ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: design thinking; innovation; creativity; experience; empathy; thinking; consumer; health
Online: 12 May 2021 (11:14:19 CEST)
The general purpose of the Design Thinking approach (concept taken over in Romanian without its translation and which involves conception-oriented thinking) is to support the conception and design of products, services, processes, strategies, spaces, architecture and experiences ideal for use optimal. Applying the approach leads to the development of practical and innovative solutions to the problems identified in the product and / or technology design departments of companies. As described in the article Design Thinking is a process springing from the user-centered conception-design paradigm. The objective of the article is to highlight the need to combine urban study within Design Thinking, in the case of all areas of conception-design of solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0315.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Design thinking, Art thinking, Creativity, Strategy, Fine Art, Printmaking
Online: 17 August 2018 (15:51:17 CEST)
This article uses a contemporary and revelatory case study to explore the relationship between three conversations in the innovation literature: design thinking, creativity in strategy and, the emerging area of art-thinking. Businesses are increasingly operating in a VUCA environment where they need to design better experiences for their customers and better outcomes for their firm and the Arts are no exception. Innovation, or more correctly growth through innovation, is a top priority for business and although there is no single, unifying blueprint for success at innovation, design thinking is the process that is receiving most attention and getting most traction. Design thinking teaches businesses to think with the creativity and intuition of a designer; to show a deep understanding of; and have empathy with the user. But design thinking has limitations. By placing the consumer at the very heart of the innovation process, design thinking can often lead to more incremental than radical ideas. Now there is a new perspective emerging, art-thinking, in which the objective is not to design a journey from current scenario; A to improved position: B. Art thinking requires the creation of B and spends more time in the open ended, problem space, staking out possibilities and looking for uncontested space. In Dublin, we examine a case of the oldest, largest and most prestigious fine art gallery and studio where most of the country’s best-known and successful visual artists both make, exhibit and sell their art. Graphic Studio Dublin is primarily a printmaking studio, established by artists over 60 years ago. It has facilities for woodblock, lino-print, silkscreen, intaglio and carborundum etching spread over four floors of a centrally located studio where the artists have access 24/7. But two years ago it found itself on the brink of collapse having borrowed heavily to invest in new facilities during the period of Ireland’s economic collapse. Its loans were sold to a vulture-fund who were about to foreclose in a move that would have seen a generation of Irish Artists displaced. A new board of directors was empaneled and they introduced some art thinking principles to bring the organisation back from the brink. They used an art-thinking mindset and design thinking tools to restore the fortunes of this venerable, artist-led institution and it worked.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0102.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Design Morphology; Ecosystem Thinking and Methods; Ecological Environment; Form Community
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:31:36 CET)
As an emerging discipline, Design Morphology, with the advantage of "Form Study", has been integrated with many disciplines, and gradually formed its collaborative innovation paradigm. The inclusion of "Ecology" into Design Morphology is expected to promote the research of Design Morphology with the help of the systematic thinking and methods of ecology. The ecosystem of Design Morphology includes the natural ecosystem and the quasi-ecosystem closely related to human beings, and also put forward the concept of "Form Community" for the first time in the design field. In fact, this is exactly the research scope of Design Morphology. Advocating the ecological view of Design Morphology, can not only help to design researchers improve their values and world view, with new thinking and method to engage in "Form Study", but also contribute to the theoretical construction and thinking expansion of Design Morphology, and play a positive role in promoting interdisciplinary collaborative innovation led by Design Morphology. In addition, it can be used to evaluate the overall research and future development trend of Design Morphology, and provide the new research ideas and approaches for the development of design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: computer thinking; game design; programming; review; robotics
Online: 27 January 2023 (12:04:52 CET)
This study presents review of 7580 papers in 13 academic journals, published from January 2015 to January 2020. After a detailed analysis of all papers, 46 papers were further selected showing research on a student population aged between 6 and 15 years old. In order for the paper to be included in the research, the condition was that the paper deals with teaching at least one of the following content areas: programming languages, game design, computer thinking (CT), algorithmic thinking and robotics programming. This study shows the representation of the listed content area in reviewed papers for the specified time period as well as a detailed analysis of the selected papers. Available data about study, participants and education level, country (first author), learning domain, teaching tools, research questions, hypothesis, pre/post-test results, interviews, control groups, course duration, research design, previous experience, project or grant and re-search purpose in detected papers were analysed. In addition, impact of studying some of the listed content areas on student learning performance, motivation, attitude and perception were investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; neuroscience; neuropedagogy; neuroeducation; higher education; design thinking; learning management system
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:32:57 CEST)
Higher education teaching staff members need to build a scientifically accurate and comprehensive understanding of the function of the brain in learning to optimize teaching and achieve excellent student learning. An international consortium developed a professional development six-module course on educational neuroscience and online community of practice applying design thinking. A mixed methods research design was employed to investigate the attitudes of thirty-two (N=32) participating academics using a survey comprising eleven closed and open questions. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, correlation, generalized additive model and grounded theory. The overall evaluation demonstrated a notable satisfaction level with regard to the quality of the course. Given the power of habits, mentoring and peer interactions are recommended to ensure the effective integration of theoretical neuroscientific evidence into teaching practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0606.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Design Thinking; hydrosocial contract; web-based prototype; household engagement; Product Service Systems; clustering; ICT; sustainable use of water; customization
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:27:24 CEST)
This article shows the numerical results and the analysis of households' degree of knowledge in an intermediary city such as Huelva (Andalusia, Spain) about the sustainable use of urban water. It analyzes the needs and values regarding water and the attitudes that households maintain regarding the acceptance of reclaimed water and the use of new technologies to achieve more efficient and sustainable consumption. These results are part of the stages of needfinding and synthesis of Design Thinking methodology, adopted as a framework to improve the efficiency and sustainability of urban water among households in this city. Different statistical analysis techniques of surveys sent to households and the use of clustering are the mathematical tools used to draw conclusions and recommendations that allow the design of a web-based prototype grounded on Product Service Systems methodology, as a tool to improve the engagement of households concerning water and align citizens with the sustainability of their city. Strategies of customization and technological facilitators will be the means to improve the hydrosocial contract among households in Huelva in future later stages of the project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university business collaboration; critical thinking; curriculum co-design, development and delivery; employability; research project; labour market; higher education; soft skills
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
University-Business partnership for collaborative curriculum design, development and delivery is possibly the less explored dimension of University Business Collaboration (UBC). Even if some models for curricular design and development might be available, scarce information exists on how the partnership is constructed, the new curricula are designed, developed and how they are implemented. This article intends to present and discuss the experience obtained during a three-year European funded Project, namely Think4Jobs. This project exemplifies the significance and benefits of UBC in the design, development and delivery of curricula that meet the evolving demands of the labour market while promoting Critical Thinking (CT) as a foundational 21st century skill to contribute to graduates' employability. Think4Jobs project brought together a multidisciplinary team of researchers and business organisations from five European countries (Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Portugal and Romania) with interests in promoting and developing CT and mitigating eventual competence gaps. The project's success was attributed to key practices, including defining a common conceptualization of CT, employing participatory co-design, and providing common training for university and business partners. Clear objectives, explicit roles, effective communication, and ongoing evaluation further enhanced the collaboration. Experiential learning, real-work problems, and case studies reinforced the curricula, bridging the gap between academia and the labour market. By embracing these insights, future UBC initiatives can empower graduates with the necessary skills to stand out in an ever-changing labour market, contributing to enhanced education and successful careers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0409.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Design; birthing bed; user centered design; medical design; user hierarchies; design process; design; education
Online: 23 September 2021 (12:55:44 CEST)
Medical Device Design process carries a high responsibility when defining the characteristics of the object for its correct interaction with users. This study presents a proposal for the improvement of the medical device design processes, in order to increase user acceptance, considering two key factors: the hierarchy of users and the relationship with the patient's health status. The goal of the study seeks to address this research gap and raise design factors with practical suggestions for the design of new medical devices. The results obtained will help medical device designers in the development stage to make more informed decisions about the functions and features required in the final product; As well, in the design process didactics, demonstrating the importance of the correct execution of the process, and how the factors considered can generate an impact on the final product. An experiment was carried out with Forty design engineering students, who designed birthing beds, with two design processes, the traditional product design process, and the new design process based on hierarchies (proposed in this study). The results showed that there is a significant increase in user acceptance with the new birthing bed that was developed with the hierarchical based design process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; modular design; design-for-manufacturability; sustainable design; design optimization; product re-design
Online: 21 September 2018 (15:23:15 CEST)
This work explores an additive-manufacturing-enabled combination-of-function approach for design of modular products. AM technologies allow the design and manufacturing of nearly free-form geometry, which can be used to create more complex, multi-function or multi-feature parts. The approach presented here replaces sub-assemblies within a modular product or system with more complex single parts that are designed and manufactured using AM technologies. This approach can increase the reliability of systems and products by reducing the number of interfaces, as well as allowing the optimization of the more complex parts during the design. The smaller part count and the ability of users to replace or upgrade the system or product parts on-demand should reduce user risk, life-cycle costs, and prevent obsolescence for the user of many systems. This study presents a detailed review on the current state-of-the-art in modular product design in order to demonstrate the place, need and usefulness of this AM-enabled method for systems and products that could benefit from it. A detailed case study is developed and presented to demonstrate the concepts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0485.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: game design, design patterns; pattern language; design pattern application; design pattern creation
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:11:15 CEST)
Existing implementations of game design patterns have largely been confined to theoretical or research settings. Weaknesses in these implementations have prevented game design patterns from being properly evaluated as an educational and practical development tool. This paper examines these weaknesses, describes a method of developing and applying patterns that overcome the weaknesses, and evaluates use of the method for game design education and practice. Weaknesses in existing pattern implementations are: omission of design problems, presumption of functional completeness at the level of pattern languages, narrow topical focus, and lack of a concise, repeatable method for pattern production. Several features of the proposed method were specifically built to address these weaknesses, namely the pattern template, the process for connecting patterns into a language and assessing the language’s scope, a rubric for assessing pattern confidence and interconnectivity confidence, and pattern-building exercises. This method was applied in a classroom setting. Results, as assessed by the evaluation of student work, suggest that creating patterns/pattern languages is an effective pedagogical approach. De-signs produced using designer-created patterns closely align with existing design theory and are clearly understood by students. The above results may indicate that the path to gaining wider acceptance of pattern theory as a design framework within game design is not to produce a universal pattern language but to facilitate the creation of case-specific languages, by students and professional designers, that use a shared ontology and thus can be combined easily to solve the diverse sets of problems faced by these groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Participatory Design, Co-operative Inquiry, Design partners, Co-design
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:10:41 CEST)
The framework proposed by Alison Druin about 20 years ago, which defined the roles children play in technology design, has been widely adopted by the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) community. While some studies have adopted relevant roles as presented in the framework, others have argued for extending the framework to include newly identified roles. Still, other studies argue that Druin's framework failed to account for roles children may take up as they interact with peers or with tools. Consequently, this systematic literature review examines children’s emerging and changing roles in the codesign of new technologies. Specifically, we answered the research question: What new roles emerge in research as children co-design new technologies? Our effort aims at providing evidence of new roles children have adopted in literature, which may help researchers in the CCI community make more informed decisions about participatory design approaches with children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Design knowledge, Knowledge dimensions, prototyping, design cognition, design thinking
Online: 7 June 2021 (11:30:21 CEST)
Whilst prior works have characterised the affordances of prototyping methods in terms of generating knowledge about a product or process, the types, or ‘dimensions’ of knowledge towards which they contribute are not fully understood. In this paper we adapt the concept of ‘design domains’ as a method to interpret, and better understand the contributions of different prototyping methods to design knowledge in new product development. We first synthesise a set of ten dimensions for design knowledge from a review of literature in design-related fields. A study was then conducted in which participants from engineering backgrounds completed a Likert-type questionnaire to quantify the perceived contributions to design knowledge of 90 common prototyping methods against each dimension. We statistically analyse results to identify patterns in the knowledge contributions of different methods. Results reveal that methods exhibit significantly different contribution profiles, suggesting different methods to be suited to different knowledge generation. Thus, this paper indicates potential for new methods, methodology and processes to leverage such characterisations for better selection and sequencing of methods in the prototyping process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0264.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Design for Sustainability; Responsible Design; transdisciplinary design; design education; social design; ecological literacy; transition; disciplinary fragility; defuturing; sustainability
Online: 19 May 2022 (16:11:35 CEST)
Sustainable and Responsible Design (SRD) harnesses design’s potential to address eco-social problems and in doing so challenge the status quo of design education by reframing the social and ecological consequences, boundaries and agencies of design. This critical and transdisciplinary approach frays the edges of traditional design disciplines with embedded and reflexive modes of learning. We describe characteristics of SRD education and present theories of learning to empower students in this complex terrain. The learning associated with SRD education is ecologically engaged, participative, critical, expansive and designerly. We recount case studies of our own experiences advancing sustainable and responsible undergraduate design education in the UK. We identify path constraints such as disciplinary fragility, appropriation, and power dynamics in the design school. The push for a revision of priorities generates tensions where there is often greenwashing rhetoric of sustainability and inclusivity. We describe strategies and tactics to address these tensions. We highlight the agency we have as educators and designers and argue that design education can only meaningfully participate in response to the challenges presented by climate change, other types of ecocide, and social problems when educators make substantive commitments to supporting sustainability literacies and design approaches that serve the interests of diverse stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Architectural Design; Built environment; Sustainability; Psychology of design; Behavioural Design
