ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0014.v1
Online: 1 March 2019 (13:14:54 CET)
The paper attempts to explore the relationship between federalism and rural development. Federalism is a division of power, responsibility and accountability to bring the administrative and political power closer to the ground and essentially to increase the good governance. On the other hand, rural development is a complex and multidimensional issue- especially much demanding for least developed and developing countries. A descriptive and qualitative approach was carried out to study the complex relationship between rural development and federalism. Similarly, a SWOT analysis was carried out to have a better understanding of the relationship. The study found that there is significant potentiality for accelerated development of rural landscape in federalism if carefully executed. However, on the other hand, federalism may pose several risks on rural development and may restrict the development pace if not executed with appropriate care and understanding. Therefore, the study concludes that cooperation and coordination among the federal structures are crucial for better development of the rural economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0706.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: food security; paediatrics; cohort study; New Zealand; developed country
Online: 30 October 2018 (05:29:12 CET)
Food security (FS) during infancy is associated with lifelong outcomes. New Zealand is a developed economy that reports poor childhood nutrition-related health statistics, particularly among minority children, yet has no measure of FS applicable to infancy. The objective was to develop a FS index for New Zealand infants and examine its association with demographic covariates and health outcomes. Within a large (n=6853) nationally representative cohort, variables describing infant food consumption, breastfeeding, and maternal food-related coping methods were collected from mothers during late infancy. A FS index was derived using confirmatory factor analysis. Associations were assessed by logistic regressions and described using odds ratios (OR) and ≥95% confidence intervals (CI). 15% of the cohort was highly FS, 43% tenuously food insecure (FIS), and 16% highly food insecure (FIS). Infants from minority ethnic groups had lower odds of being food secure, as did those born to the youngest mothers, mothers who smoked, or lived in low-income households. FIS infants had higher odds of morbidity. Interventions to improve infant FS should focus on improving dietary quality, and give particular consideration to minority infants. We identified that FIS shows wide ethnic and socioeconomic inequity, and is associated with poorer health. The most important driving factors of FIS included poor quality weaning diets, and poverty and its proxies. Any interventions to improve infant FS should focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption to recommended intake levels, and give particular consideration to minority infants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0008.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: titania; kaolin; carbon; sintering temperatures; phases developed; sintered ceramic composite
Online: 4 September 2017 (06:37:14 CEST)
The effects of the additives (silicon carbide and titania) and sintering temperatures on the phases developed, physical and mechanical properties of sintered mullite-carbon ceramic composite produced from kaolin and graphite was investigated. The kaolin and graphite of known mineralogical composition were thoroughly blended with 5 and 3 (vol.) % silicon carbide and titania respectively. From the homogeneous mixture of kaolin, graphite and titania, standard samples were prepared via uniaxial compaction. The test samples produced were subjected to firing (sintering) at 1300˚C, 1400˚C and 1500˚C. The sintered samples were characterized for the developed phases using x‐ray diffractometry analysis, microstructural morphology using ultra‐high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (UHRFEGSEM). Various physical and mechanical properties were determined. It was observed that the addition of SiC/TiO2 additives to the samples made them to possess very low oxidation indices .This also resulted in improvement in the bulk densities and cold crushing strength of the sample when compared with those without additives. It was concluded that the addition of SiC/TiO2 additives improves on the high temperature oxidation resistance of the mullite-carbon ceramic composite sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0288.v1
Subject: Keywords: Export product diversification; Services export diversification; Financial Openness; Developed and Developing countries.
