticle surface, and the cellular assays were performed in the comparison with ANG-functionalised AuNPs. Cellular treatments were performed both in basal and in copper-supplemented cell culture medium, to scrutinise the synergic effect of the metal, which is another known angiogenic factor. Two brain cell lines were investigated in parallel, namely tumour glioblastoma (A172) and neuron-like differentiated neuroblastoma (d-SH-SY5Y). Results on cell viability/proliferation, cytoskeleton actin, angiogenin translocation and VEGF release pointed to the promising potentialities of the developed systems as anti-angiogenic tunable nanoplaftforms in cancer cells treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: online teaching and learning; differentiated instruction; gifted students; motivation; achievement; English language teaching
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:39:11 CEST)
Differentiated instruction has been implemented in classrooms where students who come from various backgrounds require appropriate lessons that are tailored to their varied learning preferences. As the spread of coronavirus 19 (Covid-19) is becoming more rampant, online learning has been lifted up as the main platform of teaching and learning, forcing the need to shift from the conventional face-to-face classroom to online, or virtual, mode of knowledge transfer. Having such global phenomenon affecting education, how does it affect the implementation of differentiated instruction that has been practised regularly by teachers before the wake of Covid-19? Previous studies have shown how it is done in the normal classroom setting, and that the practice of differentiated instruction contributes to students’ motivation as well as academic performance. However, there is a need to explore how do teachers go about with online differentiated instruction and how does it affect the students, since online learning poses various threads to both teachers and students; and thus, one might argue the effectiveness of not only the teaching approach but also the overall teaching and learning outcomes. Borg’s framework of teacher cognition, which has been extensively used in exploring how teachers teach, can be utilized to document the practice of online differentiated instruction. This study aimed to explore the practice of online differentiated instruction by teachers and examined its impact on students’ motivation and academic performance during the Covid-19 outbreak. The participants of this study consists of 247 gifted students from a public school in Malaysia. To meet these aims, this study employed a mixed method research design, utilizing the framework of teacher cognition to explore the teachers’ practice of online differentiated through interviews; and, utilizing a survey design using a questionnaire to determine the impact of online differentiated instruction towards students’ motivation and academic performance. The findings revealed that although online differentiated instruction is feasible, however, appropriate combination of differentiation constructs need to be applied in order to achieve higher motivation and better academic performance among the students.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: optical properties of tissues; tissue spectroscopy; differentiated pigment content; colorectal cancer; optical cancer detection; absorption coefficient; scattering coefficient; scattering anisotropy; light penetration depth
Online: 30 October 2020 (09:02:45 CET)
The study of the optical properties of biological tissues for a wide spectral range is necessary for the development and planning of noninvasive optical methods to be used in clinical practice. In this study, we propose a new method to calculate almost all optical properties of tissues as a function of wavelength directly from spectral measurements. Using this method and with the exception of the reduced scattering coefficient, which was obtained by traditional simulation methods, all the other optical properties were calculated in a simple and fast manner for human and pathological colorectal tissues. The obtained results are in good agreement with previous published data, both in magnitude and in wavelength dependence. Since this method is based on spectral measurements and not on discrete-wavelength experimental data, the calculated optical properties contain spectral signatures that correspond to major tissue chromophores such as DNA and hemoglobin. Analysis of the absorption bands of hemoglobin in the wavelength dependence of the absorption spectra of normal and pathological colorectal mucosa allowed to identify differentiated accumulation of a pigment in these tissues. The increased content of this pigment in the pathological mucosa may be used for the future development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for colorectal cancer detection.