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:23:51 CEST)
This paper focuses on the relationship between Mental Health and the Landscape. It aims to find out how people respond to Biophilic inspired landscape design in a healthcare setting. The focal point is not to cure diseases but to help them deal with the physiological, psychological, and psycho-social imbalance and provide a healing environment for the overall well-being of an individual. For this study, a Multispecialty Hospital was selected where an Indoor Healing Garden is used as a retrofitting tool to reduce stress and thus reconnect humans with nature. A multi-method approach is being used for this study. Initially, a questionnaire was conducted for the targeted users categorized into three types – patients, staff, and visitors to know their longing for the landscape. Based on this data and available literature, an evidence-based design was proposed. This conceptual design model is then shown to the targeted user and the response is recorded. The data has then collaborated with similar studies done earlier and design elements are highlighted which helps in creating a restorative environment by reducing stress and increasing recovery rate and thus approaching sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0272.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: design education; design activity; design model(s); analogical reasoning; bio-inspiration
Online: 15 March 2023 (08:47:22 CET)
From the merge of arts and crafts towards a practice for mass production of desirability, consumption and product development in a capitalist economy of scale, design has lost its natural ability of problem comprehension and tension alleviation. The modern world needs the creativity, flexibility, and responsiveness embedded into design practices, mostly when a behavioural change, either individual or organizational, is intended. Still, the informality nature of the field is creating a gap between the study, research, and industrial design practice. Here it is presented the Biology of Creativity Model (BoC) which is a design-by-analogy method that promotes an empowered design practice through analysis of mostly biology reference texts for enhanced creativity and innovation performance in a diverse array of contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0296.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: design patterns; urban design; problem-solving; creativity; urban design education; teamwork
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:01:27 CEST)
Urban design is a complex problem-solving activity that commonly requires the aid of a variety of methods to support the process and enhance the quality of the outcomes. How to help designers with adequate methods to deal with ill-defined urban problems constitutes a major challenge in the urban design domain. In this regard, the use of urban design patterns is considered as a method that can contribute to urban design problem-solving. However, this tool was never investigated to understand its role in the task-related activities that take place during the design process by designers working in team, and its effect on the creativity of the final design outcome as perceived by urban designers and students. Therefore, an empirical research based on a controlled experiment was carried out to explore the aid provided by design patterns during the conceptual stages of the process. The study contributed to gain a better insight into the main design activities derived from the use of patterns as problem-solving tools, and to unveil their contribution to urban design. Implications for design practice and design education are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0047.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: design for society; design for sustainability; design under uncertainty; circular design; donut economics; life cycle analysis
Online: 5 August 2020 (04:50:02 CEST)
Since the beginning, humans advanced their civilization by making better tools to improve their lives. Tools and products were designed for better living considering manufacturing issues, cost and time as predominant criteria. It has become clear that not considering environment and society, both at local/global levels, has now become a major impediment affecting living conditions on a large portion of the Earth and in many societies. Design methodologies should lead to creative solutions with consideration to engineering and economics for practicality but also to environmental and social constraints for sustainability. We propose a comprehensive design methodology based on multidisciplinary design to include the knowledge of humanities, environmentalists, science and engineering, and allowing for experts’ inputs from these areas to provide a holistic approach to engineering design . For example, experts in humanities are expected to interact with stakeholders to evaluate their value systems to provide guidance for the design. The methodology that we synthesize is new and combines (i) Societal level impacts at all scales, (ii) Environmental impacts and (iii) Engineering design with economic impacts, including uncertainty considerations. The proposed design methodology is called Social-Environmental-Economical-Engineering Framework (SEEEF). It can utilize concepts and tools such as Circular Design, Doughnut Economics, design based on environmental life cycle analysis, among others. SEEEF is quantity based and provides steps for evaluating any project or product in an objective manner and will help train engineers in design for sustainability. It also provides non-engineers with a significant role in design to increase their understanding of the hard constraints of engineering. Ultimately, SEEEF allows society to take an informed decision considering short/long term and local/global impacts of the design and the pertinent uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0748.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS; MEMS Gyroscope; Vibrating Ring Gyroscope; Inertial sensors; IMU; MEMS Design; Mechanical Design; Electrical Design; Damping Design
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:44:20 CEST)
Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) vibrating gyroscope design considerations are always intriguing due to their microscale mechanical, electrical, and material behavior. MEMS vibrating ring gyroscopes have become important inertial sensors in inertial measurement units (IMU) for navigation and sensing applications. The design of a MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope incorporates an oscillating ring structure as a proof mass, reflecting unique design challenges and possibilities. This paper presents a comprehensive design analysis of the MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope from the mechanical, electrical, and damping perspectives. The mechanical design of the MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope investigates the various frame designs of the vibrating ring structure, as well as the various beam structures, including curved, rectangular, and semicircular beam structures, which are analyzed using mathematical models and finite element analysis (FEA) simulations that provide an in-depth analysis of the stiffness and deflection of the vibrating structures. The electrical designs of the MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope were analyzed using various electrode configurations, electrostatic actuation, and capacitive detection mechanisms, respectively. The design analysis of various forms of damping, including viscous, structural, thermoelastic, and anchor damping, has been discussed. The variety of design structures investigated for MEMS vibrating ring gyroscopes' mechanical, electrical, and damping performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0117.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Backward Design; Virtual Learning; Ecosystem; Design; Thinking
Online: 3 May 2023 (08:36:19 CEST)
Active learning has demonstrated its effectiveness regarding the improvement of the capacities of abstraction, comprehension, and development of cognitive, expression and relationship skills of the students. In this study, the redesign and implementation of an electromagnetism course for engineering students is presented, under the methodology of Backward Design (BD), recognized for its attributes for the development of active learning and its possibility of specifying the fun-damentals and principles of engineering education in the development of syllabus in higher ed-ucation. The purposes of this study were: 1) To implement the Backward Design (BD) methodology to develop argumentative, purposeful and interpretive skills in an electromagnetism course; 2) Design and apply rubrics to evaluate tests and laboratory reports, determine the level that best suits the knowledge, skills and competencies of students. 3) Assess the perception of students regarding the use of the methodology, their contributions to the development and understanding of the concepts of the course. The results of this educational research experience shown that the BD teaching approach was pedagogical and significantly superior to conventional models towards improving knowledge and skills of electromagnetism based on Hake's statistic (h) reached 0.73 that allow us to conclude that there was a learning gain in the students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: design and fabrication framework; origami; topological design
Online: 19 March 2018 (12:53:53 CET)
Structure/material requires simultaneous consideration of both its design and manufacturing processes to dramatically enhance its manufacturability, assembly and maintainability. In this work, we present a novel design framework for structure/material with requested mechanical performances in virtue of the compelling properties of topological design and origami techniques. The framework comprises four procedures, including topological design, unfold, reduction manufacturing, and fold. Topological design method, i.e. Solid Isotropic Material Penalization (SIMP) method, serves to optimize the structure to achieve preferred mechanical characteristics and origami technique is exploited to make the structure rapidly and easily fabricated. Topological design and unfold procedures can be conveniently completed in a computer; then, reduction manufacturing, i.e. cutting, is performed to remove materials from the unfolded flat plate; the final structure is finally obtained by folding the plate of the previous procedure. A series of cantilevers, consisting of origami with parallel creases and Miura-ori (usually regarded as a metamaterial), made of paperboard are designed with least weight and required stiffness by using the proposed framework. The findings here furnish an alternative design framework for engineering structures which could be better than 3D printing technique, especially for large structures made of thin metal materials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1680.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: automated structural design; Building Information Modeling (BIM); design automation; generative design; interoperability; Structural Design Optimization (SDO); systematic framework
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:25:42 CEST)
Structural design optimization (SDO) plays a pivotal role in enhancing various aspects of construction projects, including design quality, cost-efficiency, safety, and structural reliability. Recent endeavors in academia and industry have sought to harness the potential of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and optimization algorithms to optimize SDO and improve design outcomes. This review paper aims to synthesize these efforts, shedding light on how SDO contributes to project coordination. Furthermore, the integration of sustainability considerations and the application of innovative technologies and optimization algorithms in SDO necessitate more interactive early-stage collaboration among project stakeholders. This study offers a comprehensive exploration of contemporary research in integrated SDO employing BIM and optimization algorithms. It commences with an exploratory investigation, employing both qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques following the PRISMA systematic review methodology. Subsequently, an open-ended opinion survey was conducted among construction industry professionals in Europe. This survey yields valuable insights into the coordination challenges and potential solutions arising from technological shifts and interoperability concerns associated with widespread SDO implementation. These preliminary steps of systematic review and industry survey furnish a robust knowledge foundation, enabling the proposal of an intelligent framework for automating early-stage sustainable structural design optimization (ESSDO) within the construction sector. The framework ESSDO addresses the challenges of fragmented collaboration between architects and structural engineers. This proposed framework seamlessly integrates with the BIM platform, i.e., Autodesk Revit for architects. It extracts crucial architectural data and transfers it to the structural design and analysis platform, i.e., Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis (RSA), for structural engineers via the visual programming tool Dynamo. Once the optimization occurs, optimal outcomes are visualized within BIM environments. This visualization elevates interactive collaborations between architects and engineers, facilitating automation throughout the workflow and smoother information exchange.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: C-K Theory; Design Science Research; Design decisions; IT artefacts; WIM system design
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:55:36 CEST)
Concept Knowledge (C-K) theory has been used in engineering and science-based research for more than a decade. Design of an Information Technology (IT) artefact is mostly pragmatic in nature. Design Science Research (DSR) methodology applied and studied in many Information Systems (IS) research. Many sub design decisions involved through the design of an IT artefact from a concept (idea) to a working prototype. A DSR artefact is based on a combination of decisions made during several sub-design stages. Artefacts are built based on the selection of elements in each sub-design space. Recording the design decisions on each sub-design space would be beneficial for future researchers. By knowing the design decisions on each sub-design space, researchers would be able to try different combinations of the design. C-K theory provides the ability to capture the design processes’ several sub-design spaces. In this paper, we discuss the DSR research methodology by looking at the stages proposed in the literature, and the application of C-K theory in an IT-based DSR. This paper also proposed a C-K theory-based protocol called Concept Tree for tracking and reporting artefact design steps. The application of C-K theory in DSR is exhibited using the implementation of the Concept Tree for a prototype design IT artefact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0396.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: production process design; design for manufacturability; fuzzy logic
Online: 27 March 2020 (13:01:50 CET)
The paper presents design methodology for the production process of a new product from the point of view of the assembly operations technology criterion (Design for Assembly - DFA) in the conditions of high-volume production. Mentioned are DFA methods and techniques used in the implementation of a new product. Author presents a new method to assess design for manufacturability based on fuzzy variables based on fuzzy variables. An example was given to illustrate the proposed course of action
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Generative model; Knowledge-Based Engineering; Design automation; Conceptual design; Aerospace Engineering; Computer Aided Design
Online: 17 May 2023 (07:14:32 CEST)
This thesis presents the effects of work done on a software project for generative models and spreadsheets, allowing for a quick creation of the conceptual model of the aircraft. The subject of the work is a response to the current trends and needs prevailing in the field of computer design engineering CAD and aviation. In the initial chapters, theoretical issues related to the work being carried out were introduced and the methodology of creating software for construction and verification of the structure of aircraft along with the needs of interchange between databases of generative models was presented. In the next stages, the concepts and selected solutions for the user interface supporting the knowledge base were presented along with a set of procedures for its operation. Furthermore, the method of database integration with the methods of determining design features for the developed generative models and with the Siemens NX system. Furthermore, problems encountered in software development, as well as solution examples for model application are specified. The results obtained and the models generated on their basis were subjected to a strength analysis using Autodesk Inventor software and analysed in terms of meeting the initial assumptions. In the end, conclusions and observations resulting from the effects of the work presented in the project were formulated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0565.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Engineering design; Landscape design; Underground sewage treatment environmental pollutions.
Online: 8 June 2023 (02:00:26 CEST)
The applicable conditions and scope of the underground sewage treatment plant include small amount of sewage, less available land on the ground, special requirements for the above-ground landscape, low groundwater level, easy-to-excavate geology, and the buried depth of the sewage return pipe is not very large. It is not under the main road, has certain distance from residential buildings, is not a depression and does not accumulate rainwater, and the sewage discharge requirements are not very strict. The underground sewage treatment plants are suitable in an area, where thermal insulation needs to be considered, less requisitionable land area, and higher environmental requirements The results of underground landscape design study showed that the design of principles, features, styles, water ecologies, combination between community and ecological friendly, operation and maintenance cost of the underground landscape should be emphasized. The construction of ecological complex will lead the sewage treatment plant exchange from minus assets to the ecological positive assets, which will meet the needs of future urban social economic development and environmental protection. The results of development direction exploration study showed that innovation on design concept, breakthroughs of key sewage treatment technology and variation of investment and operation mode can reduce the land occupation investment and operation cost, and the underground sewage plant with large scale and semi-underground mode owes broader prospects for development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0086.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Communication Processes; Graphic Design; Communication Design; Cohort Study; Branding.