Online: 9 November 2020 (23:22:34 CET)
This paper investigates empirically the effect of export diversification (i.e., both export product diversification and services export diversification) on financial openness, using a sample of 119 countries (including both developed and developing countries) over the period 1985-2014. Based on the Blundell and Bond's two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments, the analysis has revealed that both export product diversification and services export diversification influence positively financial openness. However, this outcome hides differentiated effects across countries in the full sample. Specially, countries with a very high real per capita income experience a positive effect of export concentration on financial openness, while for countries with a relatively lower per capita income, it is rather export diversification that drives positively financial openness. Interestingly, the effect of export diversification on financial openness depends on the size of external shocks that affect domestic economies, as well as countries' economic growth performance. Overall, these findings add to the empirical literature on the effect of international trade on financial openness by showing that both export product diversification and services export diversification matter for financial openness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: adaptation; adaptive capacity; adaptation tracking; climate change; systematic review; vulnerability; developed nation; Australia
Online: 13 August 2018 (10:13:42 CEST)
We develop and apply a systematic literature review methodology to identify and characterize the ways in which the peer-reviewed literature depicts how climate change adaptation is occurring in Australia. We reviewed the peer-reviewed, English-language literature between January 2005 and January 2018 for examples of documented adaptation actions. Our results challenge previous assumptions that adaptation action is not happening in Australia and describes adaptation processes that are underway. For the most part, actions can be described as preliminary or groundwork, with a particular focus on documenting stakeholder perspectives on climate change and adaptation, and modelling or scenario planning in the coastal zone, agriculture and health sectors. Where concrete adaptations are reported, they are usually in the agricultural sector and are most common in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia’s food basket. The findings of the review advance our understanding of adaptation to climate change as a process and the need to consider different stages in the process when tracking adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generators; risk assessment; distribution systems; developed PEM-based method; optimal power flow algorithm
Online: 4 January 2017 (07:31:09 CET)
the intermittency and variability of these permeated Distributed Generators (DGs) could critically cause many security and economy risks to distribution systems. This paper applied a certain mathematical distribution to imitate the output variability and uncertainty of DGs. And then, four risk indices EENS, PLC, EFLC and SI were established to reflect the system risk level of distribution system. For the certain mathematical distribution of the DGs' output power, a developed PEM (point estimate method)-based method was proposed to calculate these four system risk indices. In this developed PEM-based method, enumeration method was used to list the states of distribution systems, an improved PEM was presented to deal with the uncertainties of DGs and the value of load curtailment in distribution systems was calculated by an optimal power flow algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness and advantages of this proposed PEM-based method for distribution system assessment were verified by the tests of a modified IEEE 30-bus system. Simulation results have shown that this proposed PEM-based method has a high computational accuracy and highly reduced computational costs compared with other risk assessment methods and is very effective for risk assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Pricing currency risk; regime-switching; sectors equity markets; state of economy; C-Vine copulas; developed; emerging
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:32:45 CEST)
This paper investigates whether currency risk is priced differently in the different sectors (industrial, financial, and basic materials) of equity markets in a sample of developed United States of America (USA) and developing economies (Brazil, India, Poland, and South Africa). The paper makes use of the following techniques: (i) Univariate Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average and Exponential General Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (ARFIMA-EGARCH), (ii) the Markov-Switching method (MS), and (iii) the Canonical Vine Copulas (C-Vine) techniques. Using a sample of daily data made of the foreign exchange rate against the domestic currency and equity market sectors; our findings show that there is an asymmetry effect between equities markets and the foreign exchange rate: there is a heterogeneous, strong, and positive dependence between the two. Higher equities prices are associated with depreciation of local currencies, according to US dollar (USD) exchange rates. In addition, we find that the selected emerging economies are pricing a positive and considerable currency risk. The pricing of currency risk has a varied effect in both regimes representing the states of the economy. In fact, when currency risk pricing has a beneficial impact on certain sectors of the economy, investors predict better returns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0242.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: undamped oscillation; SRT; k-factor; Differential-equation of second order; Einstein-Lorentz; Amplitude-analogy; damped oscillation; developed SRT of fourth order,accelerated framed
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:43:38 CEST)
Shown is the derivation of Lorentz-Einstein k-factor in SRT as an amplitude-term of oscillation-differential equations of second order.This case is shown for classical Lorentz-factor as solution of an equation for undamped oscillation as well as the developed theorem as a second solution for advanced SRT of fourth order with an equation for damped oscillation-states.This advanced term allows a calculation for any velocities by real rest mass.Also accelerated coordinate -frames are discussed.