Online: 6 March 2023 (03:55:03 CET)
The basis of this project is a health literacy cohort study (LISA) being developed in the county of Leiria. The study aims to reach and monitor the adult population of the county over time. Counting with a multidisciplinary team, the study stakeholders asked the designers to develop the study’s brand so it could be more advertisable to the population, turning the communication between the stakeholders and the public easier. The development of the brand identity and elements of communication used some graphic design approaches. These approaches were reinforced by the opinions given by the interviewed sample of the population, that answered some of the study’s questions. The interviews held by designers allowed the team to receive information about what was expected the study to be, and how and where to better communicate the LISA’s Study. Trough the aforementioned process resulted in the current finalized outcomes of the study’s brand and communication materials. Both printable and digital communication elements (i.e., roll-up, id cards, flyers, QR Code, and website) were developed and disseminated according to the brand's strategy. Concluding, the communication elements created are seen as the first phase of this project, leaving a second phase related to the design and structuration of the Study to be developed, and published in future articles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0708.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: landscape design and planning; research-by-design; multifunctional agriculture
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:49:35 CEST)
Rural landscapes all over the world are subject to great transformations, first of all the continuous and slow depopulation of land and villages. It is a dramatic phenomenon that causes devastating consequences for environmental systems and for the tangible and intangible heritage of entire territories. The situation becomes more ambiguous when it comes to cultural landscapes, especially those internationally recognized as exceptional (i.e. inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List). In this case, the risk is to abandon agricultural production in favor of consumerist tourist economies, which can damage the territorial authenticity. In this paper we question the role of the landscape project in strengthening territorial resilience. In particular, a composite and interdependent action is proposed between landscape design and implementation of a multifunctional agriculture model, oriented towards teaching and tourism. To undertake this investigation, a master's thesis work on Landscape Architecture is examined, as an opportunity for a research-by-design method. The application case is the Italian UNESCO site of Vignale Monferrato, a depopulated rural village, characterized by abandoned land and buildings. The paper concludes by outlining replicability application scenarios for the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Transdisciplinary Urban Planning; Methodology of Architectural Design; Design Strategy vs. Design Tactics; Agile Development; Scrum Framework
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:18:56 CEST)
The main question proposed in this research is if different types of organizational approach, adapted from rapidly changing disciplines — such as IT industry, and software engineering in particular — could help overcome this gap by shortening the response time needed to analyze advanced solutions in accordance with changed circumstances, thus allowing for architectural programming to obtain different positions in the timeline of project planning and realization. We propose a novel methodology of architectural design as a self-reliant instrument inspired by Agile Manifesto and some of its instantiations, most notably by the Scrum Framework.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; drug design; covid-19; structure-based drug design; ligand-based drug design
Online: 2 March 2022 (03:00:37 CET)
The recent covid crisis has proven important lessons for academia and industry regarding digital reorganization. Among fascinating lessons from these times is the huge potential of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The crisis exponentially accelerated the adoption of analytics and artificial intelligence, and this momentum is predicted to continue into the 2020s and over. Moreover, drug development is a costly and time-consuming business, and only a minority of approved drugs return the revenue that exceeds the research and development costs. As a result, there is a huge drive to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. With modern algorithms and hardware, it is not too surprising that the new technologies of artificial intelligence and other computational simulation tools can help drug developers. In only two years of covid research, many novel molecules have been designed/identified using artificial intelligence methods with astonishing results in terms of time and effectiveness. This paper will review the most significant research on artificial intelligence in the de novo drug design for COVID-19 pharmaceutical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0558.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:31:24 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) provides opportunities to design objects differently than traditional manufacturing methods allow, but only if designers understand the possibilities AM presents. In this study, we examined whether an AM workshop combined with an idea generation session could inspire engineering professionals to use AM solutions to solve current technical problems they face. All subjects were employees at an organization that will be referred to as Company X, a multinational commercial organization based in North America. During the study, we collected ideas for 24 projects generated before and after a training workshop focused on design for AM. In the workshop, we provided three hours of instruction about design for two metal-based AM processes. The participants’ ideas were assessed using four specific metrics: (1) cost, (2) time,(3) completeness of solution, and (4) quality, which was a function of feasibility, usefulness, and novelty. Using these data, we explored whether the workshop was effective in inspiring the participants to use AM methods and techniques from AM research in their concept generation and whether participants’ AM solutions showed improvement in cost, implementation time, and quality over non-AM designs generated before the workshop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (12:18:45 CET)
Traditional metals such as stainless steel, titanium and cobalt chrome are used in biomedical applications (implants, scaffolds etc.) but suffer from issues such as osseointegration and compatibility with existing bone. One way to improve traditional biomaterials is to incorporate ceramics with these metals so that their mechanical properties can be similar to cortical bones. Tricalcium phosphate is such a ceramic with properties so that it can be used in human body. This research explores the use of binder jetting based additive manufacturing process to create a novel biocomposite made of cobalt chrome and tricalcium phosphate. Experiments were conducted and processing parameters were varied to study their effect on the printing of this biocomposite. Layer thickness, binder saturation and drying time affected the dimensional tolerance and the density of the green samples. This effect is important to understand so that the material can be optimized for use in specific applications.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0057.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Deep Learning; Design Processes; Graphic Design; User Experience
Online: 3 July 2023 (13:57:49 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has many advantages over humans in that it can detect incredibly subtle patterns within large quantities of data. This study suggests using AI algorithms in user research tasks for mining variables ranging from the tone of voice, image banks, historical records, and product use to determine where brands sit and where there could be competitive advantages. This study reviews the current design processes of User Experience (UX) designers and the advancements in Deep Learning (DL). It identifies potential areas of automation in the Preparation, Incubation and Illumination stages of the design process. It recognises the possibility of using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) models to automate design feedback and the creation of alternate designs with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Digital Smile Design; digital dentistry; dentistry software; dentistry design software
Online: 21 April 2021 (11:46:39 CEST)
Without impacting the dental sciences, breakthroughs in technology and applications could not be accomplished. In the advancement of technology and information technology, dentistry and dental materials have been fully active, so much so that they have revolutionized dental techniques. Material & methods; We want to produce the first series of articles in this review on the use of digital techniques and software, such as Smile Concept Digital. The goal is to gather all the findings on the use of this program and to highlight the fields of use. The analysis included forty-nine articles, the latter discussing the use of Digital Smile Design and the area of use. The research aims to classify the dental fields are using "digitization." Change is constant in this field and will be increasing Interest in dentistry by recommending the speed and reliability of outcomes for care planning. Conclusion: As seen in the study, the digital workflow facilitates recovery that is reliable both from an aesthetic and functional point of view. The current area of use of Digital Smile Design techniques in the different branches of medicine and dentistry as well as knowledge have emerged from this research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polyurethane; polyol; Mixture design; Design of experiment; structure-properties relationship
Online: 2 July 2018 (12:52:57 CEST)
Polyurethanes are materials with a strong structure-property relationship. The goal of this research was to study the effect of a polyol blend composition of polyurethanes on its properties using a mixture design and setting mathematic models for each property. Water absorption, hydrolytic degradation, contact angle, tensile stretch, hardness and modulus were studied. Additionally, Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Area under the curve was used to evaluate the effect of polyol blend composition on thermal stability and kinetics of water absorption and hydrolytic degradation. Least squares were used to calculate the regression coefficients. Models for the properties were significant, and lack of fit was not (P<0.05). Fit statistics suggest both good fitting and prediction. Water absorption, hydrolytic degradation and contact angle were mediated by the hydrophilic nature of the polyols. Tensile strength, modulus and hardness could be regulated by the molecular weight and hydroxyl index of the polyols. Regression of DTG curves from thermal analysis showed improvement of thermal stability with the increase of PCL and PE. An ANOVA test of the model terms demonstrated that three component effects on bulk properties like water absorption, hydrolytic degradation, hardness, tensile strength and modulus, and the PEG*PCL interaction with the contact angle, which is a surface property. Mixture design application allowed for an understanding of the structure-property relationship through mathematic models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Design Review Panel; Masterplan community development; Design guideline; Built Industry Partners
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:00:40 CEST)
Design guidelines and the Design Review Panel (DRP) are crucial components in ensuring consistent and high-quality design within masterplan sites. This study focuses on New Zealand, examining the challenges faced by industry partners in adapting to masterplanned design guidelines. The case study centers on Hobsonville Point, the largest Government lead masterplan community in New Zealand, which promotes sustainable and higher-density living—an uncommon concept in the country. We conducted interviews with 18 key stakeholders involved in the development of Hobsonville Point. The results show that the DRP provides flexible judgments and insightful information that better accommodates individual development characteristics than the strict numerical standards specified in design guidelines. This study underscores the importance of DRP in producing good design outcomes, especially when they are involved at the very beginning of the design process. Additionally, we took note of stakeholder concerns about DRP members' expertise and the possible effects of high turnover rates on the design process. To strive for continual improvement, future empirical studies on the DRP process are encouraged to enhance proficiency and dependability. Design guidance should be prioritised to ensure climate-related design is implemented to promote sustainable urban development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0514.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: unified approach to design; design consideration; resonant inverters; induction heating applications
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:26:06 CEST)
The manuscript presents a unified methodology for the engineering design of resonant inverters used for power sources to power various technologies based on induction heating. The methodology is compiled using the generalized consideration of electromagnetic processes in a series RLC circuit and the quasi-boundary method for the analysis of resonant inverters with and without reverse diodes operating in soft and hard commutation modes. On this basis, the transmission functions of the inverters are derived, and the matching between the parameters of the inverter and the load through complicated output circuits is also considered. The basic ratios for determining the circuit elements and their current and voltage loading are presented. The methodologies are verified using several computational examples, simulations and measurements from induction heating devices. The simplified design approach presented is useful for its application in power electronics training and also in the design of various devices using the principle of induction heating. Another important result is the achievement of formalization and algorithmization of the design process, which is a consequence of the application of a unified approach both in the analysis and in the design of a whole class of power electronic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0517.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mechanical system; fatigue design; parametric ALT; ice-maker; bearing; design defects
Online: 28 February 2023 (09:54:15 CET)
To prolong the fatigue life of a product handled by machine, parametric accelerated life testing (ALT) is mentioned as an organized technique to pinpoint design flaws and minimize fatigue-connected failures. It requires (1) an ALT procedure, (2) fatigue model, (3) parametric ALTs with adjustment, and (4) an approximate of whether present product complete the BX life. The use of a quantum-transported time-to-failure archetype and a sample size are advised. The improvements in the reliability of a refrigerator ice-maker, comprising an auger motor with bearing, were utilized as a case investigation. In the 1st ALT, a steel rolling bearing cracked due to repeated loads under cold circumstances (below −20 C) in the freezer compartment. The bearing was altered by adjusting the matter from AISI 52100 alloy steel with 1.30-1.60% chromium to lubricated sliding bearing with sintered and hardened steel (FLC 4608-110HT) because of its high fatigue strength at lower temperatures. In the 2nd ALT, a helix made of polycarbonates (PCs) fractured. As an adjustment, a reinforced rib of the helix was thickened. As no troubles in the 3rd ALT occur, the lifetime of an ice-maker was proved to be B1 life 10 years.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: process design; sustainable development; chemical industry; process industry; megatrends; design tools
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:32:26 CET)
This paper describes the state of the art and future opportunities for process design and sustainable development. In the Introduction the main global megatrends and European Union's response to two of them, the European Green Deal, are presented. The organization of professionals in the field, their conferences and publications support the two topics. A brief analysis of the published documents in the two most popular databases shows that the environmental dimension predominates, followed by an economic one, while the social pillar of sustainable development is undervalued. The main design tools for sustainability are described. As an important practical case, the European chemical and process industries are analyzed and their achievements in sustainable development are highlighted; in particular, their strategies are presented in more detail. The conclusions cover the most urgent future development areas of the process industries, carbon capture with utilization or storage, process analysis, simulation, synthesis and optimization tools; zero waste, circular economy and resource efficiency already play an important role. However, more profound changes are needed in the coming decades, including a shift away from growth with changes in habits, lifestyles and business models. Lifelong education for sustainable development will play a very important role in the growth of democracy and happiness instead of consumerism and neoliberalism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pile design; Fiber Reinforced Polymer; GFRP; FRP; Composite Piles; Bridge design
Online: 5 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
This paper deals with analyzing the structural responses of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) tubes filled with recycled and concrete material for developing composite piles, as an alternative to traditional steel reinforced piles in bridge foundations. The Full-scale GFRP composite piles included three inner and outer layers, using a fiber-oriented material that was inclined longitudinally, almost 40 degrees from the horizontal axis of the pile. The segment between these two layers was inclined 80 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the tube. The behavior of the filled GFRP tubes was semi-linear, and resulted in increasing the total ductility and strength of the piles. Adjusting the material’s properties, such as the EAxial, EHoop, and Poisson ratios optimized the results. The lateral strength of the GFRP composite pile and pre-stressed piles are comparable in both axial and lateral loading conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: food packaging; customization; product design; personalized design; reverse engineering; CAD; FDM
Online: 3 January 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In the context of food packaging design, customization enhances the value of a product by meeting the needs of the consumer. Personalization is also linked to adaptation. This makes it possible to improve the properties of the packaging from various points of view: functional, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Currently the functional and formal properties of packaging are not investigated among themselves, however the study of both properties are the basis for creating a new concept of personalized and sustainable product. In accordance with this approach, the conceptual design procedure of packaging with personalized and adapted geometries based on the digitization of fresh food is proposed in this work. This study is based on the application of advanced technologies for the design and development of food packaging, in this case apples, in order to improve the quality of the packaging. The results obtained show that it is possible to use advanced technologies in the early stages of product design in order to obtain competitive products adapted to new emerging needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0233.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social media; social robots; negative mood; self-disclosure; intervention design; anthropomorphic design
Online: 16 June 2022 (06:11:48 CEST)
COVID-19 may not be a ‘youth disease’ but nevertheless impacts the life of young people dramatically, loneliness and negative mood being an unexpected additional pandemic. Many young people rely on social media for their feeling of connectedness with others. However, social media are suggested to have many negative effects on people’s anxiety. Instead of self-disclosing to others, design may develop alternatives to employ social robots for self-disclosure. In a follow-up on Duan et al. (2021), we report on a lab experiment of self-disclosing negative emotions to a social-media group as compared to writing a conventional diary journal or to talk to an AI-driven social robot after negative mood induction (i.e. viewing shocking earthquake footage). Participants benefitted the most from talking to a robot rather than from writing a journal page or sharing their feelings on social media. Self-disclosure on social media or writing a journal page did not differ significantly. In the design of interventions for mental well-being, human helpers thus far took center stage. Based on our results, we propose design alternatives for an empathic smart-home, featuring social robots and chatbots for alleviating stress and anxiety: a social-media interference chatbot, smart watch plus speaker, and a mirror for self-reflection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: organic electronics; organic semiconductors; molecular design; crystal design; π-stacking; charge mobility
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:23:32 CEST)
Chemical versatility of organic semiconductors provides nearly unlimited opportunities for tuning their electronic properties. However, despite decades of research, relationship between molecular structure, molecular packing and charge mobility in these materials remains poorly understood. This reduces the search for high-mobility organic semiconductors to the inefficient trial-and-error approach. For clarifying the abovementioned relationship, investigations of the effect of small changes in the chemical structure on OSs properties are particularly important. In this study, we address computationally the impact of substitution of C-H atom pairs by nitrogen atoms (N-substitution) on molecular properties, molecular packing and charge mobility of crystalline oligoacenes. Besides of decreasing frontier molecular orbital levels, N-substitution dramatically alters molecular electrostatic potential yielding pronounced electron-rich and electron-deficient areas. These changes in the molecular electrostatic potential strengthen face-to-face and edge-to-edge interactions in the corresponding crystals and result in the crossover from the herringbone packing motif to π-stacking. When the electron-rich and electron-deficient areas are large, sharply defined and, probably, have certain symmetry, charge mobility increases up to 3-4 cm2V-1s-1. The results obtained highlight the potential of azaacenes for application in organic electronic devices and are expected to facilitate rational design of organic semiconductors for steady improvement of organic electronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: packaging design; product design; mechanical properties, thermoforming, tensile test, 3D printing, simulation
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:17:27 CET)
The increased consumption of food requiring thermoformed packaging means that the packaging industry demands customized solutions in terms of shapes and sizes to make the packaging unique. In particular, the food industry increasingly requires more transparent packaging, with greater clarity and a better presentation of the product features they contain. However, in turn, the differentiation of products is sought through the geometry and final finish of the product, as well as the arrangement of food inside the packaging. In addition, these types of packaging usually include ribs in the walls to improve physical properties, however they also affect the final aesthetics of the product. In accordance with this, this research study analyses by studying the mechanical properties of different relief geometries that can affect not only the aesthetics but also their strength. For this purpose, tensile and compression tests have been carried out. The results provide comparative data on the reliefs studied and show that there are different shapes, sizes and layout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: structural optimization; system design; artificial intelligence; morphological operations; topology optimization; structural design
Online: 26 January 2018 (07:23:02 CET)
Structural system design is the process of giving form to a set of interconnected components subjected to loads and design constraints while navigating a complex design space. While safe designs are relatively easy to develop, optimal designs are not. Modern computational optimization approaches employ population based metaheuristic algorithms to overcome challenges with the system design optimization landscape. However, the choice of the initial population, or ground structure, can have an outsized impact on the resulting optimization. This paper presents a new method of generating such ground structures, using a combination of topology optimization (TO) and a novel system extraction algorithm. Since TO generates monolithic structures, rather than systems, its use for structural system design and optimization has been limited. In this paper, truss systems are extracted from topologies through morphological analysis and artificial intelligence techniques. This algorithm, and its assessment, constitutes the key contributions of this paper. The structural systems obtained are compared with ground truth solutions to evaluate the performance of the algorithms. The generated structures are also compared against benchmark designs from the literature. The results indicate that the presented truss generation algorithm produces structures comparable to those generated through metaheuristic optimization, while mitigating the need for assumptions about initial ground structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0847.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electronics reliability; design for reliability; design for manufacturing; PCB design rules; PCB vias; PCB plated through-hole pads; PCB teardrops
Online: 11 May 2023 (11:28:24 CEST)
Nowadays there is a need to increase the density of interconnections on printed circuit boards (PCBs). Does this mean that the only way out for quality PCB manufacturing is to proportional increase in precision of equipment, or is there another way? One of the main constraints to increasing the density of PCB interconnections is the transition holes. As the number of conductive layers increases, the number of vias increases and they cover a significant space on the PCB. On the other hand, reducing the size of the vias is limited by the capability of spatial alignment of the PCB stack during manufacturing. There are standards that set limits for the design of contact pads on a PCB (IPC-A-600G, IPC-6012B). However, depending on the precision of production, the contact pads may be of poor quality. This raises the issue of determining the reliability of a contact pad with defined parameters at the design stage, taking into account manufacturing capabilities. This research proposes an analytical method for evaluation of reliability of a via or plated through-hole based on calculation of its probability of production in accordance with the current standards. On the basis of the method a model was developed both for the case of a contact pad without any conductors connected to it (nonfunctional contact pad) and for the real case with a connected conductor. The model estimates the probability of making an acceptable via for a given reliability class depending on parameters such as the conductor width (minimum permissible and usable), drilled hole diameter and pad diameter, as well as the accuracy of the drilling operation. The analysis of the modeling results showed that for the real case, a reduction in the reliability class would insignificantly affect the probability of making an acceptable via due to the tight limitation on the connection place of the conductor and the contact pad. In conclusion, we propose an algorithm for determining the optimal parameters of teardrops to minimize the negative impact of the conductor on the reliability of the vias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0048.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Arena software, Discrete event simulation, Design of simulation experiment, Metamodeling, Regression metamodel, Simulation modeling, NYTIL, Resolution V design, Experimental design, Throughput
Online: 4 May 2020 (10:03:37 CEST)
The today competitive advantage of Ready-made garment industries depends on the ability to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of resource utilization. Ready-made garment industries have long historically adopted fewer technological and process advancement as compared to automotive, electronics and semiconductor industries. Simulation modeling of garment assembly line system has attracted a number of researchers as one way for insightful analysis of system behaviour and improving its performance. However, most of simulation studies have considered ill-defined experimental design which cannot fully explore the assembly line design alternatives and does not uncover the interaction effects of the input variables. Simulation metamodeling is an approach to assembly line design which has recently been of interest to so many researchers. However, its application in garment assembly line design has never been well explored. In this paper, simulation metamodeling of trouser assembly line with 72 operations has been demonstrated. The linear regression metamodel technique with resolution-V design was used. The effects of five factors: bundle size, job release policy, task assignment pattern, machine number and helper number on the production throughput of the trouser assembly line were studied. The increase of 28.63% of the production throughput was achieved for the best factors’ setting of the metamodel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0472.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Entropy weight; VIKOR method; Head-up display; Interface design; Design evaluation; Scheme optimization
Online: 26 December 2022 (04:47:50 CET)
Background: With the trend of intelligent display, the interface design of in-vehicle HUD is an expanding research field; Methods: To solve the subjectivity and uncertainty in the optimization of HUD interface design schemes, this paper proposed a hybrid scheme evaluation and optimization method based on entropy weight and VIKOR. The entropy weight method was used to reduce the subjectivity the decision-maker's weighting and obtain the objective weight of each indicator; The VIKOR method was used to obtain the best ranking of alternative schemes, and then the optimal interface design scheme was selected; Results: The evaluation of in-vehicle HUD interface design schemes were taken as an example for verification and calculation. The results showed that this method considers the subjectivity and uncertainty of the decision-making process in the optimization of design scheme, which can effectively improve the objectivity and accuracy of the evaluation results, and provide a reference for designers to optimize interface design schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0517.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Robust Design, Taguchi Method, Product Design, Manufacturing Systems, Quality Engineering, Quality Loss Function.
Online: 25 August 2022 (08:36:39 CEST)
One of the main technological and economic challenges for an engineer is designing high-quality products in manufacturing processes. Most of these processes involve a large number of variables included the setting of controllable (design) and uncontrollable (noise) variables. Robust Design (RD) method uses a collection of mathematical and statistical tools to study a large number of variables in the process with a minimum value of computational cost. Robust design method tries to make high-quality products according to customers’ viewpoints with an acceptable profit margin. This paper aims to provide a brief up-to-date review of the latest development of RD method particularly applied in manufacturing systems. The basic concepts of the quality loss function, orthogonal array, and crossed array design are explained. According to robust design approach, two classifications are presented, first for different types of factors, and second for different types of data. This classification plays an important role in determining the number of necessity replications for experiments and choose the best method for analyzing data. In addition, the combination of RD method with some other optimization methods applied in designing and optimizing of processes are discussed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0129.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digital Design; Digital Architecture; Image Processing; Machine learning; FPGA; Dedicated Design; Image Processor
Online: 14 April 2022 (05:09:47 CEST)
Many dedicated designs for real-time operations provide functionality on fixed-sized operators, but where speed, scalability, and flexibility are required, extensive research is demanded. Dedicated designs can provide real-time processing for many applications. This paper presents an FPGA-based design of a general image processor. The proposed design is based on a fixed-point representation of binary numbers. The proposed design provides a mechanism to manage matrices on-chip along with matrix arithmetic. The matrices are represented with simple identifiers and microinstruction that assist in the computation of many operations which are useful for solving complex problems. The design was successfully implemented and tested using VHDL language. The proposed design is an efficient architecture as a standalone processor with all embedding computational resources necessary for an embedded image processing application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Interdisciplinary co-design; healthcare design; exercise; low-back pain; older adult patients; rehabilitation
Online: 30 August 2021 (15:12:45 CEST)
This study presents three forms of interdisciplinary expertise in the healthcare design context to approach a particular multifaceted problem around the current healthcare for older adult patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP). Using an interdisciplinary co-design framework, first, our design approach performs the role of an initiator to define the problem by exploring the current context of healthcare. Second, it facilitates the experiences of experts and patients to reach the roots of the problem by functioning as a mediator. Third, our approach fulfills the primary role of healthcare design in producing new meanings considering the principles of patient-centeredness. These roles significantly contributed to the design of healthcare innovations. Our framework transformed the distributed disciplinary knowledge developed while tackling the multifaceted problem into new forms of expertise for collaboration in healthcare innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0690.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: : Artificial Intelligence; Generative Adversarial Network; Machine Learning; Computationl Design; Urban infill; Facade design
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:20:29 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence and especially machine learning have noticed rapid advancement on image processing operations. However, its involvement in the architectural design is still in its initial stages compared to other disciplines. Therefore, this paper addresses the issues of developing an integrated bottom up digital design approach and details a research framework for the incorporation of Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) for early stage design exploration and generation of intricate and complex alternative facade designs for urban infill. This paper proposes a novel building facade design by merging two neighboring building’s architecture style, size, scale, openings, as reference to create a new building design in the same neighborhood for urban infill. This newly produced building contains the outline, style and shape of the parent buildings. A 2D urban infill building design is generated as a picture where 1) neighboring buildings are imported as a reference using mobile phone and 2)iFACADE decode their spatial adjacency. It is depicted the iFACADE will be useful for designers in the early design stage to generate new façades depending on existing buildings in a short time that will save time and energy. Besides, building owners can use iFACADE to show their architects their preferred architecture facade by mixing two building styles and generating a new building. Therefore, it is depicted that iFACADE can become a communication platform in the early design stages between architects and owners. Initial results properly define a heuristic function for generating abstract design facade elements and sufficiently illustrate the desired functionality of our developed prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0251.v1
Online: 14 December 2022 (06:57:08 CET)
Since its introduction almost 50 years ago, the concept of ‘flow’ has been descriptive of optimal experiences, also in relation to play. However, the explorative nature of play leads to some discrepancies between flow and the optimal experience of play. In this paper the differences between flow and play are explored, leading to proposing the state of ‘wonder’ (directed at exploration) as an alternative to ‘flow’. From this perspective, the study further explores how we may design toys that enable meaningful experiences of play, identifying opportunities in designing for toys as the enablers of immersed experiences of wonder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiology; fashion; design; education; biotechnology
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:24:04 CET)
Fashion industry is the second most polluting industry in the world representing a 2 trillion dollars and growing valuation (Pal, 2017). This dual context makes its challenges hard to address. From one side, fashion design education and practice systems have been perpetuating an industrial-focused approach which relies mostly in the economic improvement through fast cycles of product development (Pal, 2017). On the other side, fashion industry has also been closed to either multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary initiatives outside the scope of the artistic disciplines. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed to solve fashion industrial challenges. One of the most promising fields to tackle fashion current environment and technological problems is microbiology (Mazzoto et al., 2021). During the past 50 years, microbiology has played a vital role in solving human grand challenges in health, agriculture, food, and waste management sectors, and it also represents an opportunity for fashion industry as well. Microbiology biotechnological potential for the fashion industry relies mostly on the improvement of toxic waste bioremediation and the development of novel biomaterials and biomolecules. Moreover, the emergent field of synthetic biology is expanding the tools and approaches available, and they can already be seen in the development of engineered living materials that have functional properties (Mazzoto et al., 2021). Despite the urgent need for change, there is still a long way until a more sustainable fashion industry is achieved. Therefore, microbiological research and innovation need maturation to be able to scale-up and reach a global impact for tackling fashion industrial problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1860.v1
Subject: Sustainable Science And Technology, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: virtual reality; architectural design; social sustainability; cultural sustainability; inclusive design; diversity; cultural sensitivity; empathy
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:30:01 CEST)
This review article explores the convergence of virtual reality (VR) and architectural design from an inclusive lens. It underscores the crucial role of virtual reality (VR) in serving as a catalyst for the incorporation of social and cultural sustainability principles in architectural projects. The exploration is guided by inclusive design principles, which encompass several aspects such as accessibility, cultural sensitivity, diversity and inclusivity, user-centered design, and empathy. These concepts serve as the basis for further investigation into the potential of virtual reality (VR) technology to enhance and heighten these features within architectural design, therefore promoting the progress of social and cultural sustainability. The review article highlights the profound impact that virtual reality (VR) may have, going beyond mere visualisation to generate architectural experiences that are immersive, interactive, and empathetic. These experiences are designed to take into account diverse perspectives and needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Stick-free flight stability; Flight dynamics; Modeling and simulation; Aircraft design; Aircraft design optimization
Online: 9 December 2022 (10:26:34 CET)
The stick-free flight stability is an old-fashioned and non-progressive issue; nevertheless, it is still existent, and of significant importance to the design of aircraft whose control system is reversible. The problem’s existence necessitates a deep assessment of stick-free flight stability throughout the aircraft design. Up to now, this problem has been addressed using either analytical approaches, which are only related to the static stability evaluation, or performing flight tests. In this study, the problem is handled in its entirety, from static and dynamic flight stability assessment to design criteria with a comprehensive perspective. Moreover, it is also exhibited that contrary to what has been generally proposed in the literature, limiting the problem of stick-free flight stability through static stability assessment is far from the main challenge. As a brief scope, the derivation of the control surface dynamics, a stick-free trim algorithm, and assessment rationale of the stick-free static and dynamic flight stability using a simulation approach are proposed. As a consequence, the aim is to set a broad understanding for designers related to this phenomenon and add adjunct design criteria in the design optimization process by approaching it in terms of modeling, simulation, and flight test perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: francis turbine; draft tube; optimization design; experiment of design; non–dominated sorting genetic algorithm
Online: 24 April 2017 (10:52:28 CEST)
In order to improve the performance of the draft tube in hydraulic turbine, a multi–objective optimization method for the draft tube is developed by combining the design of experiment (DOE), the radial basis function (RBF) and the non–dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA–II) in this paper. The geometrical design variables of the median section in the draft tube and the cross section in its exit diffuser are considered as design parameters in this optimization, which objective function is to maximize the pressure recovery factor (Cp) and minimize the energy loss coefficient (ζ). The limited numbers of design matrix required for the shape optimization of the draft tube is generated by optimal Latin hypercube (OLH) method of the DOE technique, of which performances are evaluated through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) numerical simulation. For reducing of the computational consumption, the approximate model is used based on the RBF. The Pareto optimal solutions are finally performed using the NSGA–II for obtaining the best geometrical parameters of the draft tube. The optimization result of the draft tube shows a marked performance improvement over the original, which verifies the theoretical validity and feasibility of the proposed method in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0031.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: user centred design; air pollution exposure campaign; report to participants; communication; focus group; design thinking
Online: 4 November 2021 (15:18:43 CET)
Using low-cost portable air quality (AQ) monitoring devices is a growing trend in personal exposure studies enabling a higher spatio-temporal resolution and identifying acute exposure to high concentrations. Comprehension of results by participants is not guaranteed in exposure studies. However, information on personal exposure is multiplex, which calls for participant involvement in information design to maximise communication output and comprehension. This study describes and proposes a model of a user centred design (UCD) approach for preparing a final report for participants involved in a multi-sensor personal exposure monitoring study performed in seven cities within the EU Horizon 2020 ICARUS project. Using a combination of human-centred design (HCD), human-information interaction (HII) and design thinking approaches, we iteratively included participants in the framing and design of the final report. User needs were mapped using a survey (n=82), and feedback on the draft report was obtained from a focus group (n=5). User requirements were assessed and validated using a post-campaign survey (n=31). The UCD research was conducted amongst participants in Ljubljana, Slovenia and the results report was distributed among the participating cities across Europe. The feedback received made it clear that the final report was well-received and helped participants better understand the influence of individual behaviours on personal exposure to air pollution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0652.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: quantified self; health; physical activity; behavior change; model; support system; persuasive design; user centered design
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:53:52 CET)
Since the emergence of the quantified self movement, users aim at health behavior change, but only those who are sufficiently motivated and competent with the tools will succeed. Our literature review shows that theoretical models for quantified self exist but they are too abstract to guide the design of effective user support systems. Here, we propose principles linking theory and implementation to arrive at a hierarchical model for an adaptable and personalized self-quantification system for physical activity support. We show that such a modeling approach should include a multi-factors user model (activity, context, personality, motivation), a hierarchy of multiple time scales (week, day, hour), and a multi-criteria decision analysis (user activity preference, user measured activity, external parameters). This theoretical groundwork, which should facilitate the design of more effective solutions, has now to be validated by further empirical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: demographic change; barrier-free design; living space; quality of life; specific needs; modular home design
Online: 16 July 2018 (11:51:08 CEST)
In Europe we can see a change in the social structure in the last period. Average life expectancy has increased dramatically over the last 50 years. Because of the improved life situation and advanced level of health care, older people are slower. With advancing age, the likelihood of experiencing a variety of constraints such as visual impairment, reduced hearing or physical ability increases. In such a life stage tenants are often forced to leave their long-term living space because these homes can not serve "new" individual needs and the resulting personal protection goal. This transition from the privacy of their home to the new environment often appears to be a painful change. They will take their familiar and well-known surroundings, because their homes can not be adapted to serve new needs. It must be the policy’s role to create a new inclusive social space and the requirement for architects and designers to create new goals for the design of an adaptable environment. This is a comprehensive approach to the design of the outer and inner space that could serve people even if there is an unexpected situation and changes in movement and physiological limitations of older people. The contribution shows the results of the survey conducted in Germany and Slovakia. In the survey respondents expressed their opinion on what they considered important in creating an adaptive environment. Results are processed graphically with explanation. The results were mainly for designers and developers of the indoor environment. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, studies of possible modifications in the interior of the flats were then prepared. The contribution yielded these results in three age groups of respondents; i. people aged 35, 50 and over 50.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0911.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Biopolymers; Food-wrapping; Design of Experiments
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:55:31 CEST)
Paper is one of the most promising materials for food packaging and wrapping due to its low environmental impact, but surface treatments are often needed to improve some performance, e.g. the resistance to fats and oils. In this context, this research is focused on the formulation of a new paper bio-coating. Paper was coated with liquids containing Poly(hexano-6-lactone) (PCL), Glycerol and variable percentages of starch (5 - 10% w/w PCL dry weight), agar agar (0 - 1.5% w/w PCL dry weight) and PEG (5% or 15% w/w PCL dry weight) to improve coating uniformity and diffusion. A Design of Experiments approach was implemented to find statistically reliable results in terms of best coating formulation. Coated paper was characterized through mechanical and physical properties. Results showed that agar content (1.5% w/w PCL dry weight) has a beneficial effect on increasing the resistance to oil. Furthermore, the best coating composition has been calculated, and it is: 10% w/w PCL dry weight of Starch, 1.5% w/w PCL dry weight of agar and 15% w/w PCL dry weight of PEG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1525.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: brushless motors; robotics; actuator design; efficiency
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:36:34 CEST)
In recent years, exterior-rotor brushless DC motors have become increasingly popular in robotics applications due to their compact shape and high torque density. However, these motors were originally used for continuous operation in drones. For applications such as exoskeletons, prostheses, or legged robots, short bursts of high power are often required. Unfortunately, vendors do not typically provide data on the motors' performance under these conditions. This paper presents experimental data on the torque-speed relationship, efficiency, and thermal responses of one of the most widely used outrunner-type brushless motors across its full operating range, including high-power, short-duration operation. The results of this study can inform the selection and design of actuators for a range of robotics applications, particularly those that require high power output for brief periods of time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Arm Prosthesis; Versatile Gripping; Design Process
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:59:58 CEST)
One of the biggest challenges in arm prosthesis design is to resemble normal hand functionality. Some of arm prosthesis try to mimic all hand movement, while other try to produce several main hand grip patterns. We design a Versatile Gripping Technology (VGT) from a basic whippletree mechanism to produce main hand grip patterns in arm prosthesis. VGT development is the result of abstraction, negation, and systemic variation process of existing solution. To validate VGT, we test it to produce six pattern of hand grip from Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure. VGT capable to produce lateral, power, tip, extension, and spherical grip. In other hand, VGT including the thumb movement and it only use one simple shape moving part. Thus, VGT is effective and efficient. With this result, we argue that abstraction, negation, and systemic variation process of existing solution can create a novel solution and it is applicable in another problem or domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: direct nanoimprint; process design; deep learning
Online: 15 June 2022 (08:49:17 CEST)
A hybrid smart process and material design system for nanoimprinting is proposed, which combines with a learning system based on experimental and numerical simulation results. Instead of carrying out extensive learning experiments for various condition, the simulation learning results are partially complimented where the results can be theoretically predicted by numerical simulation. In other word, the lacking data in experimental learning are complimented by simulation-based learning results. Therefore, the prediction of nanoimprint results under various conditions without experimental learning could be realized even for unknown materials. In this study, material and process design for a low-temperature nanoimprint process using glycerol-containing polyvinyl alcohol are demonstrated. Experimental results under limited conditions are learned to investigate optimum Glycerol concentrations and process temperatures. On the other hand, simulation-based learning is used to predict the dependence on press pressure and shape parameters. The prediction results for unknown Glycerol concentrations agreed well with the follow-up experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0480.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: architecture; sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable design
Online: 25 November 2021 (14:43:15 CET)
Sustainability is a concept shrouded in abstraction. While we have definitions in existence, it is often difficult to explain the concept itself. The current definition of ‘sustainable development’ was given by the Brundtland Commission’s report in 1987. The Earth Summit at Rio in 1992 gave us Agenda 21, an action plan to achieve sustainable development. Now in the 21st century, philosophers, academicians, and researchers across the globe are paving the way for a new understanding of the term ‘sustainability’, its contextual nature, and its relation to humans, politics, and ecology. This article investigates the origins of the term ‘sustainability’, its derivatives, and the concept of sustainable development. A semantical analysis is carried out to understand the differences between ‘sustainability’ and ‘sustainable development’. Next, the development of the three pillars of sustainability and the application of these concepts in the field of architecture and design is also investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0789.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: catcalling, harassment; patriarchy; qualitative design; women
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:19:44 CEST)
Patriarchy culture is formed indirectly through a concept of a man as a head of family or the holder of the highest position. It leads to viewpoint that catcalling is assumed normally. Although catcalling seems like a compliment, but it is quite different with the exact compliment. The basic difference from them both is a compliment comes to sincerely from its giver, meanwhile catcalling is aimed to harass indirectly to women. This study aims to give an information and solution about the catcalling expansion in public areas especially by women community. The use of method to finish this study is qualitative design from literature sources for the last four years about problems of catcalling. The result of this study is giving information about catcalling by providing data and looking for solution related to catcalling phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0692.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Genetic algorithms, structures, algorithms, generative design
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:50:16 CEST)
The prevalence of algorithms and computational tools in the modern-day has intersected with nearly every field. Generative design, specifically those using genetic algorithms, is an increasingly effective, yet cost efficient way to generate architectural designs in modern engineering. Thus, we adopt a genetic algorithm model in pursuit of maximizing the durability of a structure when it is stressed while minimizing the material cost. After the model is formulated, the algorithm is able to approximate with high accuracy the load a small-scale structure is able to bear, as well as iterate upon its designs to maximize a fitness function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0484.v1
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:24:30 CET)
Various colors of clothing originating from synthetic dyes are presently causing serious environmental pollution problems, whereas natural dyes extracted from natural indigo plants help reduce the harm to the environment and extend the sustainable use of clothing. This study focuses on the relation between indigo dyeing colors and the environment on the basis of sustainable design. The results reveal that light colors are considered to conform to the sustainable spirit more than dark colors in different indigo colors. In fact, the recyclable light-colored indigo dyeing t-shirt is beneficial in its reuse. Indigo dyeing fabric can be decomposed by a variety of microorganisms; however, the light-colored indigo dyeing takes a short time. Light colored indigo dyeing is more resource-saving when considering dye, water and electricity costs. The results of colors and environmental protection provide scheme references to consumers or industry for clothing collocation of different indigo dyeing colors for a series of blue clothing and carry out the ideal of the sustainability and co-existence between clothing and natural resources.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Ferry design; wave generation; ship hydrodynamics
Online: 14 January 2021 (07:54:26 CET)
In this paper, we revisit the hydrodynamics supporting the design and development of the RiverCat class of catamaran ferries operating in Sydney Harbor since 1991. More advanced software is used here. This software accounts for the hydrodynamics of the transom demisterns which experience partial or full ventilation, depending on the vessel speed. This ventilation gives rise to the hydrostatic drag, which adds to the total drag of the vessel. The presence of the transom also creates a hollow in the water. This hollow causes an effective hydrodynamic lengthening of the vessel, which leads to a reduction in the wave resistance. Hence a detailed analysis is required in order to optimize the size of the transom. It is demonstrated that the drag of the vessel and the wave generation can be predicted with good accuracy. Finally, the software is also used to optimize the vessel further by means of affine transformations of the hull geometry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: classroom design; higher education; Malaysia; undergraduate
Online: 7 August 2019 (05:56:20 CEST)
The design, facilities and conditions inside a classroom play a significant role in the teaching and learning experience for both students and lecturers. Prior studies of primary schoolchildren indicate three design principles affecting student learning, namely: naturalness, individualisation and stimulation. The current study extends these investigations to Higher Education through a survey of undergraduate students and university lecturers aimed at determining the most critical factors in undergraduate classroom design. One-to-one interviews were conducted with students and lecturers (n. 31) at the University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus. Interviewees were encouraged to express their opinions, comments, concerns and suggestions through open-ended questions. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed and coded using NVivo10. Results show a strong desire among lecturers and students for improved classroom equipment, greater flexibility in classroom arrangement, more attractive decoration and for the addition of natural elements to the classroom environment. Of the three design principles, individualisation and naturalness emerged most strongly from the interviews and appear to be more important factors for undergraduates than stimulation. These findings could make a novel and significant contribution to the physical aspects of classroom design in Higher Education settings. Educational institutions are increasingly employing non-traditional classroom designs, which are expected to provide for more flexible, collaborative, and active learning and teaching experiences. Taking into consideration the environmental psychology of teaching and learning, several of the reported design attributes can serve as benchmarks for upgrading current classroom design and facilities in the future, as institutions look to upgrade their physical infrastructures to meet the changing demands of teachers and learners arising from technological innovations and shifts in our understanding of the methods and purposes of Higher Education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0520.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Service innovation; Design value; Value measurement
Online: 30 August 2018 (10:31:06 CEST)
1) Background: In service business areas, design enhances the customer experience through the elements which anticipate specific emotional responses of customers. Many service companies are keen to develop and examine design elements from the customer perspective. Furthermore, recently, having considered the significance of customers’ emotional responses by design elements, categorising design elements into manageable dimensions can facilitate the evaluation of design elements. However, design elements and dimensions of design value are not defined in the current service marketing literature, and companies need a measurement tool and managerial guideline to their innovative value creation and compelling service delivery. For these reasons, this research aims to categorise the design value dimensions and propose the managerial implication for the innovative use of design; 2) Methods: This study used the mixed methodology; two stages of interviews and SEM (Structural Equation Modelling); 3) Results: Interview analyses facilitate the identification of design elements in the service delivery process. SEM results underpin the relevance of the categorised design elements and their impact on customer loyalty by comparing different groups (country and time elapsed from experience); and 4) Conclusions: Findings are the fundamentals of developing measuring tool for design and trigger future studies for conceptualising intangible assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0004.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite, xenografts; implant design; implant surface
Online: 1 June 2017 (06:19:41 CEST)
The aim of the present study was to monitor implant stability after sinus floor elevation with two biomaterials during the first 6 months of healing by a resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and how physico-chemical properties affect the implant stability quotient (ISQ) at the placement and healing sites. Bilateral maxillary sinus augmentation was performed in 10 patients in a split-mouth design using a bobine HA (BBM) as a control and porcine HA (PBM). Six months after sinus lifting, 60 implants were placed in the posterior maxilla. The ISQ was recorded on the day of surgery from RFA at T1 (baseline), T2 (3 months), and T3 (6 months). Statistically significant differences were found in the ISQ values during the evaluation period. The ISQ (baseline) was 63.8±2.97 for BBM and 62.6±2.11 for PBM. The ISQ (T2) was ~ 73.5±4.21 and 67±4.99, respectively. The ISQ (T3) was ~ 74.65±2.93 and 72.9±2.63, respectively. All the used HAs provide osseointegration and statistical increases in the ISQ at baseline, T2 and T3 (follow-up), respectively. The BBM, sintered at high temperature with high crystallinity and low porosity, presented higher stability, which demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of a bone substitute material clearly influence implant stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: process improvement; ewe’s cheese; systemic design
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:34:54 CET)
The research reported on this paper was aimed at improving the overall efficiency of a PDO certified artisanal cheese production process. Being a PDO certified foodstuff by the EU, it is considered to have properties and qualities determined by the geographical environment in which is made, with its production taking place in a specific and determined geographical location, in this case the Serra da Estrela region. In that sense, the authors conducted a mapping according to a systemic perspective of the processes involved in the context of manufacturing and distribution of certified Serra da Estrela cheese. Numerous methods were used throughout the process, such as a systemic design analysis, and techniques derived from ethnographic methods, which led to the collection of data in the field and consequently provided the immersion of the researcher in genuine work situations. Critical points were identified and emphasized in the systemic map with the purpose of encouraging initiatives to address and overcome the gaps and inefficiencies detected. The systemic design analysis triggered the development of design work. Observations following an ethnographic approach identified ergonomic risks in cheese making during the process of cutting excess chips, fostering the emergence of musculoskeletal disorders at the wrist. A tool that fits best to the task at hand was developed. A prototype of the new tool enabled collecting feedback from use in the work context, in order to inform product development. The domains of agricultural production and microbiology, considering the specific microorganisms developed trough the ripening process of the cheese, turned out to be aspects of high importance for the issue under focus, contributing to a broader understanding of the ripening process and its risks, simultaneously improving the efficiency and success of cheese production. If it were not for the systemic analysis, which served as a link between the boundaries of distinct domains such as the risk of microorganism contamination, ergonomics, energy efficiency, legislation and regulation policies, transportation challenges and economic viability, approached throughout the research. Simultaneously creating bridges between them, the various problems might not have been detected in the first place, as they are usually addressed in specialized disciplines, predetermined by the restrictions of each specific area of knowledge. As a consequence of the development of this research, which was based on an analysis that sought to establish possible connections between various disciplines and tried to constantly maintain a holistic perspective, making new connections and observing the issues from a new angle, apart from the already established methodologies. All this allowed to lay out the seeds for the development of a plan to tackle the critical points identified by the systemic analysis reported in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0266.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Asian architecture; Asian heritage; China; Japan; Urban Design; Garden and Landscape Design; Reformation of the Arts.
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:50:54 CEST)
With this article we would like to clarify the often-disregarded fact by virtue of which the European Missionaries in Asia acted as catalysts of a kind of nuanced acculturation named Accommodatio (adaptation). To a great extent they became harbingers of Culture and Science more than Faith itself to the dismay of many, including the Roman Church. Such cultural and scientific transference was actually two-pronged, for simultaneously they presented in Europe unique findings related to Language, e.g. the Chinese Characters (considered to be the sole natural language), Geography, Cosmology and even Governance. We would try to prove that such procedure contributed positively to the modern scientific notions of sustainability and to provide the kind of accoutrements that model the modern world as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: 3D printing (3DP), Construction processes, Architectural design, Concrete Engineering, Numerical Modelling, Arch-Roof, High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Additive manufacturing (AM), Computer-aided design (CAD), Manufacture, Design, Sustainability
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:39:43 CET)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are transforming the design and manufacture of components and products across a variety of disciplines, however their application in the construction industry is still limited. Material deposition processes can achieve infinite geometries and have advanced from rapid prototyping and model-scale markets to their application in fabricating functional products, large objects and the construction of full-scale buildings. Many international projects have recently been realized and the construction industry is beginning to utilise these dynamic technologies. The potential advantages for integrating 3D printing into house construction are significant, these include the capacity for mass customization of designs and parameters for functional and aesthetic purposes, reduction in construction waste from highly precise material placement, and the use of recycled waste products in layer deposition materials. With the ultimate goal of improving construction efficiency and decreasing building costs, applying Strand7 Finite Element Analysis software, a numerical model was designed specifically for 3D printing in a cement mix incorporated with recycled waste product High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and found that construction of an arched truss-like roof was structurally feasible without the need for steel reinforcements. The lab sizes prototypes were manufactured based on the destined numerical model by using a 3D printing technology. Currently available 3D printing technologies can be adopted for building construction and this paper discusses the applications, advantages, limitations and future directions of 3D printing as an innovative and viable solution for affordable house construction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0201.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ligand-based pharmacophores; structure-based pharmacophores; virtual screening; drug design; machine learning; molecular dynamics; de novo design
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:10:58 CEST)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are amongst the most pharmaceutically relevant and well-studied protein targets, yet unanswered questions in the field leave significant gaps in our understanding of their nuanced structure and function. 3D pharmacophore models are powerful computational tools in silico drug discovery, presenting myriad opportunities for the integration of GPCR structural biology and cheminformatics. This review highlights success stories in the application of 3D pharmacophore modeling to de novo drug design, discovery of biased and allosteric ligands, scaffold hopping, QSAR analysis, hit-to-lead optimization, GPCR de-orphanization, mechanistic understanding of GPCR pharmacology and elucidation of ligand-receptor interactions. Furthermore, advances in the incorporation of dynamics and machine learning will be highlighted. The review will analyze challenges in the field of GPCR drug discovery, detailing how 3D pharmacophore modeling can be used to address them. Finally, we will present opportunities afforded by 3D pharmacophore modeling in the advancement of our understanding and targeting of GPCRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0006.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; protein design; complementarity; competitive inhibitor; homology-based threading in rational protein design
Online: 4 March 2021 (10:14:39 CET)
COVID-19 is characterized by an unprecedented abrupt increase in the viral transmission rate (SARS-CoV-2) relative to its pandemic evolutionary ancestor, SARS-CoV (2003). The complex molecular cascade of events related to the viral pathogenicity is triggered by the Spike protein upon interacting with the ACE2 receptor on human lung cells through its receptor binding domain (RBDSpike). One potential therapeutic strategy to combat COVID-19 could thus be limiting the infection by blocking this key interaction. In this current study, we adopt a protein design approach to predict and propose non-virulent structural mimics of the RBDSpike which can potentially serve as its competitive inhibitors in binding to ACE2. The RBDSpike is an independently foldable protein domain, resilient to conformational changes upon mutations and therefore an attractive target for strategic re-design. Interestingly, in spite of displaying an optimal shape fit between their interacting surfaces (attributed to a consequently high mutual affinity), the RBDSpike–ACE2 interaction appears to have a quasi-stable character due to a poor electrostatic match at their interface. Structural analyses of homologous protein complexes reveal that the ACE2 binding site of RBDSpike has an unusually high degree of solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues, attributed to key evolutionary changes, making it inherently ‘reaction-prone’. The designed mimics aimed to block the viral entry by occupying the available binding sites on ACE2, are tested to have signatures of stable high-affinity binding with ACE2 (cross-validated by appropriate free energy estimates), overriding the native quasi-stable feature. The results show the apt of directly adapting natural examples in rational protein design, wherein, homology-based threading coupled with strategic ‘hydrophobic ↔ polar’ mutations serve as a potential breakthrough.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Design; Transformational Design Roadmap; IIoT Supply Chain Model; Decision Support for Information Management
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:37:35 CET)
Digital technologies have changed the way supply chain operations are structured. In this article, we conduct systematic syntheses of literature on the impact of new technologies on supply chains and the related cyber risks. A taxonomic/cladistic approach is used for the evaluations of progress in the area of supply chain integration in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, with a specific focus on the mitigation of cyber risks. An analytical framework is presented, based on a critical assessment with respect to issues related to new types of cyber risk and the integration of supply chains with new technologies. This paper identifies a dynamic and self-adapting supply chain system supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) and real-time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. The system is integrated into a cognition engine that enables predictive cyber risk analytics with real-time intelligence from IoT networks at the edge. This enhances capacities and assist in the creation of a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when AI/ML technologies are migrated to the periphery of IoT networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0527.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: social robot; Interaction design; Bibliometric; VOSviewer; Citespace
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:27:28 CEST)
(1) Background: The social robot interaction design is critical in determining acceptance and user experience. However, few studies have systematically discussed the current focus and future research directions of social robot interaction design from a bibliometric perspective. Therefore, in order to identify the latest research progress and evolution trajectory of research hotspots in social robot interaction design over the last decade. (2) Methods: based on 2416 papers related to social robot interaction design collected in the Web of Science (WOS) database, a comprehensive review was conducted by using bibliometrics to draw a knowledge map using VOSviewer and CiteSpace in an integrated manner. (3) Conclusions: The current research hotspots of social robot interaction design mainly focus on #1the study of human-robot relationships in social robot, #2Research on the Emotional Design of Social Robot, #3research on social robot for children's psychotherapy, #4research on companion robot for elderly rehabilitation, and #5research on educational social robot. The reference co-citation identifies the classic literature that forms the basis of the current research, which provides theoretical guidance and methods for the current research. Finally, we discuss several future research directions and challenges in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0727.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; dermaseptin; molecular cloning; analogue design
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:45:09 CEST)
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria has severely increased the burden on the global health system, and such pathogen infections are considered a great threat to human well-being. Antimicrobial peptides, due to their potent antimicrobial activity and low possibility of inducing resistance, are increasingly becoming the focus of much interest. Herein, a novel dermaseptin peptide, named Dermaseptin-SS1 (SS1), was identified from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of the South/Central American tarsier leaf frog, Phyllomedusa tarsius, using a ‘shotgun’ cloning strategy. Chemically-synthesised peptide SS1 was found to be broadly effective against Gram-negative bacteria with low haemolytic activity in vitro. A designed synthetic analogue of SS1, named peptide 14V5K, showed a lower salt sensitivity with more rapid bacteria-killing compared to SS1. Both peptides employed the membrane-targeting mechanism to kill Escherichia coli. The antiproliferative activity of SS1 and its analogues, against lung cancer cell lines, was found to be significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0633.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: lipase; lid domain; protein engineering; rational design
Online: 8 August 2023 (08:30:15 CEST)
Lipases have tremendous potential for industrial use, particularly, those mostly active against water-insoluble substrates, such as triglycerides composed of long-chain fatty acids. However, in most cases, mutants often need to be constructed to achieve optimal performance for such substrates. Protein engineering techniques have been reported as strategies for improving lipase characteristics by introducing specific mutations in the cap domain of esterases or in the lid domain of lipases, or through lid domain swapping. Here, we have improved the lipase character of a lipase, retrieved from the Marine Metagenomics MarRef Database and assigned to the Actinoalloteichus genus (WP_075743487.1), through site-directed mutagenesis and by substituting its lid domain (FRGTEITQIKDWLTDA) by the one of Rhizopus delemar (previously Rhizopus oryzae) lipase (FRGTNSFRSAITDIVF). Results demonstrated that the redesigned mutants gain activity against bulkier triglycerides such as glyceryl tridecanoate and tridodecanoate, olive oil, coconut oil, and palm oil. The absence of a residue in the new lid, present in the original lid, appears to be a key aspect to the increase in lipase character, although full activity recovery is only obtained with lid swapping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mechanization; design; film side outcrop cultivation; Codonopsis
Online: 7 July 2023 (05:36:39 CEST)
In response to the problem of no supporting equipment for the cultivation of Codonopsis in the hilly and mountainous areas of northwest China, a combined machine for transplanting outcrop of Codonopsis with micro ridge covered with film is designed. The key components of the prototype are analyzed and designed, and the structures and working parameters of the seedbed preparation device, seedling casting device, rotary tillage soil-covering device, film covering device, seedling head burial and film edge soil-covering device are determined. The transmission system scheme is established, and the working mechanism of the core components is analyzed. Field experiments show that when the target seedling spacing is 4.4cm and the machines moves forward at the speed of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2m/s, the variation coefficient of planting spacing and the qualification rate of planting depth all meet the standard requirements. The qualified rate of planting posture and film side outcrop are greatly affected by the operating speed of the machine, and decrease with the increase of operating speed. When the operating speed reaches 0.1m/s, the average variation coefficient of planting spacing is 0.08%, the average qualified rate of planting depth, planting posture and film side outcrop is 95.83%, 94.17% and 93.33% respectively, which shows that the operating performance is better than that of the operating speed of 0.15m/s and 0.2m/s. This study provides new reference for the theoretical research and design of mechanized and automated transplanting machinery for Codonopsis seedlings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0598.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: bias; consistency; efficiency; simulation design; volatility estimation
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:31:27 CEST)
This study rolls out a robust framework relevant for simulation studies through the Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model using the rugarch package. The package is thoroughly investigated, and novel findings are identified for improved and effective simulations. The focus of the study is to provide necessary simulation steps for volatility estimation that involve "background (optional), defining the aim, research questions, method of implementation, and summarised conclusion". The method of implementation is a workflow that includes writing the code, setting the seed, setting the true parameters a priori, data generation process and performance assessment through meta-statistics. This novel, easy-to-understand steps are demonstrated on financial returns using illustrative Monte Carlo simulation with empirical verification. Among the findings, the study shows that regardless of the arrangement of the seed values, the efficiency and consistency of an estimator generally remain the same as the sample size increases. The study also derived a new and flexible true-parameter-recovery measure which can be used by researchers to determine the level of recovery of the true parameter by the MCS estimator. It is anticipated that the outcomes of this study will be broadly applicable in finance, with intuitive appeal in other areas, for volatility estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1840.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Coating; Copper; SEBS; Corrosion; Box-Behnken Design
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:12:22 CEST)
Organic Coatings have potential applications in the prevention of metal corrosion in an aqueous solution. The protective effect of SEBS coated copper corrosion in NaCl 3% solution was investigated by using electrochemical methods. The main objective of this work is to find the optimal conditions of the protocol immersion to evaluate the effects of SEBS ratio and two-immersion time on the anticorrosive behaviour of copper in 3 wt % NaCl solution in order to determine the best conditions to produce a protective SEBS film on the copper surface. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used as an optimization method. The study’s findings show the combination of three environmental factors that minimize corrosion rate. The Box-Behnken Design (BBD) is working perfectly for the statistical significance of the model (ANOVA test). This analysis calculates the contribution value of each parameter in changing the value of the corrosion rate (CR) in not only individual but also synergistic cases. The optimized parameters were found to be a 2.17% of SEBS ratio, 20 min of immersion 1, and 21 min of immersion 2. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests confirmed the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0463.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Design model; Interactions; Coevolution; Study of objects
Online: 27 March 2023 (13:47:04 CEST)
Design has often been interpreted as a practice of creating novel objects. However, the relationships between objects analysed upstream the process of creation have been under-studied. Here it is presented a model for enhancing the design practice by fostering a deep work on the relationships of mundane objects. The Three-dimensional Narratives (TdN) model comprises a stepwise five phases work package that facilitates a varied range of analyses to improve the creativity and innovation of any project led by any type of participants. One particular feature of the TdN model is the appropriation of concepts coming from non-design fields such physics and biology to both developing the work of the model and to improve the comprehension and outcomes of the enrolled participants. During three Case Studies with children, youngsters, and older participants the TdN model was validated, and its usability was successfully assessed. The TdN model shows that there is a need for a deeper design practice and that it is relevant to improve the lexicon of designers in order to facilitate a broader and design practice, irrespectively of the aim of the proposed project and nuances of the audience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0439.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sensitivity; pile driver; frame; Ansys; optimization design
Online: 27 February 2023 (04:28:30 CET)
The optimization of the pile driver frame is very important to the overall performance of the pile driver. This paper takes the large body structure of a model of hydraulic static pile driver as the research object. ANSYS APDL finite element software is used to perform static analysis and sensitivity analysis on the large body structure of the pile driver. On the premise of meeting the design requirements, according to the most dangerous working conditions of the pile driver, the size optimization of the frame structure of the pile driver is carried out based on sensitivity analysis. The mathematical model is established with the plate thickness as the design variable, the strength and stiffness of the body structure as the constraints, and the minimum mass of the body structure as the objective function. The optimization results show that the optimization design model based on sensitivity analysis not only meets the strength and stiffness conditions of the large structure, but also reduces the structural quality by 22.1% and greatly saves the production cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0369.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Security practice; Healthcare; Questionnaire design; Questionnaire pretesting
Online: 20 December 2022 (14:58:41 CET)
Questionnaires are useful instruments for gathering responses to specific factual questions. However, the problems of questionnaire responses impede the effective use of the questionnaire. Some of these problems including non-responses, non-completion, issues of judgement, and social desirability such as information that the respondent is not willing to disclose need to be dealt with. The situation is more compounded in a scenario where an information security practice study in a typical hospital consists of broad categories of respondents and the survey findings are to be relied on to actually address information security compliance issues. This study, therefore, shares "pitfalls" to watch when preparing a questionnaire to measure the information security practice level in a hospital which is characterized by different respondents with varying domain knowledge such as knowledge in information security, information communication technology, and that of the domain knowledge of healthcare. A synergy of a conventional pretesting method and behaviour coding were therefore used to pretest the questionnaire. Questionnaire problems including a lack of understanding of the healthcare information systems’ structure of all hospitals, unclear questions, the insignificant difference between questions, problematic questions, inadequate questions, and complex terms were among the identified pitfalls to watch. Out of a total of 118 questionnaire items that were used in the pretesting, a total of 50 questionnaire items (representing 42%) were identified to have problems after the pretesting was conducted with a total of 36 respondents in behavior coding and 21 respondents in conventional pretesting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0057.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: industry 4.0; sensors; sensor technologies; product design
Online: 5 December 2022 (02:16:25 CET)
The fourth industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0, has led to an increased transition towards automation and reliance on data-driven innovations and strategies. Companies in the manufacturing sector are heavily integrating Industry 4.0 technologies, including cloud compu-ting, cyber-physical systems (CPS), big data analytics, horizontal and vertical system integration, the internet of things (IoT), and additive manufacturing (3d printing). The interconnected systems and processes have significantly increased operational efficiency, enhanced organizational capacity to monitor and control functions, reduced costs, and improved product quality. One significant way that companies have achieved these benefits is by integrating diverse sensor technologies within these innovations, allowing critical data collection on products, equipment performance, and maintenance. The sensors connect systems and machines, allowing them to communicate and track operations for enhanced operations. While numerous research has been conducted to show the role of sensors in industry 4.0, limited studies show how these innovations can leverage product design to maximize benefits and opportunities. Given the rapidly changing market conditions, Industry 4.0 requires new products and business models to ensure companies adjust to the current and future changes. These requirements call for the evolutions in product design processes to accommodate design features and principles applicable in the current dynamic business environment. This research paper employs a systematic bibliometric literature review (LRSB) methodology to explore and synthesize data on how Industry 4.0 and sensors can leverage product design. The results show that various product design features create opportunities to be leveraged to guarantee the success of Industry 4.0 and sensor technologies. However, the research also identifies numerous challenges that undermine the ongoing transition towards intelligent factories and products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hippotherapy; horse riding simulator; mechanical horse design
Online: 19 October 2022 (07:31:52 CEST)
Hippotherapy is a popular rehabilitation method for children with cerebral palsy (CP), which is done by riding an actual horse or a horse riding simulator (HRS) device. Riding a real horse is more expensive than using an HRS device due to its high maintenance cost. However, most HRS devices commonly sold in the market are designed as exercise devices, not rehabilitation devices. Most of them are designed to simulate a horse's walk, trot, canter, or gallop gait at various speeds. Hippotherapy aims to improve the walking ability of CP patients. Therefore, the device should aim to replicate the walking gait of a healthy human, the end goal of hippotherapy. This problem motivates us to design and build a specialized HRS device replicating the walking gait of a healthy human that is suitable for hippotherapy, which is achievable by simulating a horse walking gait with several adjustments. We first studied and observed the walking gait cycle of a horse, then analyzed and derived a formulation of it. We then continue by designing an HRS device using a single electrical rotational motor and mechanical means to replicate the walking gait of a horse, then tune it to an extent to replicate a human walking gait. To measure the performance of our design, we compare the gait of the user when riding our device versus walking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0047.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Rehabilitation; new technology; validation; study design; methods
Online: 3 June 2022 (11:12:44 CEST)
Important current limitations of the implementation of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in the rehabilitation field are related to the validation process of new technologies and interventions. Indeed, most of the strict guidelines that have been developed for the validation of new drugs (i.e., double or triple blinded, strict control of the doses and intensity) cannot – or only partially – be applied in rehabilitation. Well powered high quality randomized controlled trials are more difficult to organize in rehabilitation (e.g., longer duration of the intervention in rehabilitation, more difficult to standardize the intervention compared to drugs’ validation studies, limited funding’s since not sponsorized by big pharma companies), which reduces the possibility of conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses, as currently high level of evidence is sparse. The current limitations of EBP in rehabilitation are presented in this paper and innovative solutions are suggested such as: technology-supported rehabilitation systems, continuous assessment, pragmatic trials, rehabilitation treatment specification systems, and advanced statistical methods, to tackle the limitations to increase the quality of the research in rehabilitation. The development and implementation of new technologies should increase the quality of research and the level of evidence supporting rehabilitation provided some adaptation in our research methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Security practice; Healthcare; Questionnaire design; Questionnaire pretesting
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:47:36 CET)
Recent reports have it that over 85\% of data breaches are still caused by the human element, of which healthcare is one of the suitable organizations mostly targeted by cybercriminals. The work of healthcare staff is often associated with high workloads, high emergency cases, and a broad range of psychological, social, and cultural factors. The significance of these factors could undermine conscious care information security (IS) practice leading to serious violations. This study comprehensively examined the correlation between the psycho-social-cultural factors, work factors with IS and privacy behaviour in a hospital that has fully adopted electronic health records (EHR) management system. The findings are to facilitate the decision-making process towards improving the cyber-security practice in healthcare. A quantitative approach was adopted where we collected responses from 212 healthcare staff through an online questionnaire survey. A broad range of constructs was selected from psychological, social, cultural perception and work factors based on earlier review work. These were therefore related to some security practices, to assess the IS knowledge, attitude and behaviour gaps among healthcare staff in a comprehensive way. From the study, IS self-reported conscious care behaviour (ISCCB) risk was relatively higher as compared to information security knowledge (ISK) risks and information security attitude (ISA) risk. Furthermore, the study revealed that work emergency has a positive correlation with ISCCB (r=1.95, p-value =0.001) risk. Conscientiousness also had positive correlation with ISCCB risk (r=0.157, p-value=0.05) however agreeableness negatively correlated with ISK risk (r=-0.166, p-value =0.05), and ISA risk (r=-0.140, p-value =0.05). Based on these findings, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation methods combined with cutting-edge technologies can be explored to discourage IS risks behaviours while enhancing conscious care security practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0036.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Electrophile; Drug Design; Covalent Drug; Chemical Biology
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:28:15 CEST)
Of the manifold concepts in drug discovery and design, covalent drugs have re-emerged as one of the most promising over the past 20-or so years. All such drugs harness the ability of a covalent bond to drive an interaction between a target biomolecule, typically a protein, and a small molecule. Formation of a covalent bond necessarily prolongs target engagement, opening avenues to targeting shallower binding sites, protein complexes, and other difficult to drug manifolds, amongst other virtues. This opinion piece discusses frameworks around which to develop covalent drugs. Our argument, based on results from our research program on natural electrophile signaling, is that targeting specific residues innately involved in native signaling programs are ideally poised to be targeted by covalent drugs. We outline ways to identify electrophile-sensing residues, and discuss how studying ramifications of innate signaling by endogenous molecules can provide a means to predict drug mechanism and function and assess on- versus off-target behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0698.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mobile learning; Integration framework; Design-based research
Online: 30 July 2021 (11:43:12 CEST)
Background: In an age where information is generally accessible, most of the interest these days has focused on how accessible and convenient technology can be. So small and personal, mobile devices can transform our perception of learning by combining both mobility and convenience. Mobile learning is part of the digital learning landscape alongside e-learning and serious games. However, knowledge about effective design of mobile learning experiences remains of interest with a focus on appropriate design models and the embodiments that can be implemented to achieve the intended educational outcomes. Exploring the instructor's perspective on mobile learning is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Moroccan instructors' perception and practice of mobile learning to inform the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Methods: Higher education Instructors (n=41) were recruited to the study. The Moroccan instructors' perception and their experiences regarding their adoption of mobile learning were collected using an online survey. The analysis focused on their mobile use, perceived IT competency, and opinions on mobile learning. Results: We described most of the instructors' considerations regarding integrating mobile technologies into their teaching activities. We found that most of the mobile learning activities defined by the respondents corresponded to relatively advanced use of mobile devices. More promising, instructors have found innovative ways to use the educational potential of mobile devices. However, the prospect of mobile devices was still to challenge. No or poor Wi-Fi connection, number of devices or limited access, sometimes fees or applications incompatibility were identified as reasons and obstacles to mobile learning usage. Conclusion: Mobile learning is mostly perceived positively among Moroccan instructors allowing many applications and usage to enhance teaching and learning. In this study, a better understanding of aspects and factors influencing the integration of mobile learning in the Moroccan educational context is exposed, helping further the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Future work on mobile learning should consider the highly paced evolution of mobile technologies, emphasizing the flexibility of integration frameworks to support instructors and learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0061.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: robot-tutelage; social robots; multiplications; experience design
Online: 2 December 2020 (11:46:37 CET)
In the design of educational robots, it seems undecided whether robots should show social behaviors and look human-like or that such cues are indifferent to learning. We conducted an experiment with different designs of social robots, rehearsing the multiplication tables with primary school children in Hong Kong. Results show that affective bonding tendencies may occur but did not significantly contribute to the learning progress of these children, perhaps due to the short interaction period. Nonetheless, 5 minutes of robot tutoring improved their scores with about 30% and only for a few challenged children, performance dropped. We discuss that topics such as teaching language skills may be fostered by human likeness in appearance and behaviors but that for STEM-related subjects, the social aspects of robots hardly matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0388.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: stair climbing; behavior change; architecture; environmental design
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:10:26 CEST)
Innovative interventions in the planning and design of stair and escalator facilities call for understanding their effects on stair use. This study considers five planning variables for the twinned stair and escalator facilities–stair pitch and width, angle of deviation, height and separating distance. Public sites were identified in 8 commercial districts in Beijing. Facilities (n=21) presenting heterogeneously across variables were sampled for simultaneous up and down pedestrian counts in 18 5-minute video segments middays, for a total of 1464 counts. Stair width accounts for 20% of the variance in ascending rate and 10% in descending. Plan angle accounts for 2% in ascending and 5% in descending, while pitch accounts for 1% in ascending and 5% in descending. The study confirms the effects of layout and design of stairway and escalator facilities on facility choice. The results point directly to interventions in support of higher stair-climbing rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0036.v1
Online: 4 June 2020 (13:35:40 CEST)
The masonry building Heritage is appreciated for its aesthetic and historical value all around the world. The widespread presence of curved elements, such as arch, vault and dome express the relevant constructive abilities in the different historical epochs. These curved elements are characterized by architectural beauty, structural strength (especially against the gravity loads), thermal comfort and fire resistance. On the other hand, curved structures required scaffolding in order to be erected. The design, the construction and the dismantling of the scaffolds is typically time-consuming and expensive. In addition, the on-site working risk is related to time-interferences (e.g. in manpower working, at the same time, over and under scaffold). This technology dates back to the Era of the Roman Empire and it is currently still used, despite its limitations and disadvantages. In the present paper, an innovative technique (recently patented), aiming for the construction of a curved structural member without scaffolds, is proposed and illustrated. It consists in a Hinged Lifting Arch (HLA), using FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) bonded strips. In details, a series of blocks are cut following an arch geometry and then aligned on the ground-floor in order to bond a composite on their top surface. Moreover, the impregnation of the polymeric adhesive is not allowed at the extremities of each block. The fiber sheet is applied continuously along the entire extrados. In this sense, hinges are introduced, in fact, the FRP-connected blocks are able to easily rotate, in the opposite direction, around the contact ends (i.e. hinge). Finally, the middle block is lifted-up and the arch takes the desiderated shape. In the first experimental demonstration, the natural calcareous stone was used, even if the proposed technique is totally material-independent. Moreover, an analytical model is proposed and discussed for designing the proper aspect ratio of the blocks in order to ensure the full mutual contact when the HLA is totally lifted up. The advantages of the proposed technique are related to the absence of scaffolds and improved seismic strength against horizontal loads thanks to the presence of the FRP, which limits the occurrence of hinges at the extrados.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Judgement Bias; Personality; Social Status; Test Design
Online: 27 May 2020 (12:10:45 CEST)
The assessment of positive emotional states in animals has been advanced considerably through the use of judgement bias testing. JBT methods have now been reported in a range of species. Generally, these tests show good validity as ascertained through use of corroborating methods of affective state determination. However, published reports of judgement bias task findings can be counter-intuitive and show high inter-individual variability. It is proposed that these outcomes may arise as a result of inherent inter- and intra-individual differences as a result of biology. This review discusses the potential impact of sex and reproductive cycles, social status, genetics, early life experience and personality on judgement bias test outcomes. We also discuss some aspects of test design that may interact with these factors to further confound test interpretation. There is some evidence that a range of biological factors affect judgement bias test outcomes, but in many cases this evidence is limited and needs further characterisation to reproduce the findings and confirm directions of effect. It is our proposition that researchers should consider dedicated study on these factors and their impact on judgement biasing. This is needed to confirm effect and investigate mechanisms. Alternately, consideration and reporting of these factors in JBT studies through incorporation in statistical analyses will provide much needed additional data on their impact. These actions will enhance the validity and practical applicability of the JBT for welfare assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0241.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: security; hardware design; trust; cryptography; Anomaly Detection
Online: 17 February 2020 (07:06:07 CET)
Critical Infrastructures and associated real time Informational systems need some security protection mechanisms that will be able to detect and respond to possible attacks. For this reason, Anomaly Detection Systems (ADS), as part of a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) system, are needed for constantly monitoring and identifying potential threats inside an Information Technology (IT) System. Typically, ADS collect information from various sources within a CI system using security sensors or agents and correlate those information so as to identify anomaly events. Such sensors though in a CI setting (factories, power plants, remote locations) may be placed in open areas and left unattended thus becoming targets themselves of security attacks. They can be tampering and malicious manipulated so that they provide false data that may lead an ADS or SIEM system to falsely comprehend the CI current security status. In this paper, we describe existing approaches on security monitoring in critical infrastructures and focus on how to collect security sensor - agent information in a secure and trusted way. We then introduce the concept of hardware assisted security sensor information collection that improve the level if trust (by hardware means) and also increase the responsiveness of the sensor. Thus, we propose a Hardware Security Token (HST) that when connected to a CI Host, it acts as a secure anchor for security agent information collection. We describe the HST functionality, its association with a host device, its expected role and its log monitoring mechanism. We also provide information on how security can be established between the Host device and the HST.Then, we introduce and describe the necessary Host components that need to be established in order to guarantee a high security level and correct HST functionality. We, also provide a realization-implementation of the HST overall concept in a FPGA SoC evaluation board and describe how the HST implementation can controlled. Finally, we provide indicative use case scenarios of how the HST can be used in practice to provide a variety of different security services beyond acting as a secure ADS sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0273.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: configuration design; PMO; calculation; solidified structure refinement
Online: 24 November 2019 (12:52:59 CET)
This paper outlines our effort on optimizing Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation (PMO) design in order to improve the efficiency of ingot manufacturing under PMO. Our calculation and experiment provided optimized PMO coil design and special configuration. Our optimized PMO design offered us a device that enabled the operator to examine and operate the melt without losing the efficiency. In one of the designs, the equipment even refined the grain sizes. Our work also showed an optimized distance range between the coil and the melt surface that maximized the refinement effects.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: structure prediction; Rosetta; computational modeling; protein design
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:40:52 CEST)
The Rosetta software suite for macromolecular modeling, docking, and design is widely used in pharmaceutical, industrial, academic, non-profit, and government laboratories. Considering its broad modeling capabilities, Rosetta consistently ranks highly when compared to other leading methods created for highly specialized protein modeling and design tasks. Developed for over two decades by a global community of scientists at more than 60 institutions, Rosetta has undergone multiple refactorings, and now comprises over three million lines of code. Here we discuss the methods developed in the last five years, involving the latest protocols for structure prediction, protein–protein and protein–small molecule docking, protein structure and interface design, loop modeling, the incorporation of various types of experimental data, and modeling of peptides, antibodies and other proteins in the immune system, nucleic acids, non-standard amino acids, carbohydrates, and membrane proteins. We briefly discuss improvements to the energy function, user interfaces, and usability of the software. Rosetta is available at www.rosettacommons.org.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0281.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: algorithm; heat-pump; drying; food; design; optimization
Online: 17 September 2019 (15:27:08 CEST)
Drying food involves complex physical atmospheric mechanisms with non-linear relations from the air-food interactions and those relations are strongly dependent on the moisture contents and the type of food. Such dependence makes it complex to design suitable dryers dedicated to a single drying process. To streamline the design of a novel compact food-drying machine, a heat pump dryer component design optimization algorithm was developed as a subprogram of a Computer Aided Engineering tool. The algorithm requires inputting food and air properties, the volume of the drying container and the technical specifications of the heat-pump off-the shelf components. The heat required to dehumidify the food supplied by the heat exchange process from condenser to evaporator, and the compressor’s requirements (refrigerant mass flow rate and operating pressures) are then calculated. Compressors can then be selected based in the volume and type of food to be dried. The algorithm is shown via a flow chart to guide the user through 3 different stages: Changes in drying air properties, Heat flow within dryer and Product moisture content. Example results of how different compressors are selected for different type of produces and quantities (Agaricus Blazei mushroom with 3 different moisture contents or fish from Thunnini tribe) conclude this article.